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Sample records for beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism

  1. Preliminary study on association of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism with hypertension in hypertensive subjects attending Balok Health Centre, Kuantan.

    PubMed

    Atia, A E; Norsidah, K; Nor Zamzila, A; Rafidah Hanim, M; Samsul, D; Aznan, M A M; Rashidah, A R; Norlelawati, A T

    2012-02-01

    Polymorphisms within the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene have been repeatedly linked to hypertension. Among the ADRB2 polymorphisms detected, Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu codons are considered the two most important variations. The amino acid substitution at these codons may lead to abnormal regulation of ADRB2 activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between ADRB2 polymorphisms and hypertension. This case-control study consisted of 100 unrelated subjects (50 hypertensive and 50 matched normal controls). Arg16Gly and the Gln27Glu polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. There were no significant evidence of association in allelic and genotypes distribution of Arg16Gly and Glu27Gln with blood pressure and hypertension. These findings suggest that the variation within codon 16 and 27 of ADRB2 gene were unlikely to confer genetic susceptibility for hypertension in our population samples. PMID:22582545

  2. Influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor on the presence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in adolescents✰

    PubMed Central

    Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; Furtado-Alle, Lupe; da Silva, Larissa Rosa; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Milano, Gerusa Einsfeld; Lazarotto, Leilane; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina; Leite, Neiva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in triggering exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in adolescents. Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups: present EIB (EIB+) (n=45) and absent EIB (EIB−) (n=115). The bronchial provocation test with exercise was performed with a protocol that consisted of walking/running for at least eight minutes at high intensity, i.e., >85% of maximum heart rate, considering EIB+ as a 10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The genotyping of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman method, using the Step One Plus system. Independent t-test, Mann–Whitney and Chi-square tests, as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Age, body weight, height, FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were lower in the EIB+ group when compared to EIB− (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the proportion of the allele at position 27 and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes between the EIB+ and EIB− groups (p=0.26; p=0.97 and p=0.43, respectively). However, there was a trend toward statistical significance regarding the greater proportion of the Gly16 allele for the EIB+ when compared to the EIB− group (p=0.08). Conclusions: The presence of polymorphisms associated with the Glu27 allele and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes had no influence on EIB. However, the statistical trend toward greater frequency of the Gly16 allele in individuals with EIB+ can be considered evidence of the influence of polymorphisms of the ADBR2 gene on EIB in adolescents. PMID:26684442

  3. Asthma: Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene as risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. The ADRB2 gene, which encodes the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, is one of the most extensively studied genes with respect to asthma prevalence and severity. The Arg16Gly (+46A > G) and Gln27Glu (+79C > G) polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene cause changes in the amino acids flanking the receptor ligand site, altering the response to bronchodilators and the risk of asthma through complex pathways. The ADRB2 polymorphisms affect beta-adrenergic bronchodilator action and are a tool to identify at-risk populations. Objective To determine the frequency of these two polymorphisms in allergic asthma patients and healthy subjects and to correlate these data with the occurrence and severity of asthma. Methods Eighty-eight allergic asthma patients and 141 healthy subjects were included in this study. The ADRB2 polymorphisms were analyzed using the amplification-refractory mutation system – polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 21.0 software using the Fisher’s Exact and χ2 tests. Results The ADRB2 polymorphisms were associated with asthma occurrence. The Arg16Arg, Gln27Gln and Gln27Glu genotypes were risk factors; the odds ratios were 6.782 (CI = 3.07 to 16.03), 2.120 (CI = 1.22 to 3.71) and 8.096 (CI = 3.90 to 17.77), respectively. For the Gly16Gly and Glu27Glu genotypes, the odds ratios were 0.312 (CI = 0.17 to 0.56) and 0.084 (CI = 0.04 to 0.17), respectively. The haplotype analysis showed that there were associations between the following groups: Arg16Arg-Gln27Gln (OR = 5.108, CI = 1.82 to 16.37), Gly16Gly-Glu27Glu (OR = 2.816, CI = 1.25 to 6.54), Arg16Gly-Gln27Glu (OR = 0.048, CI = 0.01 to 0.14) and Gly16Gly-Gln27Glu (OR = 0.1036, CI = 0.02 to 0.39). The polymorphism Gln27Glu was associated with asthma severity, as the Gln27Gln genotype was a risk factor for severe asthma (OR

  4. Astrocytic beta(2)-adrenergic receptors: from physiology to pathology.

    PubMed

    Laureys, Guy; Clinckers, Ralph; Gerlo, Sarah; Spooren, Anneleen; Wilczak, Nadine; Kooijman, Ron; Smolders, Ilse; Michotte, Yvette; De Keyser, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    Evidence accumulates for a key role of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptors in the many homeostatic and neuroprotective functions of astrocytes, including glycogen metabolism, regulation of immune responses, release of neurotrophic factors, and the astrogliosis that occurs in response to neuronal injury. A dysregulation of the astrocytic beta(2)-adrenergic-pathway is suspected to contribute to the physiopathology of a number of prevalent and devastating neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis, stroke and hepatic encephalopathy. In this review we focus on the physiological functions of astrocytic beta(2)-adrenergic receptors, and their possible impact in disease states. PMID:20138112

  5. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects. PMID:25893811

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor in nocturnal and nonnocturnal asthma. Evidence that Gly16 correlates with the nocturnal phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Turki, J; Pak, J; Green, S A; Martin, R J; Liggett, S B

    1995-01-01

    Nocturnal asthma represents a unique subset of patients with asthma who experience worsening symptoms and airflow obstruction at night. The basis for this phenotype of asthma is not known, but beta 2-adrenergic receptors (beta 2AR) are known to downregulate overnight in nocturnal asthmatics but not normal subjects or nonnocturnal asthmatics. We have recently delineated three polymorphic loci within the coding block of the beta 2AR which alter amino acids at positions 16, 27, and 164 and impart specific biochemical and pharmacologic phenotypes to the receptor. In site-directed mutagenesis/recombinant expression studies we have found that glycine at position 16 (Gly16) imparts an accelerated agonist-promoted downregulation of beta 2AR as compared to arginine at this position (Arg16). We hypothesized that Gly16 might be overrepresented in nocturnal asthmatics and thus determined the beta 2AR genotypes of two well-defined asthmatic cohorts: 23 nocturnal asthmatics with 34 +/- 2% nocturnal depression of peak expiratory flow rates, and 22 nonnocturnal asthmatics with virtually no such depression (2.3 +/- 0.8%). The frequency of the Gly16 allele was 80.4% in the nocturnal group as compared to 52.2% in the nonnocturnal group, while the Arg16 allele was present in 19.6 and 47.8%, respectively. This overrepresentation of the Gly16 allele in nocturnal asthma was significant at P = 0.007 with an odds ratio of having nocturnal asthma and the Gly16 polymorphism being 3.8. Comparisons of the two cohorts as to homozygosity for Gly16, homozygosity for Arg16, or heterozygosity were also consistent with segregation of Gly16 with nocturnal asthma. There was no difference in the frequency of polymorphisms at loci 27 (Gln27 or Glu27) and 164 (Thr164 or Ile164) between the two groups. Thus the Gly16 polymorphism of the beta 2AR, which imparts an enhanced downregulation of receptor number, is overrepresented in nocturnal asthma and appears to be an important genetic factor in the

  7. Beta-2 adrenergic receptor genotypes and haplotypes in different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Taylor J; Ameyaw, Margaret-Mary; Pritchard, Stuart; Thornton, Nadia; Folayan, Gbolahan; Githang'a, Jessie; Indalo, Anne; Tariq, Mohammed; Mobarek, Abeer; Evans, David A; Ofori-Adjei, David; Templeton, Alan R; McLeod, Howard L

    2005-10-01

    The human beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is responsible for the binding of endogenous catecholamines and their exogenously administered agonists and antagonists. Three functional polymorphisms in codons 16, 27 and 164 have been described which have clinical importance for several diseases, including asthma, hypertension, heart failure, cystic fibrosis and obesity, as well as response to beta-agonist therapy. These were evaluated in 726 individuals from 8 distinct ethnic populations (Chinese, Filipino, Southwest Asian, Saudi, Ghanaian, Kenyan, Sudanese, and European from Scotland). The results show that most haplotypes are shared among all populations, yet there are marked differences in their frequency distributions geographically. The genetic distance tree is different from standard human population distance trees, implying a different mode of evolution for this locus than that for human population gene-flow history. The multilocus frequency differences between the observed clusters of populations correspond to historical haplotype groupings that have been found to be functionally different with respect to multiple medically related phenotypes. Further studies are needed to see if functional relationships are the same across populations. PMID:16142389

  8. Dephosphorylation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin by latent phosphatase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.D.; Fong, Y.L.; Benovic, J.L.; Sibley, D.R.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1988-06-25

    Recent evidence suggests that the function of receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins may be controlled by highly specific protein kinases, e.g. rhodopsin kinase and the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. In order to investigate the nature of the phosphatases which might be involved in controlling the state of receptor phosphorylation we studied the ability of four highly purified well characterized protein phosphatases to dephosphorylate preparations of rhodopsin or beta 2-adrenergic receptor which had been highly phosphorylated by beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. These included: type 1 phosphatase, calcineurin phosphatase, type 2A phosphatase, and the high molecular weight latent phosphatase 2. Under conditions in which all the phosphatases could dephosphorylate such common substrates as (/sup 32/P)phosphorylase a and (/sup 32/P)myelin basic protein at similar rates only the latent phosphatase 2 was active on the phosphorylated receptors. Moreover, a latent phosphatase activity was found predominantly in a sequestered membrane fraction of frog erythrocytes. This parallels the distribution of a beta-adrenergic receptor phosphatase activity recently described in these cells. These data suggest a potential role for the latent phosphatase 2 as a specific receptor phosphatase.

  9. Beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulation inhibits nitric oxide generation by Mycobacterium avium infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Boomershine, C S; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S

    1999-11-01

    Catecholamine regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by IFNgamma-primed macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium was investigated. Epinephrine treatment of IFNgamma-primed macrophages at the time of M. avium infection inhibited the anti-mycobacterial activity of the cells. The anti-mycobacterial activity of macrophages correlated with NO production. Using specific adrenergic receptor agonists, the abrogation of mycobacterial killing and decreased NO production by catecholamines was shown to be mediated via the beta2-adrenergic receptor. Elevation of intracellular cAMP levels mimicked the catecholamine-mediated inhibition of NO in both M. avium infected and LPS stimulated macrophages. Specific inhibitors of both adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A prevented the beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide production. Beta2-adrenoreceptor stimulation at the time of M. avium infection of IFNgamma-primed macrophages also inhibited expression of iNOS mRNA. These observations show that catecholamine hormones can affect the outcome of macrophage-pathogen interactions and suggest that one result of sympathetic nervous system activation is the suppression of the capacity of macrophages to produce anti-microbial effector molecules. PMID:10580815

  10. Genetic variation of the beta2-adrenergic receptor is associated with differences in lung fluid accumulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Eric M; Beck, Kenneth C; Turner, Stephen T; Hoffman, Eric A; Joyner, Michael J; Johnson, Bruce D

    2007-06-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2AR) play an important role in lung fluid regulation. Previous research has suggested that subjects homozygous for arginine at amino acid 16 of the beta2AR (Arg16) may have attenuated receptor function relative to subjects homozygous for glycine at the same amino acid (Gly16). We sought to determine if the Arg16Gly polymorphism of the beta2AR influenced lung fluid balance in response to rapid saline infusion. We hypothesized that subjects homozygous for Arg at amino acid 16 (n=14) would have greater lung fluid accumulation compared with those homozygous for Gly (n=15) following a rapid intravenous infusion of isotonic saline (30 ml/kg over 17 min). Changes in lung fluid were determined using measures of lung density and tissue volume (computerized tomography imaging) and measures of pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and alveolar-capillary conductance (DM, determined from the simultaneous assessment of the diffusing capacities of the lungs for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide). The saline infusion resulted in elevated catecholamines in both genotype groups (Arg16 283+/-117% vs. Gly16 252+/-118%, P>0.05). The Arg16 group had a larger decrease in DM and increase in lung tissue volume and lung water after saline infusion relative to the Gly16 group (DM -13+/-14 vs. 0+/-26%, P<0.05; lung tissue volume 13+/-11 vs. 3+/-11% and lung water +90+/-66 vs. +48+/-144 ml, P=0.10, P<0.05, for Arg vs. Gly16, respectively, means+/-SD). These data suggest that subjects homozygous for Arg at amino acid 16 of the beta2AR have a greater susceptibility for lung fluid accumulation relative to subjects homozygous for Gly at this position. PMID:17347382

  11. A functional SNP upstream of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is associated with obesity in Oceanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Naka, I; Hikami, K; Nakayama, K; Koga, M; Nishida, N; Kimura, R; Furusawa, T; Natsuhara, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakazawa, M; Ataka, Y; Ishida, T; Inaoka, T; Iwamoto, S; Matsumura, Y; Ohtsuka, R; Tsuchiya, N; Ohashi, J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a growing health concern in the Oceanic populations. To investigate the genetic factors associated with adult obesity in the Oceanic populations, the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene with obesity was examined in 694 adults living in Tonga and Solomon Islands. RESULTS: A screening for variation in 16 Oceanic subjects detected 17 SNPs in the entire region of ADRB2, of which nine SNPs including two non-synonymous ones, rs1042713 (Arg16Gly) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu), were further genotyped for all subjects. The rs34623097-A allele, at a SNP located upstream of ADRB2, showed the strongest association with risk for obesity in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and population (P=5.6 × 10−4, odds ratio [OR]=2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5–4.2). The 27Glu was also significantly associated with obesity in the single-point association analysis (P=0.013, OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.2–3.4); however, this association was no longer significant after adjustment for rs34623097 since these SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. A copy of the obesity-risk allele, rs34623097-A, led to a 1.6 kg/m2 increase in body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) (P=0.0019). A luciferase reporter assay indicated that rs34623097-A reduced the transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter gene by approximately 10% compared with rs34623097-G. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that rs34623097 modulated the binding affinity with nuclear factors. An evolutionary analysis implies that a G>A mutation at rs34623097 occurred in the Neandertal genome and then the rs34623097-A allele flowed into the ancestors of present-day humans. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that rs34623097-A, which would lead to lower expression of ADRB2, contributes to the onset of obesity in the Oceanic populations. PMID:23229733

  12. An insilico approach to high altitude pulmonary edema - Molecular modeling of human beta2 adrenergic receptor and its interaction with Salmeterol & Nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Chandramoorthi, Gayathri Devi; Piramanayagam, Shanmughavel; Marimuthu, Parthiban

    2008-09-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of protein targets from genomic data has the potential to accelerate researches pertaining to drug discovery. Human beta(2) adrenergic receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane helices, and is important in pharmaceutical targeting on pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. The human beta(2) adrenergic receptor has been found to play a very important role in the pathogenesis of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). In the present study, a high quality of protein 3D structure has been predicted for the human beta(2) adrenergic receptor sequence with primary accession number P07550. Homologous template protein sequence with known 3D structure was identified and the template-query protein sequence validation was done by multiple sequence alignment method. The homology model was performed through Modeller and depended on the quality of the sequence alignment by BLAST, template structure and the consolidated result performed by Gene silico meta-server. The statistical verification of the generated model was evaluated by PROCHECK which revealed that the structure modeled through Modeller to be of good quality with 84.1% of residues in the most favored region. Docking studies were carried out after modeling with two well known ligands namely Salmeterol and Nifedipine, and the fitness score revealed that Salmeterol has a higher fitness score than Nifedipine. Estimation of binding affinity by X-Score revealed that Salmeterol had -10.40 binding affinity while Nifedipine showed -9.62 binding affinity. From the present study, it can be concluded that the generated model of human beta(2) adrenergic receptor can be used for further studies related to this receptor and Salmeterol was found to have a high binding affinity with human beta(2) adrenergic receptor. PMID:18512086

  13. Repeated beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist therapy attenuates the response to rescue bronchodilation in a hyperoxic newborn mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Raffay, Thomas; Kc, Prabha; Reynolds, James; Di Fiore, Juliann; MacFarlane, Peter; Martin, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm infants with neonatal lung injury are prone to wheezing and are often treated with beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β-AR) agonists although any benefits of β-AR agonists may be lost with chronic use. Objective To investigate if repeated β-AR agonist exposures would down-regulate β-ARs in the immature lung resulting in a decreased response to bronchodilator rescue and whether hyperoxic exposure would aggravate this response. Methods Newborn mice were raised for 21 days in 60% or 21% oxygen and received daily aerosols of formoterol or saline. Respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and compliance (Crs) were measured in response to methacholine challenge and rescue bronchodilation with levalbuterol. Western blot analysis quantified the relative amount of lung β-ARs. Results Hyperoxia increased airway reactivity to methacholine. Animals raised in hyperoxia that received daily formoterol were most sensitive to methacholine and exhibited a blunted response to levalbuterol bronchodilation. Hyperoxia exposed animals receiving daily formoterol vs saline showed a significant decrease in the relative amount of lung β-ARs. Conclusions In this hyperoxia exposed neonatal mouse model, repeated β-AR agonist treatments increased airway reactivity and attenuated the response to a rescue bronchodilator. The blunted bronchodilator response could be explained by a reduced quantity of lung β-ARs. Our findings may account for a time-dependent decrease in therapeutic benefit of β-AR agonists in preterm infants with neonatal lung injury, which may have clinical consequences for patients already prone to airway hyperreactivity. PMID:24969536

  14. Can Specific Protein-Lipid Interactions Stabilize an Active State of the Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor?

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Herce, Henry D; Pomès, Régis; García, Angel E

    2015-10-20

    G-protein-coupled receptors are eukaryotic membrane proteins with broad biological and pharmacological relevance. Like all membrane-embedded proteins, their location and orientation are influenced by lipids, which can also impact protein function via specific interactions. Extensive simulations totaling 0.25 ms reveal a process in which phospholipids from the membrane's cytosolic leaflet enter the empty G-protein binding site of an activated β2 adrenergic receptor and form salt-bridge interactions that inhibit ionic lock formation and prolong active-state residency. Simulations of the receptor embedded in an anionic membrane show increased lipid binding, providing a molecular mechanism for the experimental observation that anionic lipids can enhance receptor activity. Conservation of the arginine component of the ionic lock among Rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors suggests that intracellular lipid ingression between receptor helices H6 and H7 may be a general mechanism for active-state stabilization. PMID:26488656

  15. Molecular dynamics of a biophysical model for beta2-adrenergic and G protein-coupled receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Lester A; Zauhar, Randy J; Lanzara, Richard G

    2006-12-01

    This study analyzes 16 molecular dynamic simulations of a biophysical model for beta(2)-adrenergic (B2AR) and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. In this model, a highly conserved cysteine residue, C106 (C3.25 or CysIII:01), provides a free sulfhydryl or thiol group in an acid-base equilibrium between uncharged (RSH) and charged (RS(-)) states that functions as an electrostatic molecular switch for receptor activation. The transition of C106 in the B2AR between acid and base states significantly changes the helical/transmembrane (TM) domain interactions and the electrostatic interaction energy differences (DeltaDeltaE(EL)). The DeltaDeltaE(EL) changes correlate well with the experimentally observed ligand efficacies. The TM interaction energies display patterns compatible with those previously recognized as responsible for GPCR activation. Key differences between the agonist, epinephrine, and the antagonist, pindolol, are seen for the TM3 x 6, TM3 x 4, TM6 x 7 and TM1 x 7 interaction energies. Pindolol also produces a weaker DeltaDeltaE(EL) interaction and less TM interaction energy changes, which are important differences between the agonist and antagonist ligands. The D115E mutant with pindolol displays a greater DeltaDeltaE(EL) and TM interactions than for the wild-type B2AR with pindolol. This explains the higher activity of pindolol in the D115E mutant. The constitutively active D130A mutant displays TM interaction patterns similar to those for the activating ligands implying a common pattern for receptor activation. These findings support the broad concept of protean agonism and demonstrate the potential for allosteric modulation. They also demonstrate that this two-state model agrees with many previous experimental and theoretical observations of GPCRs. PMID:16574446

  16. Analysis of hydrophobic interactions of antagonists with the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Novoseletsky, V N; Pyrkov, T V; Efremov, R G

    2010-01-01

    The adrenergic receptors mediate a wide variety of physiological responses, including vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, heart rate modulation, and others. Beta-adrenergic antagonists ('beta-blockers') thus constitute a widely used class of drugs in cardiovascular medicine as well as in management of anxiety, migraine, and glaucoma. The importance of the hydrophobic effect has been evidenced for a wide range of beta-blocker properties. To better understand the role of the hydrophobic effect in recognition of beta-blockers by their receptor, we carried out a molecular docking study combined with an original approach to estimate receptor-ligand hydrophobic interactions. The proposed method is based on automatic detection of molecular fragments in ligands and the analysis of their interactions with receptors separately. A series of beta-blockers, based on phenylethanolamines and phenoxypropanolamines, were docked to the beta2-adrenoceptor binding site in the crystal structure. Hydrophobic complementarity between the ligand and the receptor was calculated using the PLATINUM web-server (http://model.nmr.ru/platinum). Based on the analysis of the hydrophobic match for molecular fragments of beta-blockers, we have developed a new scoring function which efficiently predicts dissociation constant (pKd) with strong correlations (r(2) approximately 0.8) with experimental data. PMID:20373213

  17. Propafenone interacts stereoselectively with beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, D.M.; Gal, J.; Zahniser, N.R.; Nies, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine whether the new antiarrhythmic agent propafenone interacts stereoselectively with beta-adrenergic receptors, the potencies of both the (-) and (+) isomers were determined using in vitro binding assays. (-)-Propafenone was the more potent isomer and competed with /sup 125/I-pindolol in a simple manner in both rat cerebral cortical and cerebellar membranes with Ki values of 32 +/- 1.7 and 77 +/- 5.8 nM, respectively. In contrast, competition curves for (+)-propafenone in the same tissues were more complex and revealed two binding sites with affinities 10- to 75-fold less potent than those for (-)-propafenone. Moreover, the (+)-propafenone was found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to be contaminated with 3% of the more potent (-)-isomer; this contamination accounted for most of the apparent activity of the (+)-propafenone. These data suggest that interactions of propafenone with both beta 1- and beta 2-receptors are markedly stereoselective for the (-) isomer. It is possible that beta-adrenergic receptor blockade by the (-) isomer may be responsible for some of the adverse clinical effects that have been reported with propafenone therapy.

  18. Caveolin-3 regulates compartmentation of cardiomyocyte beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter T.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; O’Hara, Thomas; Diakonov, Ivan; Bhargava, Anamika; Tokar, Sergiy; Schobesberger, Sophie; Shevchuk, Andrew I.; Sikkel, Markus B.; Wilkinson, Ross; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Harding, Sian E.; Gorelik, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether caveolin-3 (Cav3) regulates localization of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and its cAMP signaling in healthy or failing cardiomyocytes. We co-expressed wildtype Cav3 or its dominant-negative mutant (Cav3DN) together with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac2-camps in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs). FRET and scanning ion conductance microscopy were used to locally stimulate β2AR and to measure cytosolic cAMP. Cav3 overexpression increased the number of caveolae and decreased the magnitude of β2AR-cAMP signal. Conversely, Cav3DN expression resulted in an increased β2AR-cAMP response without altering the whole-cell L-type calcium current. Following local stimulation of Cav3DN-expressing ARVMs, β2AR response could only be generated in T-tubules. However, the normally compartmentalized β2AR-cAMP signal became diffuse, similar to the situation observed in heart failure. Finally, overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes led to partial β2AR redistribution back into the T-tubules. In conclusion, Cav3 plays a crucial role for the localization of β2AR and compartmentation of β2AR-cAMP signaling to the T-tubules of healthy ARVMs, and overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes can partially restore the disrupted localization of these receptors. PMID:24345421

  19. Caveolin-3 regulates compartmentation of cardiomyocyte beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peter T; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; O'Hara, Thomas; Diakonov, Ivan; Bhargava, Anamika; Tokar, Sergiy; Schobesberger, Sophie; Shevchuk, Andrew I; Sikkel, Markus B; Wilkinson, Ross; Trayanova, Natalia A; Lyon, Alexander R; Harding, Sian E; Gorelik, Julia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether caveolin-3 (Cav3) regulates localization of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and its cAMP signaling in healthy or failing cardiomyocytes. We co-expressed wildtype Cav3 or its dominant-negative mutant (Cav3DN) together with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac2-camps in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs). FRET and scanning ion conductance microscopy were used to locally stimulate β2AR and to measure cytosolic cAMP. Cav3 overexpression increased the number of caveolae and decreased the magnitude of β2AR-cAMP signal. Conversely, Cav3DN expression resulted in an increased β2AR-cAMP response without altering the whole-cell L-type calcium current. Following local stimulation of Cav3DN-expressing ARVMs, β2AR response could only be generated in T-tubules. However, the normally compartmentalized β2AR-cAMP signal became diffuse, similar to the situation observed in heart failure. Finally, overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes led to partial β2AR redistribution back into the T-tubules. In conclusion, Cav3 plays a crucial role for the localization of β2AR and compartmentation of β2AR-cAMP signaling to the T-tubules of healthy ARVMs, and overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes can partially restore the disrupted localization of these receptors. PMID:24345421

  20. Beta(2)-adrenergic receptor regulates cardiac fibroblast autophagy and collagen degradation.

    PubMed

    Aránguiz-Urroz, Pablo; Canales, Jimena; Copaja, Miguel; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Carrillo, Constanza; Lara, Hernán; Lavandero, Sergio; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a physiological degradative process key to cell survival during nutrient deprivation, cell differentiation and development. It plays a major role in the turnover of damaged macromolecules and organelles, and it has been involved in the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases. Activation of the adrenergic system is commonly associated with cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, and cardiac fibroblasts are key players in these processes. Whether adrenergic stimulation modulates cardiac fibroblast autophagy remains unexplored. In the present study, we aimed at this question and evaluated the effects of b(2)-adrenergic stimulation upon autophagy. Cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts were treated with agonists or antagonists of beta-adrenergic receptors (b-AR), and autophagy was assessed by electron microscopy, GFP-LC3 subcellular distribution, and immunowesternblot of endogenous LC3. The predominant expression of b(2)-ARs was determined and characterized by radioligand binding assays using [(3)H]dihydroalprenolol. Both, isoproterenol and norepinephrine (non-selective b-AR agonists), as well as salbutamol (selective b(2)-AR agonist) increased autophagic flux, and these effects were blocked by propanolol (b-AR antagonist), ICI-118,551 (selective b(2)-AR antagonist), 3-methyladenine but not by atenolol (selective b(1)-AR antagonist). The increase in autophagy was correlated with an enhanced degradation of collagen, and this effect was abrogated by the inhibition of autophagic flux. Overall, our data suggest that b(2)-adrenergic stimulation triggers autophagy in cardiac fibroblasts, and that this response could contribute to reduce the deleterious effects of high adrenergic stimulation upon cardiac fibrosis. PMID:20637865

  1. The beta 2-adrenergic receptors of human epidermoid carcinoma cells bear two different types of oligosaccharides which influence expression on the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes-Olivier, P; Delavier-Klutchko, C; Durieu-Trautmann, O; Kaveri, S; Desmandril, M; Strosberg, A D

    1988-01-01

    The beta 2-adrenergic receptors of the human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells reside on two polypeptide chains revealed by photoaffinity labelling with [125I]iodocyanopindolol-diazirine. These proteins correspond to two distinct populations of N-asparagine-linked glycoproteins: the 55-52 kDa molecules are associated with complex carbohydrate chain(s), the 65-63 kDa component with polymannosidic carbohydrate chain(s). Both types of receptors are present in preconfluent cells, but only the polymannosidic type is found in the postconfluent cells. Moreover, complex chains appear to be associated with the receptors with the highest affinity for (-)-isoproterenol and polymannosidic chains with the receptors with the lowest affinity for this agonist. the carbohydrate moiety of the beta-adrenergic receptor is involved in the expression and function of the beta 2-adrenergic receptors at the surface of the A431 cells, since tunicamycin and monensin, complete and partial inhibitors of glycosylation respectively, diminish the number of binding sites at the cell surface and increase the total number of sites in the cell. In these conditions a diminution of cyclic AMP accumulation is also observed. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2895638

  2. Correlation of Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Tumor-Free Surgical Margin and at the Invasive Front of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Bravo-Calderón, Diego Mauricio; Lauand, Gustavo Amaral; Assao, Agnes; Suárez-Peñaranda, José-Manuel; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; García-García, Abel; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu; Nonogaki, Suely; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor is expressed by neoplastic cells and is correlated with a wide spectrum of tumor cell mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration, and metastasis. Objectives. The present study aimed to analyze the expression of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in tumor-free surgical margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and at the invasive front. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with OSCC, confirmed by biopsy, were selected for the study. The clinicopathological data and clinical follow-up were obtained from medical records and their association with β2-AR expression was verified by the chi-square test or Fischer's exact test. To verify the correlation of β2-AR expression in tumor-free surgical margins and at the invasive front of OSCCs, Pearson's correlation coefficient test was applied. Results. The expression of β2-AR presented a statistically significant correlation between the tumor-free surgical margins and the invasive front of OSCC (r = 0.383; p = 0.002). The immunohistochemical distribution of β2-AR at the invasive front of OSCC was also statistically significant associated with alcohol (p = 0.038), simultaneous alcohol and tobacco consumption (p = 0.010), and T stage (p = 0.014). Conclusions. The correlation of β2-AR expression in OSCC and tumor-free surgical margins suggests a role of this receptor in tumor progression and its expression in normal oral epithelium seems to be constitutive. PMID:27042179

  3. Correlation of Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Tumor-Free Surgical Margin and at the Invasive Front of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Calderón, Diego Mauricio; Lauand, Gustavo Amaral; Assao, Agnes; Suárez-Peñaranda, José-Manuel; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; García-García, Abel; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu; Nonogaki, Suely; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor is expressed by neoplastic cells and is correlated with a wide spectrum of tumor cell mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration, and metastasis. Objectives. The present study aimed to analyze the expression of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in tumor-free surgical margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and at the invasive front. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with OSCC, confirmed by biopsy, were selected for the study. The clinicopathological data and clinical follow-up were obtained from medical records and their association with β2-AR expression was verified by the chi-square test or Fischer's exact test. To verify the correlation of β2-AR expression in tumor-free surgical margins and at the invasive front of OSCCs, Pearson's correlation coefficient test was applied. Results. The expression of β2-AR presented a statistically significant correlation between the tumor-free surgical margins and the invasive front of OSCC (r = 0.383; p = 0.002). The immunohistochemical distribution of β2-AR at the invasive front of OSCC was also statistically significant associated with alcohol (p = 0.038), simultaneous alcohol and tobacco consumption (p = 0.010), and T stage (p = 0.014). Conclusions. The correlation of β2-AR expression in OSCC and tumor-free surgical margins suggests a role of this receptor in tumor progression and its expression in normal oral epithelium seems to be constitutive. PMID:27042179

  4. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene association with overweight and asthma in children and adolescents and its relationship with physical fitness

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Neiva; Lazarotto, Leilane; Milano, Gerusa Eisfeld; Titski, Ana Claudia Kapp; Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; de Mattos, Fernanda; de Andrade, Fabiana Antunes; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) with the occurrence of asthma and overweight and the gene's influence on anthropometric, clinic, biochemical and physical fitness variables in children and adolescents. Methods: Subjects were evaluated for allelic frequencies of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist circumference (WC), pubertal stage, resting heart rate (HRres), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), Homeostasis Metabolic Assessment (HOMA2-IR), Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The participants were divided in four groups: overweight asthmatic (n=39), overweight non-asthmatic (n=115), normal weight asthmatic (n=12), and normal weight non-asthmatic (n=40). Results: Regarding the Gln27Glu polymorphism, higher total cholesterol was observed in usual genotype individuals than in genetic variant carriers (p=0.04). No evidence was found that the evaluated polymorphisms are influencing the physical fitness. The Arg16 allele was found more frequently among the normal weight asthmatic group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.02), and the Glu27 allele was more frequently found in the overweight asthmatics group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.03). Conclusions: The association of Arg16 allele with the occurrence of asthma and of the Glu27 allele with overweight asthmatic adolescents evidenced the contribution of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene to the development of obesity and asthma. PMID:26409918

  5. Transformation of human ciliary epithelial cells by simian virus 40: induction of cell proliferation and retention of beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Coca-Prados, M; Wax, M B

    1986-01-01

    Ciliary epithelial cells derived from human eye were successfully propagated through many generations after transformation with simian virus 40. The cell clone 8-SVHCE was isolated and characterized by immunoprecipitation and pharmacological studies that demonstrated the presence of several functional properties observed in the parent cells of this tissue. Immunoprecipitation revealed the presence of large tumor (T) antigen, and Southern blot analysis showed the incorporation of viral DNA into high molecular weight ciliary epithelial cell DNA. The presence of beta-adrenergic receptors was demonstrated by direct binding of a radiolabeled antagonist, [125I]iodopindolol, to membrane preparations of 8-SVHCE cells (Kd = 41.8 pM and Bmax = 67.1 fmol/mg of protein). Competition experiments with [125I]iodopindolol and selective drugs suggested that the receptors are of the beta 2-adrenergic subtype. Studies of catecholamine-stimulated cellular cAMP production and of isoproterenol-dependent protein phosphorylation of vimentin in 8-SVHCE indicated the functional conservation of beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated processes that are thought to be important in the regulation of aqueous humor production by the ciliary epithelium in vivo. Images PMID:3022303

  6. Structural basis for receptor subtype-specific regulation revealed by a chimeric beta 3/beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Liggett, S B; Freedman, N J; Schwinn, D A; Lefkowitz, R J

    1993-01-01

    The physiological significance of multiple G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, such as the beta-adrenergic receptors (beta ARs), remains obscure, since in many cases several subtypes activate the same effector and utilize the same physiological agonists. We inspected the deduced amino acid sequences of the beta AR subtypes for variations in the determinants for agonist regulation as a potential basis for subtype differentiation. Whereas the beta 2AR has a C terminus containing 11 serine and threonine residues representing potential sites for beta AR kinase phosphorylation, which mediates rapid agonist-promoted desensitization, only 3 serines are present in the comparable region of the beta 3AR, and they are in a nonfavorable context. The beta 3AR also lacks sequence homology in regions which are important for agonist-mediated sequestration and down-regulation of the beta 2AR, although such determinants are less well defined. We therefore tested the idea that the agonist-induced regulatory properties of the two receptors might differ by expressing both subtypes in CHW cells and exposing them to the agonist isoproterenol. The beta 3AR did not display short-term agonist-promoted functional desensitization or sequestration, or long-term down-regulation. To assign a structural basis for these subtype-specific differences in agonist regulation, we constructed a chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR which comprised the beta 3AR up to proline-365 of the cytoplasmic tail and the C terminus of the beta 2AR. When cells expressing this chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR were exposed to isoproterenol, functional desensitization was observed. Whole-cell phosphorylation studies showed that the beta 2AR displayed agonist-dependent phosphorylation, but no such phosphorylation could be demonstrated with the beta 3AR, even when beta AR kinase was overexpressed. In contrast, the chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR did display agonist-dependent phosphorylation, consistent with its functional desensitization. In

  7. beta2 Adrenergic receptor activation induces microglial NADPH oxidase activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/protein kinase A-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Snyder, Amanda; Wu, Hung-Ming; Li, Yachen; Wilson, Belinda; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2009-11-15

    Activation of the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) on immune cells has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, however, the pro-inflammatory properties of beta2AR activation remain unclear. In this study, using rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that salmeterol, a long-acting beta2AR agonist, selectively induces dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity through its ability to activate microglia. Salmeterol selectively increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the major superoxide-producing enzyme in microglia. A key role of PHOX in mediating salmeterol-induced neurotoxicity was demonstrated by the inhibition of DA neurotoxicity in cultures pretreated with diphenylene-iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of PHOX activity. Mechanistic studies revealed the activation of microglia by salmeterol results in the selective phosphorylation of ERK, a signaling pathway required for the translocation of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47(phox) to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found ERK inhibition, but not protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, significantly abolished salmeterol-induced superoxide production, p47(phox) translocation, and its ability to mediate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that beta2AR activation induces microglial PHOX activation and DA neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/PKA-independent pathway. PMID:19330844

  8. Comparative biochemical and pharmacological characterization of the mouse 5HT5A 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor and the human beta2-adrenergic receptor produced in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Weiss, H M; Haase, W; Michel, H; Reiländer, H

    1998-03-15

    Over the last few years, Pichia pastoris has been developed into a powerful expression system for a multitude of foreign genes. Here, we demonstrate that the P. pastoris expression system has similar power to the baculovirus expression system in high-level production of two G-protein-coupled receptors, the mouse 5HT5A 5-hydroxtryptamine receptor and the human beta2-adrenergic receptor. Different expression plasmids were constructed in which the cDNAs of the two receptors were cloned under the transcriptional control of the highly inducible promoter of the P. pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) gene. In three expression plasmids, the receptors were fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor prepropeptide and also to the c-myc tag or the FLAG tag to permit immunological detection of the receptors. After transformation into P. pastoris strains KM71 and SMD 1163, recombinant clones were selected and tested for the production of the 5HT5A receptor and the beta2-adrenergic receptor by radioligand binding using [N-methyl-3H]lysergic acid diethylamide and [5,7-3H](-)CGP-12177 respectively. The production level of the 5HT5A receptor was improved by a factor of three by fusion with the alpha-factor prepropeptide. Also, the higher gene dosage resulting from multiple insertions of the expression cassette led to an improvement in production by a factor of two for both receptors. The addition of the adrenergic antagonist alprenolol to the culture medium had a positive effect on the number of specific binding sites detectable in clones producing the beta2-adrenergic receptor. For the 5HT5A receptor the addition of yohimbine resulted in a similar but smaller effect. Binding assays revealed that approx. 25 pmol of beta2-adrenergic receptor and approx. 40 pmol of 5HT5A receptor per mg of membrane protein in crude membrane preparations were produced. The pharmacological profiles for the heterologously produced receptors, estimated by ligand-displacement analysis using certain

  9. The interaction of signal transduction pathways in FRTL5 thyroid follicular cells: Studies with stable expression of beta 2-adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzaki, S.; Cone, R.D.; Frazier, A.L.; Moses, A.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Multiple signal transduction pathways interact in FRTL5 cells to promote thyroid follicular cell differentiated function and cell proliferation. In these cells, TSH is a tissue-specific mitogen that promotes DNA synthesis primarily through activation of adenylate cyclase. To further test the role of adenylate cyclase in regulating cell growth and differentiated function we have introduced into FRTL5 the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor (BAR) complementary DNA and have studied the ability of isoproterenol, alone and in combination with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), to stimulate cAMP accumulation, iodide transport, (3H)thymidine incorporation into DNA, and cell growth. Wild-type FRTL5 were infected with a PLJ retroviral construct containing the BAR in either a sense (FRTL BAR) or antisense (FRTL RBAR) orientation, and cell populations were selected on the basis of resistance to the antibiotic geneticin. FRTL BAR expressed approximately 1.3 x 10(5) high affinity binding sites per cell for the beta 2-specific ligand, CGP-12177, while neither FRTL5 wild-type nor RBAR cells demonstrated any specific binding. FRTL BAR had significantly higher levels of intracellular cAMP, (3H)thymidine incorporation, and iodide uptake in the absence of added isoproterenol than FRTL RBAR or wild-type cells. In FRTL BAR, but not RBAR cells, isoproterenol stimulated a dose-dependent accumulation of cAMP, iodide uptake, (3H)thymidine incorporation, and cell growth. FRTL BAR and RBAR cells were equally responsive to TSH and to IGF-I. Isoproterenol enhanced the ability of IGF-I to stimulate (3H)thymidine incorporation in BAR but not RBAR cells. Isoproterenol partially inhibited the ability of TSH to stimulate cAMP generation and DNA synthesis.

  10. Conformational entropic maps of functional coupling domains in GPCR activation: A case study with beta2 adrenergic receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fan; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William, III; Dougherty, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Entropic effect in GPCR activation is poorly understood. Based on the recent solved structures, researchers in the GPCR structural biology field have proposed several ``local activating switches'' that consisted of a few number of conserved residues, but have long ignored the collective dynamical effect (conformational entropy) of a domain comprised of an ensemble of residues. A new paradigm has been proposed recently that a GPCR can be viewed as a composition of several functional coupling domains, each of which undergoes order-to-disorder or disorder-to-order transitions upon activation. Here we identified and studied these functional coupling domains by comparing the local entropy changes of each residue between the inactive and active states of the β2 adrenergic receptor from computational simulation. We found that agonist and G-protein binding increases the heterogeneity of the entropy distribution in the receptor. This new activation paradigm and computational entropy analysis scheme provides novel ways to design functionally modified mutant and identify new allosteric sites for GPCRs. The authors thank NIH and Sanofi for funding this project.

  11. Lentivirus vector-mediated Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor 2 induces beta-2 adrenergic receptor desensitization in β2AR desensitization mice model

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Songshi; Zhao, Jing; Fu, Zhenxue

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well-known that chronic administration of β2AR agonists can induce β2AR desensitization. Our previous study showed that Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) overexpression induced beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) desensitization in airway smooth muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to further study the function of RhoGDI2 in β2AR desensitization by β2AR desensitization mouse model. Methods Studies were performed using a β2AR desensitization mice model induced by salbutamol. The mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=45): RhoGDI2 overexpression group (n=10); RhoGDI2 siRNA group (n=10); empty viral vector group (n=10); experimental control group (n=10); blank control group—without any drug treatment (n=5). The first four groups were used the same methods and the same dose to establish β2AR desensitization mice model by salbutamol. The first three groups that salbutamol-treated were used for intratracheal delivery of lentiviral vectors. Airway hyperreactivity was measured through a whole-body plethysmograph system. RhoGDI2, β2AR, GRK2 mRNA and protein expression levels were then detected by RT-PCR and western blot analyses in fresh lung tissues. As well as the activity of GRK was assessed by light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin. Results We successfully constructed β2AR desensitization mouse model. As expected, airway responsiveness after inhaling acetylcholine chloride (Ach) was markedly increased in the RhoGDI2 overexpression group compared to experimental control group and blank control group when concentrations of Ach was 45 mg/mL (all P<0.05), while, it was markedly decreased in the RhoGDI2 siRNA group compared to experimental control group (P<0.05). RhoGDI2, GRK2 expressions and GRK enzymatic activity were significantly increased in RhoGDI2 overexpression group compared to experimental control group and blank control group (all P<0.05). RhoGDI2, GRK2 expressions and GRK enzymatic activity

  12. Development of beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors in baboon brain: an autoradiographic study using (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol

    SciTech Connect

    Slesinger, P.A.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Singer, H.S.; Walker, L.C.; Casanova, M.F.; Price, D.L.; Coyle, J.T.

    1988-07-15

    (125I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) autoradiography was used to investigate the temporal development and distribution of beta 1 and beta 2 receptors in brains of baboons at ages embryonic day 100 (E100), full-term gestation (El80), and 3 years. In all brain regions examined, with the exception of the hippocampus, binding to beta 1 receptors exceeded that to beta 2 receptors. The highest densities of beta 1 receptors were found in the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and cerebral cortex; intermediate receptor densities were observed in most nuclei of thalamus, and the lowest concentrations were in the hippocampus. At E100, beta receptors were identified in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus. During maturation, the number of beta 1 receptors declined in cortical areas but increased in the head of the caudate and putamen. Significant differences in the developmental distribution of beta receptors during development were also detected: at E100 and E180 beta 1 receptors appeared as patches in the caudate and putamen, but by 3 years of age they were more homogeneously distributed in both regions; changes also occurred in the distribution of binding within cortical layers. Autoradiograms of (125I)ICYP and (3H)mazindol binding show overlapping patches of labeling in the E180 striatum, suggesting a possible developmental association between beta receptors and dopamine high-affinity uptake carrier sites. This study demonstrates that noradrenergic receptors in the primate forebrain undergo significant developmental reorganization with regional variations.

  13. Novel Confocal Microscopic and Flow Cytometric Based Assays to Visualize and Detect the (Beta)2-Adrenergic Receptor in Human Lymphocyte and Mononuclear Cell Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B. E.; Nelman, M. A.; Sams, C. F.; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D.

    2006-01-01

    The data show that immunophenotyping of leukocyte populations with (beta)2AR is possible with the commercially available Ab, although the FC assay is limited to the IST as a result of the Ab binding site to the intracellular C-terminus of the 2AR. The FC assay has applications for measuring alterations in total (beta)2AR in human leukocyte populations as changes in fluorescence. In addition, CM confirms that both surface and intracellular compartments stain positively for the (beta)2AR and can be used for qualitative assays that screen for changes in receptor compartmentalization and localization.

  14. Adrenergic activation of electrogenic K+ secretion in guinea pig distal colonic epithelium: involvement of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Halm, Susan T; Halm, Dan R

    2009-08-01

    Adrenergic stimulation of electrogenic K+ secretion in isolated mucosa from guinea pig distal colon required activation of two beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes (beta-AdrR). Addition of epinephrine (epi) or norepinephrine (norepi) to the bathing solution of mucosae in Ussing chambers increased short-circuit current (Isc) and transepithelial conductance (Gt), consistent with this cation secretion. A beta-adrenergic classification was supported by propranolol antagonism of this secretory response and the lack of effect by the alpha-AdrR antagonists BE2254 (alpha1-AdrR) and yohimbine (alpha2-AdrR). Subtype-selective antagonists CGP20712A (beta1-AdrR), ICI-118551 (beta2-AdrR), and SR59320A (beta3-AdrR) were relatively ineffective at inhibiting the epi-stimulated Isc response. In combination, CGP20712A and ICI-118551 inhibited the response, which supported a synergistic action by beta1-AdrR and beta2-AdrR. Expression of mRNA for both beta1-AdrR and beta2-AdrR was indicated by RT-PCR of RNA from colonic epithelial cells. Protein expression was indicated by immunoblot showing bands at molecular weights consistent with monomers and oligomers. Immunoreactivity (ir) for beta1-AdrR and beta2-AdrR was prominent in basolateral membranes of columnar epithelial cells in the crypts of Lieberkühn as well as intercrypt surface epithelium. Cells in the pericryptal sheath also had beta1-AdrR(ir) but did not have discernable beta2-AdrR(ir). The adrenergic sensitivity of K+ secretion measured by Isc and Gt was relatively low as indicated by EC(50)s of 41 +/- 7 nM for epi and 50 +/- 14 nM for norepi. Adrenergic activation of electrogenic K+ secretion required the involvement of both beta1-AdrR and beta2-AdrR, occurring with an agonist sensitivity reduced compared with reported values for either receptor subtype. PMID:19460844

  15. Beta 2-adrenergic agonist as adjunct therapy to levodopa in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G M; Schwartzman, R J; Nukes, T A; Grothusen, J R; Hooker, M D

    1994-08-01

    We studied the effect of the beta 2-adrenergic agonist albuterol on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients receiving chronic levodopa treatment. The albuterol-treated patients demonstrated reduced parkinsonian symptoms and an increased ability to tap their index finger between two points 20 cm apart, and were able to perform a "walk test" in 70% of their control time. Three patients currently on chronic albuterol therapy still show amelioration of their parkinsonian symptoms, and two have reduced their daily levodopa dose. This study suggests that beta 2-adrenergic agonists as adjunct therapy to levodopa may be beneficial in PD. PMID:8058159

  16. ADRB2 ARG16GLY POLYMORPHISM, LUNG FUNCTION, AND MORTALITY: RESULTS FROM THE ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK IN COMMUNITIES STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing evidence suggests that the Arg16Arg genotype of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene may be associated with adverse effects of beta-agonist therapy. We sought to examine the association of beta-agonist use and the Arg16Gly polymorphism with lung function and mortality among participants in th...

  17. Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic /sup 125/I-pindolol binding sites in the interpeduncular nucleus of the rat: Normal distribution and the effects of deafferentation

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, W.P.; Artymyshyn, R.P.; Murray, M.

    1989-07-01

    The plasticity of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes was examined in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the adult rat. The beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist 125I-pindolol (125I-PIN) was used in conjunction with the selective subtype antagonists ICI 118,551 and ICI 89,406 to determine the subnuclear distribution of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors in this nucleus and to correlate the receptor distribution with the distribution of both noradrenergic afferents from the locus coeruleus (LC) and non-noradrenergic afferents from the fasiculus retroflexus (FR). The density of these binding sites was examined following lesions that decreased (LC lesions) or increased (FR lesions) the density of the noradrenergic projection in the IPN. Quantitative radioautography indicated that beta 1-labeled binding sites account for the larger percentage of binding sites in the IPN. The beta 1-binding sites are densest in those subnuclei that receive a noradrenergic projection from the LC: the central, rostral, and intermediate subnuclei. beta 1-binding sites are algo homogeneously distributed throughout the lateral subnuclei, where there is no detectable noradrenergic innervation. beta 2-binding sites have a more restricted distribution. They are concentrated in the ventral half of the lateral subnuclei, where they account for 70% of total 125I-PIN binding sites. beta 2-binding sites are also present along the ventral border of the IPN. Some of this labeling extends into the central and intermediate subnuclei. Bilateral lesions of the LC, which selectively remove noradrenergic innervation to the IPN, result in an increase in the beta 1-binding sites. Bilateral lesions of the FR, which remove the major cholinergic and peptidergic input from the IPN, elicit an increase in noradrenergic projections and a decrease in beta 1-binding sites.

  18. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, S.; Pinna, C.; Busnelli, M.; Cinquanta, P.; Rigamonti, E.; Ganzetti, G.S.; Dellera, F.; Sala, A.; Calabresi, L.; Franceschini, G.; Parolini, C.; Chiesa, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcatwt) and LCAT knockout (LcatKO) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in LcatKO mice (P < 0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in LcatKO mice (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in LcatKO mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcatwt and LcatKO mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  19. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Manzini, S; Pinna, C; Busnelli, M; Cinquanta, P; Rigamonti, E; Ganzetti, G S; Dellera, F; Sala, A; Calabresi, L; Franceschini, G; Parolini, C; Chiesa, G

    2015-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcat(wt)) and LCAT knockout (Lcat(KO)) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in Lcat(KO) mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcat(wt) and Lcat(KO) mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  20. The effect of the beta-2-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol or implantation with oestradiol plus trenbolone acetate on protein metabolism in wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Bohorov, O; Buttery, P J; Correia, J H; Soar, J B

    1987-01-01

    The effects of Revalor (trenbolone acetate plus oestradiol) implantation or the inclusion of clenbuterol (a beta-2-adrenergic agonist) in the diet of wether lambs was studied. Using continuous intravenous infusion of [3H]tyrosine the fractional synthetic rate of mixed protein from three separate muscles was measured. Clenbuterol slightly increased growth rate but had a significant (P less than 0.02) effect on food conversion efficiency. The weight and protein content of the longissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis muscles were increased but no such changes were observed for the vastus intermedius. For the longissimus dorsi at least the increase was probably achieved by a reduction in fractional degradation rate of the muscle protein. Revalor significantly increased the growth rate and food conversion efficiency of the animals. This increase was not specific for muscle. Estimated degradation rates of muscle protein were lower in the treated animals. The possible mode of action of these materials was discussed. The results obtained again highlight the importance of protein degradation in controlling growth. PMID:3801388

  1. Muscle protein waste in tumor-bearing rats is effectively antagonized by a beta 2-adrenergic agonist (clenbuterol). Role of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Costelli, P; García-Martínez, C; Llovera, M; Carbó, N; López-Soriano, F J; Agell, N; Tessitore, L; Baccino, F M; Argilés, J M

    1995-01-01

    Tissue protein hypercatabolism (TPH) is a most important feature in cancer cachexia, particularly with regard to the skeletal muscle. The rat ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 is a very suitable model system for studying the mechanisms involved in the processes that lead to tissue depletion, since it induces in the host a rapid and progressive muscle waste mainly due to TPH (Tessitore, L., G. Bonelli, and F. M. Baccino. 1987. Biochem. J. 241:153-159). Detectable plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha associated with marked perturbations in the hormonal homeostasis have been shown to concur in forcing metabolism into a catabolic setting (Tessitore, L., P. Costelli, and F. M. Baccino. 1993. Br. J. Cancer. 67:15-23). The present study was directed to investigate if beta 2-adrenergic agonists, which are known to favor skeletal muscle hypertrophy, could effectively antagonize the enhanced muscle protein breakdown in this cancer cachexia model. One such agent, i.e., clenbuterol, indeed largely prevented skeletal muscle waste in AH-130-bearing rats by restoring protein degradative rates close to control values. This normalization of protein breakdown rates was achieved through a decrease of the hyperactivation of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory (Llovera, M., C. García-Martínez, N. Agell, M. Marzábal, F. J. López-Soriano, and J. M. Argilés. 1994. FEBS (Fed. Eur. Biochem. Soc.) Lett. 338:311-318). By contrast, the drug did not exert any measurable effect on various parenchymal organs, nor did it modify the plasma level of corticosterone and insulin, which were increased and decreased, respectively, in the tumor hosts. The present data give new insights into the mechanisms by which clenbuterol exerts its preventive effect on muscle protein waste and seem to warrant the implementation of experimental protocols involving the use of clenbuterol or alike drugs in the treatment of pathological states involving

  2. Opposite action of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors on Ca(V)1 L-channel current in rat adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Cesetti, T; Hernández-Guijo, J M; Baldelli, P; Carabelli, V; Carbone, E

    2003-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels of chromaffin cells are modulated by locally released neurotransmitters through autoreceptor-activated G-proteins. Clear evidence exists in favor of a Ca(2+) channel gating inhibition mediated by purinergic, opioidergic, and alpha-adrenergic autoreceptors. Few and contradictory data suggest also a role of beta-adrenergic autoreceptors (beta-ARs), the action of which, however, remains obscure. Here, using patch-perforated recordings, we show that rat chromaffin cells respond to the beta-AR agonist isoprenaline (ISO) by either upmodulating or downmodulating the amplitude of Ca(2+) currents through two distinct modulatory pathways. ISO (1 microm) could cause either fast inhibition (approximately 25%) or slow potentiation (approximately 25%), or a combination of the two actions. Both effects were completely prevented by propranolol. Slow potentiation was more evident in cells pretreated with pertussis toxin (PTX) or when beta(1)-ARs were selectively stimulated with ISO + ICI118,551. Potentiation was absent when the beta(2)-AR-selective agonist zinterol (1 microm), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89, or nifedipine was applied, suggesting that potentiation is associated with a PKA-mediated phosphorylation of L-channels (approximately 40% L-current increase) through beta(1)-ARs. The ISO-induced inhibition was fast and reversible, preserved in cell treated with H89, and mimicked by zinterol. The action of zinterol was mostly on L-channels (38% inhibition). Zinterol action preserved the channel activation kinetics, the voltage-dependence of the I-V characteristic, and was removed by PTX, suggesting that beta(2)AR-mediated channel inhibition was mainly voltage independent and coupled to G(i)/G(o)-proteins. Sequential application of zinterol and ISO mimicked the dual action (inhibition/potentiation) of ISO alone. The two kinetically and pharmacologically distinct beta-ARs signaling uncover alternative pathways, which may serve the autocrine control of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and other related functions of rat chromaffin cells. PMID:12514203

  3. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gandini, Sara; Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Serrano, Davide; Pasquali, Elena; Raimondi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    It was suggested that vitamin D levels influence cancer development. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a crucial mediator for the cellular effects of vitamin D. In fact It has been hypothesized that polymorphisms in the VDR gene affect cancer risk and the relevance of VDR gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms for various types of cancer has been investigated by a great number of studies. However, results from previous studies on the association of VDR polymorphisms with different cancer types are somewhat contradictory, and the role of VDR in the etiology of cancer is still equivocal. We have performed a systematic review of the literature to analyze the relevance of more VDR polymorphisms (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1, and Cdx2) for individual malignancies, including cancer of the skin (melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer), ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, thyroid carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, sarcoma, head and neck and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Up to June 2012, we identified 79 independent studies for a total of 52427 cases and 62225 controls. Significant associations with VDR polymorphisms have been reported for prostate (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1), breast (Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1), colon-rectum (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1) and skin cancer (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1). Very few studies reported risk estimates for the other cancer sites. Conflicting data have been reported for most malignancies and at present it is still not possible to make any definitive statements about the importance of the VDR genotype for cancer risk. It seems probable that interactions with other factors such as calcium and vitamin D intake, 25(OH)D plasma levels and UV radiation exposure play a decisive role in cancer risk. To conclude, there is some indication that VDR polymorphisms may modulate the risk of some cancer sites and in future studies VDR genetic variation should be integrated also with prediagnostic indicator of

  4. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hideyuki; Langenhorst, Tanya; Ogden, Rob; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor genes (AR) have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ) in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species. PMID:26236645

  5. Bitter Taste Receptor Polymorphisms and Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics. PMID:23133589

  6. Androgen receptor polymorphism (CAG repeats) and androgenicity.

    PubMed

    Canale, D; Caglieresi, C; Moschini, C; Liberati, C D; Macchia, E; Pinchera, A; Martino, E

    2005-09-01

    Objective Polymorphism of the androgen receptor (AR) has been related to various pathophysiological conditions, such as osteoporosis and infertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of distribution in a normal Italian population and to assess CAG repeats (CAGr) in other conditions, such as hypoandrogenism, potentially influenced by AR polymorphism. Patients and measurements CAGr polymorphism was determined in a group of 91 healthy normoandrogenized subjects, 29 hypoandrogenized patients (hypoplasia of prostate and seminal vesicles, reduced beard or body hair, etc.) and 29 infertile patients by direct sequencing. Results The mean (+/- SD) number of CAG repeats [(CAGr)n] was 21.5 (+/- 1.7) in the control group, 21.4 (+/- 2.0) in the infertile patients and 24.0 (+/- 2.9) in the hypoandrogenic males. The difference was statistically significant between this last group and the other two (P < 0.0001), while there was no difference between normal controls and infertile patients. The frequency distribution showed a shift towards higher CAG length in hypoandrogenized patients compared to controls and infertile patients. If we used a cut-off point of 24.9 (2 SD above the mean), the percentage of patients with 25 or more CAGr repeats was 38% among hypoandrogenized patients, 7% among infertile patients and 5% among the control group. In hypoandrogenized subjects (CAGr)n correlated slightly with testis and prostate volume. The number of CAG repeats was not associated with any of the hormonal parameters, including testosterone, evaluated in the three groups. Conclusions Our normal population, representing subjects from Central Italy, is superimposable on other European populations with regard to (CAGr)n distribution. Hypoandrogenic males have a shift in the frequency distribution towards longer (CAGr)n. Infertile patients are not statistically different from the control group. These findings suggest that, given the same amount of circulating

  7. Regulation of subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat brain following treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.; Wolfe, B.B.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1989-07-01

    The technique of quantitative autoradiography has been used to localize changes in the densities of subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat brain following treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. Previously reported increases in the density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors in the cerebral cortex were confirmed. The anatomical resolution of autoradiography made it possible to detect changes in the density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the cortex and in a number of other brain regions. The density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors increased from 30 to 50% depending on the region of the cortex being examined. The increase in the somatomotor cortex was greater than that in the frontal or occipital cortex. The increase in the density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the cortex was not as widespread as that of beta 1-adrenergic receptors and occurred primarily in frontal cortex, where the density of receptors increased by 40%. The densities of both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors increased in a number of forebrain, thalamic, and midbrain structures. Selective changes in the density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors were observed in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and in the amygdala. The density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors increased in the caudate-putamen, the substantia nigra, and the lateral and central nuclei of the thalamus, whereas the density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors did not change in these regions. The densities of both subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors increased in the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus, and the dorsal lateral geniculate.

  8. Indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins in human A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H Y; Berrios, M; Malbon, C C

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies directed against (i) rodent lung beta 2-adrenergic receptor, (ii) a synthetic fragment of an extracellular domain of the receptor, and (iii) human placenta G-protein beta-subunits, were used to localize these antigens in situ in intact and permeabilized human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Antibodies directed against beta 2-adrenergic receptors showed a punctate immunofluorescence staining throughout the cell surface of fixed intact cells. Punctate staining was also observed in clones of Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with an expression vector harbouring the gene for the hamster beta 2-adrenergic receptor. The immunofluorescence observed with anti-receptor antibodies paralleled the level of receptor expression. In contrast, the beta-subunits common to G-proteins were not stained in fixed intact cells, presumably reflecting their intracellular localization. In detergent-permeabilized fixed cells, strong punctate staining of G beta-subunits was observed throughout the cytoplasm. This is the first indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins. Punctate immunofluorescence staining suggests that both antigens are distributed in clusters. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. p528-a Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2556996

  9. [BCL1 POLYMORPHISM OF GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR GENE AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Prystupa, L N; Garbuzova, V Yu; Kmyta, V V

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the results of investigating the connection between BCL1-polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor gene and respiratory diseases. Its role in increasing sensitivity to glucocorticoids is proved here. The authors investigated the association of Bcl1 polymorphism with predisposition to bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with the nicotine addiction degree and with progressing disorders of pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26118026

  10. A Common Polymorphism of the Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Alpha Subunit (SCN5A) Gene Is Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death in Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcsa, Boglárka; Dénes, Réka; Vörös, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt; Törő, Klára; Keszler, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac death remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Recent research has shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiac death, and several genetic variants in novel candidate genes have been identified as risk factors. However, the vast majority of studies performed so far investigated genetic associations with specific forms of cardiac death only (sudden, arrhythmogenic, ischemic etc.). The aim of the present investigation was to find a genetic marker that can be used as a general, powerful predictor of cardiac death risk. To this end, a case-control association study was performed on a heterogeneous cohort of cardiac death victims (n=360) and age-matched controls (n=300). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five candidate genes (beta2 adrenergic receptor, nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein, ryanodine receptor 2, sodium channel type V alpha subunit and transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2) that had previously been shown to associate with certain forms of cardiac death were genotyped using sequence-specific real-time PCR probes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of the rs11720524 polymorphism in the SCN5A gene encoding a subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel occurred more frequently in the highly heterogeneous cardiac death cohort compared to the control population (p=0.019, odds ratio: 1.351). A detailed subgroup analysis uncovered that this effect was due to an association of this variant with cardiac death in chronic ischemic heart disease (p=0.012, odds ratio = 1.455). None of the other investigated polymorphisms showed association with cardiac death in this context. In conclusion, our results shed light on the role of this non-coding polymorphism in cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Functional studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological background of this association. PMID:26146998

  11. Beta Adrenergic Receptors in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sivamani, Raja K.; Lam, Susanne T.; Isseroff, R. Rivkah

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Beta2 adrenergic receptors were identified in keratinocytes more than 30 years ago, but their function in the epidermis continues to be elucidated. Abnormalities in their expression, signaling pathway, or in the generation of endogenous catecholamine agonists by keratinocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases such as atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and psoriasis. New studies also indicate that the beta2AR also modulates keratinocyte migration, and thus can function to regulate wound re-epithelialization. This review focuses on the function of these receptors in keratinocytes and their contribution to cutaneous physiology and disease. PMID:17903623

  12. Melanoma risk is associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Zeljic, Katarina; Kandolf-Sekulovic, Lidija; Supic, Gordana; Pejovic, Janko; Novakovic, Marijan; Mijuskovic, Zeljko; Magic, Zvonko

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have reported that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of various cancers, including melanoma. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of VDR gene polymorphisms with melanoma risk, clinicopathological characteristics, and vitamin D levels. The study group included 117 patients (84 patients with superficial spreading melanoma and 33 patients with nodular melanoma). The control group included 122 sex-matched and age-matched healthy-blood donors of the same ethnicity. VDR gene polymorphisms FokI, EcoRV, TaqI, and ApaI were genotyped by real-time PCR. In 60 patients, the total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were evaluated in serum samples by direct chemiluminescence. Associations among parameters were considered to be significant if the P value was less than 0.05. Significant differences in the frequencies of VDR genotypes were observed between cases and the control group for FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (P<0.0001; P=0.005, respectively). Heterozygous Ff as well as mutant FF genotypes of the FokI polymorphism were associated with increased melanoma risk compared with the wild-type form [odds ratio (OR)=3.035, P=0.003; OR=9.276, P<0.0001, respectively]. A significantly increased melanoma risk was observed for the heterozygous Tt (OR=2.302, P=0.011) and the mutated variant tt (OR=3.697, P=0.003) of the TaqI polymorphism in comparison with the wild-type genotype. None of the polymorphisms studied was associated with clinicopathological characteristics and vitamin D serum level. Our results suggest that FokI and TaqI polymorphisms in the VDR gene may be considered as potential biomarkers for melanoma susceptibility. Low vitamin D levels in melanoma patients indicate the need for vitamin D supplementation. PMID:24638155

  13. Mu opioid receptor polymorphism, early social adversity, and social traits.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Kim, Youngmee

    2016-10-01

    A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of childhood adversity as an index of negative environment. Outcomes were several personality measures relevant to social connection. Significant interactions were obtained, such that the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among A homozygotes on measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings coloring one's world view. Findings support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. Limitations are noted, including the lack of a measure of advantageous social environment to assess sensitivity to positive social contexts. PMID:26527429

  14. Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Demin; Jing, Lei; Zhang, Suzhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective was to perform a meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence from prospective nested case-control studies on the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. We searched PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, and reference lists for included articles. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by using fixed-effect or random-effects models. Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were no association between Fok1 gene allele contrast f versus F (OR: 0.859; 95%CI: 0.685–1.079), ff versus FF (OR: 0.893; 95%CI: 0.763–1.045), recessive models ff versus FF+Ff (OR: 0.932; 95%CI: 0.796–1.092), and dominant models ff+Ff versus FF (OR: 0.899; 95%CI: 0.780–1.037). The estimated VDR polymorphism showed no significant association between Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. In the Caucasian ethnic subgroup, no association was found between allele contrast, recessive models, and dominant models on Fok1, Bsm1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. VDR polymorphism (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, and Apa1) were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in the general population as well as Caucasian population. PMID:27149457

  15. Polymorphic DNA haplotypes at the LDL receptor locus.

    PubMed Central

    Leitersdorf, E; Chakravarti, A; Hobbs, H H

    1989-01-01

    Mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene result in the autosomal dominant disorder familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Many different LDL receptor mutations have been identified and characterized, demonstrating a high degree of allelic heterogeneity at this locus. The ability to identify mutant LDL receptor genes for prenatal diagnosis of homozygous FH or to study the role of the LDL receptor gene in polygenic hypercholesterolemia requires the use of closely linked RFLPs. In the present study we used 10 different RFLPs, including three newly described polymorphisms, to construct 123 independent haplotypes from 20 Caucasian American pedigrees. Our sample contained 31 different haplotypes varying in frequency from 0.8% to 29.3%; the five most common haplotypes account for 67.5% of the sample. The heterozygosity and PIC of each site were determined, and these values disclosed that eight of the RFLPs were substantially polymorphic. Linkage-disequilibrium analysis of the haplotype data revealed strong nonrandom associations among all 10 RFLPs, especially among those sites clustered in the 3' region of the gene. Evolutionary analysis suggests the occurrence of both mutational and recombinational events in the generation of the observed haplotypes. A strategy for haplotype analysis of the LDL receptor gene in individuals of Caucasian American descent is presented. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2563635

  16. The role of beta-adrenergic receptors in the cutaneous water evaporation mechanism in the heat-acclimated pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Ophir, E; Arieli, Y; Raber, P; Marder, J

    2000-01-01

    The effects of selective and non-selective beta-adrenergic agents on cutaneous water evaporation (CWE) were studied in hand-reared rock pigeons (Columba livia). CWE was measured by the vapor diffusive resistance method, using a transient porometer. Intramuscular and subcutaneous injections of a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol) or a selective beta(2)-adrenergic antagonist (ICI-118551) to heat-acclimated (HAc) pigeons at ambient temperature (T(a)) of 24 degrees C resulted in intensive CWE. The CWE values that were triggered by propranolol and ICI-118551 (18.59+/-0.73 and 16.48+/-0.70 mg cm(-2) h(-1), respectively) were close to those induced by heat exposure (17.62+/-1.40 mg cm(-2) h(-1)). Subcutaneous administration of propranolol produced local response. Intramuscular injection of salbutamol (selective beta(2)-adrenergic agonist) to HAc pigeons drastically diminished CWE induced by either propranolol, metoprolol or heat exposure. Such manipulations also enhanced panting at relatively low T(a)s (42 degrees C). The inhibition of beta(1)-adrenergic receptors by metoprolol increased CWE, while inhibition by atenolol produced no change from basal values. This difference may be attributed to their distinctive nature in penetrating the blood-brain barrier. Our findings indicate a regulatory pathway for CWE consisting of both beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. We suggest that the beta(1)-adrenergic effect is restricted mainly to the CNS, while the beta(2)-adrenergic effect takes place at the effector level. We postulate this level to be either the cutaneous microvasculature or the epidermal layer. PMID:10779732

  17. Associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; He, Qi; Shao, Yu-Guo; Ji, Min; Bao, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 studies on VDR polymorphisms, including FokI, BsmI, TaqI, and ApaI, and breast cancer risk published before May 2013. For FokI, the allele of f was found to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer compared with F (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.36). Patients with ff genotype were at significantly higher risk of breast cancer compared with those with FF genotype (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.66-2.29). In subgroup analysis by race, Fok1 polymorphism was significantly associated with breast cancer risk for Caucasian population (f vs. F: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.59; ff vs. FF: OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.86-2.54; ff vs. FF + Ff: OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). For ApaI, aa genotype was associated with increased breast cancer risk in Asian population based on four studies (aa vs. Aa + AA, OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.12-1.98). No significant association was found between breast cancer risk and ApaI and TaqI polymorphism in different models and populations. Our updated meta-analysis showed that Fok1 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk both in general population and in Caucasian population. ApaI polymorphism might be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian population. Large well-designed epidemiological studies are necessary to clarify the risk identified in the current meta-analysis. PMID:23900677

  18. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Buyru, Nur; Tezol, Ayda; Yosunkaya-Fenerci, Elif; Dalay, Nejat

    2003-12-31

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women around the world and its incidence is annually increasing. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is expressed in breast tissue and known to modulate the rate of cell proliferation. Association between the VDR gene polymorphisms and cancer development has been suggested by several studies. However, the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and breast cancer is controversial and has not been confirmed by all studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotype frequencies and association of the VDR Bsm I and Taq I polymorphisms with breast cancer in Turkish patients. In this study, 78 patients with breast cancer and 27 healthy individuals were enrolled. The prevalence of the VDR Taq I and Bsm I alleles and the genotype frequencies in patients with breast cancer was similar to that in the normal population. Our data indicate that no significant differences exist between the patients and control subjects. PMID:14749534

  19. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and steroid receptor status among Saudi women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nemenqani, Dalal M; Karam, Rehab A; Amer, Mona G; Abd El Rahman, Tamer M

    2015-03-10

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a mediator for the cellular effects of vitamin D and interacts with other cell signaling pathways that influence cancer development. We evaluated the associations of the FOK1 and Taq1 VDR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and possible effect modification by steroid receptor status of the tumor. This case-control study includes 95 breast cancer patients and 100 age-matched controls. Genotyping for VDR FOK1 and Taq1 polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Level of 25(OH)D in serum was determined using ELISA. Immunohistochemical studies were performed for estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). The frequencies of ff genotype were significantly increased in the breast cancer group compared to the control group. Carriers of the f allele were significantly more likely to develop BC. We observed a statistically significant interaction for the Fok1 polymorphism and ER status. Our results demonstrated that FOK1 f. genotype and f allele have an important role in breast cancer risk in Saudi patients. PMID:25560187

  20. CC chemokine receptor 5 gene polymorphisms in beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Silveira, L; Spagnolo, P; Gillespie, M; Gottschall, E B; Welsh, K I; du Bois, R M; Newman, L S; Maier, L A

    2010-08-01

    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is expressed on type-1 T-helper cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of the granulomatous lung disease chronic beryllium disease (CBD). CCR5 gene (CCR5) polymorphisms are associated with sarcoidosis severity. The present study explores associations between CCR5 polymorphisms and CBD and its disease progression. Eight CCR5 polymorphisms were genotyped in CBD (n = 88), beryllium sensitisation (BeS; n = 86) and beryllium-exposed nondiseased controls (n = 173) using PCR with sequence-specific primers. Pulmonary function and bronchoalveolar lavage data were examined for associations with genotypes. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequency between CBD, BeS individuals and controls. In CBD, associations were found with decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity and the CCR5 -3458 thymidine (T)T genotype (p<0.0001), and an increase in alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference at rest (p = 0.003) and at maximum exercise (p = 0.01) and the -5663 adenine allele. Increased bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte numbers were associated with CCR5 -2459 guanine/-2135T (p = 0.01) only in the combined CBD and BeS group. This is the first study showing that CCR5 polymorphisms are associated with worsening pulmonary function over time in CBD, suggesting that CCR5 is important in the progression of pulmonary function in CBD. Further studies would be useful to clarify the mechanism whereby CCR5 polymorphisms affect progression of CBD. PMID:20075058

  1. Androgen receptor and monoamine oxidase polymorphism in wild bonobos.

    PubMed

    Garai, Cintia; Furuichi, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Ryu, Heungjin; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-12-01

    Androgen receptor gene (AR), monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and monoamine oxidase B gene (MAOB) have been found to have associations with behavioral traits, such as aggressiveness, and disorders in humans. However, the extent to which similar genetic effects might influence the behavior of wild apes is unclear. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ), AR glycine repeat (ARG), MAOA intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MAin2) and MAOB intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MBin2) in 32 wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, and compared them with those of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, and humans. We found that bonobos were polymorphic on the four loci examined. Both loci MAin2 and MBin2 in bonobos showed a higher diversity than in chimpanzees. Because monoamine oxidase influences aggressiveness, the differences between the polymorphisms of MAin2 and MBin2 in bonobos and chimpanzees may be associated with the differences in aggression between the two species. In order to understand the evolution of these loci and AR, MAOA and MAOB in humans and non-human primates, it would be useful to conduct future studies focusing on the potential association between aggressiveness, and other personality traits, and polymorphisms documented in bonobos. PMID:25606465

  2. Social memory associated with estrogen receptor polymorphisms in women.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Sara; Henningsson, Susanne; Hovey, Daniel; Zettergren, Anna; Jonsson, Lina; Cortes, Diana S; Melke, Jonas; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Westberg, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The ability to recognize the identity of faces and voices is essential for social relationships. Although the heritability of social memory is high, knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. Since sex differences and rodent studies support an influence of estrogens and androgens on social memory, polymorphisms in the estrogen and androgen receptor genes (ESR1, ESR2, AR) are candidates for this trait. Recognition of faces and vocal sounds, separately and combined, was investigated in 490 subjects, genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1, four in ESR2 and one in the AR Four of the associations survived correction for multiple testing: women carrying rare alleles of the three ESR2 SNPs, rs928554, rs1271572 and rs1256030, in linkage disequilibrium with each other, displayed superior face recognition compared with non-carriers. Furthermore, the uncommon genotype of the ESR1 SNP rs2504063 was associated with better recognition of identity through vocal sounds, also specifically in women. This study demonstrates evidence for associations in women between face recognition and variation in ESR2, and recognition of identity through vocal sounds and variation in ESR1. These results suggest that estrogen receptors may regulate social memory function in humans, in line with what has previously been established in mice. PMID:26955855

  3. Leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in severely pre-eclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Rigó, János; Szendei, György; Rosta, Klára; Fekete, Andrea; Bögi, Krisztina; Molvarec, Attila; Rónai, Zsolt; Vér, Agota

    2006-09-01

    Variants of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) may modulate the effect of elevated serum leptin levels in pre-eclampsia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the LEPR gene polymorphisms Lys109Arg (A109G) and Gln223Arg (A223G) in severely pre-eclamptic women. In a case-control study, we analyzed blood samples from 124 severely pre-eclamptic patients and 107 healthy control women by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The Pearson chi2 test was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The association was adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index and primiparity with logistic regression analysis. Pregnant women with the LEPR 223G allele (223A/G or 223G/G genotype) had almost double the risk of developing severe pre-eclampsia compared with patients with the 223A/A genotype (adjusted OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.07-3.41). Genotype variants of LEPR A109G alone did not affect the risk of severe pre-eclampsia. Haplotype estimation of A109G and A223G polymorphisms of the LEPR gene revealed that the G-A haplotype versus other pooled haplotypes was significantly less common in the pre-eclamptic group (p < 0.01), while the G-G haplotype versus others was overrepresented among severely pre-eclamptic patients (p < 0.01), compared with controls. In conclusion, our data indicate that LEPR A223G polymorphism may individually modify the risk of severe pre-eclampsia. PMID:17071538

  4. Impact of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Gussago, Cristina; Arosio, Beatrice; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Ferri, Evelyn; Costa, Andrea Saul; Casati, Martina; Bollini, Elisa Mariadele; Ronchetti, Francesco; Colombo, Elena; Bernardelli, Giuseppina; Clerici, Mario; Mari, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D is a seco-sterol produced endogenously in the skin or obtained from certain foods. It exerts its action through binding to intracellular vitamin D receptor (VDR). Lately, the role of vitamin D has been revised regarding its potential advantage on delaying the process of aging. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of VDR gene polymorphisms in healthy aging and longevity. We evaluated the frequency of four polymorphisms of the VDR gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) in centenarians (102 subjects, mean age: 102.3 ± 0.3 years), compared to septuagenarians (163 subjects, mean age: 73.0 ± 0.6 years) and we analyzed a variety of pathophysiologically relevant functions in centenarians. BsmI and ApaI provided a significant association with longevity: there was a highly significant difference in the frequency of BsmI genotypes (p = 0.037), ApaI genotypes (p = 0.022), and ApaI alleles (p = 0.050) in centenarians versus septuagenarians. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation of all the VDR gene polymorphisms in centenarians with some measured variables such as hand grip strength, body mass index, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and mini-mental state examination. We also found a correlation with the prevalence of medical history of hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, angina, venous insufficiency, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arthrosis. In conclusion, this study proposes a new scenario in which the variability of the VDR gene is relevant in the aging process and emphasizes the role of VDR genetic background in determining healthy aging. PMID:26956844

  5. Association between the vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ju; Shang, De-Peng; Yang, Sheng; Fu, Da-Peng; Ling, Hao-Yi; Hou, Shuang-Shuang; Lu, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene for the risk of osteoporosis remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to understand the distribution of various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the VDR gene and its association with the risk of osteoporosis. In total, 378 subjects without a genetic relationship were recruited to the study between January 2013 and July 2015. The subjects were divided into three groups, which were the normal (n=234), osteoporosis (n=65) and osteoporosis with osteoporotic fracture (n=79) groups. Three pertinent SNPs of the VDR gene rs17879735 (ApaI, Allele A/a, SNP C>A) were examined with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck, Ward's and Tro was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The distributions of genotype frequencies aa, AA and Aa were 48.68, 42.86 and 8.46%, separately. Following analysis of each site, BMD, body mass index (BMI) and age, BMD for each site was negatively correlated with age (P<0.01) and positively correlated with BMI (P<0.01). Correction analysis revealed that there were significant differences in the Ward's triangle BMD among each genotype (P<0.05), in which the aa genotype exhibited the lower BMD (P<0.05). No significant difference was identified among the different genotypes in the occurrence of osteoporosis with osteoporotic fracture (P>0.05). In conclusion, these indicated that the VDR gene ApaI polymorphisms had an important role in the osteoporosis risk. PMID:27446548

  6. Pharmacogenomics in psychiatry: the relevance of receptor and transporter polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Gavin P; McGowan, Olga O; Dalton, Caroline F

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of severe mental illness, and of psychiatric disorders in general, is limited in its efficacy and tolerability. There appear to be substantial interindividual differences in response to psychiatric drug treatments that are generally far greater than the differences between individual drugs; likewise, the occurrence of adverse effects also varies profoundly between individuals. These differences are thought to reflect, at least in part, genetic variability. The action of psychiatric drugs primarily involves effects on synaptic neurotransmission; the genes for neurotransmitter receptors and transporters have provided strong candidates in pharmacogenetic research in psychiatry. This paper reviews some aspects of the pharmacogenetics of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. A focus on serotonin, catecholamines and amino acid transmitter systems reflects the direction of research efforts, while relevant results from some genome-wide association studies are also presented. There are many inconsistencies, particularly between candidate gene and genome-wide association studies. However, some consistency is seen in candidate gene studies supporting established pharmacological mechanisms of antipsychotic and antidepressant response with associations of functional genetic polymorphisms in, respectively, the dopamine D2 receptor and serotonin transporter and receptors. More recently identified effects of genes related to amino acid neurotransmission on the outcome of treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar illness or depression reflect the growing understanding of the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid dysfunction in severe mental illness. A complete understanding of psychiatric pharmacogenomics will also need to take into account epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation, that influence individual responses to drugs. PMID:24354796

  7. Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism and personality traits in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Persson, M L; Wasserman, D; Geijer, T; Frisch, A; Rockah, R; Michaelovsky, E; Apter, A; Weizman, A; Jönsson, E G; Bergman, H

    2000-01-01

    An association between long alleles of a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene and the extraversion related personality traits Excitement and Novelty Seeking has been reported in healthy subjects. In an attempt to replicate the previous findings, 256 healthy Caucasian volunteers were analysed for a potential relationship between the dopamine receptor D4 exon III VNTR polymorphism and Extraversion as assessed by the Revised Neo Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The present study did not yield evidence for an association between Extraversion and the dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism. PMID:11009073

  8. Polymorphisms in pattern recognition receptors and their relationship to infectious disease susceptibility in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are censoring receptors for molecules derived from bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The PRR system is a prerequisite for proper responses to pathogens, for example by cytokine production, resulting in pathogen eradication. Many cases of polymorphisms in PRR genes affecting the immune response and disease susceptibility are known in humans and mice. Methods We surveyed polymorphisms in pig genes encoding PRRs and investigated the relationship between some of the detected polymorphisms and molecular function or disease onset. Results Nonsynonymous polymorphisms abounded in pig TLR genes, particularly in the region corresponding to the ectodomains of TLRs expressed on the cell surface. Intracellular TLRs such as TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8, and other intracellular PRRs, such as the peptidoglycan receptor NOD2 and viral RNA receptors RIG-I and MDA5, also possessed nonsynonymous polymorphisms. Several of the polymorphisms influenced molecular functions such as ligand recognition. Polymorphisms in the PRR genes may be related to disease susceptibility in pigs: pigs with a particular allele of TLR2 showed an increased tendency to contract pneumonia. Conclusions We propose the possibility of pig breeding aimed at disease resistance by the selection of PRR gene alleles that affect pathogen recognition. PMID:21645307

  9. Culture, serotonin receptor polymorphism and locus of attention

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Sasaki, Joni Y.; Chu, Thai Q.; Ryu, Chorong; Suh, Eunkook M.; Xu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined the interaction between genes and culture as potential determinants of individuals’ locus of attention. As the serotonin (5-HT) system has been associated with attentional focus and the ability to adapt to changes in reinforcement, we examined the serotonin 1A receptor polymorphism (5-HTR1A). Koreans and European Americans were genotyped and reported their chronic locus of attention. There was a significant interaction between 5-HTR1A genotype and culture in the locus of attention. Koreans reported attending to the field more than European Americans, and this cultural difference was moderated by 5-HTR1A. There was a linear pattern such that those homozygous for the G allele, which is associated with reduced ability to adapt to changes in reinforcement, more strongly endorsed the culturally reinforced mode of thinking than those homozygous for the C allele, with those heterozygous in the middle. Our findings suggest that the same genetic predisposition can result in divergent psychological outcomes, depending on an individual’s cultural context. PMID:19736291

  10. Liver X Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Tuberculosis: Effect on Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-rong; Yue, Jun; Zhao, Yan-lin; Xiao, He-ping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Liver X receptors (LXRs), Liver X receptor A (LXRA) and Liver X receptor B (LXRB), regulate lipid metabolism and antimicrobial response. LXRs have a crucial role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Lacking LXRs mice is more susceptibility to infection M.tb, developing higher bacterial burdens and an increase in the size and number of granulomatous lesions. We aimed to assess the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LXRs and risk of tuberculosis. Methods We sequenced the LXRs genes to detect SNPs and to examine genotypic frequencies in 600 patients and 620 healthy controls to investigate for associations with tuberculosis (TB) in the Chinese Han population. DNA re-sequencing revealed eight common variants in the LXRs genes. Results The G allele of rs1449627 and the T allele of rs1405655 demonstrated an increased risk of developing TB (p<0.001, p = 0.002), and the T allele of rs3758673, the T allele of rs2279238, and the C allele of rs1449626 in LXRA and the C allele of rs17373080, the G allele of rs2248949, and the C allele of rs1052677 in LXRB were protective against TB patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.0002, p = 0.006, p<0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.008, p = 0.003, respectively). All SNP genotypes were significantly associated with TB. An estimation of the frequencies of haplotypes revealed two potential risk haplotypes,GGCG in LXRB (p = 0.004,) and TTCG in LXRA (p<0.001, p = 0.004). Moreover, three protective haplotypes, TTAT and CCAT in LXRA and CATC in LXRB, were significantly “protective” (p = 0.008, p<0.001, p = 0.031) for TB. Furthermore, we determined that the LXRs SNPs were nominally associated with the clinical pattern of disease. Conclusions Our study data supported that LXRs play a fundamental role in the genetic susceptibility to TB and to different clinical patterns of disease. Thus, further investigation is required in larger populations and in

  11. Toll like receptor polymorphisms in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kornblit, Brian; Enevold, Christian; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen; Haagenson, Mike; Lee, Stephanie J; Müller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of the genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLR) on outcome after allogeneic myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) we have investigated 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across 10 TLRs in 816 patients and donors. Only donor genotype of TLR8 rs3764879, which is located on the X chromosome, was significantly associated with outcome at the Bonferroni corrected level P≤0.001. Male hemizygosity and female homozygosity for the minor allele were significantly associated with disease free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.85); P=0.001). Further analysis stratified by donor sex due to confounding by sex, was suggestive for associations with overall survival (male donor: HR 1.41 (95% CI 1.09–1.83), P=0.010); female donor: (HR 2.78 (95% CI 1.43–5.41), P=0.003), DFS (male donor: HR 1.45 (95% CI 1.12–1.87), P=0.005; female donor: HR 2.34 (95% CI 1.18–4.65), P=0.015) and treatment related mortality (male donor: HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.09–2.04), P=0.012; female donor: HR 3.12 (95% CI 1.44–6.74), P=0.004). In conclusion our findings suggest that the minor allele of TLR8 rs3764879 of the donor is associated with outcome after myeloablative conditioned allogeneic HCT. PMID:25464115

  12. Olfactory Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Nonallergic Vasomotor Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Ge; Jin, Li; Abbott, Carol; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    We sought a genotype-phenotype association: between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in olfactory receptor (OR) genes from the two largest OR gene clusters and odor-triggered nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis (nVMR). In the initial pedigree screen, using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis, six SNPs showed “significant” p-values between 0.0449 and 0.0043. In a second case-control population, the previously identified six SNPs did not re-emerge, whereas four new SNPs showed p-values between 0.0490 and 0.0001. Combining both studies, none of the SNPs in the TDT analysis survived the Bonferroni correction. In the population study, one SNP showed an empirical p-value of 0.0066 by shuffling cases and controls with 105 replicates; however, the p-value for this SNP was 0.83 in the pedigree study. This study emphasizes that underpowered studies having p-values between <0.05 and 0.0001 should be regarded as inconclusive and require further replication before concluding the study is “informative.” However, we believe that our hypothesis that an association between OR genotypes and the nVMR phenotype remains feasible. Future studies using either a genomewide association study of all OR gene-pseudogene regions throughout the genome—at the current recommended density of 2.5 to 5 kb per tag SNP—or studies incorporating microarray analyses of the entire “OR genome” in well-characterized nVMR patients are required. PMID:18446592

  13. Polymorphisms of the sigma(1) receptor gene in schizophrenia: An association study.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, O; Shinkai, T; Suzuki, T; Okano, C; Kojima, H; Terao, T; Nakamura, J

    2000-02-01

    Possible involvement of sigma receptors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been suggested. In this study we searched systematically for polymorphisms in the 5'-franking region of the sigma(1) receptor. Genetic variation in this region could reduce the expression of the gene, and this suggestion is compatible with findings of reduced sigma binding sites in several cortical regions of schizophrenia. We confirmed G-241T and G-240T polymorphisms; these two consecutive polymorphisms were resolved to be in complete linkage disequilibrium with each other by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. We also identified the A61C (Gln2Pro) polymorphism, which was in almost complete linkage disequilibrium with G-241T/G-240T. There was no significant difference in the distribution of alleles or overall genotypes of the polymorphisms between schizophrenic patients (n = 129) and controls (n = 140). We found slight increased homozygosity for T-241/T-240 and C61 in patients compared with controls using multiple comparison (p = 0. 045). However, the significance did not remain when a Bonferroni correction was made (p = 0.135). These results do not support that the sigma(1) receptor gene plays a major role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:118-122, 2000. PMID:10686564

  14. Gender Interacts with Opioid Receptor Polymorphism A118G and Serotonin Receptor Polymorphism -1438 A/G on Speed-Dating Success.

    PubMed

    Wu, Karen; Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert K; Greenberger, Ellen; Yu, Zhaoxia

    2016-09-01

    We examined an understudied but potentially important source of romantic attraction-genetics-using a speed-dating paradigm. The mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) polymorphism A118G (rs1799971) and the serotonin receptor (HTR2A) polymorphism -1438 A/G (rs6311) were studied because they have been implicated in social affiliation. Guided by the social role theory of mate selection and prior genetic evidence, we examined these polymorphisms' gender-specific associations with speed-dating success (i.e., date offers, mate desirability). A total of 262 single Asian Americans went on speed-dates with members of the opposite gender and completed interaction questionnaires about their partners. Consistent with our prediction, significant gender-by-genotype interactions were found for speed-dating success. Specifically, the minor variant of A118G (G-allele), which has been linked to submissiveness/social sensitivity, predicted greater speed-dating success for women, whereas the minor variant of -1438 A/G (G-allele), which has been linked to leadership/social dominance, predicted greater speed-dating success for men. For both polymorphisms, reverse "dampening" effects of minor variants were found for opposite-gender counterparts. These results support previous research on the importance of the opioid and serotonergic systems in social affiliation, indicating that their influence extends to dating success, with opposite, yet gender-norm consistent, effects for men and women. PMID:27193909

  15. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk for female reproductive cancers: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mun, Myung-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Hwang, Ji-Young; Jang, Won-Cheoul

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the risks for various breast and ovarian cancers have been reported in many epidemiological studies. However, the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms and the risk for each type of cancer are unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms and female reproductive cancers. A systematic review was performed with the PubMed Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases up to April 2014 using the search terms "vitamin D receptor or VDR" and "variant or polymorphism or SNP" with terms for breast, ovarian, cervical, endometrial, uterine, and vaginal cancers. A meta-analysis with the pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals was carried out to assess the associations between VDR polymorphisms (Cdx-2, FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) and the risks for reproductive cancers under the heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, and recessive models with fixed or random effects models. Six ovarian cancer studies (13 individual studies involving 4107 cases and 6661 controls) and 29 breast cancer studies (38 individual studies involving 16,453 cases and 22,044 controls) were included in our meta-analysis. Our results indicate that the FokI polymorphism was related to increased risks for breast and ovarian cancers, whereas the BsmI polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk for developing these cancers. Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicated that the FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms may be significantly associated with gynecological cancers. We suggest monitoring VDR gene polymorphisms as potential biomarkers in patients with gynecological malignancy. PMID:25882760

  16. Genetic contributions to avoidance-based decisions: striatal D2 receptor polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Frank, M J; Hutchison, K

    2009-11-24

    Individuals differ in their tendencies to seek positive decision outcomes or to avoid negative ones. At the neurobiological level, our model suggests that phasic changes in dopamine support learning to reinforce good decisions via striatal D1 receptors, and to avoid maladaptive choices via striatal D2 receptors. Accordingly, in a previous study individual differences in positive and negative learning were strongly modulated by two genetic polymorphisms factors related to striatal D1 and D2 function, respectively. Nevertheless, whereas the role for dopamine in positive learning is relatively well accepted, that in learning to avoid negative outcomes is more controversial. Here we further explore D2-receptor-related genetic contributions to probabilistic avoidance in humans, in light of recent data showing that particular DRD2 polymorphisms are associated with functional modulation of receptor expression [Zhang Y, Bertolino A, Fazio L, Blasi G, Rampino A, Romano R, Lee M-LT, Xiao T, Papp A, Wang D, Sadée W (2007) Polymorphisms in human dopamine d2 receptor gene affect gene expression, splicing, and neuronal activity during working memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(51):20552-20557]. We find that a promoter polymorphism rs12364283 associated with transcription and D2 receptor density was strongly and selectively predictive of avoidance-based decisions. Two further polymorphisms (rs2283265 and rs1076560) associated with relatively reduced presynaptic relative to postsynaptic D2 receptor expression were predictive of relative impairments in negative compared to positive decisions. These previously undocumented effects of DRD2 polymorphisms were largely independent of those we reported previously for the C957T polymorphism (rs6277) associated with striatal D2 density. In contrast, effects of the commonly studied Taq1A polymorphism on reinforcement-based decisions were due to indirect association with C957T. Taken together these findings suggest multiple D2-dependent

  17. Transient Receptor Potential Channel Polymorphisms Are Associated with the Somatosensory Function in Neuropathic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Tölle, Thomas R.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Berthele, Achim; Faltraco, Frank; Flor, Herta; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Haenisch, Sierk; Huge, Volker; Magerl, Walter; Maihöfner, Christian; Richter, Helmut; Rolke, Roman; Scherens, Andrea; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Ufer, Mike; Wasner, Gunnar; Zhu, Jihong; Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channels are important mediators of thermal and mechanical stimuli and play an important role in neuropathic pain. The contribution of hereditary variants in the genes of transient receptor potential channels to neuropathic pain is unknown. We investigated the frequency of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1, transient receptor potential melastin 8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their impact on somatosensory abnormalities in neuropathic pain patients. Within the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (Deutscher Forscbungsverbund Neuropathischer Schmerz) 371 neuropathic pain patients were phenotypically characterized using standardized quantitative sensory testing. Pyrosequencing was employed to determine a total of eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms in transient receptor potential channel genes of the neuropathic pain patients and a cohort of 253 German healthy volunteers. Associations of quantitative sensory testing parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms between and within groups and subgroups, based on sensory phenotypes, were analyzed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms frequencies did not differ between both the cohorts. However, in neuropathic pain patients transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 710G>A (rs920829, E179K) was associated with the presence of paradoxical heat sensation (p = 0.03), and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G (rs8065080, I585V) with cold hypoalgesia (p = 0.0035). Two main subgroups characterized by preserved (1) and impaired (2) sensory function were identified. In subgroup 1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1911A>G led to significantly less heat hyperalgesia, pinprick hyperalgesia and mechanical hypaesthesia (p = 0.006, p = 0.005 and p<0.001) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 1103C>G (rs222747, M315I) to cold hypaesthesia (p = 0.002), but there was absence of associations in subgroup 2. In

  18. Species differences in the localization and number of CNS beta adrenergic receptors: Rat versus guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Booze, R.M.; Crisostomo, E.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1989-06-01

    The localization and number of beta adrenergic receptors were directly compared in the brains of rats and guinea pigs. The time course of association and saturability of (125I)cyanopindolol (CYP) binding to slide-mounted tissue sections was similar in rats (Kd = 17 pM) and guinea pigs (Kd = 20 pM). The beta-1 and beta-2 receptor subtypes were examined through the use of highly selective unlabeled receptor antagonists, ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and ICI 89,406 (70 nM). Dramatic species differences between rats and guinea pigs were observed in the neuroanatomical regional localization of the beta adrenergic receptor subtypes. For example, in the thalamus prominent beta-1 and beta-2 receptor populations were identified in the rat; however, the entire thalamus of the guinea pig had few, if any, beta adrenergic receptors of either subtype. Hippocampal area CA1 had high levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptors in both rats and guinea pigs but was accompanied by a widespread distribution of beta-2 adrenergic receptors only in rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analyses of 25 selected neuroanatomical regions (1) confirmed the qualitative differences in CNS beta adrenergic receptor localization, (2) determined that guinea pigs had significantly lower levels of beta adrenergic receptors than rats and (3) indicated a differential pattern of receptor subtypes between the two species. Knowledge of species differences in receptor patterns may be useful in designing effective experiments as well as in exploring the relationships between receptor and innervation patterns. Collectively, these data suggest caution be used in extrapolation of the relationships of neurotransmitters and receptors from studies of a single species.

  19. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor polymorphisms interact with circulating neuropeptides to predict human emotional reactions to stress

    PubMed Central

    Moons, Wesley G.; Way, Baldwin M.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and a polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) have been independently associated with stress reactivity, whereas oxytocin’s sister peptide, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and polymorphisms in the vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A) have been independently associated with aggressive behavior. In this study, 68 men and 98 women were genotyped for the OXTR rs53576 polymorphism and the AVPR1A RS1 polymorphism. Baseline and post-stressor levels of plasma OT, plasma AVP, positive affect, and anger were assessed. Women, but not men, with high levels of post-stressor OT and the GG genotype of rs53576 felt the most positive affect after the stressor. Men, but not women, with high levels of post-stressor AVP and with the 320allele of the RS1 polymorphism reported more post-stressor anger than non-carriers. These data constitute the first evidence that oxytocin and vasopressin receptor genes interact with levels of OT and AVP to predict sex-specific emotional stress responses. PMID:24660771

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yeqiong; He, Bangshun; Pan, Yuqin; Deng, Qiwen; Sun, Huiling; Li, Rui; Gao, Tianyi; Song, Guoqi; Wang, Shukui

    2014-05-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) can influence cancer susceptibility through binding to vitamin D. However, the previous studies were contradictory. Therefore this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the association between VDR polymorphisms (BsmI, TaqI, FokI, and ApaI) and cancer risk. One hundred twenty-six studies were enrolled through PubMed. For VDR BsmI polymorphism, significantly increased cancer risks were observed in the overall analysis. In the further stratified analysis, increased risks were observed in colorectal and skin cancer, especially in Caucasian population. However, no significant associations were observed in other VDR polymorphisms in the overall analysis. In the further subgroup analysis, increased risks were found in oral, breast, and basal cell cancer while decreased risk was found in prostate cancer in t allele carriers of TaqI polymorphism. For VDR FokI polymorphism, increased risks were found in ovarian and skin cancer while decreased risk in glioma in f allele carriers. For VDR ApaI polymorphism, increased risk was observed in basal cell cancer, especially in Asian population in a allele carriers. In conclusion, these results indicated that b allele of BamI polymorphism was a risk factor for cancer susceptibility. Meanwhile, t allele of TaqI polymorphism was a risk factor for oral, breast, and basal cell cancer and a protective factor for prostate cancer. Moreover, f allele of FokI polymorphism was a risk factor for ovarian and skin cancer and a protective factor for glioma. Finally, a allele of ApaI polymorphism was a risk factor for basal cell cancer in Asian population. PMID:24408013

  1. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists

    PubMed Central

    Butovskaya, Marina L.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A.; Dronova, Daria A.; Karelin, Dmitri V.; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.; Shibalev, Dmitri V.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)—the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17–70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born. PMID:26291982

  2. Association Between Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism and Familial Mediterranean Fever Disease in Turkish Children.

    PubMed

    Kizildag, S; Dedemoglu, F; Anik, A; Catli, G; Kizildag, S; Abaci, A; Makay, B; Bober, E; Unsal, E

    2016-04-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive, inherited autoinflammatory disease characterized by recurrent, self-limited attacks of fever, and inflammation of serosal surfaces. The aim of our study was to determine a possible relationship between Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the risk of children with FMF. We investigated VDR FokI (rs10735810), TaqI (rs731236), BsmI (rs1544410), and ApaI (rs7975232) polymorphisms in 50 children with FMF and 150 age-matched healthy control subjects. This study was performed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no significant difference between patients and controls for VDR FokI, TaqI, BsmI, and ApaI genotypes and alleles (p > 0.05). Results need to be supported by further investigations that define haplotype patterns for VDR gene polymorphisms in a larger group and different ethnic groups of FMF patients. PMID:26742922

  3. The Relationship Between Gene Polymorphism of Leptin and Leptin Receptor and Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    PubMed

    He, Jinshui; Fang, Yanling; Lin, Xinfu; Zhou, Huowang; Zhu, Shaobo; Zhang, Yugui; Yang, Huicong; Ye, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a major cause of congenital short stature. GHD patients have significantly decreased serum leptin levels, which are regulated by gene polymorphism of leptin and leptin receptor. This study thus investigated the relationship between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to GHD. MATERIAL AND METHODS A case-control study was performed using 180 GHD children in addition to 160 healthy controls. After the extraction of whole genomic DNA, the genotypes of leptin and leptin receptor gene loci were analyzed by sequencing for single-nucleotide polymorphism. RESULTS The frequency distribution of all alleles identified in leptin gene (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor gene (loci rs1137100 and rs1137101) fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant difference in allele frequency at loci rs7799039 or rs1137101, as individuals with heterozygous GA allele had lower (rs7799039) or higher (rs1137101) GHD risk. No significant difference in allele frequency was discovered at loci rs1137100 (p>0.05), which was unrelated to GHD susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS Gene polymorphism of leptin (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor (loci rs1137101) are correlated with GHD susceptibility. PMID:26915772

  4. The Relationship Between Gene Polymorphism of Leptin and Leptin Receptor and Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinshui; Fang, Yanling; Lin, Xinfu; Zhou, Huowang; Zhu, Shaobo; Zhang, Yugui; Yang, Huicong; Ye, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a major cause of congenital short stature. GHD patients have significantly decreased serum leptin levels, which are regulated by gene polymorphism of leptin and leptin receptor. This study thus investigated the relationship between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to GHD. Material/Methods A case-control study was performed using 180 GHD children in addition to 160 healthy controls. After the extraction of whole genomic DNA, the genotypes of leptin and leptin receptor gene loci were analyzed by sequencing for single-nucleotide polymorphism. Results The frequency distribution of all alleles identified in leptin gene (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor gene (loci rs1137100 and rs1137101) fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant difference in allele frequency at loci rs7799039 or rs1137101, as individuals with heterozygous GA allele had lower (rs7799039) or higher (rs1137101) GHD risk. No significant difference in allele frequency was discovered at loci rs1137100 (p>0.05), which was unrelated to GHD susceptibility. Conclusions Gene polymorphism of leptin (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor (loci rs1137101) are correlated with GHD susceptibility. PMID:26915772

  5. Dopamine Receptor D2 Polymorphism Moderates the Effect of Parental Education on Adolescents' School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Pullmann, Helle; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Alatupa, Saija; Lipsanen, Jari; Airla, Nina; Lehtimaki, Terho

    2008-01-01

    High parental socioeconomic status is known to have a positive effect on students' academic achievement. We examined whether variation in the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 polymorphism, rs 1800497) modifies the association between parental educational level and school performance in adolescence. The participants were a randomly selected subsample…

  6. Genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha gene in Egyptian women with type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek M.K.; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A.; Rizk, Sherine M.; Ramzy, Maggie M.; el-Roby, Doaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen might play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. A number of polymorphisms have been reported in the estrogen receptor alpha gene including the XbaI and PvuII restriction enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to determine if ESRα gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlated with lipid profile. Ninety diabetic Egyptian patients were compared with forty healthy controls. ESRα genotyping of PvuII and XbaI was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our study showed that there is more significant difference in the frequency of C and G polymorphic allele between patients and control groups in PvuII and XbaI respectively. Also carriers of minor C and G alleles of PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms were associated with increased fasting blood glucose and disturbance in lipid profile as there is an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and Low density lipoprotein. So findings of present study suggest the possibility that PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ERα are related to T2DM and with increased serum lipids among Egyptian population. PMID:26401488

  7. Association of estrogen receptor β and estrogen-related receptor α gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shoukry, Amira; Shalaby, Sally M; Etewa, Rasha L; Ahmed, Hanan S; Abdelrahman, Hossam M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association of AluI and RsaI polymorphisms of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) gene and 23-bp nucleotide repeat polymorphism of estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) gene with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Egyptian women. Two-hundred postmenopausal osteoporotic women as cases and 180 healthy age-matched postmenopausal women as controls were genotyped by PCR fragment length polymorphism for AluI, allele-specific PCR for RsaI, and by sizing of PCR products on agarose gels for ERRα repeats. sRANKL levels were estimated by ELISA. BMD measurements for spine and femoral neck were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A significant difference between women with osteoporosis and controls regarding allele and genotype distributions of AluI G/A (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.77-3.18 and p < 0.001 for A allele) and ERRα polymorphisms (for the two repeats allele OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.09-4.00, and p = 0.02). Osteoporotic women with the AluI AA + GA genotype or with the EERα 2,2 genotype had significantly lower BMD than did women with the other genotypes. Moreover, there was a significant increase of the mean values of sRANKL in carriers of AluI A, RsaI A alleles and in patients having 2,2 genotypes of ERRα (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). We demonstrated an association of ER-β AluI G/A and ERRα 23-repeats polymorphisms with BMD in postmenopausal Egyptian women. A possible effect of ER-β and ERRα polymorphisms on the levels of sRANKL was estimated. PMID:25903400

  8. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  9. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits.

    PubMed

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  10. Mental rotation in intellectually gifted boys is affected by the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Lakatošová, Silvia; Kubranská, Aneta; Laznibatová, Jolana; Ficek, Andrej; Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Testosterone was shown to organize brain and modulate cognitive functions. It is currently unknown whether mental rotation is also associated with prenatal testosterone exposure and testosterone-related genetic polymorphisms. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between mental rotation performance, the actual testosterone levels, the prenatal testosterone level (expressed as 2D:4D ratio) and the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism in intellectually gifted boys. One hundred forty-seven boys aged 10-18 years with IQ>130 were enrolled. Saliva samples were collected and used for ELISA of actual levels of salivary testosterone. The 2D:4D finger length ratio as an indicator of prenatal testosterone was measured on both hands and averaged. Amthauer mental rotation test was used for the assessment of this spatial ability. The CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene was analyzed using PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Linear regression revealed that 2D:4D finger length ratio and the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene were associated with mental rotation. Actual levels of testosterone did not correlate significantly with mental rotation. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that after adjustment of age as a confounding variable, only the effect of the genetic polymorphism was significant. The results are in line with our previous genetic analysis of intellectually gifted boys showing the importance of CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene. Details of the interactions between androgen signaling, testosterone levels and its metabolism especially during the prenatal development of brain function remain to be elucidated. PMID:23727571

  11. Association between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Molvarec, Attila; Vér, Agota; Fekete, Andrea; Rosta, Klára; Derzbach, László; Derzsy, Zoltán; Karádi, István; Rigó, János

    2007-03-01

    Associations have been reported between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and various pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to investigate whether two polymorphisms of the ESR1 gene (ESR1 c.454 -397T>C: PvuII restriction site and c.454 -351A>G: XbaI restriction site) are associated with preeclampsia. In a case-control study, we analyzed blood samples from 119 severely preeclamptic patients and 103 normotensive, healthy pregnant women using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. All of the women were Caucasian. There was no association between severe preeclampsia and the PvuII and XbaI ESR1 gene polymorphisms separately. However, with the simultaneous carriage of both polymorphisms, the TT/AA genotype combination was significantly more frequent in severely preeclamptic patients than in healthy control subjects (24.4% vs. 9.7%, p=0.003), whereas the TT/AG combination was significantly less frequent in the severely preeclamptic group than in the control group (5.0% vs. 18.4%, p=0.002). According to the haplotype estimation, the homozygous T-A haplotype carriers had an increased risk of severe preeclampsia independent of maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, primiparity and smoking status (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-11.53). The GG genotype of the XbaI polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of fetal growth restriction in patients with severe preeclampsia (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07-0.73). In conclusion, the homozygous T-A haplotype carriers of ESR1 PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms showed an increased risk of severe preeclampsia. In addition, the GG genotype of the XbaI polymorphism decreased the risk of fetal growth restriction in severely preeclamptic patients. PMID:17510501

  12. Association of sweet taste receptor gene polymorphisms with dental caries experience in school children.

    PubMed

    Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Koldemir-Gündüz, Meliha; Bakır-Coşkun, Nur; Bozkuş, Hasan M; Çağatay, Penbe; Süsleyici-Duman, Belgin; Menteş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. The peripheral taste response to sugar is mediated by the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 taste receptors. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between TAS1R2 (rs35874116 or rs9701796) and/or TAS1R3 (rs307355) single nucleotide polymorphisms with dental caries experience in schoolchildren. A total of 184 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 12 years (101 girls, 83 boys) were included in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the genotypes were identified by qPCR. The genotype frequencies were as follows: 6.6% for homozygous wild type, 41.8% for heterozygous and 51.6% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs35874116; 27.8% for heterozygous and 72.2% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs9701796, and 83.1% for homozygous wild type and 16.9% for heterozygous genotype carriers of TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism. A significant association was observed between total caries experience (dft + DMFT - decayed filled primary teeth + decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth) and TAS1R2 rs35874116 (p = 0.008) and TAS1R3 rs307355 (p = 0.04) gene polymorphisms but not for TAS1R2 gene rs9701796 polymorphism. TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism has been found to be an independent risk factor for dental caries experience by logistic regression analysis and to have increased the risk of caries. Moderate caries experience (4-7 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R3 rs307355 heterozygous genotype, whereas high-risk caries experience (>8 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R2 rs35874116 homozygous polymorphic genotype. PMID:25924601

  13. Role of interleukin-15 receptor alpha polymorphisms in normal weight obese syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Gloria-Bottini, F; Saccucci, P; Bigioni, M; Abenavoli, L; Gasbarrini, G; De Lorenzo, A

    2009-01-01

    Previous published studies have identified a class of women, Normal Weight Obese women (NWO) with normal BMI and high fat content. An important role of Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been documented in facilitating muscle proliferation and promoting fat depletion. Indeed the presence of three types of IL-15 receptor subunits in fat tissue suggests a direct effect on adipose tissue. We studied three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of IL-15R-alpha receptor gene and investigated their relationship with NWO phenotype. We considered two classes of women according to their BMI and percent fat mass (percent FAT), class 1: including 72 overweight-obese women (high BMI-high fat mass) and class 2: including 36 NWO (normal BMI, high fat mass). Three sites of Interleukin-15 receptor subunit á gene were examined, located respectively in exon4, exon5 intron-exon border and exon7. Genotyping of the identified polymorphisms was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Haplotype frequency estimation was performed by using the Mendel-University of Chicago program. Odds ratio analyses were calculated by EPISTAT program. Highly significant differences were observed for exon 7- exon5 intron-exon border and exon 4-exon 7 haplotype distribution between class 1 and class 2 women. These results strongly support the hypothesis that genetic variability of the IL-15 receptor has an important role in body fat composition. Our data underscore previous findings that suggest a potential role of IL-15 cytokine in NWO syndrome. PMID:19309557

  14. 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor and Toll-like Receptor 2 Polymorphisms in Spinal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Ajay; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Prakash, Shantanu; Kumar, Neeraj; Garg, Rajiv; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene abnormalities confer susceptibility to tuberculosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), such asTLR-2, are also important mediators of inflammatory response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We evaluated serum vitamin D, and VDR and TLR-2 gene polymorphisms in patients with spinal tuberculosis. This study comprised of 3 groups: spinal tuberculosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, and controls (each with 106 subjects). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure vitamin D levels, and polymerase chain reaction-sequencing method was used to analyze VDR and TLR-2 gene polymorphisms. Patients were followed up for 6 months. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly more prevalent in patients with spinal tuberculosis (P < 0.001) and pulmonary tuberculosis (P = 0.011), versus controls. The heterozygous and mutant genotypes of VDR TaqI gene were significantly associated with spinal tuberculosis (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] 4.74 [2.45–9.18]) and pulmonary tuberculosis (P < 0.001; OR 3.52 [1.80–6.88]) when compared with controls. The heterozygous and mutant variants of VDR ApaI gene were significantly more common in patients with spinal tuberculosis in comparison with patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (P < 0.001; OR 2.90 [1.65–5.10]) and controls (P < 0.001; OR 6.56 [3.41–12.61]). We did not observe any significantly different results for TLR-2 gene polymorphisms. Vitamin D deficiency, VDR, and TLR-2 polymorphisms did not affect the 6-month disability. Vitamin D deficiency and VDR gene polymorphisms are significantly more prevalent in people with pulmonary and spinal tuberculosis. They may, in isolation or collectively, confer susceptibility to pulmonary and spinal tuberculosis. PMID:27124026

  15. Association of the interleukin-18 receptor 1 and interleukin-18 receptor accessory protein polymorphisms with the risk of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, JINGFENG; LIU, CHAO; TENG, XIAO; YIN, JUN; ZHENG, LIANG; WANG, LIMING; TANG, WEIFENG; GU, HAIYONG; GU, BING; CHEN, LIANG

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated fatalities and the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer. In addition to environmental risk factors, genetic factors may have a significant role in esophageal cancer carcinogenesis. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the genetic effects of functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-18 receptor 1 protein (IL-18R1), IL-18 receptor accessory protein (IL-18RAP) and IL-28B on the development of esophageal cancer. In total, 380 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases and 380 controls were recruited for the present study. The IL-18 rs360719 A>G, IL-18R1 rs13015714 G>T, IL-18RAP rs917997 C>T and IL-28B rs8099917 T>G genotypes were determined. No association was observed between the IL-18R1 rs13015714 G>T, IL-18RAP rs917997 C>T and IL-28B rs8099917 T>G polymorphisms and the risk of ESCC. However, in stratification analyses, a significantly decreased risk of ESCC associated with the IL-18R1 rs13015714 G>T polymorphism and a significantly increased risk of ESCC associated with the IL-18RAP rs917997 C>T polymorphism was evident among male patients and patients who smoked or consumed alcohol. These findings highlighted that functional polymorphisms IL-18R1 rs13015714 G>T and IL-18RAP rs917997 C>T may contribute to ESCC susceptibility among these subgroups. However, the present results were obtained with a limited sample size and further epidemiological studies are warranted to clarify the role of IL-18R1 and IL-18RAP variants in the development of ESCC. PMID:26893844

  16. Large-scale polymorphism discovery in macaque G-protein coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an inordinately large role in human health. Variation in the genes that encode these receptors is associated with numerous disorders across the entire spectrum of disease. GPCRs also represent the single largest class of drug targets and associated pharmacogenetic effects are modulated, in part, by polymorphisms. Recently, non-human primate models have been developed focusing on naturally-occurring, functionally-parallel polymorphisms in candidate genes. This work aims to extend those studies broadly across the roughly 377 non-olfactory GPCRs. Initial efforts include resequencing 44 Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), 20 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques, and 32 cynomolgus macaques (M. fascicularis). Results Using the Agilent target enrichment system, capture baits were designed for GPCRs off the human and rhesus exonic sequence. Using next generation sequencing technologies, nearly 25,000 SNPs were identified in coding sequences including over 14,000 non-synonymous and more than 9,500 synonymous protein-coding SNPs. As expected, regions showing the least evolutionary constraint show greater rates of polymorphism and greater numbers of higher frequency polymorphisms. While the vast majority of these SNPs are singletons, roughly 1,750 non-synonymous and 2,900 synonymous SNPs were found in multiple individuals. Conclusions In all three populations, polymorphism and divergence is highly concentrated in N-terminal and C-terminal domains and the third intracellular loop region of GPCRs, regions critical to ligand-binding and signaling. SNP frequencies in macaques follow a similar pattern of divergence from humans and new polymorphisms in primates have been identified that may parallel those seen in humans, helping to establish better non-human primate models of disease. PMID:24119066

  17. G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-30 gene polymorphisms are associated with uterine leiomyoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk; Edgünlü, Tuba; Duran, Müzeyyen; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor, GPER-1) is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor 1 family and is expressed significantly in uterine leiomyomas. To understand the relationship between GPR30 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the risk of leiomyoma, we measured the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) levels of 78 perimenopausal healthy women and 111 perimenopausal women with leiomyomas. The participants’ leiomyoma number and volume were recorded. DNA was extracted from whole blood with a GeneJET Genomic DNA Purification Kit. An amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction approach was used for genotyping of the GPR30 gene (rs3808350, rs3808351, and rs11544331). The differences in genotype and allele frequencies between the leiomyoma and control groups were calculated using the chi-square (χ2) and Fischer’s exact test. The median FSH level was higher in controls (63 vs. 10 IU/L, p=0.000), whereas the median E2 level was higher in the leiomyoma group (84 vs. 9.1 pg/mL, p=0.000). The G allele of rs3808351 and the GG genotype of both the rs3808350 and rs3808351 polymorphisms and the GGC haplotype increased the risk of developing leiomyoma. There was no significant difference in genotype frequencies or leiomyoma volume. However, the GG genotype of the GPR30 rs3808351 polymorphism and G allele of the GPR30 rs3808351 polymorphism were associated with the risk of having a single leiomyoma. Our results suggest that the presence of the GG genotype of the GPR30 rs3808351 polymorphism and the G allele of the GPR30 rs3808351 polymorphism affect the characteristics and development of leiomyomas in the Turkish population. PMID:26773178

  18. Polymorphism in the melatonin receptor gene in buffalo populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Machado, E B; Souza, B B; Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Gonçalves, E C; Ribeiro, H F L; Rolim Filho, S T; Silva Filho, E

    2016-01-01

    Buffalo farming in Brazil is increasing, as is the challenge of identifying molecular markers that will improve productivity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms of the receptor gene for the hormone melatonin in buffaloes from northern Brazil by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. The PCR products exhibited a cutting point for HpaI at the 318th position of the gene, indicating a transition substitution (T↔C). This substitution was synonymic, and did not alter the stability of the mRNA structure. Allelic and genotypic frequencies differed between the populations studied, and all of the populations demonstrated endogamy and were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Therefore, the HpaI restriction marker in the melatonin receptor gene cannot be used for genetic improvement, but is an excellent marker for population genetic studies. PMID:27173294

  19. New DNA polymorphisms define ethnically distinct haplotypes in the human transferrin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Van Landeghem, G F; Beckman, L E; Sikström, C; Saha, N; Kucinskas, V; Beckman, L

    1998-01-01

    In a study of transferrin receptor (TFR) polymorphism in different ethnic groups using PCR and restriction cleavage we found a new Hin6I polymorphism in intron 7 and confirmed a tentative BanI polymorphism in exon 4 reported by Evans and Kemp [Gene 1997;199:123-131]. In all ethnic groups there was a complete and highly significant (p < 10(-10)) linkage disequilibrium where all BanI 1 alleles were linked to Hin6I 1 alleles. Furthermore in the European populations, but not in the Chinese, there was a close correlation between the three BanI-Hin6I haplotypes and the alleles of a previously described three-allelic RsaI polymorphism in the TFR gene studied by Southern blotting. There were distinct ethnic differences in TFR allele and haplotype frequencies. Thus the Saamis were significantly different from the other European ethnic groups, and the Lithuanians had a significantly increased frequency of the BanI 2-Hin6I 1 haplotype, suggesting that this marker may be informative in tracing prehistoric migrations and admixture by Baltic peoples. The new TFR polymorphisms and haplotypes may also be useful markers in studies of interactions with the transferrin and hemochromatosis genes, the genetic influence on body iron stores and disease associations. PMID:9748693

  20. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis in South Eastern of Iran.

    PubMed

    Narooie-Nejad, Mehrnaz; Moossavi, Maryam; Torkamanzehi, Adam; Moghtaderi, Ali; Salimi, Saeedeh

    2015-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most widespread demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. Environmental and genetic factors are collaborating in triggering MS. The role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and its polymorphisms are highlighted as susceptible components. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-BsmI and FokI-in VDR gene and MS susceptibility in the South Eastern Iranian population. Therefore, 113 MS patients and 122 controls were recruited in the study. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to detect the SNPs. There were no significant differences in the polymorphism of FokI (rs2228570) in VDR gene among patients and controls (P > 0.05), while a significant difference was observed in BsmI (rs1544410) polymorphism in healthy subjects and homozygous genotype-b/b- with MS (P = 0.025). Results showed a protective association of homozygous genotype-b/b- of BsmI with MS susceptibility in a population in South Eastern of Iran. PMID:25854779

  1. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Cdx-2 Polymorphism With Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Ming; Fei, Yu-Lang; Zhang, Wang-Gang; Liu, Jie; Cao, Xing-Mei; Qu, Qiu-Min; Li, Yan-Chun; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) Cdx-2 polymorphism (rs11568820) has been indicated to be associated to cancer susceptibility. However, published studies reported mixed results. This meta-analysis was conducted to get a more accurate estimation of the association between Cdx-2 polymorphism and cancer risk.We identified 25 independent studies with a total of 34,018 subjects published prior to March 2015. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the susceptibility to cancer. Separate analyses were conducted on features of the population such as ethnicity, source of controls, and cancer types.Meta-analysis results showed that Cdx-2 polymorphism significantly increased cancer risk in the homozygous model in overall analysis. According to the further stratified analysis, significant association was found between Cdx-2 variant and cancer risk in American-Africans in the homozygous, recessive, and dominant comparison models. However, no significant associations were found in Caucasians and Asians. When stratified by different cancer types, significant association was observed between Cdx-2 variant and an increased risk of colorectal cancer in the homozygous, recessive, and dominant models. In addition, ovarian cancer susceptibility increased based on the homozygous and dominant comparison models.Our study indicated that VDR Cdx-2 polymorphism was associated with an increased cancer risk, particularly in American-Africans, colorectal, and ovarian cancers. However, other factors may impact on the association. Further multicenter studies are needed to confirm the effects of Cdx-2 polymorphism on cancer susceptibility. PMID:26287424

  2. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms in South African Blacks with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pirie, F J; Pegoraro, R; Motala, A A; Rauff, S; Rom, L; Govender, T; Esterhuizen, T M

    2005-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes is the consequence of exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to specific environmental precipitants. The innate immune system provides the initial response to exogenous antigen and links with the adaptive immune system. The aim of this study was to assess the role of polymorphisms occurring in the cytoplasmic region of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 gene and immediate 5' sequence, in subjects of Zulu descent with type 1 diabetes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Seventy-nine subjects with type 1 diabetes and 74 healthy normal glucose tolerant gender-matched control subjects were studied. Parts of exon 4 and exon 3/intron 3 of the TLR3 gene were studied by polymerase chain reaction, direct sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion with Bts 1. Of the nine polymorphisms studied, a significant association with type 1 diabetes was found for the major allele in the 2593 C/T polymorphism and for the minor alleles in the 2642 C/A and 2690 A/G polymorphisms, which were found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium. Correction of the P-values for the number of alleles studied, however, rendered the results no longer significant. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the TLR3 gene, which is part of the innate immune system, may be associated with type 1 diabetes in this population. PMID:16029432

  3. Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms Relate to Risk of Adenomatous Polyps in a Sex-Specific Manner.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Emma Louise; Le Gras, Kathleen; Martin, Charlotte; Boyd, Lyndell; Ng, Xiaowei; Duesing, Konsta; Yates, Zoe; Veysey, Martin; Lucock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms may influence risk for adenomatous polyps (AP), a benign precursor to colon cancer, via modulation of vitamin D sensitive pathways, including cell proliferation and differentiation. However, results have been mixed and any association remains contentious. Failure to clinically exclude the presence of (AP in control cohorts may contribute to the lack of consensus. Therefore, we assessed the role of the FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI VDR polymorphisms in modifying risk for AP, adjusting for a range of dietary and lifestyle variables. Blood was collected from colonoscopy patients (n = 258) and VDR polymorphisms assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dietary habits were estimated from food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios for AP were calculated by genotype, stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, lifestyle, and dietary factors. FokI was associated with modified risk for AP in males, whereas the BsmI/ApaI/TaqI haplotype was associated with modified risk in females. No interaction was found between VDR variants and vitamin D intake. This study offers novel insight into the potential for VDR genetics to contribute to risk for AP and is the first to demonstrate a sex-specific relationship between these polymorphisms and risk for AP. PMID:26904920

  4. Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Demin; Jing, Lei; Zhang, Suzhan

    2016-05-01

    The objective was to perform a meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence from prospective nested case-control studies on the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer.We searched PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, and reference lists for included articles. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by using fixed-effect or random-effects models.Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were no association between Fok1 gene allele contrast f versus F (OR: 0.859; 95%CI: 0.685-1.079), ff versus FF (OR: 0.893; 95%CI: 0.763-1.045), recessive models ff versus FF+Ff (OR: 0.932; 95%CI: 0.796-1.092), and dominant models ff+Ff versus FF (OR: 0.899; 95%CI: 0.780-1.037). The estimated VDR polymorphism showed no significant association between Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. In the Caucasian ethnic subgroup, no association was found between allele contrast, recessive models, and dominant models on Fok1, Bsm1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk.VDR polymorphism (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, and Apa1) were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in the general population as well as Caucasian population. PMID:27149457

  5. Vitamin D receptor gene ApaI polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shayang; Guo, Lei; Li, Yan; Wang, Shouman

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) principally mediates the anticancer activities of vitamin D. Many studies investigated the association between VDR gene ApaI polymorphism and breast cancer, but the results were inconclusive. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between VDR gene ApaI polymorphism and breast cancer. Twelve studies with a total of 8,254 subjects were identified from PubMed and Wanfang databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the association. The meta-analysis indicated that VDR gene ApaI polymorphism was not associated with risk of breast cancer (a vs. A: OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.91-1.04, P = 0.378; aa vs. AA: OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.10, P = 0.618; aa vs. AA + Aa: OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.12, P = 0.972; aa + Aa vs. AA: OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.82-1.11, P = 0.550). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity further showed that VDR gene ApaI polymorphism was not associated with risk of breast cancer in both Asians and Caucasians. These data from the meta-analysis indicate that VDR gene ApaI polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:24048755

  6. Otitis media associated polymorphisms in the hemin receptor HemR of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    LaCross, Nathan C.; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) colonize the human pharynx asymptomatically, and are also an important cause of otitis media (OM). Previous studies have demonstrated that some genes are more prevalent in OM-causing NTHi strains than in commensal strains, suggesting a role in virulence. These studies, however, are unable to investigate the possible associations between gene polymorphisms and disease. This study examined amino acid polymorphisms and sequence diversity in a potential virulence gene, the hemin receptor hemR, from a previously characterized NTHi strain collection containing both commensal and OM organisms to identify possible associations between the polymorphisms and otitis media. The full open reading frame of hemR was sequenced from a total of 146 NTHi isolates, yielding a total of 47 unique HemR amino acid sequences. The predicted structure of HemR showed substantial similarity to a class of monomeric TonB dependent, ligand-gated channels involved in iron acquisition in other gram negative bacteria. Fifteen amino acid polymorphisms were significantly more prevalent at the 90% confidence level among commensal compared to OM isolates. Upon controlling for the confounding effect of population structure, over half of the polymorphism-otitis media relationships lost statistical significance, emphasizing the importance of assessing the effect of population structure in association studies. The seven polymorphisms that retained significance were dispersed throughout the protein in various functional and structural domains, including the signal peptide, N-terminal plug domain, and intra- and extracellular loops. The alternate amino acid of only one of these seven polymorphisms was more common among OM isolates, demonstrating a strong trend toward the consensus sequence among disease causing NTHi. We hypothesize that variability at these positions in HemR may result in a reduced ability to acquire iron, rendering NTHi with such versions of the gene

  7. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in breast and renal cancer: current state and future approaches (review).

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed I; Bielecka, Zofia F; Najm, Mohammad Z; Bartnik, Ewa; Czarnecki, Jerzy S; Czarnecka, Anna M; Szczylik, Cezary

    2014-02-01

    Cancer is a major health problem and cause of death worldwide that accounted for 7.6 million deaths in 2008, which is projected to continue rising with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030 according to WHO. Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-based death among women around the world and its incidence is increasing annually with a similar tendency. In contrast, renal cell carcinoma accounts for only 3% of total human malignancies but it is still the most common type of urological cancer with a high prevalence in elderly men (>60 years of age). There are several factors linked with the development of renal cell cancer only, while others are connected only with breast cancer. Genetic risk factors and smoking are the factors which contribute to carcinogenesis in general. Some evidence exists indicating that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are associated with both breast and renal cancer; therefore, we put forward the hypothesis that polymorphisms in the VDR gene may influence both the occurrence risks of these cancers and their prognosis. However, the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and these two specific cancers remains a controversial hypothesis, and consequently needs further confirmation via clinical research together with genetic investigations. Here, we aimed to assess the correlation between the different alleles of VDR gene polymorphisms and renal cell cancer and breast cancer risks separately through a systematic review of the present literature. In contrast, this analysis has revealed that some VDR gene polymorphisms, such as: Bsm1, poly(A), Taq1, Apa1, are to some extent associated with breast cancer risk. Other polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with renal cell cancer. Namely, they were Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1 and Apa1, which encode proteins participating mainly in proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. However, data concerning renal cancer are not sufficient to firmly establish the VDR gene

  8. Polymorphism and genetic mapping of the human oxytocin receptor gene on chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Michelini, S.; Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    Centrally administered oxytocin has been reported to facilitate affiliative and social behaviors, in functional harmony with its well-known peripheral effects on uterine contraction and milk ejection. The biological effects of oxytocin could be perturbed by mutations occurring in the sequence of the oxytocin receptor gene, and it would be of interest to establish the position of this gene on the human linkage map. Therefore we identified a polymorphism at the human oxytocin receptor gene. A portion of the 3{prime} untranslated region containing a 30 bp CA repeat was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), revealing a polymorphism with two alleles occurring with frequencies of 0.77 and 0.23 in a sample of Caucasian CEPH parents (n = 70). The CA repeat polymorphism we detected was used to map the human oxytocin receptor to chromosome 3p25-3p26, in a region which contains several important genes, including loci for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and renal cell carcinoma. 53 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Association of leptin receptor gene Gln223Arg polymorphism with susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arkani, Maral; Safaei, Akram; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Fatemi, Seyed Reza; Vafaei, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Aim Leptin is a 16 kDa polypeptide hormone which secreted by adipose tissue and has an important role in energy balance, insulin pathway and inflammation, because of that it may play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Leptin exerts its effect through the leptin receptor (LEPR) a member of the class I cytokine receptor family. Background We have investigated whether glutamine to arginine substitution (Gln223Arg) in exon 6 of the leptin receptor gene, has implications for susceptibility to CRC. Patients and methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme digestion (RFLP) was performed to evaluate the association between the Gln223Arg polymorphism of the LEPR and CRC risk in a case-control study in 346 subjects involving 173 cases with CRC and 173 controls. Results There was no statistically evidence of significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies between the cases with CRC and controls for the Gln223Arg polymorphism of LEPR, before or after adjusting for confounders (age, BMI, sex, and smoking status). Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the CRC cases and controls by BMI, sex and smoking status. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism is not associated with the risk of CRC in Iranian population. PMID:24834182

  10. Severity of eating disorder symptoms related to oxytocin receptor polymorphisms in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Summer F; Valencia, Celeste; Lutter, Michael; McAdams, Carrie J

    2015-08-30

    Oxytocin is a peptide hormone important for social behavior and differences in psychological traits have been associated with variants of the oxytocin receptor gene in healthy people. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) correlated with clinical symptoms in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and healthy comparison (HC) women. Subjects completed clinical assessments and provided DNA for analysis. Subjects were divided into four groups: HC, subjects currently with anorexia nervosa (AN-C), subjects with a history of anorexia nervosa but in long-term weight recovery (AN-WR), and subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN). Five SNPs of the oxytocin receptor were examined. Minor allele carriers showed greater severity in most of the psychiatric symptoms. Importantly, the combination of having had anorexia and carrying either of the A alleles for two SNPS in the OXTR gene (rs53576, rs2254298) was associated with increased severity specifically for ED symptoms including cognitions and behaviors associated both with eating and appearance. A review of psychosocial data related to the OXTR polymorphisms examined is included in the discussion. OXTR polymorphisms may be a useful intermediate endophenotype to consider in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. PMID:26106053

  11. Dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene: Organization transcript variants, and polymorphism associated with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Griffon, N.; Pilon, C.; Martres, M.P.

    1996-02-16

    DNA fragments from a genomic library were used to establish the partial structure of the human dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene (DRD3). Its coding sequence contains 6 exons and stretches over 40,000 base pairs. The complete DRD3 transcript and three shorter variants, in which the second and/or third exon are deleted, were detected in similar proportions in brains from four controls and three psychiatric patients. The Msp I polymorphism was localized in the fifth intron of the gene, 40,000 base pairs downstream the Bal I polymorphism and a PCR-based method was developed for genotyping this polymorphism. The distributions of the Msp I and Bal I genotypes were not independent in 297 individuals ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.5, df = 4, P = 0.03), but only a weak association was found between allele 1 of the Bal I polymorphism and allele 2 of the Msp I polymorphism ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.99, df = 1, P = 0.04). The previously reported association between homozygosity at both alleles of the Bal I polymorphism and schizophrenia was presently maintained in an extended sample, comprising 119 DSM-III-R chronic schizophrenics and 85 controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 5.3, df = 1, P = 0.02) and found more important in males than in females. The presence of the Bal I allele 2 is associated with an early age at onset, particularly in males (df = 35, t value = 2.6, P = 0.014). In the same sample, allelic frequencies, genotype counts, and proportion of homozygotes for the Msp I polymorphism did not differ between schizophrenics and controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 0.06, df = 1, P = 0.80, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.22, df = 1, P = 0.90 and {chi}{sup 2} = 0.16, df = 1, P = 0.69, respectively). The large distance of the Msp I polymorphism from the Bal I polymorphism and its localization in the 3{prime} part of the gene may explain the discrepant results obtained with the two polymorphisms. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. No association between androgen or vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dunning, A M; McBride, S; Gregory, J; Durocher, F; Foster, N A; Healey, C S; Smith, N; Pharoah, P D; Luben, R N; Easton, D F; Ponder, B A

    1999-11-01

    Endogenous hormone exposure is known to alter breast cancer susceptibility and genes responsive to such hormones are plausible candidates for predisposition genes. We have examined polymorphisms in genes for two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily which are expressed in breast tissue and known to moderate rates of cell proliferation in a case-control association study: the androgen receptor (AR) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We have used two series of Caucasian female breast cancer cases, one incident and one prevalent, and compared both with two sets of matched controls from the East Anglian region of Britain. Since the results are similar in the two series we have combined them. The AR poly[Gly](n) and poly[Gln](n) tracts were genotyped in a total of 508 female breast cancer cases and 426 controls. The VDR TaqI polymorphism was analysed in 951 cases and 627 controls drawn from the same population series. There were no significant differences between cases and controls for either the AR or VDR polymorphisms. Compared with individuals with two short alleles (<22 repeats) of the AR poly[Gln](n) tract, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for individuals with one or two long alleles were 0.82 (95% CI 0.62-1.09) and 1.31 (95% CI 0.87-1.97), respectively. Heterozygotes and homozygotes for the VDR TaqI cutting site had odds ratios of 1.01 (95% CI 0.81-1.27) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.71-1.32), respectively. None of the AR or VDR polymorphisms investigated has a major effect on risk of breast cancer in the British population. PMID:10545416

  13. Gene receptor polymorphism as a risk factor for BMD deterioration in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Stergioti, E; Deligeoroglou, E; Economou, E; Tsitsika, A; Dimopoulos, K D; Daponte, A; Katsioulis, A; Creatsas, G

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder that is associated with decreased bone mineral density and greater lifetime risk for fractures. This case-controlled study, analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes encoding vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), collagen type I and calcitonin receptor (CTR). Relationships between genotype and body mass index, cycling status and lumbar spine bone mineral density (LBMD) were determined in 40 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched controls. The distribution of CTR-AluI genotypes differed between groups, but this polymorphism was not associated with LBMD Z-score. Distribution of ESR1-XbaI genotypes did not differ between groups, but the AA genotype was associated with decreased LBMD Z-score (≤-1) (OR = 24.79, 95% CI, 1.01-606.08). Carriers of the A allele were more likely to have decreased LBMD Z-scores compared with carriers of the G allele (OR = 4.12, 95% CI, 1.23-13.85, p = 0.022). In conclusion, our study shows that anorexic patients with wild-type genotype ESR-XbaI receptor are in greater risk for decreased BMD in relation to those with the mutated gene. Prompt recognition of these patients is crucial because early administration of the proper therapeutic treatment may contribute to the prevention of adverse sequelae on bone metabolism. PMID:23772785

  14. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a group of Sicilian multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Agnello, Luisa; Scazzone, C; Ragonese, P; Salemi, G; Lo Sasso, B; Schillaci, R; Musso, G; Bellia, C; Ciaccio, M

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an auto-immune disease whose etiology remains controversial. Both genetic and environmental factors are thought to be involved in the risk of developing the disease. The purpose of our study was to assess the association of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms with MS and to investigate the interaction of these polymorphisms with vitamin D levels. A total of 179 Sicilian subjects, including 104 MS patients and 75 healthy controls, were studied. The most common VDR polymorphisms (Fok-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I and Apa-I) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses in both groups and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined in MS patients by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of the four VDR polymorphisms did not differ significantly between MS patients and healthy controls, and were unrelated to the forms and the course of MS. Low serum levels of 25(OH)D were observed in MS patients but no association was observed between VDR and 25(OH)D levels except for Fok-I. Moreover, MS patients with FF and Ff genotype had a significantly lower serum levels of 25(OH)D compared with ff carriers (P < 0.05 FF vs Ff and Ff vs ff). Our findings showed no association between VDR polymorphisms and risk of MS. Interestingly, F allele could confer a genetic predisposition to lower 25(OH)D levels. PMID:26506927

  15. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with polycystic ovary syndrome among Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Shilpi; Dutta, Joyita; Annamaneni, Sandhya; Kudugunti, Neelaveni; Battini, Mohan Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) regulates vitamin D levels and calcium metabolism in the body and these are known to be associated with endocrine dysfunctions, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Studies on VDR polymorphisms among PCOS women are sparse. We undertook this study to investigate the association pattern of VDR polymorphisms (Cdx2, Fok1, Apa1 and Taq1) with PCOS among Indian women. Methods: For the present study, 250 women with PCOS and 250 normal healthy control women were selected from Hyderabad city, Telangana, India. The four VDR polymorphisms were genotyped and analysed using ASM-PCR (allele specific multiple PCR) and PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). Results: The genotype and allele frequency distributions of only Cdx2 showed significant difference between the PCOS cases and control women, indicating protective role of this SNP against PCOS phenotype. However, significant association was observed between VDR genotypes and some of the PCOS specific clinical/biochemical traits. For example, Fok1 showed a significant genotypic difference for the presence of infertility and Cdx2 genotpes showed association with testosterone levels. Further, the two haplotypes, ACCA and ACTA, were found to be significantly associated with PCOS indicating haplotype specific risk. Interpretation & conclusions: Although VDR polymorphisms have not shown significant association with PCOS, in view of functional significance of the SNPs considered, one cannot yet rule out the possibility of their association with PCOS. Further, specifically designed studies on large cohorts are required to conclusively establish the role of VDR polymorphisms in PCOS, particularly including data on vitamin D levels. PMID:26458343

  16. Human T-cell receptor v{beta} gene polymorphism and multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.; Charmley, P.; Birchfield, R.I.; Concannon, P.

    1995-04-01

    Population-based genetic associations have been reported between RFLPs detected with probes corresponding to the genes encoding the {beta} chain of the T-cell receptor for antigen (RCRB) and a variety of autoimmune disorders. In the case of multiple sclerosis (MS), these studies have localized a putative disease-associated gene to a region of {approximately}110 kb in length, located within the TCRB locus. In the current study, all 14 known TCRBV (variable region) genes within the region of localization were mapped and identified. The nucleotide sequences of these genes were determined in a panel of six MS patients and six healthy controls, who were human-leukocyte antigen and TCRB-RFLP haplotype matched. Nine of the 14 TCRBV genes studied showed evidence of polymorphism. PCR-based assays for each of these polymorphic genes were developed, and allele and genotype frequencies were determined in a panel of DNA samples from 48 MS patients and 60 control individuals. No significant differences in allele, genotype, or phenotype frequencies were observed between the MS patients and controls for any of the 14 TCRBV-gene polymorphisms studied. In light of the extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region studied, the saturating numbers of polymorphisms examined, and the direct sequence analysis of all BV genes in the region, these results suggest that it is unlikely that germ-line polymorphism in the TCRBV locus makes a major contribution to MS susceptibility. The TCRBV coding region-specific markers generated in these studies, as well as the approach of testing for associations with specific functionally relevant polymorphic sites within individual BV genes, should be useful in the evaluation of the many reported disease associations involving the human TCRB region. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Association between vitamin D receptor gene Cdx2 polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhu-Chao; Wang, Jie; Cai, Zi-Hao; Zhang, Qun-hua; Cai, Zhen-Xin; Wu, Jian-Hua

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been reported to influence susceptibility to breast cancer. However, published findings on the association between VDR Cdx2 polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility are conflicting. To get a precise estimation of the association between VDR Cdx2 polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility, we conducted a meta-analysis of four case-control studies with a total of 8,880 subjects (3,841 cases and 5,039 controls). The results showed that VDR Cdx2 polymorphism was not associated with risk of breast cancer (A versus G: OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.84-1.09; AA versus GG: OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.64-1.45; AA/GA versus GG: OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80-1.10; AA versus GG/GA: OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.65-1.51). Subgroup analysis in Caucasians also showed that VDR Cdx2 polymorphism was not associated with risk of breast cancer in Caucasians. However, there was a significant association in Africans (A versus G: OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.94; AA versus GG: OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.99; AA/GA versus GG: OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.57-0.97). Therefore, the association between VDR Cdx2 polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility is only found in Africans. More studies are needed to further assess the association in Asians or Africans. PMID:23821301

  18. Promoter polymorphisms and transcript levels of nicotinic receptor CHRNA5.

    PubMed

    Falvella, Felicia S; Galvan, Antonella; Colombo, Francesca; Frullanti, Elisa; Pastorino, Ugo; Dragani, Tommaso A

    2010-09-01

    Chromosomal locus 15q25, implicated in lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence, shows extensive linkage disequilibrium that complicates identification of causal variation. Cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha5 (CHRNA5) has been identified as a lung cancer risk factor. We identified by sequence analysis three haplotypes (delTTC, insATC, and insTGG) in the 5' promoter region and three at the 3'-untranslated region of CHRNA5. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of the 5' variants showed that the insTGG haplotype is associated with three tightly linked risk alleles (nicotine dependence, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The three CHRNA5 promoter haplotypes were statistically significantly associated with lung CHRNA5 transcript levels, determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In nontumor lung parenchyma from 68 patients who underwent lung lobectomy, the delTTC haplotype was associated with the highest CHRNA5 transcript levels (relative quantification units = 1.82), whereas the insTGG haplotype was associated with the lowest (0.88 units, P(diff) < .001, Welch t test; all statistical tests were two-sided). Luciferase reporter assays in human lung cancer cell lines A549, H460, H520, and H596 also showed that the 5' region haplotypes were statistically significantly associated with changes in CHRNA5 promoter activity, whereas the 3'-untranslated region variants were not. PMID:20733116

  19. Association of a nicotinic receptor gene polymorphism with spontaneous eyeblink rates

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tamami; Kuriyama, Chiho; Himichi, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous eyeblink rates greatly vary among individuals from several blinks to a few dozen blinks per minute. Because dopamine agonists immediately increase the blink rate, individual differences in blink rate are used as a behavioral index of central dopamine functioning. However, an association of the blink rate with polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes has yet not been found. In this study, we demonstrated that a genetic variation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA4 (rs1044396) increased the blink rate while watching a video. A receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the blink rate predicts a genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor gene with a significant discrimination level (0.66, p < 0.004). The present study suggests that differences in sensitivity to acetylcholine because of the genetic variation of the nicotinic receptor are associated with individual differences in spontaneous eye blink rate. PMID:25729002

  20. Impact of gene polymorphisms of gonadotropins and their receptors on human reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary. PMID:26370242

  1. Association of Neurotensin receptor 1 gene polymorphisms with processing speed in healthy Chinese-Han subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Ma, Hui; Huang, Ying-lin; Zhu, Gang; Zhao, Jing-ping

    2014-12-01

    Neurotensin modulates dopamine and serotonin transmission in the brain. The study investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in the Neurotensin receptor 1 gene were associated with performance on processing speed and executive function. A total of 129 healthy Chinese-Han volunteers were recruited. Genotyping for three SNPs, including rs6090453, rs6011914, and rs2427422, was analyzed by using a PCR and a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Performances of processing speed and executive function were assessed by using Trail Making Test-A (TMT-A), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Stroop Color-Word Test. We found significant differences in the outcomes of TMT-A score among rs6090453C/G (F(2,126)=4.405, P=0.014) and rs2427422A/G (F(2,126)=7.498, P=0.001) genotypes. Neurotensin receptor 1 SNP polymorphisms were significantly associated with the variance in processing speed performance in a sample of Chinese college students. PMID:25159184

  2. Leptin receptor expression and Gln223Arg polymorphism as prognostic markers in oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P R S; Maia, L L; Santos, M; Peterle, G T; Alves, L U; Takamori, J T; Souza, R P; Barbosa, W M; Mercante, A M C; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-01-01

    The leptin gene product is released into the blood stream, passes through the blood-brain barrier, and finds the leptin receptor (LEPR) in the central nervous system. This hormone regulates food intake, hematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity, differentiation, and cell proliferation. The LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism has been reported to alter receptor function and expression, both of which have been related with prognostics in several tumor types. Furthermore, several studies have shown a relationship between the Gln223Arg polymorphism and tumor development, and its role in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is now well understood. In this study, 315 DNA samples were used for LEPR Gln223Arg genotyping and 87 primary oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas were used for immunohistochemical expression analysis, such that a relationship between these and tumor development and prognosis could be established. Homozygous LEPR Arg223 was found to be associated with a 2-fold reduction in oral and oropharyngeal cancer risk. In contrast, the presence of the Arg223 allele in tumors was associated with worse disease-free and disease-specific survival. Low LEPR expression was found to be an independent risk factor, increasing the risk for lymph node metastasis 4-fold. In conclusion, the Gln223Arg polymorphism and LEPR expression might be valuable markers for oral and oropharyngeal cancer, suggesting that LEPR might serve as a potential target for future therapies. PMID:26634459

  3. Toll-Like Receptor Polymorphisms, Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases, Allergies, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germ-line-encoded innate immune sensors that recognize conserved microbial structures and host alarmins and signal expression of MHC proteins, costimulatory molecules, and inflammatory mediators by macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and other cell types. These processes activate immediate and early mechanisms of innate host defense, as well as initiate and orchestrate adaptive immune responses. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the TLR genes have been associated with altered susceptibility to infectious, inflammatory, and allergic diseases, and have been found to play a role in tumorigenesis. Critical advances in our understanding of innate immune functions and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered complex interactions of genetic polymorphisms within TLRs and environmental factors. However, conclusions obtained in the course of such analyses are restricted by limited power of many studies that is likely to explain controversial findings. Further, linkages to certain ethnic backgrounds, gender, and the presence of multigenic effects further complicate the interpretations of how the TLR SNPs affect immune responses. For many TLRs, the molecular mechanisms by which SNPs impact receptor functions remain unknown. In this review, I have summarized current knowledge about the TLR polymorphisms, their impact on TLR signaling, and associations with various inflammatory, infectious, allergic diseases and cancers, and discussed the directions of future scientific research. PMID:23675778

  4. A frequent polymorphism in the coding exon of the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene.

    PubMed

    Gadzicki, D; Müller-Vahl, K; Stuhrmann, M

    1999-08-01

    The central cannabinoid receptor (CB1) mediates the pharmacological activities of cannabis, the endogenous agonist anandamide and several synthetic agonists. The cloning of the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene facilitates molecular genetic studies in disorders like Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease or other neuro psychiatric or neurological diseases, which may be predisposed or influenced by mutations or variants in the CNR1 gene. We detected a frequent silent mutation (1359G-->A) in codon 453 (Thr) of the CNR1 gene that turned out to be a common polymorphism in the German population. Allele frequencies of this polymorphism are 0.76 and 0.24, respectively. We developed a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay by artificial creation of a Msp I restriction site in amplified wild-type DNA (G-allele), which is destroyed by the silent mutation (A-allele). The intragenic CNR1 polymorphism 1359(G/A) should be useful for association studies in neuro psychiatric disorders which may be related to anandamide metabolism disturbances. PMID:10441206

  5. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to hypertension: A HuGE review

    PubMed Central

    Mottl, Amy K.; Shoham, David A.; North, Kari E.

    2016-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) plays an integral role in blood pressure control, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Polymorphisms within this gene have been extensively studied in association with hypertension; however, findings are conflicting. To clarify these data, we conducted a systematic review of association studies of AGTR1 polymorphisms and hypertension, and performed a meta-analysis of the rs5186 variant. Results show that the currently available literature is too heterogeneous to draw meaningful conclusions. The definition of hypertension and gender composition of individual studies helps to explain this heterogeneity. Although the structure and splicing pattern of AGTR1 would suggest a likely effect of polymorphisms within the promoter region on gene function, few studies have been conducted thus far. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence that polymorphisms in the AGTR1 gene are risk factors for hypertension. However, most studies are inadequately powered, and larger well-designed studies of haplotypes are warranted. PMID:18641512

  6. Brain structural and clinical changes after first episode psychosis: Focus on cannabinoid receptor 1 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pinilla, Paula; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Ortiz-García de la Foz, Víctor; Guest, Paul C; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2015-08-30

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene polymorphisms have been associated with central and peripheral effects of cannabis and schizophrenia pathophysiology. Here, we have tested whether three CNR1 variants (rs1049353, rs1535255 and rs2023239) are associated with changes in brain volumes, body mass index (BMI) or psychopathological scores in a 3-year longitudinal study of 65 first-episode psychosis patients. The rs1049353 at-risk allele was significantly associated with a greater reduction of caudate volume, and the rs2023239 T/C polymorphism showed a significant decrease in thalamic volume after the 3-year period. For those who were not cannabis users, the rs1535255 and rs2023239 polymorphisms had effects in lateral ventricle (LV), and LV and white matter, respectively. The rs2023239 variant also was associated with significant improvements in positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. There was no significant effect of any of the variants on changes in BMI over the 3-year study. Finally, an interaction between all three polymorphisms was found involving evolution of positive symptoms. These findings suggest that the cannabinoid pathway is associated with schizophrenia evolution over time. However, further studies using larger cohorts are needed to confirm these results. If confirmed, the present findings could lead in subsequent investigations for identification of novel drug targets for improved treatment of patients suffering from schizophrenia. PMID:26071625

  7. Association between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and haplotypes with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    SALIMI, SAEEDEH; FARAJIAN-MASHHADI, FARZANEH; ALAVI-NAINI, ROYA; TALEBIAN, GOLBARG; NAROOIE-NEJAD, MEHRNAZ

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is an important factor in activating immune response in different infectious diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the VDR gene polymorphisms and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The case control study was performed on 120 PTB patients and 131 healthy controls. Genetic analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction and the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The VDR Fok1 Ff genotype was associated with TB and the risk of PTB was two times higher in individuals with the Ff genotype. A higher frequency of f allele was observed in PTB patients and therefore, the f allele may be a risk factor for PTB susceptibility. There were no associations between the Taq1 and Bsm1 polymorphisms and PTB. In addition, haplotype analysis showed that the f-T-B and f-t-b haplotypes (Fok1, Taq1 and Bsm1) may have the potential to increase PTB susceptibility. In conclusion, the Ff genotype and f allele of the VDR Fok1 polymorphism were associated with PTB susceptibility. In addition, the f-T-B and f-t-b haplotypes may be the susceptible haplotypes for PTB. PMID:26075071

  8. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injuries in professional football players

    PubMed Central

    MASSIDDA, MYOSOTIS; CORRIAS, LAURA; BACHIS, VALERIA; CUGIA, PAOLO; PIRAS, FRANCESCO; SCORCU, MARCO; CALÒ, CARLA M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and musculoskeletal injury (MI) in elite football players. In total, 54 male professional football players were recruited from an official Italian professional championship team between 2009 and 2013. The cohort was genotyped for the ApaI, BsmI and FokI polymorphisms and MI data were collected over four football seasons. No significant differences were identified among the genotypes in the incidence rates or severity of MI (P=0.254). In addition, no significant associations were observed between VDR polymorphisms and MI phenotypes (P=0.460). However, the results of the casewise multiple regression analysis indicated that the ApaI genotypes accounted for 18% of injury severity (P=0.002). Therefore, while the BsmI and FokI polymorphisms did not appear to be associated with the severity or incidence of MI, the ApaI genotypes may have influenced the severity of muscle injury in top-level football players. PMID:26161149

  9. Approaches to evaluating the association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Guy, Michelle; Lowe, Lorraine C; Bretherton-Watt, Deborah; Mansi, Janine L; Colston, Kay W

    2003-01-01

    The steroid hormone 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 is thought to protect against breast cancer. Its actions are mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and a number of polymorphisms in the VDR gene have been identified, some of which may alter susceptibility to breast cancer. This study has investigated whether specific VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population. Female breast cancer patients (n = 313) and control women with a negative screening mammogram (n = 410) were recruited and their VDR polymorphisms were determined. The 3' VDR polymorphism BsmI was significantly associated with breast cancer risk; odds ratio bb vs. BB genotype = 1.79 (95% CI, 1.12-2.86; P = 0.0221). In addition, over 70% of seven commonly used breast cancer cell lines were found to have the at-risk genotype bb. The 5' FokI gene variant was not associated with breast cancer risk. Further investigations into how these different genotypes may affect the functional mechanisms of the VDR will provide a better strategy for identifying women at risk of breast cancer and for developing improved treatments. PMID:12899513

  10. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsalam, Eman Abd-Elkader; Ismaeil, Nadia A; Abd-Alsalam, Hoda Sibai

    2015-08-01

    Many studies reported that vitamin D can protect against various types of cancers. The mechanism of vitamin D action is mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR may have anti-stress function because it has been identified as p53 direct target gene. This research was designed to investigate the role of VDR polymorphisms BsmI (rs 1544410), ApaI (rs 7975232), TaqI (rs 731236), and FokI (rs 10735810) in pathogenesis of breast cancer using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The study included 130 postmenopausal breast cancer cases aged 49 to 65 years and 100 controls aged 50 to 72 years. A significantly increased risk of breast cancer among carriers of BsmI bb genotype was observed (OR = 2.5 (1.1-5.6), P = 0.025). Also, a significantly increased risk of breast cancer was detected among women carrying ApaI aa genotype (OR = 2.2 (1.02-4.5), P = 0.04), while no significant associations were observed between breast cancer risk and genotypes and allele frequencies of FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (P > 0.05). Our study showed that VDR gene polymorphisms (BsmI and ApaI) may contribute to breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:25804799

  11. Toll-like Receptor Polymorphisms Are Associated with Increased Neurosyphilis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Christina M.; Sahi, Sharon K.; Tantalo, Lauren C.; Ho, Emily L.; Dunaway, Shelia B.; Jones, Trudy; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, and 6 impair cell signaling in response to spirochetal lipoproteins. We investigated whether common SNPs in TLR1, 2, or 6 were associated with laboratory- or clinically-defined neurosyphilis. Methods Polymorphisms in the genes for TLR1 (a T->G mutation at position 1805), TLR2 (a G->A mutation at position 2258), and TLR6 (a C->T mutation at position 745) were sought in 456 Caucasian patients with syphilis. Laboratory-defined neurosyphilis included a reactive CSF-Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test. Clinically-defined neurosyphilis included new vision or hearing loss. Controls had CSF white blood cells ≤5/ul, nonreactive CSF-VDRL, and no vision or hearing loss. Results Overall, 26.2% of patients had laboratory-defined and 36.2% had clinically-defined neurosyphilis. Compared to controls, patients with any of the 3 SNPs were more likely to have laboratory-defined neurosyphilis. Those with TLR2 or TLR6 SNPs were more likely to have clinically-defined neurosyphilis. These associations were independent of serum rapid plasma reagin titer. Conclusions A common TLR1 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of laboratory-defined neurosyphilis and common TLR2 and TLR6 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of both laboratory- and clinically-defined neurosyphilis. These data suggest that host factors impact the natural history of syphilis. PMID:24922103

  12. Lack of Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Alexithymia: Evidence from Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Min Jung; Kim, Wonji; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain regions, which involve social-emotional processing. Therefore, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual differences in alexithymia, which is considered to be a dysfunction of emotional processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recruited 355 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (234 men, 121 women). Alexithymia was measured by using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We performed single-marker and haplotype association analyses with eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs237885, rs237887, rs2268490, rs4686301, rs2254298, rs13316193, rs53576, and rs2268498) in the oxytocin receptor gene. There were no significant associations between any of the eight single nucleotide polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene and alexithymia. In addition, a six-locus haplotype block (rs237885-rs237887-rs2268490-rs4686301-rs2254298-rs13316193) was not significantly associated with alexithymia. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the oxytocin receptor gene may not explain a significant part of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:26599592

  13. No allelic association between Parkinson`s disease and dopamine D2, D3, and D4 receptor gene polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nanko, S.; Hattori, M.; Dai, X.Y.

    1994-12-15

    Parkinson`s disease is thought to be caused by a combination of unknown environmental, genetic, and degenerative factors. Evidence from necropsy brain samples and pharmacokinetics suggests involvement of dopamine receptors in the pathogenesis or pathophysiology of Parkinson`s disease. Genetic association studies between Parkinson`s disease and dopamine D2, D3 and D4 receptor gene polymorphisms were conducted. The polymorphism was examined in 71 patients with Parkinson`s disease and 90 controls. There were no significant differences between two groups in allele frequencies at the D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptor loci. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that susceptibility to Parkinson`s disease is associated with the dopamine receptor polymorphisms examined. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. No evidence of association between structural polymorphism at the dopamine D3 receptor locus and alcoholism in the Japanese

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Susumu; Muramatsu, Taro; Matsushita, Sachio; Murayama, Masanobu

    1996-07-26

    Dopaminergic systems mediate reward mechanisms and are involved in reinforcing self-administration of dependence-forming substances, including alcohol. Studies have reported that polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor, whose structure and function are similar to those of the dopamine D3 receptor, increase the susceptibility to alcoholism. The observations led to the examination of the possible association between a structural polymorphism of the D3 receptor gene and alcoholism. Genotyping results, employing a PCR-RFLP method, showed no difference in allele and genotype frequencies of the D3 BalI polymorphism (Ser{sup 9}/Gly{sup 9}) between Japanese alcoholics and controls. Moreover, these frequencies were not altered in alcoholics with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), a well-defined negative risk factor for alcoholism. These results strongly suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is not associated with alcoholism. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR1) Gene Polymorphisms in Pre-eclamptic Saudi Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A.; Tawfeek, Manal A.; Al-Azhary, Nevin M.; Mariah, Reham A.; Habib, Fawzia A.; Aljayar, Lamya; Alahmadi, Abrar F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Pre-eclampsia causes maternal mortality worldwide. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms were responsible for cardiovascular diseases. This case control study was conducted to investigate whether 2 polymorphic genes of ESR1 are associated with pre-eclampsia among Saudi women in Madina city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Blood samples from 97 pre-eclamptic and 94 healthy pregnant women were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction method. All the subjects were recruited randomly from outpatient clinics of Madina Maternity Children Hospital (MMCH), Madina, Saudi Arabia, between Dec. 2012 and Jan. 2014. Results: There was no association between pre-eclampsia and PvuII and XbaI ESR1 gene polymorphisms individually. TT/AA and TT/AG genotype combination existed significantly in pre-eclamptic patients compared to control. The frequency of PvuII and XbaI combined TT/AA genotypes between pre-eclamptic women was 36.1% vs 9.6%, however, frequency of PvuII and XbaI combined TT/AG genotypes between pre-eclamptic women was 3.1% vs 17%, compared to control. The homozygous T-A haplotype carriers showed high pre-eclampsia risk, independent of pregnancy, BMI and smoking status (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.71-9.21). The heterozygous T-A haplotype carriers did not differ from that of non-carriers (adjusted OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.47-2.75). No association was observed between pre-eclampsia and T-G, C-G and C-A haplotype of PvuII and XbaIESR1 gene polymorphisms. Conclusions: T-A haplotype of homozygous associated with pre eclampsia not heterozygous carriers of ESR 1 PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms elicited high risk of pre-eclampsia. GG genotype of XbaI polymorphism decreased pre-eclampsia risk. Further studies using larger sample size are recommended to investigate the ESR 1 gene polymorphisms associated with pre-eclampsia. PMID:26430422

  16. No Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Experimentally Elicited Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Coren L.; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Dawes, Christopher T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wallace, Björn; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Westberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in a suite of complex social behaviors including observed choices in economic laboratory experiments. However, actual studies of associations between oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants and experimentally elicited social preferences are rare. Methodology/Principal Findings We test hypotheses of associations between social preferences, as measured by behavior in two economic games, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OXTR gene in a sample of Swedish twins (n = 684). Two standard economic games, the dictator game and the trust game, both involving real monetary consequences, were used to elicit such preferences. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, we found no significant associations between any of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and behavior in either of the games. Conclusion We were unable to replicate the most significant association reported in previous research between the amount donated in a dictator game and an OXTR genetic variant. PMID:20585395

  17. Association study between schizophrenia and dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Makoto; Maeda, Masaya

    1996-07-26

    Crocq et al. reported the existence of an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity of a BalI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. In response to this report, further studies were conducted; however, these studies yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we examined 100 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 100 normal controls to determine any association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. Results suggest that neither allele nor genotype frequencies of the DRD3 gene in the schizophrenics as a whole are significantly different from those of the controls. Further, we found no association between any allele or genotype and any clinical subtype based on family history of schizophrenia and age-at-onset. A significantly high frequency of homozygosity of a dopamine D3 receptor gene allele was not observed in the schizophrenics as a whole, or in clinical subtypes. Our results suggest that an association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Association of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4 genes polymorphisms with periapical pathosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Ülkü; Ocak, Zeynep; Özan, Fatih; Oktay, Elif-Aybala; Şahman, Halil; Yikilgan, İhsan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Er, Kürşat

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gene variations of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 3, and 4 on genetic susceptibility to periapical pathosis. Material and Methods One hundred patients were included in the study and divided into two groups as follows; Control Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and no periapical lesion, Patient Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and periapical lesion. TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 (c.1377C/T) and TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP. Genotypical analysis of control and patient groups were investigated to disclose whether there is any association between periapical lesions and gene variations. Results There are no significant statistical differences between control and patient groups according to TLR 2 and 4 gene sequence. On the contrary, CC allele detected 74% for TLR 3 in patient group, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.005). Conclusions According to these results, it can be suggested that patients with Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms could be susceptible to periapical pathosis. Key words:Toll-like receptors, periapical pathosis, endodontics. PMID:27031066

  19. The Effect of Some Polymorphisms in Vitamin D Receptor Gene in Menopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D receptor gene is one of candidate genes related to osteoporosis expansion. The association of ApaI, TaqI, BsmI polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor gene with bone metabolism and density has been area of interest in many studies. Aim This study was conducted to further investigate the association between the ApaI, TaqI, BsmI polymorphisms and bone density. This study was analytical study. Centers for bone density measurement in southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods In this analytical study, 200 participants aged 45- and above 45-year-old women referring the centers of bone density measurement participated. The bone density of femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Based on t-score, the participants were assigned into patients (n=130) and healthy individuals (n=70). Different genotypes of ApaI (AA/Aa/aa), TaqI (TT/Tt/tt), and BsmI (BB/Bb/bb) were determined by PCR-RFLP. The data on bone density and PCR-RFLP were analysed by chi-square and ANOVA. Also, triad combination of the genotypes was statistically analysed. For each genotype combination, chi-square was run between the patients and control group and p-value was calculated. Results No significant association was seen between ApaI polymorphism and bone density (p>0.05). TaqI and BsmI polymorphisms had a significant association with femoral neck’s bone density (p<0.05), but these polymorphisms were not significantly associated with lumbar vertebrae’s (p>0.05). Patients with homozygous dominant TT genotype had the least bone density in femoral neck compared to other genotypes. Lumbar vertebrae’s bone density was similar in three TaqI genotypes. The patients with homozygous recessive bb genotype had the least bone density in femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae compared to other genotypes. Conclusion TaqI and BsmI polymorphisms could be desirable markers in diagnosis of women at risk of osteoporosis in the studied region in Iran

  20. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease in a Korean population: Revisited.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seo Young; Park, Suyeon; Oh, Eungseok; Park, Jinse; Youn, Jinyoung; Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, Jeong-Uk; Jang, Wooyoung

    2016-08-15

    Recently, the effect of genetic variants in the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Parkinson's disease (PD) has gained interest. However, the precise relationship between VDR polymorphisms and PD remains unclear. In Korea, one study reported an association between VDR gene polymorphisms and PD. However, this study was conducted with a small sample size, and only the Bsml locus was evaluated. Therefore, further investigations about the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and PD are necessary in a Korean population. A total of 300 subjects were included in this study. One hundred and forty-six PD patients were diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank (UKPDBB) criteria with abnormal dopamine transporter imaging, and 154 healthy control subjects were also enrolled. We used a TaqMan genotyping assay to identify four SNPs of the VDR gene, including BsmI, FokI, ApaI, and TaqI (rs731236, rs2228570, rs7976091, and rs731236). A significant association was not noted between the risk of PD and genetic polymorphisms in the four loci in a Korean population. However, when the genetic variants of the VDR gene were analyzed after adjusting for the serum 25-OH vitamin D3 level, the TaqI and BsmI minor allele increased the risk of PD. Our data suggest no correlation between PD and the VDR polymorphisms, including BsmI, FokI, ApaI, and TaqI, in a Korean population; however, the results should be interpreted carefully because gene-environment interactions may exist. Further investigations of the VDR and its relationship with PD are required to identify the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:27345382

  1. Prevalence of common vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in HIV-infected and uninfected South Africans

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Lynne; Takuva, Simbarashe; Chirwa, Tobias; MacPhail, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Host genetic factors may a play role in susceptibility to infection. Vitamin-D is an immunomodulator that may play a role in HIV infection. Vitamin-D action is mediated by the vitamin-D receptor. We establish prevalence of ApaI, BsmI, FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (VDRPs) amongst a black southern African HIV+ve population and investigate polymorphic differences between HIV+ve and -ve people. Methods: Seventy-nine sex and age-group matched HIV+ve patients of African origin initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 79 HIV-ve participants, also of African origin, were recruited from a public sector HIV testing and treatment clinic and investigated for the 4 polymorphisms. The genotype frequencies were compared, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the association of HIV status and each genotype were calculated. Both dominant, co-dominant, recessive and allele models were tested. Results: We found no evidence of difference in distribution and association between HIV infection and the genotypes of the BsmI, FokI and TaqI VDR polymorphisms. The genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for these genotypes. The ApaI genotype showed differences in distribution by HIV status in the dominant and co-dominant models. However this finding is cautiously stated as the ApaI genotype violated the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and frequency of the minor variant was unexpectedly low in this population. Conclusion: We do not show convincing differences in distribution of the VDR genotypes among HIV+ve and HIV-ve black southern African persons. Future studies need to be replicated in larger study populations as understanding polymorphic differences and similarities may offer insights into the different susceptibility and progression of HIV in southern African populations. PMID:27186331

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 Polymorphism Is Associated with Liver Cirrhosis in Hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Ming-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Chiang, Whei-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Lee, Liang-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) polymorphisms are positively correlated with tumor progression in numerous malignant tumors. However, the association between FGFR4 genetic variants and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been determined. In this study, we investigated the potential associations of FGFR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with HCC susceptibility and its clinicopathological characteristics. Methodology/Principal Findings Four SNPs in FGFR4 (rs1966265, rs351855, rs2011077, and rs7708357) were analyzed among 884 participants, including 595 controls and 289 patients with HCC. The samples were further analyzed to clarify the associations between these gene polymorphisms and the risk of HCC, and the impact of these SNPs on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of HCC. After adjusting for other covariants, HCC patients who carrying at least one A genotype (GA and AA) at rs351855 were observed to have a higher risk of liver cirrhosis compared with those carrying the wild-type genotype (GG) (OR: 2.113, 95% CI: 1.188–3.831). Moreover, the patients with at least one A genotype were particularly showed a high level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Conclusions Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphism in FGFR4 rs351855 may be associated with the risk of HCC coupled with liver cirrhosis and may markedly increase the AFP level in Taiwanese patients with HCC. In addition, this is the first study that evaluated the risk factors associated with FGFR4 polymorphism variants in Taiwanese patients with HCC. PMID:25860955

  3. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer in a Saudi Arabian Population

    PubMed Central

    Alkhayal, Khayal A.; Awadalia, Zainab H.; Vaali-Mohammed, Mansoor-Ali; Al Obeed, Omar A.; Al Wesaimer, Alanoud; Halwani, Rabih; Zubaidi, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D, causally implicated in bone diseases and human malignancies, exerts its effects through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor modulating the expression of several genes in different pathways. Genetic variants in the VDR gene have been associated with several cancers in different population including colorectal cancer. Objective To assess the association of VDR gene polymorphisms in relation with colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Saudi population. Methods The polymorphisms of VDR gene (BsmI, FokI, ApaI and TaqI) were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction amplification of segments of interest followed by Sanger sequencing. One hundred diagnosed CRC patients and 100 healthy control subjects that were age and gender matched were recruited. Results We did not observe significant association of any of the four VDR polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk in the overall analysis. Although not statistically significant, the AA genotype of BsmI conferred about two-fold protection against CRCs compared to the GG genotype. Stratification of the study subjects based on age and gender suggests statistically significant association of CRC with the ‘C’ allele of ApaI in patients >57 years of age at disease diagnosis and BsmI polymorphism in females. In addition, statistically significant differences were observed for the genotypic distributions of VDR-BsmI, ApaI and TaqI SNPs between Saudi Arabian population and several of the International HapMap project populations. Conclusion Despite the absence of correlation of the examined VDR polymorphisms with CRCs in the combined analysis, ApaI and BsmI loci are statistically significantly associated with CRC in elderly and female patients, respectively. These findings need further validation in larger cohorts prior to utilizing these SNPs as potential screening markers for colorectal cancers in Saudi population. PMID:27309378

  4. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system. PMID:24454713

  5. Association of androgen receptor GGN repeat length polymorphism and male infertility in Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Mohamad; Khatami, Saied Reza; Galehdari, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Androgens play critical role in secondary sexual and male gonads differentiations such as spermatogenesis, via androgen receptor. The human androgen receptor (AR) encoding gene contains two regions with three nucleotide polymorphic repeats (CAG and GGN) in the first exon. Unlike the CAG repeats, the GGN has been less studied because of technical difficulties, so the functional role of these polymorphic repeats is still unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate any relationship between GGN repeat length in the first exon of AR gene and idiopathic male infertility in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: This is the first study on GGN repeat of AR gene in infertile male in Khuzestan, Iran. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to categorize GGN repeat lengths in 72 infertile and 72 fertile men. Afterwards we sequenced the PCR products to determine the exact length of GGN repeat in each category. Our samples included 36 azoospermic and 36 oligozoospermic men as cases and 72 fertile men as control group. Results: We found that the numbers of repeats in the cases range from 18 to 25, while in the controls this range is from 20 to 28. The results showed a significant relation between the length of GGN repeat and fertility (p=0.015). The most frequent alleles were alleles with 24 and 25 repeats respectively in case and control groups. On the other hand no significant differences were found between Arab and non-Arab cases by considering GGN repeat lengths (p=0.234). Conclusion: Due to our results, there is a significant association between the presence of allele with 24 repeats and susceptibility to male infertility. Therefore this polymorphism should be considered in future studies to clarify etiology of disorders related to androgen receptor activity. PMID:26221130

  6. Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Human Directed Social Behavior in Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Ádám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (−212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5′ and 3′ UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3′ and 5′ UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene–behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system. PMID:24454713

  7. Association between GABA(A) receptor subunit polymorphisms and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Sesarini, Carla V; Costa, Lucas; Grañana, Nora; Coto, Miguel Garcia; Pallia, Roberto C; Argibay, Pablo F

    2015-09-30

    ASD might be associated with alterations in excitation/inhibition ratio and GABA(A) has been implicated since it mediates synaptic inhibition. Polymorphisms in GABA receptor (GABAR) were studied: significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies observed between cases and controls (rs1912960, GABRA4). Haplotype analysis: rs1912960 (GABRA4) and rs211037 (GABRG2) overrepresented in cases. Rs1912960 has been associated with ASD and rs211037 with epilepsy. GABRA4 is associated with autism in the Argentinean dataset independently or in combination with GABRG2. PMID:26239769

  8. Nur-related receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ya-Ming; Du, Yan-Lei; Nie, Yu-Qiang; Li, Yu-Yuan; Wan, Yu-Jui

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of polymorphisms of nur-related receptor 1 (Nurr1) and development of alcohol dependence in Mexican Americans. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 374 alcoholic and 346 nonalcoholic Mexican Americans; these two groups were sex- and age-matched. Sample DNA was extracted and genomic DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The -2922(C) 2-3 polymerase chain reaction products were digested with Sau96I, alleles of 1345(G/C), and -1198(C/G) in the regulatory region as well as Ex+132 (G/T/A/C) and Ex+715(T/-) in exon 3 were studied by sequencing. RESULTS: The C2/C2, C2/C3, C3/C3 genotype distribution of -2922(C) 2-3 was 34.4%, 38.2% and 27.5% in the nonalcoholic group compared to 23.3%, 51.2% and 25.4% in the alcoholic group (P = 0.001). The C/C, C/G, G/G genotype distribution of -1198(C/G) was 23.5%, 46.1% and 30.3% in the nonalcoholic group compared to 13.9%, 50.9% and 35.3% in the alcoholic group (P = 0.007). However, the -1345 (G/C), Ex3+132(G/T/A/C) and Ex3+715(T/-) alleles were not polymorphic in Mexican Americans, and all those studied had G/G, G/G and T/T genotype for these three alleles, respectively. The -2922(C) 2-3 did not show allele level difference between alcoholic and nonalcoholic individuals, but -1198 (C/G) showed a significant allele frequency difference between alcoholic (39.3%) and nonalcoholic (46.6%) populations (P = 0.005). Excluding obese individuals, significant differences were found at both genotypic and allelic levels for the -2922(C) 2-3 polymorphism (P = 0.000 and P = 0.049) and the -1198 (C/G) polymorphism (P = 0.008 and P = 0.032) between nonobese alcoholics and nonobese controls. Excluding smokers, a significant difference was found only at the genotypic level for the -2922(C) 2-3 polymorphism (P = 0.037) between nonsmoking alcoholics and nonsmoking controls, but only at the allelic level for the -1198(C/G) polymorphism (P = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms in the regulatory

  9. Genetic polymorphism of toll-like receptors 4 gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms, polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism to correlate with mastitic cows

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja H.; Patel, Nirmal A.; Rank, D. N.; Joshi, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An attempt has been made to study the toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) gene polymorphism from cattle DNA to correlate with mastitis cows. Materials and Methods: In present investigation, two fragments of TLR4 gene named T4CRBR1 and T4CRBR2 of a 316 bp and 382 bp were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively from Kankrej (22) and Triple cross (24) cattle. The genetic polymorphisms in the two populations were detected by a single-strand conformational polymorphism in the first locus and by digesting the fragments with restriction endonuclease Alu I in the second one. Results: Results showed that both alleles (A and B) of two loci were found in all the two populations and the value of polymorphism information content indicated that these were highly polymorphic. Statistical results of χ2 test indicated that two polymorphism sites in the two populations fit with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the effect of polymorphism of TLR4 gene on the somatic cell score (SCS) indicated the cattle with allele a in T4CRBR1 showed lower SCS than that of allele B (p<0.05). Thus, the allele A might play an important role in mastitis resistance in cows. Conclusion: The relationship between the bovine mastitis trait and the polymorphism of TLR4 gene indicated that the bovine TLR4 gene may play an important role in mastitis resistance. PMID:27047144

  10. Association between polymorphisms of prokineticin receptor (PKR1 rs4627609 and PKR2 rs6053283) and recurrent pregnancy loss*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yun-lei; Zhang, Zhao-feng; Wang, Jian; Miao, Mao-hua; Xu, Jian-hua; Shen, Yue-ping; Chen, Ai-min; Du, Jing; Yuan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a condition with complex etiologies, to which both genetic and environmental factors may contribute. During the last decade, studies indicated that the expression patterns of the prokineticin receptor (PKR1 and PKR2) are closely related to early pregnancy. However, there are few studies on the role of PKR1 and PKR2 in RPL. In this study, we purpose to investigate the association between polymorphisms of the prokineticin receptor (PKR1 rs4627609 and PKR2 rs6053283) and RPL on a group of 93 RPL cases and 169 healthy controls. Genotyping of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using a Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX system. The results revealed a significant association between PKR2 rs6053283 polymorphism and RPL (P=0.003), whereas no association was observed between PKR1 rs4627609 polymorphism and RPL (P=0.929) in the Chinese Han population. PMID:26984842

  11. Association between polymorphisms of prokineticin receptor (PKR1 rs4627609 and PKR2 rs6053283) and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yun-Lei; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Wang, Jian; Miao, Mao-Hua; Xu, Jian-Hua; Shen, Yue-Ping; Chen, Ai-Min; Du, Jing; Yuan, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a condition with complex etiologies, to which both genetic and environmental factors may contribute. During the last decade, studies indicated that the expression patterns of the prokineticin receptor (PKR1 and PKR2) are closely related to early pregnancy. However, there are few studies on the role of PKR1 and PKR2 in RPL. In this study, we purpose to investigate the association between polymorphisms of the prokineticin receptor (PKR1 rs4627609 and PKR2 rs6053283) and RPL on a group of 93 RPL cases and 169 healthy controls. Genotyping of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using a Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX system. The results revealed a significant association between PKR2 rs6053283 polymorphism and RPL (P=0.003), whereas no association was observed between PKR1 rs4627609 polymorphism and RPL (P=0.929) in the Chinese Han population. PMID:26984842

  12. Human GluR6 kainate receptor (GRIK2): Molecular cloning, expression, polymorphism, and chromosomal assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Paschen, W.; Blackstone, C.D.; Huganir, R.L. ); Ross, C.A. Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological Research, Koeln )

    1994-04-01

    Glutamate receptors mediate the majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, and molecular cloning studies have revealed several distinct families. Because neuropathological states and possibly human disorders may involve kainate-preferring glutamate receptors, the authors have isolated a cDNA clone for the human GluR6 kainate-preferring receptor. This clone shows a very high sequence similarity with that of the rat, except for a part of the 3[prime] untranslated region in which there is a TAA triplet repeat. When the protein was overexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, it had a molecular weight, an antibody recognition, and a glutamate ligand-binding profile similar to those of the rate GluR6 receptor. Northern analysis showed expression in both human cerebral and cerebellar cortices. By PCR analysis of rodent-human monochromosomal cell lines, the human GluR6 could be assigned to chromosome 6. The length of the TAA triplet repeat was polymorphic in the normal population, with at least four alleles and an observed heterozygosity of about 45%. These studies should provide the basis for expression or linkage studies of the GluR6 kainate receptor in human disease or neuropathologic states. 53 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with prognostic features of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is differently expressed in breast cancer, and its presence may favor cancer progression. We hypothesized that two EGFR functional polymorphisms, a (CA)n repeat in intron 1, and a single nucleotide polymorphism, R497K, may affect EGFR expression and breast cancer clinical profile. Methods The study population consisted of 508 Brazilian women with unilateral breast cancer, and no distant metastases. Patients were genotyped for the (CA)n and R497K polymorphisms, and the associations between (CA)n polymorphism and EGFR transcript levels (n = 129), or between either polymorphism and histopathological features (n = 505) were evaluated. The REMARK criteria of tumor marker evaluation were followed. Results (CA)n lengths ranged from 14 to 24 repeats, comprehending 11 alleles and 37 genotypes. The most frequent allele was (CA)16 (0.43; 95% CI = 0.40–0.46), which was set as the cut-off length to define the Short allele. Variant (CA)n genotypes had no significant effect in tumoral EGFR mRNA levels, but patients with two (CA)n Long alleles showed lower chances of being negative for progesterone receptor (ORadjusted = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.19–0.91). The evaluation of R497K polymorphism indicated a frequency of 0.21 (95% CI = 0.19 – 0.24) for the variant (Lys) allele. Patients with variant R497K genotypes presented lower proportion of worse lymph node status (pN2 or pN3) when compared to the reference genotype Arg/Arg (ORadjusted = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.17–0.59), which resulted in lower tumor staging (ORadjusted = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.19-0.63), and lower estimated recurrence risk (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.81). The combined presence of both EGFR polymorphisms (Lys allele of R497K and Long/Long (CA)n) resulted in lower TNM status (ORadjusted = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.07-0.75) and lower ERR (OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.09-0.71). When tumors were stratified according to biological

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors and susceptibility to infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Skevaki, C; Pararas, M; Kostelidou, K; Tsakris, A; Routsias, J G

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best-studied family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), whose task is to rapidly recognize evolutionarily conserved structures on the invading microorganisms. Through binding to these patterns, TLRs trigger a number of proinflammatory and anti-microbial responses, playing a key role in the first line of defence against the pathogens also promoting adaptive immunity responses. Growing amounts of data suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the various human TLR proteins are associated with altered susceptibility to infection. This review summarizes the role of TLRs in innate immunity, their ligands and signalling and focuses on the TLR SNPs which have been linked to infectious disease susceptibility. PMID:25560985

  15. A polymorphism in the nuclear receptor coactivator 7 gene and breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Süllner, Julia; Lattrich, Claus; Häring, Julia; Görse, Regina; Ortmann, Olaf; Treeck, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (NCoA7) gene codes for an estrogen receptor-associated protein that plays a significant role in the cellular response to estrogens. Given that NCoA7 is expressed in the mammary gland, alterations in this gene may affect breast cancer risk. In this study, we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1567, located in the coding region of the NCoA7 gene and resulting in an amino acid exchange from asparagine to glutamine, in 305 women with sporadic breast cancer and 346 women without any malignancy. Statistical analysis of the observed frequencies did not reveal a significant difference between the cancer and control groups, nor did a comparison between histological breast cancer subgroups. In conclusion, the results of our phenotype-genotype association study indicate that NCoA7 SNP rs1567 does not affect breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:22740868

  16. A polymorphism in the nuclear receptor coactivator 7 gene and breast cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    SÜLLNER, JULIA; LATTRICH, CLAUS; HÄRING, JULIA; GÖRSE, REGINA; ORTMANN, OLAF; TREECK, OLIVER

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (NCoA7) gene codes for an estrogen receptor-associated protein that plays a significant role in the cellular response to estrogens. Given that NCoA7 is expressed in the mammary gland, alterations in this gene may affect breast cancer risk. In this study, we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1567, located in the coding region of the NCoA7 gene and resulting in an amino acid exchange from asparagine to glutamine, in 305 women with sporadic breast cancer and 346 women without any malignancy. Statistical analysis of the observed frequencies did not reveal a significant difference between the cancer and control groups, nor did a comparison between histological breast cancer subgroups. In conclusion, the results of our phenotype-genotype association study indicate that NCoA7 SNP rs1567 does not affect breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:22740868

  17. Cdx2 Polymorphism Affects the Activities of Vitamin D Receptor in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Human Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  18. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pulito, Claudio; Terrenato, Irene; Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  19. Receptor Polymorphism and Genomic Structure Interact to Shape Bitter Taste Perception

    PubMed Central

    Roudnitzky, Natacha; Behrens, Maik; Engel, Anika; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Hübner, Sandra; Lossow, Kristina; Wooding, Stephen P.; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The ability to taste bitterness evolved to safeguard most animals, including humans, against potentially toxic substances, thereby leading to food rejection. Nonetheless, bitter perception is subject to individual variations due to the presence of genetic functional polymorphisms in bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) genes, such as the long-known association between genetic polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and bitter taste perception of phenylthiocarbamide. Yet, due to overlaps in specificities across receptors, such associations with a single TAS2R locus are uncommon. Therefore, to investigate more complex associations, we examined taste responses to six structurally diverse compounds (absinthin, amarogentin, cascarillin, grosheimin, quassin, and quinine) in a sample of the Caucasian population. By sequencing all bitter receptor loci, inferring long-range haplotypes, mapping their effects on phenotype variation, and characterizing functionally causal allelic variants, we deciphered at the molecular level how a subjects’ genotype for the whole-family of TAS2R genes shapes variation in bitter taste perception. Within each haplotype block implicated in phenotypic variation, we provided evidence for at least one locus harboring functional polymorphic alleles, e.g. one locus for sensitivity to amarogentin, one of the most bitter natural compounds known, and two loci for sensitivity to grosheimin, one of the bitter compounds of artichoke. Our analyses revealed also, besides simple associations, complex associations of bitterness sensitivity across TAS2R loci. Indeed, even if several putative loci harbored both high- and low-sensitivity alleles, phenotypic variation depended on linkage between these alleles. When sensitive alleles for bitter compounds were maintained in the same linkage phase, genetically driven perceptual differences were obvious, e.g. for grosheimin. On the contrary, when sensitive alleles were in opposite phase, only weak genotype-phenotype associations were

  20. Uremic Pruritus Is Not Associated with Endocannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Heisig, Monika; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Reich, Adam; Lwow, Felicja

    2016-01-01

    Uremic pruritus (UP) is a frequent and bothersome symptom in hemodialysis patients. Its etiology is not fully understood and that is why there is no specific treatment. The endocannabinoid system plays a role in many pathological conditions. There is reliable evidence on the association between cannabinoid system and pruritus. In our study, we aimed to evaluate whether genetic variations in the endocannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene can affect UP. The rs12720071, rs806368, rs1049353, rs806381, rs10485170, rs6454674, and rs2023239 polymorphisms of the CNR1 gene were genotyped in 159 hemodialysis patients and 150 healthy controls using two multiplex polymerase chain reactions and the minisequencing technique. No statistically significant relationship was found in any of the evaluated genotypes between patients with and without UP, even after excluding patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia. There were no differences between patients with UP and the control group. However, in the group of all HD patients, a significantly higher incidence of GA genotype and lower incidence in GG genotype in the polymorphism rs806381s were revealed versus the control group (p = 0.04). It seems that polymorphisms of the CNR1 gene are not associated with uremic pruritus. PMID:27034934

  1. Impact of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphism on insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Mesallamy, H; El-Refaie, T; El-Razek, R A

    2013-04-01

    Insulin resistance is allegedly a target pathophysiological mechanism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Moreover, this metabolic alteration is possibly genetically determined. In view of the recent evidence implicating genetic variants of the renin-angiotensin system as candidates in several metabolic disorders, we investigated the allele and genotype frequencies of the A1166 C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in relation with various metabolic and biochemical parameters in affected females trying to asses its role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The study was conducted on 83 females of which 39 females served as the control group. The participants were matched for age, body mass index and degree of obesity. For all subjects biochemical parameters were assayed including soluble CD40 ligand together with fasting glucose and insulin which were used for calculation of insulin resistance indices, Genotyping performed using real time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the C allele frequency and the AC genotype were less frequently observed in patients compared to controls, however this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.146). Lack of the C allele was associated with adverse metabolic parameters including higher rate of insulin resistance as well as solubes CD40 ligand in the patients group. Results of the current study support a causative role for the A1166 C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis or phenotypic expression of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:23564192

  2. Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis among Libyans

    PubMed Central

    El Jilani, Mouna M.; Mohamed, Abdenaser A.; Zeglam, Hamza Ben; Alhudiri, Inas M.; Ramadan, Ahmad M.; Saleh, Saleh S.; Elkabir, Mohamed; Amer, Ibrahim Ben; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Enattah, Nabil S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a common oral disease characterized by inflammation in the supporting tissue of the teeth ‘the periodontium’, periodontal attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss. The disease has a microbial etiology; however, recent findings suggest that the genetic factors, such as vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, have also been included. Aim Investigation of the relationship between VDR gene polymorphisms and CP among Libyans. Materials and methods In this study, we examined 196 unrelated Libyans between the ages of 25 and 65 years, including 99 patients and 97 controls. An oral examination based on Ramfjord Index was performed at different dental clinics in Tripoli and information were collected using a self-reported questionnaire. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs; the VDR ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and were sequenced using Sanger Method. Results A significant difference in the newly detected ApaI SNP C/T rs#731236 was found (p=0.022), whereas no significant differences were found in ApaI SNP G/T rs#7975232, BsmI SNP A/G rs#1544410, and FokI SNP A/G rs#2228570 between patients and controls (p=0.939, 0.466, 0.239), respectively. Conclusion VDR ApaI SNP C/T rs#731236 may be related to the risk of CP in the Libyan population. PMID:25795245

  3. Fc gamma receptor IIa (CD32) polymorphism in fulminant meningococcal septic shock in children.

    PubMed

    Bredius, R G; Derkx, B H; Fijen, C A; de Wit, T P; de Haas, M; Weening, R S; van de Winkel, J G; Out, T A

    1994-10-01

    Antibodies are essential in host defense against Neisseria meningitidis. Therefore, interactions among IgG and Fc receptors (Fc gamma R) on phagocytes may be crucial. Genetic polymorphic forms of Fc gamma RIIa (CD32) express different functional activities. In a retrospective study, Fc gamma R polymorphisms were determined in 25 children who survived fulminant meningococcal septic shock: 11 had Fc gamma RIIa-R/R131, the poor IgG2-binding allotype, which is a significantly more frequent rate than found in a healthy white population (44% vs. 23%; P = .028; odds ratio = 2.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-6.53). The relevance of this finding was further supported by the fact that neutrophils with the Fc gamma RIIa-R/R131 allotype phagocytized N. meningitidis opsonized with polyclonal IgG2 antibodies less effectively than did IIa-H/H131 neutrophils. Our findings suggest an important role for anti-N. meningitidis IgG2 and the Fc gamma RIIa polymorphism in host defense against systemic meningococcal infections. PMID:7930726

  4. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Bretherton-Watt, D; Given-Wilson, R; Mansi, J L; Thomas, V; Carter, N; Colston, K W

    2001-07-20

    There is increasing evidence that vitamin D can protect against breast cancer. The actions of vitamin D are mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We have investigated whether polymorphisms in the VDR gene are associated with altered breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population. We recruited 241 women following a negative screening mammogram and 181 women with known breast cancer. The VDR polymorphism Bsm I, an intronic 3' gene variant, was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk: odds ratio bb vs BB genotype = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.23-4.39). The Bsm I polymorphism was in linkage disequilibrium with a candidate translational control site, the variable length poly (A) sequence in the 3' untranslated region. Thus, the 'L' poly (A) variant was also associated with a similar breast cancer risk. A 5' VDR gene variant, Fok I, was not associated with breast cancer risk. Further investigations into the mechanisms of interactions of the VDR with other environmental and/or genetic influences to alter breast cancer risk may lead to a new understanding of the role of vitamin D in the control of cellular and developmental pathways. PMID:11461072

  5. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Symptomatic Pertussis.

    PubMed

    Han, Wanda G H; Hodemaekers, Hennie M; Nagarajah, Bhawani; Poelen, Martien M C; Helm, Kina; Janssen, Riny; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis, caused by infection with the gram negative B. pertussis bacterium, is a serious respiratory illness that can last for months. While B. pertussis infection rates are estimated between 1-10% in the general population, notifications of symptomatic pertussis only comprise 0.01-0.1% indicating that most individuals clear B. pertussis infections without developing (severe) clinical symptoms. In this study we investigated whether genetic risk factors are involved in the development of symptomatic pertussis upon B. pertussis infection. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes, MBL2, IL17A, TNFα, VDR, and IL10 were genotyped in a unique Dutch cohort of symptomatic clinically confirmed (ex-)pertussis patients and in a Dutch population cohort. Of the seven investigated SNPs in five genes, a polymorphism in the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (rs10735810) was associated with pertussis. The VDR major allele and its homozygous genotype were more present in the symptomatic pertussis patient cohort compared to the control population cohort. Interestingly, the VDR major allele correlated also with the duration of reported pertussis symptoms. Vitamin D3 (VD3) and VDR are important regulators of immune activation. Altogether, these findings suggest that polymorphisms in the VDR gene may affect immune activation and the clinical outcome of B. pertussis infection. PMID:26894582

  6. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Symptomatic Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wanda G. H.; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; Nagarajah, Bhawani; Poelen, Martien M. C.; Helm, Kina; Janssen, Riny; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis, caused by infection with the gram negative B. pertussis bacterium, is a serious respiratory illness that can last for months. While B. pertussis infection rates are estimated between 1–10% in the general population, notifications of symptomatic pertussis only comprise 0.01–0.1% indicating that most individuals clear B. pertussis infections without developing (severe) clinical symptoms. In this study we investigated whether genetic risk factors are involved in the development of symptomatic pertussis upon B. pertussis infection. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes, MBL2, IL17A, TNFα, VDR, and IL10 were genotyped in a unique Dutch cohort of symptomatic clinically confirmed (ex-)pertussis patients and in a Dutch population cohort. Of the seven investigated SNPs in five genes, a polymorphism in the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (rs10735810) was associated with pertussis. The VDR major allele and its homozygous genotype were more present in the symptomatic pertussis patient cohort compared to the control population cohort. Interestingly, the VDR major allele correlated also with the duration of reported pertussis symptoms. Vitamin D3 (VD3) and VDR are important regulators of immune activation. Altogether, these findings suggest that polymorphisms in the VDR gene may affect immune activation and the clinical outcome of B. pertussis infection. PMID:26894582

  7. Expression of two human beta-adrenergic receptors in Escherichia coli: functional interaction with two forms of the stimulatory G protein.

    PubMed Central

    Freissmuth, M; Selzer, E; Marullo, S; Schütz, W; Strosberg, A D

    1991-01-01

    When expressed in Escherichia coli, the human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors retain their ligand binding specificity. Their functional integrity was investigated by analyzing receptor-guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory (G) protein coupling by using two splice variants of the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein Gs synthesized in E. coli (rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L) and the beta gamma subunits of G protein purified from bovine brain. In competition binding experiments with (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol and (-)-isoproterenol, rGs alpha-S.beta gamma and rGs alpha-L.beta gamma reconstituted guanine nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding with comparable affinities, whereas rGs alpha PT, a mutant of rGs alpha-L with an altered carboxyl terminus, and a recombinant subtype of the alpha subunit of the inhibitory G protein, rGi alpha-1, were approximately 20- and approximately 200-fold less potent, respectively. A comparison of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor expressed in E. coli with the beta 2-receptor in S49 murine lymphoma cyc- cell membranes revealed a similar affinity of rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L for the recombinant and native receptors. After stable incorporation of rGs alpha-S.beta gamma into E. coli membranes, receptor-G protein coupling was also verified by determining the isoproterenol-mediated acceleration of the rate for guanine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate binding. These results show that (i) receptor-G protein coupling can be reconstituted in E. coli using recombinant components and that (ii) such an approach may be more generally used to evaluate coupling preferences between defined molecular species of receptors and G-protein subunits. PMID:1656450

  8. Toll-like receptor cascade and gene polymorphism in host–pathogen interaction in Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shusmita; Shering, Maria; Ogden, Nicholas H; Lindsay, Robbin; Badawi, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) risk occurs in North America and Europe where the tick vectors of the causal agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are found. It is associated with local and systemic manifestations, and has persistent posttreatment health complications in some individuals. The innate immune system likely plays a critical role in both host defense against B. burgdorferi and disease severity. Recognition of B. burgdorferi, activation of the innate immune system, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and modulation of the host adaptive responses are all initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). A number of Borrelia outer-surface proteins (eg, OspA and OspB) are recognized by TLRs. Specifically, TLR1 and TLR2 were identified as the receptors most relevant to LD. Several functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in TLR genes, and are associated with varying cytokines types and synthesis levels, altered pathogen recognition, and disruption of the downstream signaling cascade. These single-nucleotide polymorphism-related functional alterations are postulated to be linked to disease development and posttreatment persistent illness. Elucidating the role of TLRs in LD may facilitate a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and can provide an insight into novel therapeutic targets during active disease or postinfection and posttreatment stages. PMID:27330321

  9. Serotonin receptor 2C gene polymorphism associated with post-stroke depression in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, W K; Tang, N; Liao, C D; Liang, H J; Mok, V C T; Ungvari, G S; Wong, K S

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) gene has been shown to play a pivotal role in major depression. We examined the association between post-stroke depression (PSD) and polymorphism in HTR2C. A cohort of 223 patients with acute lacunar stroke admitted to the stroke unit of a university-affiliated regional hospital in Hong Kong was recruited. Three months after the onset of the index stroke, a research assistant administered the locally validated 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. PSD was defined as a geriatric depression scale score of 7 or above. Possible confounding factors, including previous history of stroke, severity of stroke, level of social support, and recent life events, were investigated. All patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of HTR2C. Separate analyses were performed for males and females. Sixty-one patients were found to have PSD. There were significant associations between the HTR2C gene and PSD status in the male patients, but not in the female ones. After adjusting for possible confounders, the rs12837651 T allele (odds ratio = 4.020) and the rs2192371 G allele (odds ratio = 2.866) were found to be significantly associated with PSD in males. Genetic variation in HTR2C receptors appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of PSD in Chinese males. PMID:23765961

  10. Toll-like receptor cascade and gene polymorphism in host-pathogen interaction in Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shusmita; Shering, Maria; Ogden, Nicholas H; Lindsay, Robbin; Badawi, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) risk occurs in North America and Europe where the tick vectors of the causal agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are found. It is associated with local and systemic manifestations, and has persistent posttreatment health complications in some individuals. The innate immune system likely plays a critical role in both host defense against B. burgdorferi and disease severity. Recognition of B. burgdorferi, activation of the innate immune system, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and modulation of the host adaptive responses are all initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). A number of Borrelia outer-surface proteins (eg, OspA and OspB) are recognized by TLRs. Specifically, TLR1 and TLR2 were identified as the receptors most relevant to LD. Several functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in TLR genes, and are associated with varying cytokines types and synthesis levels, altered pathogen recognition, and disruption of the downstream signaling cascade. These single-nucleotide polymorphism-related functional alterations are postulated to be linked to disease development and posttreatment persistent illness. Elucidating the role of TLRs in LD may facilitate a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and can provide an insight into novel therapeutic targets during active disease or postinfection and posttreatment stages. PMID:27330321

  11. Serotonin 2A Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Hwang, Jun-Won; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the T102C polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean patients. Methods A total of 189 Korean children with ADHD as well as both parents of the ADHD children and 150 normal children participated in this study. DNA was extracted from blood samples from all of the subjects, and genotyping was conducted. Based on the allele and genotype information obtained, case-control analyses were performed to compare the ADHD and normal children, and Transmission disequilibrium tests (TDTs) were used for family-based association testing (number of trios=113). Finally, according to the significant finding which was showed in the case-control analyses, the results of behavioral characterastics and neuropsychological test were compared between ADHD children with and without the C allele. Results In the case-control analyses, statistically significant differences were detected in the frequencies of genotypes containing the C allele (χ2=4.73, p=0.030). In the family-based association study, TDTs failed to detect linkage disequilibrium of the T102C polymorphism associated with ADHD children. In the ADHD children, both the mean reaction time and the standard deviation of the reaction time in the auditory continuous performance test were longer in the group with the C allele compared to the group without the C allele. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that there is a significant genetic association between the T102C polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and ADHD in Korean children. PMID:22993527

  12. Antisocial behavior and polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene: findings in two independent samples.

    PubMed

    Hovey, D; Lindstedt, M; Zettergren, A; Jonsson, L; Johansson, A; Melke, J; Kerekes, N; Anckarsäter, H; Lichtenstein, P; Lundström, S; Westberg, L

    2016-07-01

    The quantitative genetic contribution to antisocial behavior is well established, but few, if any, genetic variants are established as risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may modulate interpersonal aggression. We here investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with the expression of antisocial behavior. A discovery sample, including both sexes, was drawn from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; n=2372), and a sample from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=1232) was used for replication. Eight SNPs in OXTR, selected on previous associations with social and antisocial behavior, were genotyped in the participants of CATSS. Significant polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped in TCHAD for replication. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires-Life History of Aggression (LHA; available only in CATSS), and Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD; available in both samples)-designed to capture antisocial behavior as continuous traits. In the discovery sample, the rs7632287 AA genotype was associated with higher frequency of antisocial behavior in boys, and this was then replicated in the second sample. In particular, overt aggression (directly targeting another individual) was strongly associated with this genotype in boys (P=6.2 × 10(-7) in the discovery sample). Meta-analysis of the results for antisocial behavior from both samples yielded P=2.5 × 10(-5). Furthermore, an association between rs4564970 and LHA (P=0.00013) survived correction in the discovery sample, but there was no association with the SRD in the replication sample. We conclude that the rs7632287 and rs4564970 polymorphisms in OXTR may independently influence antisocial behavior in adolescent boys. Further replication of our results will be crucial to understanding how aberrant social behavior arises, and would support the OXT receptor as one

  13. Association of Retinoid X Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphism with Clinical Course of Chronic Glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Ostromecki, Grzegorz; Zielińska, Paulina; Mostowska, Adrianna; Niemir, Zofia; Polcyn-Adamczak, Magdalena; Pawlik, Magdalena; Sowińska, Anna; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vitamin D (VD), VD binding protein, VD receptor (VDR), and retinoids are involved in pathogenesis of chronic glomerulonephritis (ChGN). We aimed to compare distribution of VD pathway gene polymorphisms in ChGN patients showing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) category 1-3, GFR category 5D, and healthy controls in order to elucidate the role of VD-related polymorphisms in the course of ChGN. MATERIAL AND METHODS GFR category 1-3 ChGN patients (n=195), GFR category 5D ChGN patients (n=178), and controls (n=751) underwent testing for polymorphisms of genes encoding VD binding protein (GC, rs2298849, rs7041, rs1155563), VDR (VDR, rs2228570, rs1544410), and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA, rs10776909, rs10881578, rs749759). RESULTS Among GFR 1-3 subjects possessing TT genotype of RXRA rs10776909, 75% of patients had nephrotic syndrome, and 37.5% had glomerular hyperfiltration defined as GFR >140 ml/min/1.73 m2, and, consequently, serum creatinine was lower in these patients compared to the remaining subjects (0.67±0.26 vs. 0.94±0.34, P=0.014). In GFR category 5D ChGN patients, frequencies of RXRA rs10776909 allele T (25% vs. 19%) and CT+TT (46% vs. 34%) were higher compared to frequencies of respective variants in controls (Ptrend=0.004, Pgenotype=0.008). CONCLUSIONS RXRA rs10776909 allele T is specifically involved in the pathogenesis of ChGN. This risk allele may be also associated with worse clinical course of ChGN. PMID:26610845

  14. The frequency of follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene polymorphisms in Iranian infertile men with azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Shakeri, Saeed; Behdin, Shabnam; Aghaei, Fatemeh; Malek-Hosseini, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man not having any measurable level of sperm in his semen. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family that plays an important role in human reproduction because of its essential role in normal spermatogenesis. Various Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported within FSH receptor (FSHR) gene that may affect the receptor function. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between two FSHR SNPs at positions A919G, A2039G, and susceptibility to azoospermia in a group of Iranian azoospermic men. The association between FSH levels within the sera and A919G and A2039G alleles and genotypes were also investigated. Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed on 212 men with azoospermia (126 non-obstructive and 86 obstructive) and 200 healthy Iranian men. Two FSHR gene SNPs were genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. The relationship between FSH levels within the sera and A919G and A2039G alleles and genotypes were also investigated. Results: Statistical analysis indicated that at A919G position, AA genotype and A allele were more frequent in obstructive azoospermia cases compared to non-obstructive or normal men (p=0.001). Regarding A2039G polymorphisms, no significant difference was observed between both azoospermia groups and the controls. The mean level of serum FSH was higher in the non-obstructive men compared to the obstructive patients (23.8 versus 13.8, respectively, p= 0.04). Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the FSHR gene might increase the susceptibility to azoospermia in Iranian men. PMID:26730241

  15. Polymorphisms of Immunoglobulin G Fc Receptors in Pediatric Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lobna A; Girgis, Marian Y; Abdulhay, Mohamed; ElEinein, Ehab I Abou; ElHawary, Rabab; Hanna, Mariam Onsy F

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune peripheral neuropathy characterized by demyelination and axonal damage. Biallelic functional polymorphisms in the immunoglobulin G Fc receptors (FcγR)-FcγRIIA: H131/R131, FcγRIIIA: V158/F158, and FcγRIIIB: NA1/NA2 affect the affinity of the IgG-FcγR interaction, therefore, diseases such as GBS in which this interaction plays a critical role might be influenced by the polymorphisms. Methods We evaluated the role of FcγR polymorphisms in susceptibility to GBS in Egyptian pediatric patients and the association of the variant alleles with neurophysiological types, severity, and outcome of the disease. A total of 50 patients with GBS and 50 controls were examined for FcγR polymorphisms by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results FcγRIIA H131 allele (p = < 0.0001; odds ratio [OR] = 4.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.62-8.70) and FcγRIIA H/H131 genotype (p = < 0.0001 ; OR = 10.56; 95% CI, 3.59-31.06) were significantly increased in GBS patients while FcγRIIIA and FcγRIIIB allelic distributions were similar among patients and controls. The FcγR genotypes showed no association with neurophysiological types of GBS, severity or outcome of the disease. Conclusions These findings reflect that FcγRIIA H131 allele may represent a risk marker for susceptibility to GBS. PMID:27064330

  16. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-II nt587 polymorphism in Chinese Han patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Wang, M; Ma, R; Zhang, T; Liu, J; Chen, J W; Peng, W

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to explore the association between the onset of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nt587 polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor receptor II (TNFRII) gene in the Han population of Hunan Province, China. Correlation analysis was performed in a case-control study involving 100 AS cases and 100 healthy controls. The nt587 single nucleotide polymorphism of the TNFRII gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relationship between AS and the frequencies of genotypes and alleles in TNFRII nt587 were analyzed using the SPSS software. There were 43 cases with the TNFRII nt587 T/T genotype, 32 cases with the TNFRII nt587 T/G genotype, and 25 cases with the TNFRII nt587 G/G genotype. In the 100 healthy controls, 56 subjects had the TNFRII nt587 T/T genotype, 34 had the TNFRII nt587 T/G genotype, and 10 had the TNFRII nt587 G/G genotype. The G allele frequency of the AS group was significantly higher (χ(2) = 8.734, P = 0.003) than that in the control group (41.0 vs 27.0%). The odds ratio (OR) in AS cases with the TNFRII nt587 G/G genotype was 3.256, which was obviously higher than in those with T/G (OR = 1.226) and T/T (OR = 1.0) genotype. The polymorphism at position nt587 of the TNFRII gene was found to be associated with AS, and the TNFRII nt587 G allele may play an important role in AS susceptibility. The TNFRII nt587 G/G genotype may increase the risk of developing AS in the Hunan population. PMID:25061744

  17. Leptin Receptor Gene Polymorphism may Affect Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients with Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Sebahat; Topsakal, Senay; Ata, Melek Tunç; Herek, Duygu; Akın, Fulya; Özkan, Şeyma; Turgut, Günfer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acromegaly is associated with increased morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular diseases. Leptin (LEP) and Leptin Receptor (LEPR) gene polymorphisms can increase cardiovascular risks. The aim of this study was to investigate association between the frequencies of LEP and LEPR gene polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis in acromegalic patients. Methods: Forty-four acromegalic patients and 30 controls were admitted to study. The polymorphisms were identified by using polymerase chain reaction from peripheral blood samples. The levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, IGF-I, GH, IGFBP3, leptin, triglyceride, carotid Intima Media Thickness (cIMT) and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations were evaluated. Results: There was statistically significant difference between the LEPR genotypes of acromegalic patients (GG 11.4%, GA 52.3%, and AA 36.4%) and controls (GG 33.3%, GA 50%, and AA 16.7%) although their LEP genotype distribution was similar. In addition, the prevalence of the LEPR gene G and A alleles was significantly different between patients and controls. No significant difference was found among the G(-2548) A leptin genotypes of groups in terms of the clinical parameters. cIMT significantly increased homozygote LEPR GG genotype group compared to AA subjects in patients. But the other parameters were not different between LEPR genotypes groups of patients and controls. Conclusion: It can be said that the LEPR gene polymorphism may affect cIMT in patients. The reason is that LEPR GG genotype carriers may have more risk than other genotypes in the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in acromegaly. PMID:27563428

  18. Post-bronchiolitis wheezing is associated with toll-like receptor 9 rs187084 gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Törmänen, Sari; Teräsjärvi, Johanna; Vuononvirta, Juho; Koponen, Petri; Korppi, Matti; Helminen, Merja; Peltola, Ville; He, Qiushui

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity receptors play a critical role in host defence, as well as in allergy and asthma. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether there are associations between TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084 or TLR10 rs4129009 polymorphisms and viral findings, clinical characteristics or subsequent wheezing in infants with bronchiolitis. In all, 135 full-term infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis at age less than 6 months: 129 of them were followed-up until the age of 1.5 years. The outcome measures were repeated wheezing, use of inhaled corticosteroids, atopic dermatitis during the first 1.5 years of life and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). There were no significant associations between the genotypes or allele frequencies of TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084 or TLR10 rs4129009 polymorphisms and clinical characteristics or the severity of bronchiolitis during hospitalization. During follow-up, repeated wheezing was more common in children with TLR9 rs187084 variant genotype CC (30.5%) than in children with TLR9 wild-type genotype TT (12.2%) (p = 0.02, aOR 2.73, 95% CI 1.02-7.29). The TLR10 rs4129009 minor allele G was associated with elevated total serum IgE. TLR9 rs187084 gene polymorphism may be associated with post-bronchiolitis wheezing, and TLR10 rs4129009 gene polymorphism may be associated with atopy. PMID:27498757

  19. Clinical Expression of Calcium Sensing Receptor Polymorphism (A986S) in Normocalcemic and Asymptomatic Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Soto, G; Romero, E; Castrillón, J L P; Jauregui, O I; de Luis Román, D

    2016-03-01

    Normocalcemic and asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism diagnosis are becoming more common. However, their pathophysiology is incompletely known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effect of calcium-sensing receptor polymorphism (A986S) in normocalcemic and asymtomatic HPT. Prospective study conducted with 61 consecutive normocalcemic and asymptomatic HPT patients was followed up during a minimum period of 1 year. Secondary causes of hyperparathyroidism were ruled out. Calcium and phosphorus metabolism parameters were evaluated in at least 2 determinations during follow-up to classify as normocalcemic or asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism. Bone mineral density and A986S polymorphism genotype were also analyzed. Thiry-eight patients (62.3%) had the genotype A986A, and 23 (36.7%) patients had A986S (20 patients, 32.8%) or S986S (3 patients, 4.9%). Age, sex, and genotype distributions were comparable in both normocalcemic and asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism. In normocalcemic patients, S allele genotype was associated to statistically significant higher level of intact PTH: 92.0 (SD 18.5) vs. 110.6 (SD 24.4) pg/ml, p<0.05; and remained significant after adjustment by multiple linear regression. In asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism, A986A genotype resulted in a statistically significant higher level of intact PTH, alkaline phosphatase and procollagen amino-terminal propeptide; but only serum calcium remained as an independent predictor of serum intact PTH levels after a multiple linear regression. Bone mineral densitometry between genotypes did not show statistically significant differences. A986S polymorphism of CaSR is an independent predictor of PTH level in normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism patients, but not in asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism. More studies are needed to evaluate the effect of other polymorphisms in normocalcemic and asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26332755

  20. Association between Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Childhood Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pei; Zhu, Wen-Ye; He, Xin; Tang, Mi-Mi; Dang, Rui-Li; Li, Huan-De; Xue, Ying; Zhang, Li-Hong; Wu, Yan-Qin; Cao, Ling-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D (VD) is implicated in multiple aspects of human physiology and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although VD deficiency is highly prevalent in epilepsy patients and converging evidence indicates a role for VD in the development of epilepsy, no data is available on the possible relationship between epilepsy and genetic variations of VDR. In this study, 150 controls and 82 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were genotyped for five common VDR polymorphisms (Cdx-2, FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Our results revealed that the frequency of FokI AC genotype was significantly higher in the control group than in the patients (p = 0.003, OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.21–0.73), whereas the AA genotype of ApaI SNP was more frequent in patients than in controls (p = 0.018, OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.2–7.1). However, no statistically significant association was found between Cdx-2, BsmI and TaqI polymorphisms and epilepsy. Additionally, in haplotype analysis, we found the haplotype GAT (BsmI/ApaI/TaqI) conferred significantly increased risk for developing TLE (p = 0.039, OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.02–2.56). As far as we know, these results firstly underline the importance of VDR polymorphisms for the genetic susceptibility to epilepsy. PMID:26528998

  1. Association between Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Childhood Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei; Zhu, Wen-Ye; He, Xin; Tang, Mi-Mi; Dang, Rui-Li; Li, Huan-De; Xue, Ying; Zhang, Li-Hong; Wu, Yan-Qin; Cao, Ling-Juan

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D (VD) is implicated in multiple aspects of human physiology and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although VD deficiency is highly prevalent in epilepsy patients and converging evidence indicates a role for VD in the development of epilepsy, no data is available on the possible relationship between epilepsy and genetic variations of VDR. In this study, 150 controls and 82 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were genotyped for five common VDR polymorphisms (Cdx-2, FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI) by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Our results revealed that the frequency of FokI AC genotype was significantly higher in the control group than in the patients (p = 0.003, OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.21-0.73), whereas the AA genotype of ApaI SNP was more frequent in patients than in controls (p = 0.018, OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.2-7.1). However, no statistically significant association was found between Cdx-2, BsmI and TaqI polymorphisms and epilepsy. Additionally, in haplotype analysis, we found the haplotype GAT (BsmI/ApaI/TaqI) conferred significantly increased risk for developing TLE (p = 0.039, OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.02-2.56). As far as we know, these results firstly underline the importance of VDR polymorphisms for the genetic susceptibility to epilepsy. PMID:26528998

  2. Association of A vitamin D receptor polymorphism with sporadic breast cancer development.

    PubMed

    Curran, J E; Vaughan, T; Lea, R A; Weinstein, S R; Morrison, N A; Griffiths, L R

    1999-12-10

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among Australian women and its incidence is annually increasing. Genetic factors are involved in the complex etiology of breast cancer. The seco-steroid hormone, 1.25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 can influence breast cancer cell growth in vitro. A number of studies have reported correlations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and several diseases including prostate cancer and osteoporosis. In breast cancer, low vitamin D levels in serum are correlated with disease progression and bone metastases, a situation also noted in prostate cancer and suggesting the involvement of the VDR. In our study, 2 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the 3' region (detected by Apa1 and Taq1) and an initiation codon variant in the 5' end of the VDR gene (detected by Fok1) were tested for association with breast cancer risk in 135 females with sporadic breast cancer and 110 cancer-free female controls. Allele frequencies of the 3' Apa1 polymorphism showed a significant association (p = 0.016; OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.09-2.24) while the Taq1 RFLP showed a similar trend (p = 0.053; OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.00-2.00). Allele frequencies of the Fok1 polymorphism were not significantly different (p = 0.97; OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.69-1.43) in the study population. Our results suggest that specific alleles of the VDR gene located near the 3' region may identify an increased risk for breast cancer and justify further investigation of the role of VDR in breast cancer. PMID:10597185

  3. Polymorphisms of genes encoding interleukin-4 and its receptor in Iranian patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Vahid; Rezaei, Arezou; Harsini, Sara; Maddah, Marzieh; Zoghi, Samaneh; Sadr, Maryam; Moradinejad, Mohammad Hassan; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-08-01

    As cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), seem to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), this study is aimed at investigating of association of polymorphisms in IL-4 and IL-4 receptor α (IL-4RA) genes with susceptibility to JIA. A case-control study was conducted on 53 patients with JIA and 139 healthy unrelated controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-4 gene at positions -1098, -590, and -33, as well as IL-4RA gene at position +1902 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method and compared between patients and healthy individuals. At the allelic level, C allele at IL-4 -33 was found to be more frequent in patients compared to control (P value <0.01). At the genotypic level, CC genotype at IL-4 -590 (P value <0.01), together with CC and TT genotypes at IL-4 -33 (P value <0.01), were significantly higher in patients with JIA, while TC genotypes at IL-4 -590 and -33 positions were found to be lower in case group (P value <0.01). At the haplotypic level, IL-4 (positions -1098, -509, -33) TTC, GCC, and TTT haplotypes were significantly lower than controls (P value <0.01, P value = 0.03, and P value = 0.04, respectively). Although, TCC haplotype at the same positions was found to be higher in patients (P value <0.01). Polymorphic site of +1902 IL-4RA gene did not differ between cases and controls. Polymorphisms in promoter region of IL-4 but not IL-4RA genes confer susceptibility to JIA and may predispose individuals to adaptive immune responses. PMID:26951255

  4. Post-bronchiolitis wheezing is associated with toll-like receptor 9 rs187084 gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Törmänen, Sari; Teräsjärvi, Johanna; Vuononvirta, Juho; Koponen, Petri; Korppi, Matti; Helminen, Merja; Peltola, Ville; He, Qiushui

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity receptors play a critical role in host defence, as well as in allergy and asthma. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether there are associations between TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084 or TLR10 rs4129009 polymorphisms and viral findings, clinical characteristics or subsequent wheezing in infants with bronchiolitis. In all, 135 full-term infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis at age less than 6 months: 129 of them were followed-up until the age of 1.5 years. The outcome measures were repeated wheezing, use of inhaled corticosteroids, atopic dermatitis during the first 1.5 years of life and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). There were no significant associations between the genotypes or allele frequencies of TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084 or TLR10 rs4129009 polymorphisms and clinical characteristics or the severity of bronchiolitis during hospitalization. During follow-up, repeated wheezing was more common in children with TLR9 rs187084 variant genotype CC (30.5%) than in children with TLR9 wild-type genotype TT (12.2%) (p = 0.02, aOR 2.73, 95% CI 1.02–7.29). The TLR10 rs4129009 minor allele G was associated with elevated total serum IgE. TLR9 rs187084 gene polymorphism may be associated with post-bronchiolitis wheezing, and TLR10 rs4129009 gene polymorphism may be associated with atopy. PMID:27498757

  5. Association of vitamin d receptor-a gene polymorphisms with coronary heart disease in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    He, Lina; Wang, Menghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms in Han Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 215 CHD patients and 67 controls were recruited. In both groups, the VDR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Tru9I (rs757343), ApaI (rs7975232), TaqI (rs731236) and FokI (rs2228570) were detected, and the frequencies of VDR genotypes were compared between patients and controls. The relationship between VDR FokI genotype and risk for CHD was assessed by logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and sex. In addition, the clinical parameters and biochemical characteristics of CHD subgroups were compared according to the VDR FokI polymorphism. Results: The frequencies of FokI genotypes in CHD patients were 23.7% for AA, 47.9% for AG, and 28.4% for GG. The frequency of FokI-GG genotype significantly decreased in CHD patients as compared to control group (P = 0.039). No significant differences were observed in other VDR SNPs (rs7975232, rs731236 and rs757343) (P > 0.05) between groups. FokI-A allele carriers had a 2.61-fold increase in the odds (95% CI: 1.116-6.102, P = 0.027) as compare to CHD subjects with FokI mutation. In CHD subgroup, patients with GG genotype had a significantly higher concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than those with AG genotype or A* genotype (P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: VDR FokI polymorphisms appear to be associated with CHD. GG genotype predicts a higher HDL-cholesterol in CHD adults. PMID:26131229

  6. Association between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and osteoporosis in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ha, Jick Hwan; Kang, Hyeon Hui; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Jin Woo; Moon, Hwa Sik; Baek, Ki Hyun; Lee, Sang Haak

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with COPD are at an increased risk of osteoporosis. Although many studies have addressed the relationship between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and bone health, this relationship has not been fully investigated in patients with COPD. In this study, we investigated the association of VDR polymorphisms with bone mineral density (BMD) and other clinical parameters in patients with COPD. Patients and methods In total, 200 patients with COPD were included in this study. The VDR polymorphisms rs1544410 (A/G-BsmI), rs7975232 (A/C-ApaI), rs731236 (C/T-TaqI), and rs10735810 (C/T-FokI) were determined by Sanger sequencing using blood DNA samples. BMD of the lumbar vertebra and the femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Other clinical parameters were also evaluated. Haplotype and multivariate analyses were also performed. Results Sex, body mass index, steroid use, percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly influenced the risk of osteoporosis. Patients with osteoporosis were more likely to carry the rs7975232 C allele compared to normal patients with BMD. Haplotypes GCT and GAT were related to osteoporosis. Patients without the haplotype GAT allele showed a significantly lower T-score at the femoral neck and an increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR]= 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.20–6.48, P=0.018) compared with carriers in the dominant model. Conclusion Genetic variations in VDR are significantly associated with osteoporosis among patients with COPD. Further studies are required to confirm the role of the VDR polymorphisms in osteoporosis among patients with COPD. PMID:26379431

  7. Functional Impact of 14 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Causing Missense Mutations of Human α7 Nicotinic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinhui; Du, Yingjie; Zhang, Jianliang; Xu, Xiaojun; Xue, Fenqin; Guo, Cong; Huang, Yao; Lukas, Ronald J.; Chang, Yongchang

    2015-01-01

    The α7nicotinic receptor (nAChR) is a major subtype of the nAChRs in the central nervous system, and the receptor plays an important role in brain function. In the dbSNP database, there are 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cause missense mutations of the human α7nAChR in the coding region. In this study, we tested the impact of 14 SNPs that cause missense mutations in the agonist binding site or the coupling region between binding site and channel gate on the receptor function. The wild type or mutant receptors were expressed or co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the agonist-induced currents were tested using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrated that 6 mutants were nonfunctional, 4 mutants had reduced current expression, and 1 mutants altered ACh and nicotine efficacy in the opposite direction, and one additional mutant had slightly reduced agonist sensitivity. Interestingly, the function of most of these nonfunctional mutants could be rescued by α7nAChR positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 and agonist-PAM 4BP-TQS. Finally, when coexpressed with the wild type, the nonfunctional mutants could also influence the receptor function. These changes of the receptor properties by the mutations could potentially have an impact on the physiological function of the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic synaptic transmission and anti-inflammatory effects in the human SNP carriers. Rescuing the nonfunctional mutants could provide a novel way to treat the related disorders. PMID:26340537

  8. Functional Impact of 14 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Causing Missense Mutations of Human α7 Nicotinic Receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinhui; Du, Yingjie; Zhang, Jianliang; Xu, Xiaojun; Xue, Fenqin; Guo, Cong; Huang, Yao; Lukas, Ronald J; Chang, Yongchang

    2015-01-01

    The α7nicotinic receptor (nAChR) is a major subtype of the nAChRs in the central nervous system, and the receptor plays an important role in brain function. In the dbSNP database, there are 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cause missense mutations of the human α7nAChR in the coding region. In this study, we tested the impact of 14 SNPs that cause missense mutations in the agonist binding site or the coupling region between binding site and channel gate on the receptor function. The wild type or mutant receptors were expressed or co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the agonist-induced currents were tested using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrated that 6 mutants were nonfunctional, 4 mutants had reduced current expression, and 1 mutants altered ACh and nicotine efficacy in the opposite direction, and one additional mutant had slightly reduced agonist sensitivity. Interestingly, the function of most of these nonfunctional mutants could be rescued by α7nAChR positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 and agonist-PAM 4BP-TQS. Finally, when coexpressed with the wild type, the nonfunctional mutants could also influence the receptor function. These changes of the receptor properties by the mutations could potentially have an impact on the physiological function of the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic synaptic transmission and anti-inflammatory effects in the human SNP carriers. Rescuing the nonfunctional mutants could provide a novel way to treat the related disorders. PMID:26340537

  9. Effects of fentanyl administration on locomotor response in horses with the G57C μ-opioid receptor polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Lois A; Pascoe, Peter J; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Lindsey, Jane C

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the locomotor response to the administration of fentanyl in horses with and without the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor. ANIMALS 20 horses of various breeds and ages (10 horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism and 10 age-, breed-, and sex-matched horses that did not have the G57C polymorphism). PROCEDURES The number of steps each horse took was counted over consecutive 2-minute periods for 20 minutes to determine a baseline value. The horse then received a bolus of fentanyl (20 μg/kg, IV), and the number of steps was again counted during consecutive 2-minute periods for 60 minutes. The mean baseline value was subtracted from each 2-minute period after fentanyl administration; step counts with negative values were assigned a value of 0. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS Data for 19 of 20 horses (10 horses with the G57C polymorphism and 9 control horses without the G57C polymorphism) were included in the analysis. Horses with the G57C polymorphism had a significant increase in locomotor activity, compared with results for horses without the polymorphism. There was a significant group-by-time interaction. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor had an increased locomotor response to fentanyl administration, compared with the response for horses without this polymorphism. The clinical impact of this finding should be investigated. PMID:27463545

  10. N-terminal {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms do not correlate with bronchodilator response in asthma families

    SciTech Connect

    Holyroyd, K.J.; Dragwa, C.; Xu, J.

    1994-09-01

    Family and twin studies have suggested that susceptibility to asthma is inherited. One clinically relevant phenotype in asthma is the bronchodilator response to beta adrenergic therapy (reversibility) which may also be inherited and vary among asthmatics. Two polymorphisms of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor common to both asthmatic and normal individuals have been reported. One polymorphism, an amino acid polymorphism at position 16, correlated in one study with the need for long-term corticosteriod use in a population of asthmatics. It is conceivable that the increased use of corticosteroids needed to control symptoms in these patients may be explained by a decreased responsiveness to brochodilators mediated through this amino acid polymorphism in the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor. However, the response to {beta}{sub 2} bronchodilators was not tested in these patients. In our Dutch asthma families, DNA sequencing of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor has been performed for N-terminal polymorphisms at amino acid positions 16 and 27 in over 100 individuals, and no correlation was found with the increase of FEV{sub 1} in response to bronchodilator. Linkage analysis between bronchodilator response and marker D5S412 near the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor gene was performed in 286 sibpairs from these families. Using a bronchodilator response of >10% in FEV{sub 1} as a qualitative definition of affected individuals, there were 145 unaffected sibpairs, 121 sibpairs where one was affected, and 20 in which both were affected. Linear regression analysis of these sibpair data suggested possible linkage (p=0.007). This supports further examination of the {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor and its regulatory regions for polymorphisms that correlate with the bronchodilator response in asthma families.

  11. The Association of Polymorphisms in Leptin/Leptin Receptor Genes and Ghrelin/Ghrelin Receptor Genes With Overweight/Obesity and the Related Metabolic Disturbances: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghalandari, Hamid; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Leptin and ghrelin are two important appetite and energy balance-regulating peptides. Common polymorphisms in the genes coding these peptides and their related receptors are shown to be associated with body weight, different markers of obesity and metabolic abnormalities. This review article aims to investigate the association of common polymorphisms of these genes with overweight/obesity and the metabolic disturbances related to it. Evidence Acquisition: The keywords leptin, ghrelin, polymorphism, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), obesity, overweight, Body Mass Index, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (MeSH headings) were used to search in the following databases: Pubmed, Sciencedirect (Elsevier), and Google scholar. Overall, 24 case-control studies, relevant to our topic, met the criteria and were included in the review. Results: The most prevalent leptin/leptin receptor genes (LEP/LEPR) and ghrelin/ghrelin receptor genes (GHRL/GHSR) single nucleotide polymorphisms studied were LEP G-2548A, LEPR Q223R, and Leu72Met, respectively. Nine studies of the 17 studies on LEP/LEPR, and three studies of the seven studies on GHRL/GHSR showed significant relationships. Conclusions: In general, our study suggests that the association between LEP/LEPR and GHRL/GHSR with overweight/obesity and the related metabolic disturbances is inconclusive. These results may be due to unidentified gene-environment interactions. More investigations are needed to further clarify this association. PMID:26425125

  12. Vitamin D Receptor Gene FokI Polymorphism Contributes to Increasing the Risk of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liling; Liu, Cunxu; Liao, Guangfu; Yang, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiuwen; Chen, Jingjie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI polymorphism and tuberculosis (TB) risk remains a matter of debate. Potential selection bias exists in most studies using HIV-positive TB patients. An update meta-analysis was carried out to derive a more reliable assessment of the association between FokI polymorphisms and TB risk, especially in HIV-negative TB patients. All major databases from inception to June 2015 were searched for all publications that studied the association between FokI polymorphism and TB risk. The odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to the frequencies of genotypes. In total, 32 studies with 4894 cases and 5319 controls were included in this meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, the estimated OR was 1.34 (95% CI=1.091–1.646, P = 0.005) in the best genetic model (recessive model, ff vs fF+FF) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 32.2%, P = 0.043). In the subgroup analysis stratified by HIV status, significant associations were found only in the HIV-negative TB group (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.180–2.077, P = 0.002; I2 = 29.5%, and P = 0.141 for heterogeneity). In the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, significant associations were found in the Asian group (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.205–2.261, P = 0.002; I2 = 43.9%, and P = 0.024 for heterogeneity), but not in the Caucasian group (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.762–1.547, P = 0.649; I2 = 0.0%, and P = 0.740 for heterogeneity) and African group (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.726–1.341, P = 0.934; I2 = 43.9%, and P = 0.024 for heterogeneity). This meta-analysis confirms that VDR FokI polymorphism contributes to the risk of TB, especially in HIV-negative TB patients and in the Asian group. Further studies are required to clarify the role of the FokI polymorphism in HIV-positive TB and in other ethnic groups. PMID:26705207

  13. Association between polymorphism in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene and E locus plumage color phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dávila, S G; Gil, M G; Resino-Talaván, P; Campo, J L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene on plumage color in chickens. The gene was sequenced in 77 males and 77 females from 13 Spanish breeds, carrying 6 different alleles in the E locus (E*E, E*R, E*WH, E*N, E*B, E*BC), a recessive wheaten (yellowish-white) tester line (E*Y), and a White Leghorn population (heterozygous E*E). A total of 11 significant SNP were detected. Nine of them were nonsynonymous (T212C, G274A, G376A, T398AC, G409A, A427G, C637T, A644C, and G646A, corresponding to amino acid changes Met72Thr, Glu92Lys, Val126Ile, Leu133GlnPro, Ala137Thr, Thr143Ala, Arg213Cys, His215Pro, and Val216Ile), and 2 were synonymous (C69T and C834T). With respect to the significant SNP, 7 had an allelic frequency of 0.5 or greater for some of the alleles at the E locus. These results indicated a significant correlation between MC1R polymorphism and the presence of different alleles at the E locus. All the populations carrying the E*E or E*R alleles, except the Birchen Leonesa, had the G274A polymorphism. Eleven haplotypes were made with 7 of the significant SNP. The distribution of these haplotypes in the different alleles of the E locus showed that each haplotype was predominantly associated to one allele. The number of haplotypes was greatest for the Black Menorca, Birchen Leonesa, and Blue Andaluza breeds, whereas the Quail Castellana and Red-barred Vasca breeds were monomorphic. Our results suggested that the Glu92Lys mutation may be responsible of the activation of the receptor for eumelanin production, being necessary but not sufficient to express the extended black phenotype. They also suggested that the Arg213Cys mutation may be the cause of the loss or the decrease of function of the receptor to produce eumelanin, and the Ala137Thr mutation may be a candidate to attenuate the Glu92Lys effect. The observed co-segregation of the E locus alleles and polymorphisms in MC1R confirms that the E locus is

  14. PACAP receptor gene polymorphism impacts fear responses in the amygdala and hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jennifer Strafford; Almli, Lynn M.; Fani, Negar; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D.; Reiser, Emily; Ely, Timothy D.; Dhanani, Rahim; Glover, Ebony M.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently found higher circulating levels of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a highly traumatized cohort of women but not men. Furthermore, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the PACAP receptor gene ADCYAP1R1, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 receptor type 1, was associated with individual differences in PTSD symptoms and psychophysiological markers of fear and anxiety. The current study outlines an investigation of individual differences in brain function associated with ADCYAP1R1 genotype. Forty-nine women who had experienced moderate to high levels of lifetime trauma participated in a functional MRI task involving passive viewing of threatening and neutral face stimuli. Analyses focused on the amygdala and hippocampus, regions that play central roles in the pathophysiology of PTSD and are known to have high densities of PACAP receptors. The risk genotype was associated with increased reactivity of the amygdala and hippocampus to threat stimuli and decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus. The findings indicate that the PACAP system modulates medial temporal lobe function in humans. Individual differences in ADCYAP1R1 genotype may contribute to dysregulated fear circuitry known to play a central role in PTSD and other anxiety disorders. PMID:24516127

  15. Neonatal Fc receptor promoter gene polymorphism does not predict pharmacokinetics of IVIg or the clinical course of GBS.

    PubMed

    Fokkink, Willem-Jan R; Haarman, Annechien E G; Tio-Gillen, Anne P; van Rijs, Wouter; Huizinga, Ruth; van Doorn, Pieter A; Jacobs, Bart C

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome with a standard course of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) results in a variable clinical recovery which is associated with changes in serum IgG levels after treatment. The neonatal Fc-receptor protects IgG from degradation, and a genetic polymorphism in its promoter region that influences the expression of Fc-receptor, may in part explain the variation in IgG levels and outcome. This polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction in a cohort of 257 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome treated with IVIg. We could not demonstrate a relation between this polymorphism, the pharmacokinetics of IVIg, or the clinical course and outcome. PMID:27386503

  16. Genetic mapping of the beta 1 GABA receptor gene to human chromosome 4, using a tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M; Lucas-Derse, S; Bolos, A; O'Brien, S J; Kirkness, E F; Fraser, C M; Goldman, D

    1991-01-01

    As more coding loci for functional human genes are described, there is a growing need to identify DNA polymorphisms in specific genes. By examining DNA sequences within the introns of the beta 1 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene, GABARB1, we found a tetranucleotide repeat sequence (GATA). Amplification of this region by using PCR revealed seven alleles and a high degree of polymorphism (PIC = .75) in human populations. DNAs from the CEPH families were typed for the GABARB1 intron polymorphism and were analyzed with respect to 20 linked markers on chromosome 4. The results permit placement of GABARB1 on the linkage map of chromosome 4, between D4S104 and ALB. These results affirm that sequence analysis of noncoding segments included within or adjacent to functional genes has value as a strategy to detect highly informative polymorphisms. Images Figure 2 PMID:1652891

  17. Sex matters! Interactions of sex and polymorphisms of a cholinergic receptor gene (CHRNA5) modulate response speed.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Katja K; Hüle, Lilian; Schote, Andrea B; Meyer, Jobst; Frings, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Acetylcholine influences the speed of information processing. We examined the effect of the rs3841324 polymorphism (L/S) and the rs16969968 (G/A) polymorphism on response speed in the Stroop task and the Negative priming task. These polymorphisms are located in the gene that encodes the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α5-subunit (CHRNA5). Male carriers of the rs3841324 S/S genotype and the rs16969968 G/G genotype were faster than male carriers of at least one L allele or one A allele. In contrast, female carriers of the rs3841324 S/S genotype and the rs16969968 G/G genotype were slower than female carriers of at least one L allele or one A allele. These results indicate that the minor alleles of both polymorphisms modulate response speed in a sex-dependent, diametrically opposed manner. PMID:25674902

  18. Moderator Effects of Working Memory on the Stability of ADHD Symptoms by Dopamine Receptor Gene Polymorphisms during Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampush, Joey W.; Jacobs, Michelle M.; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor gene (DRD1 and DRD2, respectively) polymorphisms and the development of working memory skills can interact to influence symptom change over 10 years in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, we examined whether improvements in working memory maintenance…

  19. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I (SCARB1) c.1119C>T Polymorphism Affects Postprandial Triglyceride Metabolism in Men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that plays a key role in reverse cholesterol transport. A polymorphism in exon 8 (c.1119C>T) has been associated with fasting HDL- and LDL- cholesterol concentrations in Caucasian populations. This study evaluated whether ...

  20. Identification of an ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1/GRIA1 polymorphism in crossbred beef cows differing in fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A proposed functional polymorphism in the ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1 (GRIA1) has been reported to influence antral follicle numbers and fertility in cows. Repeat Breeder cows that fail to produce a calf in multiple seasons have been reported to have reduced numbers of small (1-3 mm) antral ...

  1. Contrasting patterns of polymorphism and selection in bacterial-sensing toll-like receptor 4 in two house mouse subspecies.

    PubMed

    Fornuskova, Alena; Bryja, Josef; Vinkler, Michal; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-07-01

    Detailed investigation of variation in genes involved in pathogen recognition is crucial for understanding co-evolutionary processes between parasites and their hosts. Triggering immediate innate response to invading microbes, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong presently among the best-studied receptors of vertebrate immunity. TLRs exhibit remarkable interspecific variation and also intraspecific polymorphism is well documented. In humans and laboratory mice, several studies have recently shown that single amino acid substitution may significantly alter receptor function. Unfortunately, data concerning polymorphism in free-living species are still surprisingly scarce. In this study, we analyzed the polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) over the Palearctic range of house mouse (Mus musculus). Our results reveal contrasting evolutionary patterns between the two recently (0.5 million years ago) diverged house mouse subspecies: M. m. domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm). Comparison with cytochrome b indicates strong directional selection in Mmd Tlr4. Throughout the whole Mmd western Palaearctic region, a single variant of the ligand-binding region is spread, encoded mainly by one dominant haplotype (71% of Mmd). In contrast, Tlr4 in Mmm is much more polymorphic with several haplotypes at intermediate frequencies. Moreover, we also found clear signals of recombination between two principal haplogroups in Mmm, and we identified eight sites under positive selection in our dataset. Our results suggest that observed differences in Tlr4 diversity may be attributed to contrasting parasite-mediated selection acting in the two subspecies. PMID:25165529

  2. Contrasting patterns of polymorphism and selection in bacterial-sensing toll-like receptor 4 in two house mouse subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Fornuskova, Alena; Bryja, Josef; Vinkler, Michal; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Detailed investigation of variation in genes involved in pathogen recognition is crucial for understanding co-evolutionary processes between parasites and their hosts. Triggering immediate innate response to invading microbes, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong presently among the best-studied receptors of vertebrate immunity. TLRs exhibit remarkable interspecific variation and also intraspecific polymorphism is well documented. In humans and laboratory mice, several studies have recently shown that single amino acid substitution may significantly alter receptor function. Unfortunately, data concerning polymorphism in free-living species are still surprisingly scarce. In this study, we analyzed the polymorphism of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) over the Palearctic range of house mouse (Mus musculus). Our results reveal contrasting evolutionary patterns between the two recently (0.5 million years ago) diverged house mouse subspecies: M. m. domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm). Comparison with cytochrome b indicates strong directional selection in Mmd Tlr4. Throughout the whole Mmd western Palaearctic region, a single variant of the ligand-binding region is spread, encoded mainly by one dominant haplotype (71% of Mmd). In contrast, Tlr4 in Mmm is much more polymorphic with several haplotypes at intermediate frequencies. Moreover, we also found clear signals of recombination between two principal haplogroups in Mmm, and we identified eight sites under positive selection in our dataset. Our results suggest that observed differences in Tlr4 diversity may be attributed to contrasting parasite-mediated selection acting in the two subspecies. PMID:25165529

  3. Leptin receptor polymorphisms interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids to augment risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leptin receptor (LEPR) is associated with insulin resistance, a key feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Gene-fatty acid interactions may affect MetS risk. The objective was to investigate the relationship among LEPR polymorphisms, insulin resistance, andMetSrisk and whether plasma fatty acids,...

  4. GH deficiency status combined with GH receptor polymorphism affects response to GH in children.

    PubMed

    Valsesia, Armand; Chatelain, Pierre; Stevens, Adam; Peterkova, Valentina A; Belgorosky, Alicia; Maghnie, Mohamad; Antoniazzi, Franco; Koledova, Ekaterina; Wojcik, Jerome; Farmer, Pierre; Destenaves, Benoit; Clayton, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Meta-analysis has shown a modest improvement in first-year growth response to recombinant human GH (r-hGH) for carriers of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor (GHRd3) polymorphism but with significant interstudy variability. The associations between GHRd3 and growth response to r-hGH over 3 years in relation to severity of GH deficiency (GHD) were investigated in patients from 14 countries. Treatment-naïve pre-pubertal children with GHD were enrolled from the PREDICT studies (NCT00256126 and NCT00699855), categorized by peak GH level (peak GH) during provocation test: ≤4 μg/l (severe GHD; n=45) and >4 to <10 μg/l mild GHD; n=49) and genotyped for the GHRd3 polymorphism (full length (fl/fl, fl/d3, d3/d3). Gene expression (GE) profiles were characterized at baseline. Changes in growth (height (cm) and SDS) over 3 years were measured. There was a dichotomous influence of GHRd3 polymorphism on response to r-hGH, dependent on peak GH level. GH peak level (higher vs lower) and GHRd3 (fl/fl vs d3 carriers) combined status was associated with height change over 3 years (P<0.05). GHRd3 carriers with lower peak GH had lower growth than subjects with fl/fl (median difference after 3 years -3.3 cm; -0.3 SDS). Conversely, GHRd3 carriers with higher peak GH had better growth (+2.7 cm; +0.2 SDS). Similar patterns were observed for GH-dependent biomarkers. GE profiles were significantly different between the groups, indicating that the interaction between GH status and GHRd3 carriage can be identified at a transcriptomic level. This study demonstrates that responses to r-hGH depend on the interaction between GHD severity and GHRd3 carriage. PMID:26340968

  5. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and sex interact to predict children's affective knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ben-Israel, Sharon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others' emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of theory of mind (ToM) as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R) allele within the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III) has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in social behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years) participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins. Affective knowledge was assessed through children's responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies. PMID:26157401

  6. Association between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene and disseminated testicular germ cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brokken, Leon J. S.; Lundberg-Giwercman, Yvonne; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; Eberhard, Jakob; Ståhl, Olof; Cohn-Cedermark, Gabriella; Daugaard, Gedske; Arver, Stefan; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    In the Western world, testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is the most common malignancy of young men. The malignant transformation of germ cells is thought to be caused by developmental and hormonal disturbances, probably related to environmental and lifestyle factors because of rapidly increasing incidence of TGCC in some countries. Additionally, there is a strong genetic component that affects susceptibility. However, genetic polymorphisms that have been identified so far only partially explain the risk of TGCC. Many of the persistent environmental pollutants act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). AHR signaling pathway is known to interfere with reproductive hormone signaling, which is supposed to play a role in the pathogenesis and invasive progression of TGCC. The aim of the present study was to identify whether AHR-related polymorphisms were associated with risk as well as histological and clinical features of TGCC in 367 patients and 537 controls. Haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in genes encoding AHR and AHR repressor (AHRR). Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of TGCC, non-seminoma versus seminoma, and metastasis versus localized disease. Four SNPs in AHRR demonstrated a significant allele association with risk to develop metastases (rs2466287: OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.21–0.90; rs2672725: OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25–0.94; rs6879758: OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08–0.92; rs6896163: OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12–0.98). This finding supports the hypothesis that compounds acting through AHR may play a role in the invasive progression of TGCC, either directly or through modification of reproductive hormone action. PMID:23420531

  7. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and sex interact to predict children’s affective knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Israel, Sharon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Ebstein, Richard P.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others’ emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of theory of mind (ToM) as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R) allele within the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III) has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in social behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years) participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins. Affective knowledge was assessed through children’s responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies. PMID:26157401

  8. GH deficiency status combined with GH receptor polymorphism affects response to GH in children

    PubMed Central

    Valsesia, Armand; Chatelain, Pierre; Stevens, Adam; Peterkova, Valentina A; Belgorosky, Alicia; Maghnie, Mohamad; Antoniazzi, Franco; Koledova, Ekaterina; Wojcik, Jerome; Farmer, Pierre; Destenaves, Benoit; Clayton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis has shown a modest improvement in first-year growth response to recombinant human GH (r-hGH) for carriers of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor (GHRd3) polymorphism but with significant interstudy variability. The associations between GHRd3 and growth response to r-hGH over 3 years in relation to severity of GH deficiency (GHD) were investigated in patients from 14 countries. Treatment-naïve pre-pubertal children with GHD were enrolled from the PREDICT studies (NCT00256126 and NCT00699855), categorized by peak GH level (peak GH) during provocation test: ≤4 μg/l (severe GHD; n=45) and >4 to <10 μg/l mild GHD; n=49) and genotyped for the GHRd3 polymorphism (full length (fl/fl, fl/d3, d3/d3). Gene expression (GE) profiles were characterized at baseline. Changes in growth (height (cm) and SDS) over 3 years were measured. There was a dichotomous influence of GHRd3 polymorphism on response to r-hGH, dependent on peak GH level. GH peak level (higher vs lower) and GHRd3 (fl/fl vs d3 carriers) combined status was associated with height change over 3 years (P<0.05). GHRd3 carriers with lower peak GH had lower growth than subjects with fl/fl (median difference after 3 years −3.3 cm; −0.3 SDS). Conversely, GHRd3 carriers with higher peak GH had better growth (+2.7 cm; +0.2 SDS). Similar patterns were observed for GH-dependent biomarkers. GE profiles were significantly different between the groups, indicating that the interaction between GH status and GHRd3 carriage can be identified at a transcriptomic level. This study demonstrates that responses to r-hGH depend on the interaction between GHD severity and GHRd3 carriage. PMID:26340968

  9. The role of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in Turkish infants with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Goknar, Nilufer; Öktem, Faruk; Torun, Emel; Gok, Ozlem; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Kucukkoc, Mehmet; Kilic, Ulkan

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have recently been reported to be associated with urinary calculi in pediatric and adult cases, but no studies have looked at the youngest period of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of VDR gene polymorphisms in infantile urolithiasis in a Turkish population. We compared a study group of 104 infants (55 girls and 49 boys, mean age 6.94 ± 3.81 months) with a control group of 96 infants (51 girls and 45 boys, mean age 7.51 ± 3.23) to evaluate their demographics and metabolic risk factors. PCR-based restriction analysis of the polymorphisms on the VDR gene (BsmI and TaqI) showed statistically significant differences between study and control groups (p = 0.001 and 0.043, respectively). In addition, the prevalence of the BsmI genotype was significantly different between the hypercalciuric and normocalciuric stone formers (p = 0.007). Allelic frequencies were similar between the urolithiasis and control groups (p > 0.05). The B allele of BsmI and the A allele of ApaI were more prevalent in the hypercalciuric stone formers than in the normocalciuric stone formers (p = 0.018 vs.0.036, respectively). These results suggest that the BsmI and TaqI VDR genotypes could be candidate genes leading to infantile urolithiasis. PMID:26908058

  10. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S; Thomas, Nancy E; Roy, Pampa; Kanetsky, Peter A; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Armstrong, Bruce K; Kricker, Anne; Marrett, Loraine D; Rosso, Stefano; Zanetti, Roberto; Gruber, Stephen B; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gallagher, Richard P; Dwyer, Terence; Busam, Klaus; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Factors known to affect melanoma survival include age at presentation, sex and tumor characteristics. Polymorphisms also appear to modulate survival following diagnosis. Result from other studies suggest that vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms (SNPs) impact survival in patients with glioma, renal cell carcinoma, lung, breast, prostate and other cancers; however, a comprehensive study of VDR polymorphisms and melanoma-specific survival is lacking. We aimed to investigate whether VDR genetic variation influences survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma. The analysis involved 3566 incident single and multiple primary melanoma cases enrolled in the international population-based Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study. Melanoma-specific survival outcomes were calculated for each of 38 VDR SNPs using a competing risk analysis after adjustment for covariates. There were 254 (7.1%) deaths due to melanoma during the median 7.6 years follow-up period. VDR SNPs rs7299460, rs3782905, rs2239182, rs12370156, rs2238140, rs7305032, rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs731236 (TaqI) each had a statistically significant (trend P values < 0.05) association with melanoma-specific survival in multivariate analysis. One functional SNP (rs2239182) remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing using the Monte Carlo method. None of the SNPs associated with survival were significantly associated with Breslow thickness, ulceration or mitosis. These results suggest that the VDR gene may influence survival from melanoma, although the mechanism by which VDR exerts its effect does not seem driven by tumor aggressiveness. Further investigations are needed to confirm our results and to understand the relationship between VDR and survival in the combined context of tumor and host characteristics. PMID:26521212

  11. β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms, asthma and COPD: two large population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, M; Nordestgaard, B G; Sethi, A A; Tybjærg-Hansen, A; Dahl, M

    2012-03-01

    The β(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is an important regulator of airway smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis that three functional polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene (Thr164Ile, Gly16Arg and Gln27Glu) are associated with reduced lung function, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We first genotyped 8,971 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for all three polymorphisms. To validate our findings, we genotyped an additional 53,777 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study for the Thr164Ile polymorphism. We identified 60,910 Thr164Ile noncarriers, 1,822 heterozygotes and 16 homozygotes. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, the Thr164Ile genotype was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) % predicted (trend p = 0.01) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.001): Thr164Ile heterozygotes had 3% and 2% reduced FEV(1) % pred and FEV(1)/FVC, respectively, compared with noncarriers. The odds ratio for COPD in Thr164Ile heterozygotes was 1.46 (95% CI 1.05-2.02). In the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Thr164 genotype associated with reduced FEV(1) % pred (p = 0.04) and FEV(1)/FVC (p < 0.001): Thr164Ile homozygotes and heterozygotes had 7% and 1% reduced FEV(1) % pred and 6% and 1% reduced FEV(1)/FVC, respectively, compared with noncarriers. The odds ratios for COPD in Thr164Ile homozygotes and heterozygotes were 4.53 (95% CI 1.54-13.3) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.92-1.25), respectively. Our results suggest that ADRB2 Thr164Ile is associated with reduced lung function and increased risk of COPD in the general population. PMID:22075484

  12. Pseudohypoaldosteronism in a newborn male with functional polymorphisms in the mineralocorticoid receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Ah; Park, Yoon Kyoung; Jung, Yeong Sang; Nam, Myung-Hyun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Lee, Kee Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in infancy can be attributed to various causes, originating from a variety of renal and genetic disorders. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is one of these disorders, causing mineralocorticoid resistance that results in urinary salt wasting, failure to thrive, metabolic acidosis, and dehydration. PHA1 is heterogeneous in etiology. Inactivating mutations in the NR3C2 gene (4q31.1), which encodes the mineralocorticoid receptor, causes a less severe autosomal dominant form that is restricted to the kidney, while mutations in the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel gene (alpha subunit=SCNN1A, 12p13; beta subunit=SCNN1b, 16p12.2-p12.1; gamma subunit=SCNN1G, 16p12) causes a more severe autosomal recessive form, which has systemic effects. Here we report a neonatal case of kidney restricted PHA1 (renal type of PHA1) who first showed laboratory abnormalities before obvious PHA1 manifestations, with two functional polymorphisms in the NR3C2 gene. This is the second genetically confirmed case in Korea and the first to show functional polymorphisms that have previously been reported in the literature. PMID:26817011

  13. [The association between beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and personality traits].

    PubMed

    Numajiri, Maki; Aoki, Jun; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Kasai, Shinya; Ogai, Yasukazu; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between the polymorphisms (SNPs) of the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) gene and personality assessed by TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory), was studied among 192 healthy Japanese subjects (121 male subjects and 71 female subjects). In this study, the statistical analyses were performed overall and separately for each sex. As a result, it was shown that there were significant relationships between SD (self-directedness) and 49Ser/Gly (rs1801252) in ADRB1, P (persistence) and 389Arg/Gly (rs1801253) in ADRB1, and ST (self-transcendence) and 27Gln/Glu (rs1042714) in ADRB2 overall. Among the male subjects, there were further significant relationships between ST and 49Ser/Gly in ADRB1, NS (novelty-seeking), HA (harm avoidance) and P and 389Arg/Gly in ADRB1, and P and 64Arg/Trp(rsrs4994) in ADRB3. Among the female subjects, there were also significant relationships between SD and 49Ser/Gly in ADRB1, and C (cooperativeness) and 389Arg/Gly in ADRB1. Thus it was shown that there were correlations between beta-AR gene polymorphisms and several subscales of TCI. PMID:23012891

  14. Polymorphism of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor gene in intron 10 of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Rocas, M; Jakubauskiene, E; Kanopka, A

    2011-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., PCDFs), often called "dioxins", are ubiquitously present environmental contaminants. Some of them, notably 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), are among the most toxic synthetic compounds known. The biological effects of dioxins are mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Mutations in the AhR transactivation domain are linked to sensitivity to the acute lethality of TCDD. We present here a study of AhR gene polymorphism in normal and cancer human tissues affecting pre-mRNA splicing in the AhR gene-coding transactivation domain region (exon 10, intron 10, exon 11 region), previously shown to be associated with AhR dysfunction. We tested 126 pairs of normal and cancer tissue samples from liver, lung, stomach, kidney, mucous, breast, and pancreas of 49 males and 77 females (45-70 years of age). We used in vitro splicing assay, RT-PCR and sequencing methods. Our results showed that in an in vitro system it is possible to reconstitute cellular pre-mRNA splicing events. Tested cancer tissues did not contain mutations in the AhR transactivation domain region when the DNA sequences were compared with those from normal tissues. There were also no differences in AhR mRNA splice variants between normal and malignant breast tissues and no polymorphisms in the studied regions or cDNA. PMID:22052373

  15. No evidence of major effects in several Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jaen, Olivier; Petit-Teixeira, Elisabeth; Kirsten, Holger; Ahnert, Peter; Semerano, Luca; Pierlot, Céline; Cornelis, Francois; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Falgarone, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to study the potential genetic contribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TLRs bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and TLR genes influence both proinflammatory cytokine production and autoimmune responses. Host–pathogen interactions are involved in RA physiopathology. Methods We tested SNPs of five TLR genes (TLR9, TLR2, TLR6, TLR1, and TLR4) in a cohort of 100 French families with RA. Genotypes were analyzed using the transmission disequilibrium test. As TLR2, TLR6, and TLR1 are located on chromosome 4, we determined the haplotype relative risk. Analyses were performed in subgroups defined by status for rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies, and erosions. Results We found no disequilibrium in allele transmission for any of the SNPs of the five TLR genes. In subgroup analyses, no associations were detected linking TLR9, TLR2, or TLR9/TLR2 to rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies, or erosions. Haplotype analysis of the polymorphisms showed no haplotype associations in any of the subgroups. Conclusions We found no evidence of major effects of TLR gene polymorphisms in RA, although we tested different TLR phenotypes. Moreover, no associations were noted with autoantibody production or erosions. PMID:19134200

  16. Distress of ostracism: oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism confers sensitivity to social exclusion.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, Robyn J; McInnis, Opal A; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-08-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, involving a guanine (G) to adenine (A) substitution has been associated with altered prosocial features. Specifically, individuals with the GG genotype (i.e. the absence of the polymorphism) display beneficial traits including enhanced trust, empathy and self-esteem. However, because G carriers might also be more socially sensitive, this may render them more vulnerable to the adverse effects of a negative social stressor. The current investigation, conducted among 128 white female undergraduate students, demonstrated that relative to individuals with AA genotype, G carriers were more emotionally sensitive (lower self-esteem) in response to social ostracism promoted through an on-line ball tossing game (Cyberball). Furthermore, GG individuals also exhibited altered blood pressure and cortisol levels following rejection, effects not apparent among A carriers. The data support the view that the presence of the G allele not only promotes prosocial behaviors but also favors sensitivity to a negative social stressor. PMID:25564674

  17. Evolution of an intronic microsatellite polymorphism in Toll-like receptor 2 among primates.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jae-Joon; Adams, Amelia A; Kim, Ju Han; Holland, Steven M

    2006-09-01

    Nonhuman primates express varying responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: New World monkeys appear to be resistant to tuberculosis (TB) while Old World monkeys seem to be particularly susceptible. The aim of this study was to elucidate the presence of the regulatory guanine-thymine (GT) repeat polymorphisms in intron 2 of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) associated with the development of TB in humans and to determine any variations in these microsatellite polymorphisms in primates. We sequenced the region encompassing the regulatory GT repeat microsatellites in intron 2 of TLR2 in 12 different nonhuman primates using polymerase chain reaction amplification, TA cloning, and automatic sequencing. The nonhuman primates included for this study were as follows: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), bonobo (Pan paniscus), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), Celebes ape (Macaca nigra), rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina), patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), Woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), tamarin (Saguinus labiatus), and ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Nucleotide sequences encompassing the regulatory GT repeat region are similar across species and are completely conserved in great apes. However, Old World monkeys lack GT repeats altogether, while New World monkeys and ring-tailed lemurs have much more complex structures around the position of the repeats. In conclusion, the genetic structures encompassing the regulatory GT repeats in intron 2 of human TLR2 are similar among nonhuman primates. The sequence is most conserved in New World monkeys and less in Old World monkeys. PMID:16912902

  18. Human population genetic structure detected by pain-related mu opioid receptor gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    López Soto, Eduardo Javier; Catanesi, Cecilia Inés

    2015-01-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Mu Opioid Receptor gene (OPRM1) have been identified and associated with a wide variety of clinical phenotypes related both to pain sensitivity and analgesic requirements. The A118G and other potentially functional OPRM1 SNPs show significant differences in their allele distributions among populations. However, they have not been properly addressed in a population genetic analysis. Population stratification could lead to erroneous conclusions when they are not taken into account in association studies. The aim of our study was to analyze OPRM1 SNP variability by comparing population samples of the International Hap Map database and to analyze a new population sample from the city of Corrientes, Argentina. The results confirm that OPRM1 SNP variability differs among human populations and displays a clear ancestry genetic structure, with three population clusters: Africa, Asia, and Europe-America. PMID:26273217

  19. The Associations Between the Polymorphisms of Vitamin D Receptor and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuai; Guo, Shizhe; Hu, Fen; Guo, Yushu; Yan, Lianhua; Ma, Wenhan; Wang, Ya; Wei, Yuzhen; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Wang, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms were indicated to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD); however, published studies reported inconsistent results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to reach a more accurate estimation of the relationship between VDR genetic polymorphisms and CAD risk. Eligible studies were retrieved by searching PubMed, Embase, VIP, Wanfang and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Included and excluded criteria were formulated. The case group was patients with CAD, and the control group was healthy subjects. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate VDR polymorphisms associations with CAD risk. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Q statistic and I2 statistic. Seven studies of a total of 2306 CAD patients and 4151 control subjects met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results from Taq1 showed increased risk in allelic model (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02–1.28), dominant model (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02–1.43), heterozygote model (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.00–1.1.42), and homozygote model (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.01–1.61). Besides, Fok1 T > C showed decreased risk in allelic model (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65–1.00) and Fok1 A > G also showed decreased risk in allelic model (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45–1.00) and recessive model (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31–0.97). In Caucasian subgroup, Bsm1showed increased risk in allelic model (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.02–1.47), heterozygote model (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00–1.44), and homozygote model (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02–1.45). In CAD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), Apa1showed a decreased risk in heterozygote model (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66–0.98); however, increased risk in recessive model (OR = 5.00, 95% CI = 2.74–9.13) was discovered in CAD patients without T2DM. The Fok1 polymorphism may play a protective role in CAD

  20. The Clinical Significance of Interleukin–1 Receptor Antagonist +2018 Polymorphism in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Endom; Nofal, Omimah Khaled Jaber; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham; Shaharir, Syahrul Sazliyana; Sridharan, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) acts as an inhibitor of IL-1; which is one of the culprit cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although +2018 polymorphism of IL-1Ra has been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA, its importance remains poorly understood. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) +2018 polymorphism in RA. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used to determine the genotypes of the IL-1Ra +2018 for 77 RA patients and 18 healthy controls. All RA patients were assessed for the disease activity score that includes 28 joints (DAS28) and radiographic disease damage based on Modified Sharp Score (MSS). Results The frequency of the T/T and C/T genotypes did not differ significantly (p = 0.893) between the RA patients and the controls. The C/T genotype had significantly higher mean disease activity (DAS 28) and disease damage (MSS) scores with p values of 0.017 and 0.004, respectively. Additionally, the ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate), CRP (C-reactive protein), the number of swollen and tender joints were higher for the C/T individuals. On multivariate analysis the CRP, swollen joint count and MSS remained significant with the following p values i.e. 0.045, 0.046 and less than 0.05. Conclusions C/T genotype of IL-1Ra +2018 prognosticates more aggressive disease in RA. PMID:27105431

  1. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors in dispersed rat testicular interstitial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Poyet, P.; Labrie, F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate steroidogenesis and cyclic AMP formation in mouse Leydig cells in culture. To obtain information about the possible presence and the characteristics of a beta-adrenergic receptor in rat testicular interstitial cells, the potent beta-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol (CYP) was used as ligand. Interstitial cells prepared by collagenase dispersion from rat testis were incubated with the ligand for 2 h at room temperature. (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol binds to a single class of high affinity sites at an apparent KD value of 15 pM. A number of sites of 6,600 sites/cell is measured when 0.1 microM (-) propranolol is used to determine non-specific binding. The order of potency of a series of agonists competing for (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol binding is consistent with the interaction of a beta 2-subtype receptor: zinterol greater than (-) isoproterenol greater than (-) epinephrine = salbutamol much greater than (-) norepinephrine. In addition, it was observed that the potency of a large series of specific beta 1 and beta 2 synthetic compounds for displacing (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol in rat interstitial cells is similar to the potency observed for these compounds in a typical beta 2-adrenergic tissue, the rat lung. For example, the potency of zinterol, a specific beta 2-adrenergic agonist, is 10 times higher in interstitial cells and lung than in rat heart, a typical beta 1-adrenergic tissue. Inversely, practolol, a typical beta 1-antagonist, is about 50 times more potent in rat heart than in interstitial cells and lung.

  2. Association of Luteinizing Hormone Chorionic Gonadotropin Receptor Gene Polymorphism (rs2293275) with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Addepally, Uma; Qurratulain, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovaries and irregular menstruation/anovulation are important diagnostic criteria along with hyperandrogenism as per the Androgen Excess Society–2006 criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In the etiopathogenesis of PCOS, one of the candidate genes causing ovarian failure is the luteinizing hormone (LH) chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LHCGR). Our aim was to study the association of LHCGR polymorphism (rs2293275) with PCOS in our study population. Materials and Methods: Genetic case–control study from multiple gynecological centers from Hyderabad, a cosmopolitan city in South India. The study involved 204 women with PCOS and 204 healthy, sex-, and age-matched controls. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles were taken in a well-designed pro forma. Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and genotype analysis were done for the entire study population using the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism method followed by 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: In this study, we have demonstrated an association between LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism and PCOS. The frequency of the G allele was 0.60 in PCOS and 0.49 in controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.531, confidence interval [CI] 1.16–2.01, and p-value=0.0026), which indicates that the G allele is associated with PCOS in our population. The GG genotype conferred a significant risk of developing PCOS (OR 3.36, CI 1.96–5.75, and p-value<0.0001). We found a significant association of the GG allele with body–mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance, LH, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio in PCOS when compared with controls. The AA allele showed high basal FSH levels. Conclusions: This study suggests that LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism is associated with PCOS and could be used as a relevant molecular marker to identify women with the risk of developing PCOS in our population and may provide an understanding about the

  3. Fc Gamma Receptor 3A Polymorphism and Risk for HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Soma; Gohil, Shruti; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Schultz, Hannah; Dufaud, Chad; Armour, Kathryn L.; Badri, Sheila; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most common causes of fungal disease in HIV-infected persons, but not all of those who are infected develop cryptococcal disease (CD). Although CD4+ T cell deficiency is a risk factor for HIV-associated CD, polymorphisms of phagocytic Fc gamma receptors (FCGRs) have been linked to CD risk in HIV-uninfected persons. To investigate associations between FCGR2A 131 H/R and FCGR3A 158 F/V polymorphisms and CD risk in HIV-infected persons, we performed PCR-based genotyping on banked samples from 164 men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS): 55 who were HIV infected and developed CD and a matched control group of 54 who were HIV infected and 55 who were HIV uninfected. Using additive and allelic statistical models for analysis, the high-affinity FCGR3A 158V allele was significantly associated with CD status after adjusting for race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; P = 0.005), as was the FCGR3A 158 VV homozygous genotype after adjusting for race/ethnicity, rate of CD4+ T cell decline, and nadir CD4+ T cell count (OR, 21; P = 0.005). No associations between CD and FCGR2A 131 H/R polymorphism were identified. In binding studies, human IgG (hIgG)-C. neoformans complexes exhibited more binding to CHO-K1 cells expressing FCGR3A 158V than to those expressing FCGR3A 158F, and in cytotoxicity assays, natural killer (NK) cells expressing FCGR3A 158V induced more C. neoformans-infected monocyte cytotoxicity than those expressing FCGR3A 158F. Together, these results show an association between the FCGR3A 158V allele and risk for HIV-associated CD and suggest that this polymorphism could promote C. neoformans pathogenesis via increased binding of C. neoformans immune complexes, resulting in increased phagocyte cargo and/or immune activation. PMID:23982074

  4. Association between Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Scoliosis in Bulgarian Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Svetla; Yablanski, Vasil; Vlaev, Evgeni; Stokov, Luben; Savov, Alexey; Kremensky, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current consensus on idiopathic scoliosis maintains that it has a multifactorial etiology with genetic predisposing factors. AIM: Estrogen receptor alpha gene has been considered as candidate gene of idiopathic scoliosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of Bulgarian population samples (eighty patients with idiopathic scoliosis and one hundred-sixty healthy unrelated gender-matched controls) trying to investigate the association between common genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptor alpha and the susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis. Molecular detection of the restriction polymorphisms XbaI and PvuII was performed by polymerase chain reaction following by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The statistical analysis was performed by Pearson’s chi-squared test. RESULTS: Our case-control study showed statistically significant association between the PvuII polymorphism and susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis and curve progression. No genotype or allele of XbaI polymorphism was found to be correlated with the onset or severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of molecular markers with diagnostic and prognostic value could be useful for early detection of children at risk for the development of scoliosis and for prognosis of the risk for a rapid deformity progression. That would facilitate the therapy decisions and early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures. PMID:27275235

  5. Association of IFN-γ and P2X7 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Susceptibility to Tuberculosis Among Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Mahdi; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; Farnia, Parissa

    2016-03-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and P2X7 receptor are crucial for host defence against mycobacterial infections. Recent studies have indicated that IFN-γ, IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γR1) andP2X7 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, the relationship between IFN-γ and P2X7 polymorphism and TB susceptibility remains inconclusive in Iranian population. For this reason, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFN-γ (G+2109A), IFN-γR1 (G-611A) and P2X7 genes (at -762, 1513 position) in patients (n = 100) were assessed using PCR-RFLP. Data were analysed with SPSS version 18. For the 2109 loci of IFN-γ gene, the frequency of mutant alleles between patients and controls were not statistically significant. However, there was a significant difference between the TB patient and controls for -611 alleles of IFN-γR1 (P = 0.01). Additionally, the frequency of P2X7 gene polymorphisms (SNP-762 and 1513) between patients and controls was statistically significant. In conclusions, our study revealed a significant association of IFN-γR1 and P2X7 genes polymorphisms with risk of developing TB in Iranian population. PMID:27020872

  6. Relationship of Genetic Polymorphisms of the Chemokine, CCL5, and Its Receptor, CCR5, with Coronary Artery Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Ke-Hsin; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Chiang, Whei-Ling; Chou, Ying-Erh; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 polymorphism, which confers resistance to HIV infection, has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association of the chemokine, CCL5, and its receptor, CCR5, polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Taiwanese has not been studied. In this study, 483 subjects who received elective coronary angiography were recruited from Chung Shan Medical University Hospital. CCL5-403 and CCR5-59029 were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found that CCL5-403 with TT genotype frequencies was significantly associated with the risk of CAD group (odds ratio = 3.063 and p = 0.012). Moreover, the frequencies of CCR5-59029 with GG or GA genotype were higher than AA genotype in acute coronary syndrome individuals (odds ratio = 1.853, CI = 1.176–2.921, p = 0.008). In conclusion, we found that CCL5-403 polymorphism may increase genetic susceptibility of CAD. CCL5-403 or CCR5-59029 single nucleotide polymorphism may include genotype score and it may predict cardiovascular event. PMID:26688689

  7. Lack of Association between Toll Like Receptor-2 and Toll Like Receptor-4 Gene Polymorphisms and Other Feature in Iranian Asthmatics Patients.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Hamid; Daneshmandi, Saeed; Heidarnazhad, Hasan; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Asthma as a chronic inflammatory airway disease is considered to be the most common chronic disease that is involving genetic and environmental factors. Toll like receptors (TLRs) and other inflammatory mediators are important in modulation of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the role of TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms in the asthma susceptibility, progress, control levels and lung functions in Iranian patients. On 99 asthmatic patients and 120 normal subjects, TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR-RFLP method recruiting Msp1 and Nco1 restriction enzymes, respectively. IgE serum levels by ELISA technique were determined and asthma diagnosis, treatment and control levels were considered using standard schemes and criteria. Our results indicated that the genotype and allele frequencies of the TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms were not significantly different between control subjects and asthmatics and were not related to in asthma features such as IgE levels, asthma history and pulmonary factors. Wherease some previous studies indicated TLRs and their polymorphisms might have some role in asthma incidence and features, our data demonstrated that TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly gene variants were not risk factors for asthma or its features in Iranian patients. Genetic complexity, ethnicity, influence of other genes or polymorphisms may overcome these polymorphisms in our asthmatics. PMID:25530138

  8. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Vitamin D Receptor Gene FokI Polymorphism and Clinical Progress of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Li; Zhu, Jian-guo; Pan, Cong; Hua, Xing; Yuan, Dong-bo; Li, Zheng-ming; Zhong, Wei-de

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and clinical progress of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Chinese men. Methods. The DNA was extracted from blood of 200 BPH patients with operation (progression group) and 200 patients without operation (control group), respectively. The genotypes of VDR gene FokI SNP represented by “F/f” were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The odds ratio (OR) of having progression of BPH for having the genotype were calculated. Results. Our date indicated that the f alleles of the VDR gene FokI SNP associated with the progression of BPH (P = 0.009). Conclusion. For the first time, our study demonstrated that VDR gene FokI SNP may be associated with the risk of BPH progress. PMID:25685834

  9. Common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with human social recognition skills

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, David H.; Lori, Adriana; Cubells, Joseph F.; Lee, Irene; Conneely, Karen N.; Puura, Kaija; Lehtimäki, Terho; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are evolutionarily conserved regulators of social perception and behavior. Evidence is building that they are critically involved in the development of social recognition skills within rodent species, primates, and humans. We investigated whether common polymorphisms in the genes encoding the oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors influence social memory for faces. Our sample comprised 198 families, from the United Kingdom and Finland, in whom a single child had been diagnosed with high-functioning autism. Previous research has shown that impaired social perception, characteristic of autism, extends to the first-degree relatives of autistic individuals, implying heritable risk. Assessments of face recognition memory, discrimination of facial emotions, and direction of gaze detection were standardized for age (7–60 y) and sex. A common SNP in the oxytocin receptor (rs237887) was strongly associated with recognition memory in combined probands, parents, and siblings after correction for multiple comparisons. Homozygotes for the ancestral A allele had impairments in the range −0.6 to −1.15 SD scores, irrespective of their diagnostic status. Our findings imply that a critical role for the oxytocin system in social recognition has been conserved across perceptual boundaries through evolution, from olfaction in rodents to visual memory in humans. PMID:24367110

  10. Genetic imaging of the association of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms with positive maternal parenting

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Kalina J.; Decety, Jean; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Martz, Meghan E.; Jacob, Suma; Hipwell, Alison E.; Lee, Steve S.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Well-validated models of maternal behavior in small-brain mammals posit a central role of oxytocin in parenting, by reducing stress and enhancing the reward value of social interactions with offspring. In contrast, human studies are only beginning to gain insights into how oxytocin modulates maternal behavior and affiliation. Methods: To explore associations between oxytocin receptor genes and maternal parenting behavior in humans, we conducted a genetic imaging study of women selected to exhibit a wide range of observed parenting when their children were 4–6 years old. Results: In response to child stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), hemodynamic responses in brain regions that mediate affect, reward, and social behavior were significantly correlated with observed positive parenting. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs53576 and rs1042778) in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor were significantly associated with both positive parenting and hemodynamic responses to child stimuli in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior and support the feasibility of tracing biological pathways from genes to neural regions to positive maternal parenting behaviors in humans using genetic imaging methods. PMID:24550797

  11. Association of adenosine receptor gene polymorphisms and in vivo adenosine A1 receptor binding in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Hohoff, Christa; Garibotto, Valentina; Elmenhorst, David; Baffa, Anna; Kroll, Tina; Hoffmann, Alana; Schwarte, Kathrin; Zhang, Weiqi; Arolt, Volker; Deckert, Jürgen; Bauer, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) and the interacting adenosine A2A receptors are implicated in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Variants within the corresponding genes ADORA1 and ADORA2A were shown associated with pathophysiologic alterations, particularly increased anxiety. It is unknown so far, if these variants might modulate the A1AR distribution and availability in different brain regions. In this pilot study, the influence of ADORA1 and ADORA2A variants on in vivo A1AR binding was assessed with the A1AR-selective positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [(18)F]CPFPX in brains of healthy humans. Twenty-eight normal control subjects underwent PET procedures to calculate the binding potential BPND of [(18)F]CPFPX in cerebral regions and to assess ADORA1 and ADORA2A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects on regional BPND data. Our results revealed SNPs of both genes associated with [(18)F]CPFPX binding to the A1AR. The strongest effects that withstood even Bonferroni correction of multiple SNP testing were found in non-smoking subjects (N=22) for ADORA2A SNPs rs2236624 and rs5751876 (corr. Pall<0.05). SNP alleles previously identified at risk for increased anxiety like the rs5751876 T-allele corresponded to consistently higher A1AR availability in all brain regions. Our data indicate for the first time that variation of A1AR availability was associated with ADORA SNPs. The finding of increased A1AR availability in regions of the fear network, particularly in ADORA2A risk allele carriers, strongly warrants evaluation and replication in further studies including individuals with increased anxiety. PMID:24943643

  12. Prevalence of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism in a Uruguayan population and its relation to type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mimbacas, A; Trujillo, J; Gascue, C; Javiel, G; Cardoso, H

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin D has important immuno-modulatory properties and it influences insulin secretion. It acts through a vitamin D receptor (VDR), for which several gene polymorphisms have been described. The Uruguayan population presents several epidemiological characteristics that make it different from that of other counties, including other Latin-American countries. It went through miscegenation processes, with a tri-hybrid European, Amerindian and African origin, with no contribution from isolated Amerindian communities. Such differences have important consequences for the relationship between frequencies of several genes in the general population and their association with the diabetes mellitus. We examined the prevalence of VDR gene polymorphisms in the general population and their relation to type 1 diabetes in a parent-case design. One hundred unrelated individuals from the general population and 45 parent-patient triads with a child affected with type 1 diabetes were genotyped for FokI, BsmI and TaqI VDR gene polymorphisms by RFLP-PCR. We used a transmission disequilibrium test to assess preferential transmission of parents to affected offspring. The prevalence of the three VDR polymorphisms was: allele F = 48%, B = 35%, T = 64%. The f, b, T alleles and heterozygous genotypes were found at a high frequency in this population. Among 36 informative heterozygous parental genotypes, 30 transmitted the F allele (probability of transmission = 83%). The other two polymorphisms did not show significant transmission. We suggest that FokI polymorphism indicates susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Uruguayan population. PMID:17985306

  13. Association between Toll-like receptor 7 Gln11Leu single-nucleotide polymorphism and basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    RUSSO, IRENE; CONA, CAMILLA; SAPONERI, ANDREA; BASSETTO, FRANCO; BALDO, VINCENZO; ALAIBAC, MAURO

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common form of human skin cancer. The majority of NMSC are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with a BCC:SCC incidence ratio of 4:1 in immunocompetent patients. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns, against which they activate the innate immune response and initiate the adaptive immune response. Genetic variations of these receptors can alter the immune system and are involved in evolution and susceptibility of various diseases, including cancer. Imiquimod, an agonist of TLR7, is applied topically in the treatment of premalignant and malignant skin disorders, in particular BCC. The high efficacy of this TLR7 agonist toward BCC supports a possible role of this receptor in the induction of BCC and, consequently, polymorphisms of this receptor could be responsible for a greater or lesser susceptibility to BCC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the presence of the functional TLR7 rs179008/Gln11Leu promoter polymorphism conferred an increased susceptibility to BCC. A case-control study with 177 BCC cases and 158 controls was performed to highlight the possible association between this polymorphism and the susceptibility to BCC. As the TLR7 gene is localized on chromosome X, the allelic frequency of this polymorphism was analyzed separately in males and females. The analysis of the distribution of frequencies of wild-type TLR7 and variant TLR7 carrying the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs179008 in patients with BCC and healthy subjects did not reveal any statistically significant difference between cases and controls. This study does not suggest the involvement of the SNP rs179008 of TLR7 in the susceptibility to BCC, but cannot exclude a role for TLR7 in BCC carcinogenesis considering the high efficacy of the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod, in the treatment of this

  14. Genetic Polymorphisms of Platelet Receptors in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction and Resistance to Antiplatelet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ulehlova, Jana; Kucerova, Jana; Krcova, Vera; Vaclavik, Jan; Indrak, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Methods: The studied group comprises 124 patients with acute myocardial infarction on dual antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and thienopyridines. Antiplatelet therapy was monitored by platelet-rich plasma light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) using the APACT 4004 analyzer (Helena Laboratories) and by whole blood impedance aggregometry (multiple electrode aggregometry [MEA]) using the Multiplate analyzer (Dynabyte). Platelet aggregation was detected after stimulation with arachidonic acid for detection of aspirin resistance and with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and prostaglandin E1 for detection of thienopyridine resistance. To determine the frequencies of P2Y12 (i-744T>C; rs2046934), P2Y12 (34C>T; rs6785930), COX-1 (-842A>G; rs10306114), GPVI (13254T>C; rs1613662), and GPIbA (5T>C; rs2243093) polymorphisms, DNA of patients with AIM was tested by real-time-polymerase chain reaction and melting curve analysis using the LightCycler 480 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics). Results: The cut-off points used for patients with effective ASA therapy are 25% of aggregated platelets and 220 area under the curve (AUC)/min if LTA or MEA, respectively. The cut-off points used for effective thienopyridine therapy are 45% of aggregated platelets or 298 AUC/min, respectively. Both LTA and MEA found that aspirin and thienopyridine therapies failed in 14.51% and 25.8%, respectively. The data were statistically processed using the SPSS version 15 software (SPSS, Inc.). Associations between receptor mutation status and response to therapy were assessed with Fisher's exact test. The significance level was set at 0.05. Conclusion: The aim of our work was to use the two functional laboratory methods described earlier to assess both aspirin and thienopyridine resistance and to determine the contribution of genetic polymorphisms of platelet receptors to resistance to antiplatelet therapy in AIM. Fisher's exact test showed a significant statistical correlation between platelet

  15. Association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, delta, and gamma polymorphisms and risk of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yufeng; Li, Peiwei; Zhang, Jinjie; Shi, Yu; Chen, Kun; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua; Ye, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been suggested to be associated with polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), while the results were controversial. We aimed to systematically assess the association between PPAR polymorphisms and CHD risk. Methods: A case–control study with 446 subjects was conducted to evaluate the association between CHD risk and C161T polymorphism, which was of our special interest as this polymorphism showed different effects on risks of CHD and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Meta-analyses were conducted to assess all PPAR polymorphisms. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall odds ratios (ORs). Results: In the case–control study, T allele carriers of C161T polymorphism were not significantly associated with CHD risk (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47–1.15, P = 0.19), while T allele carriers showed higher risk of ACS (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.00–2.65, P = 0.048). The meta-analysis indicated that compared with CC homozygous, T allele carriers had lower CHD risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.59–0.82, P < 0.001) but higher ACS risk (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.09–1.87, P = 0.010). Three other polymorphisms were also found to be significantly associated with CHD risk under dominant model: PPAR-alpha intron 7G/C polymorphism (CC+GC vs GG, OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.13–1.78, P = 0.003), L162V polymorphism (VV+LV vs LL, OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.97, P = 0.031), and PPAR-delta +294T/C polymorphism (CC+TC vs TT, OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.12–2.05, P = 0.007). Conclusions: The results suggested that PPAR-alpha intron 7G/C and L162V, PPAR-delta +294T/C and PPAR-gamma C161T polymorphisms could affect CHD susceptibility, and C161T polymorphism might have different effects on CHD and ACS. PMID:27512842

  16. Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Mouse and Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Function

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao; Walter, Nicole A. R.; Harkness, John H.; Neve, Kim A.; Williams, Robert W.; Lu, Lu; Belknap, John K.; Eshleman, Amy J.; Phillips, Tamara J.; Janowsky, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites such as tyramine, octopamine, and β-phenethylamine stimulate the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 has been implicated in human conditions including obesity, schizophrenia, depression, fibromyalgia, migraine, and addiction. Additionally TAAR1 is expressed on lymphocytes and astrocytes involved in inflammation and response to infection. In brain, TAAR1 stimulation reduces synaptic dopamine availability and alters glutamatergic function. TAAR1 is also expressed at low levels in heart, and may regulate cardiovascular tone. Taar1 knockout mice orally self-administer more MA than wild type and are insensitive to its aversive effects. DBA/2J (D2) mice express a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Taar1 that does not respond to MA, and D2 mice are predisposed to high MA intake, compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we demonstrate that endogenous agonists stimulate the recombinant B6 mouse TAAR1, but do not activate the D2 mouse receptor. Progeny of the B6XD2 (BxD) family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been used to characterize the genetic etiology of diseases, but contrary to expectations, BXDs derived 30–40 years ago express only the functional B6 Taar1 allele whereas some more recently derived BXD RI strains express the D2 allele. Data indicate that the D2 mutation arose subsequent to derivation of the original RIs. Finally, we demonstrate that SNPs in human TAAR1 alter its function, resulting in expressed, but functional, sub-functional and non-functional receptors. Our findings are important for identifying a predisposition to human diseases, as well as for developing personalized treatment options. PMID:27031617

  17. Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Mouse and Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Function.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao; Walter, Nicole A R; Harkness, John H; Neve, Kim A; Williams, Robert W; Lu, Lu; Belknap, John K; Eshleman, Amy J; Phillips, Tamara J; Janowsky, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) and neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites such as tyramine, octopamine, and β-phenethylamine stimulate the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 has been implicated in human conditions including obesity, schizophrenia, depression, fibromyalgia, migraine, and addiction. Additionally TAAR1 is expressed on lymphocytes and astrocytes involved in inflammation and response to infection. In brain, TAAR1 stimulation reduces synaptic dopamine availability and alters glutamatergic function. TAAR1 is also expressed at low levels in heart, and may regulate cardiovascular tone. Taar1 knockout mice orally self-administer more MA than wild type and are insensitive to its aversive effects. DBA/2J (D2) mice express a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Taar1 that does not respond to MA, and D2 mice are predisposed to high MA intake, compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we demonstrate that endogenous agonists stimulate the recombinant B6 mouse TAAR1, but do not activate the D2 mouse receptor. Progeny of the B6XD2 (BxD) family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been used to characterize the genetic etiology of diseases, but contrary to expectations, BXDs derived 30-40 years ago express only the functional B6 Taar1 allele whereas some more recently derived BXD RI strains express the D2 allele. Data indicate that the D2 mutation arose subsequent to derivation of the original RIs. Finally, we demonstrate that SNPs in human TAAR1 alter its function, resulting in expressed, but functional, sub-functional and non-functional receptors. Our findings are important for identifying a predisposition to human diseases, as well as for developing personalized treatment options. PMID:27031617

  18. Association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of cholecystokinin receptor A gene with schizophrenia in an Eastern Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Jayanta K.; Dasgupta, Anindya; Singh, Omprakash; Banerjee, Ushasi; Basu, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cholecystokinin A receptor (CCK-AR) gene polymorphism is being increasingly reported in schizophrenia. It varies among different population groups but is associated with several complications of schizophrenia. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess whether the CCK-AR polymorphism is stabilized and is more consistently associated with schizophrenia in an Eastern Indian sub-population. Settings and Design: It was carried out as a cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study on 95 schizophrenia patients and 138 control subjects selected by the method of convenience. Materials and Methods: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in the regulatory region of the CCK-AR gene were assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified product of CCK-AR gene in study subjects. RFLP was done by the digestion of the PCR product by the restriction enzyme Pst-1 followed by gel electrophoresis. Statistical Analysis: Assessment of the stability of C/T polymorphism in the study population was done by applying Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium rule. The significance of difference in the allelic distribution between case and controls was analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) test and odds ratio (OR) analysis. Result: CCK-R polymorphism was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in both groups. Distribution of the C allele of this gene was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients (χ2 = 4.35, OR = 1.51; confidence interval at 95% =1.04–2.20). Conclusion: C/T polymorphism of the CCK-R gene is a stable polymorphism in our study population. Moreover, the C allele is significantly more abundant in schizophrenia patients imparting them a greater risk of development of complications like auditory hallucination. PMID:26600580

  19. Growth hormone receptor polymorphism and growth hormone therapy response in children: a Bayesian meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Renehan, Andrew G; Solomon, Mattea; Zwahlen, Marcel; Morjaria, Reena; Whatmore, Andrew; Audí, Laura; Binder, Gerhard; Blum, Werner; Bougnères, Pierre; Santos, Christine Dos; Carrascosa, Antonio; Hokken-Koelega, Anita; Jorge, Alexander; Mullis, Primus E; Tauber, Maïthé; Patel, Leena; Clayton, Peter E

    2012-05-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy is used in the long-term treatment of children with growth disorders, but there is considerable treatment response variability. The exon 3-deleted growth hormone receptor polymorphism (GHR(d3)) may account for some of this variability. The authors performed a systematic review (to April 2011), including investigator-only data, to quantify the effects of the GHR(fl-d3) and GHR(d3-d3) genotypes on rhGH therapy response and used a recently established Bayesian inheritance model-free approach to meta-analyze the data. The primary outcome was the 1-year change-in-height standard-deviation score for the 2 genotypes. Eighteen data sets from 12 studies (1,527 children) were included. After several prior assumptions were tested, the most appropriate inheritance model was codominant (posterior probability = 0.93). Compared with noncarriers, carriers had median differences in 1-year change-in-height standard-deviation score of 0.09 (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.01, 0.17) for GHR(fl-d3) and of 0.14 (95% CrI: 0.02, 0.26) for GHR(d3-d3). However, the between-study standard deviation of 0.18 (95% CrI: 0.10, 0.33) was considerable. The authors tested by meta-regression for potential modifiers and found no substantial influence. They conclude that 1) the GHR(d3) polymorphism inheritance is codominant, contrasting with previous reports; 2) GHR(d3) genotypes account for modest increases in rhGH effects in children; and 3) considerable unexplained variability in responsiveness remains. PMID:22494952

  20. Association between polymorphisms of estrogen receptor 2 and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    KIM, SU KANG; CHUNG, JOO-HO; PARK, HYUN CHUL; KIM, JUN HO; ANN, JAE HONG; PARK, HUN KUK; LEE, SANG HYUP; YOO, KOO HAN; LEE, BYUNG-CHEOL; KIM, YOUNG OCK

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens and estrogen receptors (ESRs) have been implicated in the stimulation of aberrant prostate growth and the development of prostate diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ESR2 gene in order to examine whether ESR2 is a susceptibility gene for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In order to evaluate whether an association exists between ESR2 and BPH risk, four polymorphisms [rs4986938 (intron), rs17766755 (intron), rs12435857 (intron) and rs1256049 (Val328Val)] of the ESR2 gene were genotyped by direct sequencing. A total of 94 patients with BPH and 79 control subjects were examined. SNPStats and Haploview version 4.2 we used for the genetic analysis. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant1, codominant2, dominant, recessive and log-additive) were produced in order to obtain the odds ratio, 95% confidence interval and P-value. Three SNPs (rs4986938, rs17766755 and rs12435857) showed significant associations with BPH (rs4986938, P=0.015 in log-additive model; rs17766755, P=0.033 in codominant1 model, P=0.019 in dominant model and P=0.020 in log-additive model; rs12435857, P=0.023 in dominant model and P=0.011 in log-additive model). The minor alleles of these SNPs increased the risk of BPH, and the AAC haplotype showed significant association with BPH (χ2=6.34, P=0.0118). These data suggest that the ESR2 gene may be associated with susceptibility to BPH. PMID:26640585

  1. Association between Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Self-Rated ‘Empathic Concern’ in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christiane; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Lehmann, Anja; Müller, Daniel J.; Rujescu, Dan; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The nonapeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in social cognition, empathy, emotion and stress regulation in humans. Previous studies reported associations between OXT and OXTR genetic polymorphisms and risk for disorders characterized by impaired socio-emotional functioning, such as schizophrenia and autism. Here we investigate the influence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the OXTR gene on a measure of socio-emotional functioning in schizophrenic patients. OXTR SNPs that were previously investigated in other studies were genotyped in 145 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV and 145 healthy controls matched for age and gender. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used to assess cognitive (‘perspective taking’), affective (‘empathic concern’) and self-related (‘personal distress’) dimensions of empathy. No group differences in genotype frequencies were observed. MANCOVA revealed a significant main (F [1,282] = 10.464; p<0.01) and interaction effect (genotype by diagnosis: F [1,282] = 4.329; p<0.05) of OXTR SNP rs2254298(A>GG) with ‘empathic concern’. Within the schizophrenia group, linear regression analysis determined OXTR rs2254298 genotype, PANSS negative and general symptom score, and age of disease onset as being significantly associated with ‘empathic concern’. OXTR rs2254298 significantly impacted PANSS general psychopathology scores. No associations were found for OXTR rs53576, IRI ‘perspective taking’ or ‘personal distress’ ratings. Our preliminary findings support hypotheses about an involvement of OXTR rs2254298 in emotional empathy in schizophrenic and healthy individuals, warranting independent replication. PMID:23284802

  2. Positive association of the androgen receptor CAG repeat length polymorphism with the risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Paz-Y-Miño, César; Robles, Paulo; Salazar, Carolina; Leone, Paola E; García-Cárdenas, Jennyfer M; Naranjo, Manuel; López-Cortés, Andrés

    2016-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Ecuador (15.6%). The androgen receptor gene codes for a protein that has an androgen‑binding domain, DNA‑binding domain and N‑terminal domain, which contains two polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CAG and GGC). The aim of the present study was to determine whether variations in the number of repetitions of CAG and GGC are associated with the pathological features and the risk of developing PC. The polymorphic CAG and GGC repeat lengths in 108 mestizo patients with PC, 148 healthy mestizo individuals, and 78 healthy indigenous individuals were examined via a retrospective case‑control study. Genotypes were determined by genomic sequencing. The results demonstrated that patients with ≤21 CAG repeats have an increased risk of developing PC [odds ratio (OR)=2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.79‑5.01; P<0.001]. The presence of ≤21 CAG repeats was also associated with a tumor stage ≥T2c (OR=4.75; 95% CI=1.77‑12.72; P<0.005) and a Gleason score ≥7 (OR=2.9; 95% CI=1.1‑7.66; P=0.03). In addition, the combination of ≤21 CAG and ≥17 GGC repeats was associated with the risk of developing PC (OR=2.42; 95% CI=1.38‑4.25; P=0.002) and with tumor stage ≥T2c (OR=2.77; 95% CI=1.13‑6.79; P=0.02). In conclusion, the histopathological characteristics and PC risk in Ecuadorian indigenous and mestizo populations differs in association with the CAG repeats, and the combination of CAG and GGC repeats. PMID:27357524

  3. Association between oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms and self-rated 'empathic concern' in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Montag, Christiane; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Lehmann, Anja; Müller, Daniel J; Rujescu, Dan; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The nonapeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in social cognition, empathy, emotion and stress regulation in humans. Previous studies reported associations between OXT and OXTR genetic polymorphisms and risk for disorders characterized by impaired socio-emotional functioning, such as schizophrenia and autism. Here we investigate the influence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the OXTR gene on a measure of socio-emotional functioning in schizophrenic patients. OXTR SNPs that were previously investigated in other studies were genotyped in 145 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV and 145 healthy controls matched for age and gender. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used to assess cognitive ('perspective taking'), affective ('empathic concern') and self-related ('personal distress') dimensions of empathy. No group differences in genotype frequencies were observed. MANCOVA revealed a significant main (F [1,282] = 10.464; p<0.01) and interaction effect (genotype by diagnosis: F [1,282] = 4.329; p<0.05) of OXTR SNP rs2254298(A>GG) with 'empathic concern'. Within the schizophrenia group, linear regression analysis determined OXTR rs2254298 genotype, PANSS negative and general symptom score, and age of disease onset as being significantly associated with 'empathic concern'. OXTR rs2254298 significantly impacted PANSS general psychopathology scores. No associations were found for OXTR rs53576, IRI 'perspective taking' or 'personal distress' ratings. Our preliminary findings support hypotheses about an involvement of OXTR rs2254298 in emotional empathy in schizophrenic and healthy individuals, warranting independent replication. PMID:23284802

  4. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and risk of ovarian cancer in four studies

    PubMed Central

    Tworoger, Shelley S.; Gates, Margaret A.; Lee, I-Min; Buring, Julie E.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Cramer, Daniel; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that vitamin D may reduce ovarian cancer risk. Thus, we examined whether three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (Fok1, Bsm1, Cdx2) were associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a retrospective case-control study (New England Case-Control study, NECC) and a nested-case control study of three prospective cohort studies: the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), NHSII, and the Women’s Health Study (WHS). Data from the cohort studies were combined and analyzed using conditional logistic regression and pooled with the results from the NECC, which were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, using a random effects model. We obtained genotype data for 1,473 cases and 2,006 controls. We observed a significant positive association between the number of Fok1 f alleles and ovarian cancer risk in the pooled analysis (p-trend=0.03). The odds ratio (OR) for the ff versus FF genotype was 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.57). Neither the Bsm1 (p-trend=0.96) or Cdx2 (p-trend=0.13) SNPs were significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk. Among the prospective studies, the risk of ovarian cancer by plasma vitamin D levels did not clearly vary by any of the genotypes. For example among women with the Fok1 FF genotype, the OR comparing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥32 ng/mL versus <32 ng/mL was 0.66 (95%CI=0.34-1.28), and among women with the Ff or ff genotype the OR was 0.71 (95%CI=0.43-1.18). Our results of an association with the Fok1 VDR polymorphism further support a role of the vitamin D pathway in ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:19223536

  5. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism is associated with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, M; Pacini, S; Aterini, S; Fallai, C; Ruggiero, C; Pacini, P

    1998-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been detected in breast tumor cells. We tested the hypothesis that VDR gene polymorphism might influence the outcome of women affected by breast cancer. A total of 88 breast cancer patients were recruited: 50 women were affected by newly diagnosed breast cancer whereas 38 women suffered from relapsing disease. The individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. In 167 healthy women, participating in the osteoporosis prevention trial and being used as a control, we detected 121 Bb heterozygotes (72%), 26 homozygotes for the bb alleles (16%), and 20 homozygotes for the BB alleles (12%). In the newly diagnosed breast cancer group the occurrence of Bb patients was 58% (29/50); bb patients represented 22% (11/50), and BB cases were 20% (10/50). The VDR frequency distribution in the control and primary disease patient groups was not statistically different. In the metastatic cancer group, the prevalence of the bb genotype (14/38; 37%) was double the percentage of control subjects, whereas the percentage of BB women with metastases was half the control group (2/38; 5%). Women who were homozygous bb appeared to have almost a four times higher risk of developing metastases than BB women. Whatever the molecular mechanisms underlying the VDR effects in cancer cells, we believe that the VDR gene polymorphism may represent an important determinant in the evaluation of women affected by breast cancer and might help design targeted therapy. PMID:9613456

  6. Characterization and validation of bovine gonadotripin releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Lirón, J P; Prando, A; Ripoli, M V; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Posik, D M; Baldo, A; Peral-García, P; Giovambattista, G

    2011-12-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone and its receptor (GNRHR) play a critical role in sexual differentiation and reproduction. Available evidence shows a strong genetic component in the timing of puberty. In bovines, there are significant differences within and among beef breeds in the time when bulls reach puberty. Despite its economic importance, there are not many SNPs or genetic markers associated with this characteristic. The aims of the study were to identify DNA polymorphism in the bovine GNRHR by re-sequencing analysis, determine haplotype phases, and perform a population study in a selected tag SNP in six breeds. Eight SNPs were detected, including: one in the Upstream Regulatory Region (URR), five in the coding regions, and two in non-coding regions. This polymorphism level corresponds to one variant every 249.4bp and a global nucleotide diversity of 0.385. Two haplogroups comprising nine haplotypes and two linkage blocks were detected. Despite 5 tag SNPs were required to capture all variability, just one SNP allowed to define both haplogroups, and only two SNPs were needed to differentiate the most common haplotypes. An additional taq SNP was necessary to identify both URR variants. Allele-frequency analysis of a selected taq SNP among breeds showed a geographical cline. European Bos taurus breeds had lower frequencies of the C allele than B. indicus type cattle, while Creole cattle and Wagyu breeds had intermediate frequency. There was a significant correlation between frequency profile and timing of puberty among the studied breeds, which seems to suggest that genetic variation within bovine GNRHR gene could explain at least part of the reported variability. PMID:21030057

  7. FokI Polymorphism, Vitamin D Receptor, and Interleukin-1 Receptor Haplotypes Are Associated with Type 1 Diabetes in the Dalmatian Population

    PubMed Central

    Zemunik, Tatijana; Škrabić, Veselin; Boraska, Vesna; Diklić, Dijaneta; Terzić, Ivana Marinović; Čapkun, Vesna; Peruzović, Marijana; Terzić, Janoš

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin D and interleukin (IL)-1 have been suggested to function in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Therefore, we examined the influence of gene polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor (VDR) and interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1-R1) on susceptibility to T1DM in the Dalmatian population of South Croatia. We genotyped 134 children with T1DM and 132 controls; for FokI polymorphism studies, we extended the control group to an additional 102 patients. The VDR gene polymorphism FokI displayed unequal distribution (P = 0.0049) between T1DM and control groups, with the ff genotype occurring more frequently in T1DM individuals whereas the VDR gene polymorphism Tru9I did not differ in frequency between studied groups. All tested polymorphisms of the IL-1-R1 gene [PstI, HinfI, and AluI (promoter region) and PstI-e (exon 1B region)] displayed no differences between cases and controls. Haplotype analysis of the VDR gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI, TaqI, Tru9I) and of the IL-1-R1 gene (PstI, HinfI, AluI, PstI-e) found haplotypes VDR FbATu (P = 0.0388) and IL-1-R1 phap’ (P = 0.0419) to be more frequent in T1DM patients whereas the BatU haplotype occurred more often in controls (P = 0.0064). Our findings indicate that the VDR FokI polymorphism and several VDR and IL-1-R1 haplotypes are associated with susceptibility to T1DM in the Dalmatian population. PMID:16258158

  8. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism in Egyptian pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia correlation with BMD

    PubMed Central

    Tantawy, Maha; Amer, Mahmoud; Raafat, Tarek; Hamdy, Nayera

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We studied the frequencies of the 3′ and 5′-end vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD) in Egyptian pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients receiving calcium and vitamin D supplements. The purpose of this study is to find out the relation between VDR polymorphism and the response to vitamin D intake in pediatric ALL cases who receive corticosteroid therapy which predispose to osteoporosis. This study might shed the light on some genetic variants that are effect the response of individuals to vitamin D therapy. Methods Forty newly diagnosed pediatrics ALL cases were studied. Three SNPs at the 3′-end of the VDR gene (BsmI rs1544410, ApaI rs739837and TaqI rs731236) and two SNPs at the 5′-end (Cdx-2 rs11568820 and GATA rs4516035) were analyzed by Allelic discrimination assay. Of those twenty-six cases with initial BMD data available were further analyzed with regards to the effect of various VDR genotypes/haplotypes on BMD. Results The genotype frequencies at 3′-end of VDR gene were, TaqI TT 23%, Tt 54% and tt 23%, BsmI bb 19.2%, Bb 65.4% and BB 15.4% and ApaI AA 12%, Aa 27% and aa 61%. The frequencies at the 5′-end were Cdx-2 GG 34.5%, GA 54% and AA 11.5% and GATA AA 8%, AG 50% and GG 42%. Eight and four possible haplotypes were observed at the 3′ and 5′-ends of the VDR gene respectively. The Tt genotype was significantly correlated with high BMD as compared to other TaqI genotypes (P = 0.0420). There was a trend towards higher BMD with the genotype Bb as compared to other BsmI genotypes. No statistical significance was found between the other VDR genotypes or haplotypes studied and BMD. Conclusions This is the first report on VDR gene polymorphisms in Egyptian pediatric ALL patients. The Tt genotype was associated with increased BMD. Our study showed marked genetic heterogeneity in VDR gene in Egyptian pediatric ALL patients. PMID:27114922

  9. Cellular signalling of non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the human μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1)

    PubMed Central

    Knapman, Alisa; Connor, Mark

    2015-01-01

    There is significant variability in individual responses to opioid drugs, which is likely to have a significant genetic component. A number of non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions of the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) have been postulated to contribute to this variability. Although many studies have investigated the clinical influences of these μ-opioid receptor variants, the outcomes are reported in the context of thousands of other genes and environmental factors, and we are no closer to being able to predict individual response to opioids based on genotype. Investigation of how μ-opioid receptor SNPs affect their expression, coupling to second messengers, desensitization and regulation is necessary to understand how subtle changes in receptor structure can impact individual responses to opioids. To date, the few functional studies that have investigated the consequences of SNPs on the signalling profile of the μ-opioid receptor in vitro have shown that the common N40D variant has altered functional responses to some opioids, while other, rarer, variants display altered signalling or agonist-dependent regulation. Here, we review the data available on the effects of μ-opioid receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, expression and regulation in vitro, and discuss the limitations of the studies to date. Whether or not μ-opioid receptor SNPs contribute to individual variability in opioid responses remains an open question, in large part because we have relatively little good data about how the amino acid changes affect μ-opioid receptor function. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24527749

  10. Roles of the Taql and Bsml vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in hospital mortality of burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Glaucia R.; Azevedo, Paula S.; Polegato, Bertha F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A.M.; Paiva, Sergio A.R.; Nogueira, Celia R.; Araujo, Natalia C.; Carmona, Bruno H.M.; Conde, Sandro J.; Minicucci, Marcos F.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of the Taql and Bsml vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in hospital mortality of burn patients. METHODS: In total, 105 consecutive burn injury patients over 18 years in age who were admitted to the Burn Unit of Bauru State Hospital from January to December 2013 were prospectively evaluated. Upon admission, patient demographic information was recorded and a blood sample was taken for biochemical analysis to identify the presence of the Taql(rs731236) and Bsml(rs1544410) polymorphisms. All of the patients were followed over their hospital stay and mortality was recorded. RESULTS: Eighteen of the patients did not sign the informed consent form, and there were technical problems with genotype analysis for 7 of the patients. Thus, 80 patients (mean age, 42.5±16.1 years) were included in the final analysis. In total, 60% of the patients were male, and 16.3% died during the hospital stay. The genotype frequencies for the Taql polymorphism were 51.25% TT, 41.25% TC and 7.50% CC; for the Bsml polymorphism, they were 51.25% GG, 42.50% GA and 6.25% AA. In logistic regression analysis, after adjustments for age, gender and total body surface burn area, there were no associations between the Taql (OR: 1.575; CI95%: 0.148-16.745; p=0.706) or Bsml (OR: 1.309; CI95%: 0.128-13.430; p=0.821) polymorphisms and mortality for the burn patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the Taql and Bsml vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are not associated with hospital mortality of burn patients.