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Sample records for bethe-weizsaecker relation

  1. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  2. Formation of fragments in heavy-ion collisions using a modified clusterization method

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Supriya; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2011-04-15

    We study the formation and stability of the fragments by extending the minimum spanning tree method (MST) for clusterization. In this extension, each fragment is subjected to a binding-energy check calculated using the modified Bethe-Weizsaecker formula. Earlier, a constant binding-energy cut of 4 MeV/nucleon was imposed. Our results for {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au collisions are compared with ALADiN data and also with the calculations based on the simulated annealing technique. We shall show that the present modified version improves the agreement compared to the MST method.

  3. Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  4. Relational Blackboard

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    The Relational Blackboard (RBB) is an extension of the H2 Relational Database to support discrete events and timeseries data. The original motivation for RBB is as a knowledge base for cognitive systems and simulations. It is useful wherever there is a need for persistent storage of timeseries (i.e. samples of a continuous process generating numerical data) and semantic labels for the data. The RBB is an extension to the H2 Relational Database, which is open-source.more » RBB is a set of stored procedures for H2 allowing data to be labeled, queried, and resampled.« less

  5. Number relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    Number relativity 1.Every equation of the relativity is just the way to understand through to solve one question of the math problem. We just add the hypothesis into the number. 2. Sequence of number is the machine physics for software(computer) as the number order is program equation as calculator. 3. When zero is denominator, it is not existing as it is doing something by nothing. So nothing means time as we put zero denominator into time. My personal physics imagine.

  6. Relative thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, Lídia; Hutter, Adrian; Renner, Renato; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Locally thermal quantum systems may contradict traditional thermodynamics: heat can flow from a cold body to a hotter one, if the two are highly entangled. We show that to recover thermodynamic laws, we must use a stronger notion of thermalization: a system S is thermal relative to a reference R if S is both locally thermal and uncorrelated with R . Considering a general quantum reference is particularly relevant for a thermodynamic treatment of nanoscale quantum systems. We derive a technical condition for relative thermalization in terms of conditional entropies. Established results on local thermalization, which implicitly assume a classical reference, follow as special cases.

  7. Relative thermalization.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Lídia; Hutter, Adrian; Renner, Renato; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Locally thermal quantum systems may contradict traditional thermodynamics: heat can flow from a cold body to a hotter one, if the two are highly entangled. We show that to recover thermodynamic laws, we must use a stronger notion of thermalization: a system S is thermal relative to a reference R if S is both locally thermal and uncorrelated with R. Considering a general quantum reference is particularly relevant for a thermodynamic treatment of nanoscale quantum systems. We derive a technical condition for relative thermalization in terms of conditional entropies. Established results on local thermalization, which implicitly assume a classical reference, follow as special cases. PMID:27627243

  8. Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, L.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The special theory of relativity (SR), developed by ALBERT EINSTEIN in 1905, represents a revolutionary change in the human conception of the nature of space and time. According to SR, space and time are not absolute but must be viewed as components of a single entity, SPACE-TIME. This idea has numerous important implications, both conceptual and practical....

  9. Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Nicholas M. J.

    This course on special relativity emphasizes the coordinate-free and tensorial approach to Einstein's theory. The author encourages the reader to look at problems from a four-dimensional point of view, so preparing them for further study in relativistic physics, gravitation and cosmology. The book will be especially appealing to students with a mathematical bent and those who like brevity and clarity of reasoning.

  10. Visualizing relativity: The OpenRelativity project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherin, Zachary W.; Cheu, Ryan; Tan, Philip; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    We present OpenRelativity, an open-source toolkit to simulate effects of special relativity within the popular Unity game engine. Intended for game developers, educators, and anyone interested in physics, OpenRelativity can help people create, test, and share experiments to explore the effects of special relativity. We describe the underlying physics and some of the implementation details of this toolset with the hope that engaging games and interactive relativistic "laboratory" experiments might be implemented.

  11. The evolution of relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, C.

    Contents: Introduction. 1. Ernst Mach and the search for simplicity. 2. The foundations of the general theory of relativity. 3. Mainstream classical relativity. 4. Classical and quantum relativity. 5. Relativity - dead or alive?

  12. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  13. Fetal Risks, Relative Risks, and Relatives' Risks.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Howard; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2016-01-01

    Several factors related to fetal risk render it more or less acceptable in justifying constraints on the behavior of pregnant women. Risk is an unavoidable part of pregnancy and childbirth, one that women must balance against other vital personal and family interests. Two particular issues relate to the fairness of claims that pregnant women are never entitled to put their fetuses at risk: relative risks and relatives' risks. The former have been used-often spuriously-to advance arguments against activities, such as home birth, that may incur risk; the latter implicate the nature of relationships in determining the acceptability of coercing or precluding activities. Motivated reasoning by clinicians and judges leads to inaccurate risk assessments, and judgments based on false claims to objectivity. Such judgments undermine the moral and legal standing of pregnant women and do not advance the interests of fetuses, pregnant women, families, or states. PMID:26832079

  14. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Lewkowycz, Aitor; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-06-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  15. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  16. Probability and Relative Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drieschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of probability seems to have been inexplicable since its invention in the seventeenth century. In its use in science, probability is closely related with relative frequency. So the task seems to be interpreting that relation. In this paper, we start with predicted relative frequency and show that its structure is the same as that of probability. I propose to call that the `prediction interpretation' of probability. The consequences of that definition are discussed. The "ladder"-structure of the probability calculus is analyzed. The expectation of the relative frequency is shown to be equal to the predicted relative frequency. Probability is shown to be the most general empirically testable prediction.

  17. Prosthetics and Related Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Related Technology for Restoring Veterans’ Abilities DISCOVERY INNOVATION ADVANCEMENT PROSTHETICS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGY VA Research and ... technology to perform day-to-day activities. DISCOVERY INNOVATION ADVANCEMENT DISCOVERY INNOVATION ADVANCEMENT A Message to Our ...

  18. Down to earth relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concepts of the special and general theories of relativity are described. Simple examples are given to illustrate the effect of relativity on measurements of time and frequency in the near-earth environment.

  19. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  20. Relative Autonomy Reconstructed. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jim

    The British school system has relative autonomy, and therefore, could be potentially transformative--used to change existing economic and social relations. The correspondence thesis, which states that the schools perpetuate existing capitalist economic and social relations and serve as agents of reproduction, was the dominant paradigm of the last…

  1. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-07-01

    In Hall’s reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements.

  2. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-01-01

    In Hall's reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements. PMID:27460975

  3. School-Community Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    1969-01-01

    This review examines 18 selected documents processed through the ERIC system dealing with research findings, procedures, and innovations in school-community relations. Although documents reviewed emphasize a variety of issues bearing on school-community relations--including citizen participation, mass media, public relations, voter support, power…

  4. The Fundamental Property Relation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joseph J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a basic equation in thermodynamics (the fundamental property relation), focusing on a logical approach to the development of the relation where effects other than thermal, compression, and exchange of matter with the surroundings are considered. Also demonstrates erroneous treatments of the relation in three well-known textbooks. (JN)

  5. Relating equivalence relations to equivalence relations: A relational framing model of complex human functioning

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Dermot; Hegarty, Neil; Smeets, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    The current study aimed to develop a behavior-analytic model of analogical reasoning. In Experiments 1 and 2 subjects (adults and children) were trained and tested for the formation of four, three-member equivalence relations using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. All subjects (Experiments 1 and 2) were exposed to tests that examined relations between equivalence and non-equivalence relations. For example, on an equivalence-equivalence relation test, the complex sample B1/C1 and the two complex comparisons B3/C3 and B3/C4 were used, and on a nonequivalence-nonequivalence relation test the complex sample B1/C2 was presented with the same two comparisons. All subjects consistently related equivalence relations to equivalence relations and nonequivalence relations to nonequivalence relations (e.g., picked B3/C3 in the presence of B1/C1 and picked B3/C4 in the presence of B1/C2). In Experiment 3, the equivalence responding, the equivalence-equivalence responding, and the nonequivalence-nonequivalence responding was successfully brought under contextual control. Finally, it was shown that the contextual cues could function successfully as comparisons, and the complex samples and comparisons could function successfully as contextual cues and samples, respectively. These data extend the equivalence paradigm and contribute to a behaviour-analytic interpretation of analogical reasoning and complex human functioning, in general. PMID:22477120

  6. Universal Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gour, Gilad

    2014-03-01

    Uncertainty relations are a distinctive characteristic of quantum theory that imposes intrinsic limitations on the precision with which physical properties can be simultaneously determined. The modern work on uncertainty relations employs entropic measures to quantify the lack of knowledge associated with measuring non-commuting observables. However, I will show here that there is no fundamental reason for using entropies as quantifiers; in fact, any functional relation that characterizes the uncertainty of the measurement outcomes can be used to define an uncertainty relation. Starting from a simple assumption that any measure of uncertainty is non-decreasing under mere relabeling of the measurement outcomes, I will show that Schur-concave functions are the most general uncertainty quantifiers. I will then introduce a novel fine-grained uncertainty relation written in terms of a majorization relation, which generates an infinite family of distinct scalar uncertainty relations via the application of arbitrary measures of uncertainty. This infinite family of uncertainty relations includes all the known entropic uncertainty relations, but is not limited to them. In this sense, the relation is universally valid and captures the essence of the uncertainty principle in quantum theory. This talk is based on a joint work with Shmuel Friedland and Vlad Gheorghiu. This research is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and by the Pacific Institute for Mathematical Sciences (PIMS).

  7. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. PMID:20698028

  8. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-01-01

    In Hall’s reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements. PMID:27460975

  9. Heat-related illnesses.

    PubMed

    Khosla, R; Guntupalli, K K

    1999-04-01

    The majority of clinicians will encounter patients with heat-related illness in one form or the other. Early recognition and management are important to prevent morbidity and mortality. In children and elderly, the clinical signs may be subtle and in such situations a sound knowledge of heat-related illnesses is crucial. Besides diagnosing and treating heat-related illnesses, it is equally important to know how to prevent them as they are easily preventable. PMID:10331127

  10. Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Braendas, Erkki J.

    2007-12-26

    The old dilemma of quantum mechanics versus the theory of relativity is reconsidered via a first principles relativistically invariant theory. By analytic extension of quantum mechanics into the complex plane one may (i) include dynamical features such as time- and length-scales and (ii) examine the possibility and flexibility of so-called general Jordan block formations. The present viewpoint asks for a new perspective on the age-old problem of quantum mechanics versus the theory of relativity. To bring these ideas together, we will establish the relation with the Klein-Gordon-Dirac relativistic theory and confirm some dynamical features of both the special and the general relativity theory.

  11. Dynamics and relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComb, W. D.

    This book presents an integrated treatment of classical mechanics and special relativity, by treating classical mechanics as Galilean relativity. This gives the reader the freedom to formulate a particular problem in one frame of reference, and to solve it in another where it takes a simpler form. This strategy, which is central to special relativity, is then applied to problems in classical mechanics ranging from rocket ships with variable mass to collisions of particles. This book was written with the aim of providing the best possible balance between text and mathematical derivations. Numerous line drawings, worked examples and exercises are included. A closing chapter gives an elementary account of general relativity.

  12. The Redshifts in Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satya Pal; Singh, Apoorva; Hareet, Prabhav

    2011-01-01

    The progress of modern cosmology took off in 1917 when A. Einstein published his paper on general theory of relativity extending his work of special theory of relativity (1905). In 1922 Alexander Friedmann constructed a mathematical model for expanding Universe that had a big bang in remote past. The experimental evidences could come in 1929 by…

  13. Relativity, Relatedness and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Anticipated the modern physics relativity theory, American Indians gained information about the natural world through careful observation based on the principle that all things are related. American Indian students could radically transform scientific knowledge by grounding themselves in traditional knowledge about the world and working this…

  14. Crowding and Family Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Edwards, John N.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of household and neighborhood crowding on the relations between spouses, those between parents and children, and the relations among children are examined; a sample of urban families residing in conditions ranging from open to highly compressed provided the data for the investigation and multiple regression was used to analyze the…

  15. Public Relations as Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Annette N.

    Public relations as strategic communication is one possible theme for an introductory course in public relations. This perspective focuses attention on messages (their content, timing, media, and so forth) as strategic responses to the audience and the situation. It provides a defensible rationale for including certain relevant topics in the…

  16. Destination: Alumni Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maura King

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly today, with the growing and sophisticated skill set alumni professionals need to get the job done, alumni relations has become a destination career rather than a stop along the way. Modern alumni relations is "so much more than homecoming and punch-and-cookie receptions." It's marketing, volunteer management, and social networking. To…

  17. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  18. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  19. Reciprocal relations in electroacoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Chassagne, C.; Bedeaux, D.

    2014-07-28

    In a colloidal suspension, one can generate sound waves by the application of an alternating electric field (Electrokinetic Sonic Amplitude, i.e., ESA). Another phenomenon is electrophoresis (Electrophoretic Mobility, i.e., EM) where a colloidal particle moves relative to the solvent in an electric field. Vice versa one can generate electric fields or electric currents by sound waves (Colloid Vibration Potential/Current, i.e., CVP/CVI). In 1988 and 1990, O’Brien [J. Fluid Mech. 190, 71–86 (1988) and O’Brien, J. Fluid Mech. 212, 81–93 (1990)] derived a reciprocal relation between the proportionality coefficients of the EM and CVI phenomena. In this paper, we will generalize his proof by constructing the relevant entropy production from which the linear force-flux relations follow. General relations are derived for electrolyte solutions, of which colloidal suspensions are a particular case. The relations between CVI, CVP, EM, and ESA are discussed. O’Brien's reciprocal relation then follows as an Onsager relation. The relation is valid for any applied electric field frequency, particle surface charge and particle concentration (even in the presence of particle-particle interactions) provided the system is isotropic.

  20. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  1. Forces in General Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  2. Unavailability of wild relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unavailability of crop wild relatives may come in many forms, including limited possibilities of gene flow with related species due to clonality, differing ploidy levels, or other crossing barriers between species. Alternatively, it may simply mean that we lack information about the wild relativ...

  3. General relativity and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Martin; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-10-01

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of Einstein’s 1915 landmark paper “Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation” in which the field equations of general relativity were correctly formulated for the first time, thus rendering general relativity a complete theory. Over the subsequent hundred years, physicists and astronomers have struggled with uncovering the consequences and applications of these equations. This paper, which was written as an introduction to six chapters dealing with the connection between general relativity and cosmology that will appear in the two-volume book One Hundred Years of General Relativity: From Genesis and Empirical Foundations to Gravitational Waves, Cosmology and Quantum Gravity, endeavors to provide a historical overview of the connection between general relativity and cosmology, two areas whose development has been closely intertwined.

  4. Ether and Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhoudi, Mehrdad; Yousefian, Maysam

    2016-05-01

    We consider one of the fundamental debates in performing the relativity theory, namely, the ether and the relativity points of view, in a way to aid the learning of the subjects. In addition, we present our views and prospects while describing the issues that being accessible to many physicists and allowing broader views. Also, we very briefly review the two almost recent observations of the Webb redshift and the ultra high energy cosmic rays, and the modified relativity models that have been presented to justify them, wherein we express that these justifications have not been performed via a single model with a single mechanism.

  5. Relative glucocorticoid potency revisited.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Hirano, F; Nomura, Y; Miura, T; Makino, Y; Fukawa, E; Makino, I

    1994-01-01

    To determine the relative potency of synthetic glucocorticoids, glucocorticoid receptor expressing cells were transfected with a hormone-inducible reporter gene, and were cultured in the presence of various glucocorticoid ligands. Hormonal inducibility was determined by means of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Dexamethasone and prednisolone, as well as cortisol, induced the expression of the reporter gene in a dose-dependent fashion. The relative potency of each ligand was in this order when inducibility was quantitatively assessed. In conclusion, the transcription assay described here may be a convenient and alternative method to evaluate the relative potency of given glucocorticoids. PMID:7939139

  6. Related environmental documents

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a listing of related environmental documents used in the drafting of this report. Specifically, the documents are the final environmental impact statements for: (1) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (2) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant 1, 2, & 3, (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (4) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (5) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Facility, (6) Policies relating to rates, (7) Tennessee River and reservoir system operation and planning, (8) Policies related to the use of coal.

  7. Optical clocks and relativity.

    PubMed

    Chou, C W; Hume, D B; Rosenband, T; Wineland, D J

    2010-09-24

    Observers in relative motion or at different gravitational potentials measure disparate clock rates. These predictions of relativity have previously been observed with atomic clocks at high velocities and with large changes in elevation. We observed time dilation from relative speeds of less than 10 meters per second by comparing two optical atomic clocks connected by a 75-meter length of optical fiber. We can now also detect time dilation due to a change in height near Earth's surface of less than 1 meter. This technique may be extended to the field of geodesy, with applications in geophysics and hydrology as well as in space-based tests of fundamental physics. PMID:20929843

  8. Two Related Parametric Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, T.

    2007-01-01

    Two related sequences of definite integrals are considered. By mixing hand-work, computer algebra system assistance and websurfing, fine connections can be studied between integrals and a couple of interesting sequences of integers. (Contains 4 tables.)

  9. Measurement uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Paul; Lahti, Pekka; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2014-04-15

    Measurement uncertainty relations are quantitative bounds on the errors in an approximate joint measurement of two observables. They can be seen as a generalization of the error/disturbance tradeoff first discussed heuristically by Heisenberg. Here we prove such relations for the case of two canonically conjugate observables like position and momentum, and establish a close connection with the more familiar preparation uncertainty relations constraining the sharpness of the distributions of the two observables in the same state. Both sets of relations are generalized to means of order α rather than the usual quadratic means, and we show that the optimal constants are the same for preparation and for measurement uncertainty. The constants are determined numerically and compared with some bounds in the literature. In both cases, the near-saturation of the inequalities entails that the state (resp. observable) is uniformly close to a minimizing one.

  10. Measurement uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Paul; Lahti, Pekka; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2014-04-01

    Measurement uncertainty relations are quantitative bounds on the errors in an approximate joint measurement of two observables. They can be seen as a generalization of the error/disturbance tradeoff first discussed heuristically by Heisenberg. Here we prove such relations for the case of two canonically conjugate observables like position and momentum, and establish a close connection with the more familiar preparation uncertainty relations constraining the sharpness of the distributions of the two observables in the same state. Both sets of relations are generalized to means of order α rather than the usual quadratic means, and we show that the optimal constants are the same for preparation and for measurement uncertainty. The constants are determined numerically and compared with some bounds in the literature. In both cases, the near-saturation of the inequalities entails that the state (resp. observable) is uniformly close to a minimizing one.

  11. Aging and Intergenerational Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gary R.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the rapid aging of the American population and the changing age structure of society. Discusses the needs of older adults, the role of the family in providing support to older members, and issues of intergenerational relations. (NB)

  12. Toward relational empowerment.

    PubMed

    Christens, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    Psychological empowerment has been theorized as a construct with emotional, behavioral and cognitive components. Yet, many studies have stressed that empowerment processes are contingent on interpersonal relationships. Moreover, theory suggests that power is developed and exercised through relationships. This article makes the case that expanding our conceptions of psychological empowerment through the addition of a relational component can enhance our understanding of psychological empowerment and the effectiveness of empowerment-oriented community practice. Previous research on empowerment is reviewed for relational content, and additional insights into the relational context of empowerment processes are marshaled from other concepts in community research including social capital, sense of community, social networks, social support, and citizen participation. A new iteration of the nomological network for psychological empowerment is presented, including the elements of a relational component. PMID:22094588

  13. Length Paradox in Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Roberto de A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a thought experiment using a general analysis approach with Lorentz transformations to show that the apparent self-contradictions of special relativity concerning the length-paradox are really non-existant. (GA)

  14. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  15. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco-Related Disparities African Americans and Tobacco Use American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use Asian Americans, Pacific ... YTS) Alaska Native Adult Tobacco Survey Guidance Manual American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey Implementation Manual Hispanic/Latino ATS ...

  16. General Relativity and Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  17. What Are Related Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection. Disorders related to Marfan syndrome can ... Loeys-Dietz Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection MASS Phenotype Ectopia Lentis Syndrome Beals ...

  18. Publicity and public relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  19. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  20. Asymptotic entropic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczak, Radosław; Latała, Rafał; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-03-01

    We analyze entropic uncertainty relations for two orthogonal measurements on a N-dimensional Hilbert space, performed in two generic bases. It is assumed that the unitary matrix U relating both bases is distributed according to the Haar measure on the unitary group. We provide lower bounds on the average Shannon entropy of probability distributions related to both measurements. The bounds are stronger than those obtained with use of the entropic uncertainty relation by Maassen and Uffink, and they are optimal up to additive constants. We also analyze the case of a large number of measurements and obtain strong entropic uncertainty relations, which hold with high probability with respect to the random choice of bases. The lower bounds we obtain are optimal up to additive constants and allow us to prove a conjecture by Wehner and Winter on the asymptotic behavior of constants in entropic uncertainty relations as the dimension tends to infinity. As a tool we develop estimates on the maximum operator norm of a submatrix of a fixed size of a random unitary matrix distributed according to the Haar measure, which are of independent interest.

  1. Frontiers in Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Charles R.; Finn, Lee S.; Hobill, David W.

    2011-06-01

    Preface; Participants; Introduction; 1. Supercomputing and numerical relativity: a look at the past, present and future David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 2. Computational relativity in two and three dimensions Stuart L. Shapiro and Saul A. Teukolsky; 3. Slowly moving maximally charged black holes Robert C. Ferrell and Douglas M. Eardley; 4. Kepler's third law in general relativity Steven Detweiler; 5. Black hole spacetimes: testing numerical relativity David H. Bernstein, David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 6. Three dimensional initial data of numerical relativity Ken-ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 7. Initial data for collisions of black holes and other gravitational miscellany James W. York, Jr.; 8. Analytic-numerical matching for gravitational waveform extraction Andrew M. Abrahams; 9. Supernovae, gravitational radiation and the quadrupole formula L. S. Finn; 10. Gravitational radiation from perturbations of stellar core collapse models Edward Seidel and Thomas Moore; 11. General relativistic implicit radiation hydrodynamics in polar sliced space-time Paul J. Schinder; 12. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics in spherically symmetric spacetimes A. Mezzacappa and R. A. Matzner; 13. Constraint preserving transport for magnetohydrodynamics John F. Hawley and Charles R. Evans; 14. Enforcing the momentum constraints during axisymmetric spacelike simulations Charles R. Evans; 15. Experiences with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm in numerical relativity Matthew W. Choptuik; 16. The multigrid technique Gregory B. Cook; 17. Finite element methods in numerical relativity P. J. Mann; 18. Pseudo-spectral methods applied to gravitational collapse Silvano Bonazzola and Jean-Alain Marck; 19. Methods in 3D numerical relativity Takashi Nakamura and Ken-ichi Oohara; 20. Nonaxisymmetric rotating gravitational collapse and gravitational radiation Richard F. Stark; 21. Nonaxisymmetric neutron star collisions: initial results using smooth particle hydrodynamics

  2. Relative accuracy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Zhongsheng; Li, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms. PMID:25133752

  3. Relative Accuracy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Yang, Zhongsheng; Li, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms. PMID:25133752

  4. Binary Love relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars get imprinted onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave (GW) observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the GW model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately equation-of-state (EoS)-insensitive relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the GW model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between EoS models, and improve tests of general relativity and cosmology.

  5. Statin-related myotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vera; Santos, Maria Joana; Pérez, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Statin therapy has a very important role in decreasing cardiovascular risk, and treatment non-compliance may therefore be a concern in high cardiovascular risk patients. Myotoxicity is a frequent side effect of statin therapy and one of the main causes of statin discontinuation, which limits effective treatment of patients at risk of or with cardiovascular disease. Because of the high proportion of patients on statin treatment and the frequency of statin-related myotoxicity, this is a subject of concern in clinical practice. However, statin-related myotoxicity is probably underestimated because there is not a gold standard definition, and its diagnosis is challenging. Moreover, information about pathophysiology and optimal therapeutic options is scarce. Therefore, this paper reviews the knowledge about the definition, pathophysiology and predisposing conditions, diagnosis and management of statin-related myotoxicity, and provides a practical scheme for its management in clinical practice. PMID:27005745

  6. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation.

  7. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  8. Approaches to Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Inverno, Ray

    2005-07-01

    Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23

  9. Measurement of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, THOMAS E.

    1993-01-01

    Although object relations theories are increasingly prominent in the psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic literature, efforts to study these phenomena empirically remain in their infancy. Researchers interested in studying intrapsychic processes have nonetheless attempted to assess levels of object relatedness, and several reports have documented both construct and predictive validity. This literature is reviewed, with special emphasis on the difficulties involved in the development of assessment instruments. The author summarizes reliability and validity data on the most widely used instruments in an effort to provide general guidelines for researchers interested in developing strategies for measuring object relations. PMID:22700124

  10. Statistics: are we related?

    PubMed

    Scott, M; Flaherty, D; Currall, J

    2013-03-01

    This short addition to our series on clinical statistics concerns relationships, and answering questions such as "are blood pressure and weight related?" In a later article, we will answer the more interesting question about how they might be related. This article follows on logically from the previous one dealing with categorical data, the major difference being here that we will consider two continuous variables, which naturally leads to the use of a Pearson correlation or occasionally to a Spearman rank correlation coefficient. PMID:23458641

  11. Community and Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Harold W.

    This brief presentation describes public relations projects of Dubuque schools to popularize athletics. Among the activities cited which are used to promote community interest in sports events are public school-private school informal matches, talks, swim-a-thons, travel and adventure nights, class banquets with popular speakers, booster clubs,…

  12. The Relativity of Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Israel; Avital, Shmuel

    1984-01-01

    The development of the idea that "The essence of mathematics lies in its freedom," a quotation from Cantor, is discussed. Several examples are given of relative truth, and the problem of consistency is discussed. Mathematics and its relationship to the physical world is also explored. (MNS)

  13. Sport-Related Concussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  14. Modalities, Relations, and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Martin Eric

    While the popularity of statistical, probabilistic and exhaustive machine learning techniques still increases, relational and logic approaches are still a niche market in research. While the former approaches focus on predictive accuracy, the latter ones prove to be indispensable in knowledge discovery.

  15. Plant Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1982-01-01

    Some simple field investigations on plant water relations are described which demonstrate links between physiological and external environmental factors. In this way, a more complex picture of a plant and how it functions within its habitat and the effects the environment has on it can be built up. (Author/JN)

  16. Argumentation and Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, Richard L.

    Issue management oriented public relations provides an excellent pedagogical device for anyone interested in the application of argumentation. This can be illustrated by a case study in which a commercial metals company was wrongly accused of improperly disposing of toxic waste at a particular site. To counter the bad publicity that followed the…

  17. Public Relations & the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Frank

    This monograph synthesizes the laws and regulations that form the basis of the right to representation in the court of public opinion by all who would seek to influence public and private decisions. It expresses the framework of human and social values that underlie this constitutional freedom and that give public relations and other management…

  18. Parasite-related diarrhoeas*

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews available knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, immunology, diagnosis, and therapy of parasite-related diarrhoeas of public health importance, primarily amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, balantidiasis, coccidioses, schistosomiasis, and capillariasis. Research priorities are recommended in each of these fields with the aim of developing better means of prevention and treatment. PMID:6971185

  19. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  20. Ethnocentrism and Intergroup Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVine, Robert A.; Campbell, Donald T.

    Proposed as a chapter for a book, this document has attempted to survey the various points at which cognitive congruity theories impinge upon problems of ethnocentrism and intergroup relations. Some dozen such predictions have been presented, and have been italicized for scanning in the text. One hypothesis, that the more similar the outgroup the…

  1. Public Relations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This chapter of "The Best of the Best of ERIC," Volume 2, contains 14 summaries of documents and journal articles on school public relations programs, all of which are indexed in either "Resources in Education" or "Current Index to Journals in Education." The materials included deal with various aspects of this topic such as how to plan and…

  2. Multipole Love relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent

    2014-02-01

    Gravitational-wave observations in the near future may allow us to measure tidal deformabilities of neutron stars, which leads us to the understanding of physics at nuclear density. In principle, the gravitational waveform depends on various tidal parameters, which correlate strongly. Therefore, it would be useful if one can express such tidal parameters with a single parameter. Here, we report on universal relations among various ℓth (dimensionless) electric, magnetic, and shape tidal deformabilities in neutron stars and quark stars that do not depend sensitively on the equation of state. Such relations allow us to break the degeneracy among the tidal parameters. In this paper, we focus on gravitational waves from nonspinning neutron-star binary inspirals. We first derive the leading contribution of the ℓth electric and ℓ=2 magnetic tidal deformabilities to the gravitational-wave phase, which enters at 2ℓ+1 and 6 post-Newtonian orders relative to the leading Newtonian one, respectively. We then calculate the useful number of gravitational-wave cycles and show that not only the ℓ=2 but also ℓ=3 electric tidal deformabilities are important for parameter estimation with third-generation gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO III and Einstein Telescope. Although the correlation between the ℓ=2 and ℓ=3 electric tidal deformabilities deteriorate the measurement accuracy of the former deformability parameter, one can increase its measurement accuracy significantly by using the universal relation. We provide a fitting formula for the LIGO III noise curve in the appendixes.

  3. Relatives' Responsibility; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Presented by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) are background information and a policy statement on responsibility laws pertaining to relatives of applicants for public assistance. The laws are said to date to the Elizabethan Poor Laws, to vary state to state, and to mandate eligibility for public assistance on requirements of residence,…

  4. Law Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, R., Ed.; Kirchgaessner, R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal edition focuses upon the many resources for teachers to draw upon in order to infuse law-related education (LRE) into their classrooms. Isidore Starr explains the reasons behind the LRE movement, while Mabel McKinney-Browning describes the existing American Bar Association's programs in LRE. Judith Zimmer covers the Street Law…

  5. Relational Responding in Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Wilson, Kelly G.; LaBorde, Cicely T.; Drake, Chad E.; Rogers, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parenting stress and relational conditioning. Fourteen students who were not mothers, 14 mothers who reported high parenting stress and 14 mothers with low parenting stress completed two matching-to-sample (MTS) computer tasks, each requiring formation of three 3-member classes. The first MTS task…

  6. Relations in Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineur, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The criticisms made against chain indexing are reviewed, and PRECIS briefly considered as a possible (but improbable) general substitute for indexing. The failures of chain indexing arise mainly from an overemphasis on generic relationships. The use of symbols to represent relations between terms is suggested for the chain index. (80 references)…

  7. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  8. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  9. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  10. Relativity on a Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a method for using spreadsheets to model special relativistic phenomena based on the connection between electric and magnetic fields in special relativity. Uses the time dilation equation to carry out transformations between reference frames that show the connection between the fields quantitatively. (DDR)

  11. Related Addictive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  12. Numerical Relativity and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the Universe many powerful events are driven by strong gravitational effects that require general relativity to fully describe them. These include compact binary mergers, black hole accretion, and stellar collapse, where velocities can approach the speed of light and extreme gravitational fields (ΦNewt/c2≃1) mediate the interactions. Many of these processes trigger emission across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Compact binaries further source strong gravitational wave emission that could directly be detected in the near future. This feat will open up a gravitational wave window into our Universe and revolutionize our understanding of it. Describing these phenomena requires general relativity, and—where dynamical effects strongly modify gravitational fields—the full Einstein equations coupled to matter sources. Numerical relativity is a field within general relativity concerned with studying such scenarios that cannot be accurately modeled via perturbative or analytical calculations. In this review, we examine results obtained within this discipline, with a focus on its impact in astrophysics.

  13. Peer relations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hay, Dale F; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age. Social skills that facilitate peer relationships consolidate in the preschool years, during which time peer groups become structured with respect to friendship groups, gender, and dominance relations; some children begin to be rejected by their peers. In later childhood some children develop entrenched problems with peer relationships, in terms of loneliness, bullying and victimisation. Underlying cognitive and emotional processes that facilitate successful peer relationships at all ages are identified, and the extent to which peer relations play a causal role in the genesis of disorder is evaluated. A review of the evidence suggests that, rather than a simple pathway from problematic peer relations to disorder, there is a reciprocal relationship between children's problems with peers and their psychological problems from infancy to adolescence. PMID:14959804

  14. Seeds of General Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Frederic R.

    1984-01-01

    Proposes novel methods of solving mechanics and dynamics problems by changing frames of reference. Uses these ideas to pursue Einstein's notions of inertial and uniformly rotating reference frames, gravitational and inertial mass, and the gravitational bending of light in relation to the simple original problem. (JM)

  15. Fission Spectrum Related Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    G. Aliberti; I. Kodeli; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2007-10-01

    The paper presents a preliminary uncertainty analysis related to potential uncertainties on the fission spectrum data. Consistent results are shown for a reference fast reactor design configuration and for experimental thermal configurations. However the results obtained indicate the need for further analysis, in particular in terms of fission spectrum uncertainty data assessment.

  16. Sarpagine and related alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Cook, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The sarpagine-related macroline and ajmaline alkaloids share a common biosynthetic origin, and bear important structural similarities, as expected. These indole alkaloids are widely dispersed in 25 plant genera, principally in the Apocynaceae family. Very diverse and interesting biological properties have been reported for this group of natural products. Isolation of new sarpagine-related alkaloids as well as the asymmetric synthesis of these structurally complex molecules are of paramount importance to the synthetic and medicinal chemists. A total of 115 newly isolated sarpagine-related macroline and ajmaline alkaloids, along with their physicochemical properties have been included in this chapter. A general and efficient strategy for the synthesis of these monomeric alkaloids, as well as bisindoles has been presented, which involves application of the asymmetric Pictet–Spengler reaction (>98% ee) as a key step because of the ease of scale up of the tetracyclic template. Also included in this chapter are the syntheses of the sarpagine-related alkaloids, published since the year 2000. PMID:26827883

  17. Mathematical Friends and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalin, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Mathematical pedagogy meets annually--the theme for 2010 was: "Mathematical Friends & Relations: Recognising Structural Relationships". Here one participant documents her reflections on the experience of working with a group of mathematics educators at the Institute. The challenges, the responses--both the predictable and the…

  18. Subtlety in relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagh, Sanjay M.

    2013-10-01

    I will describe explanations of 1) Michelson-Morley type experiments, 2) Muon decay puzzle, and 3) Doppler's effect in light. The explanation of Michelson-Morley type experiments is based on the emission-wave mechanism. The resolution of the muon decay puzzle is then based on Pauli's exclusion principle as applied to a system of interacting muon and electrons surrounding it during its passage in the Earth's atmosphere. The explanation of the Doppler shift in frequency is then based on the analysis of proper locations on the light fronts. Notably, these explanations do not involve either the time-dilation or the length contraction as in the Special Theory of Relativity. That is to say, these explanations do not use the Lorentz transformations. Nevertheless, they are based on the principle that the speed of light is the same for all observers, whether accelerated or not. These results then render the concepts of special relativity, like time-dilation and length-contraction, to be inessential for physics, in general. But, these results are consistent with the framework of the Universal Theory of Relativity that allows for universal time running at the same rate for all observers and are definite pointers to subtlety in the applications of the concepts of relativity, therefore.

  19. International Relations Program, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert P.

    This brochure describes the following 1991 international relations programs of the American Library Association (ALA): (1) the Books for Romania Program, which resulted in donations of books, journals, microfilm products, and microfilm readers valued at approximately $5 million to Rumanian libraries; (2) the Colloquium on Library Science, a…

  20. Community Relations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Volunteers, Inc., Syracuse, NY.

    A handbook for a community relations coordinator for Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc. is presented. An explanation of placement and advance planning is included. Information on flyers, posters, and newsletters; advance preparation of photographs, identifying them, and getting releases; and examples of news releases and steps in preparing them…

  1. Spontaneously broken complete relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. F.

    1982-08-01

    It is suggested that the equations of the theory of relativity should have a spontaneously broken invariance with respect to the complex Poincare group, in order that relative velocities stay below that of light. Lorentz transformation matrices corresponding to velocities higher than that of light, which contain imaginary elements, are combined with real transformations in a single group, requiring the introduction of a complex Lorentz group as a symmetry group. For this complex group to be realized in real, physical space-time, the complex character of the coordinates must be eliminated by introducing appropriate Goldstone fields. The properties of these Goldstone fiels are discussed. A massless Goldstone field is deduced which, in the linear approximation, has no manifestations of any sort in classical mechanics and whose sole macroscopic manifestation is the presence of a nonelectromagnetic long-range interaction of bodies having a nonvanishing average spin density. An experiment to detect such a field is suggested.

  2. Tests of General Relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Michael

    2011-09-22

    The last years have seen continuing activities in the exploration of our understanding of gravity, motivated by results from precision cosmology and new precision astrophysical experiments. At the centre of attention lies the question as to whether general relativity is the correct theory of gravity. In answering this question, we work not only towards correctly interpreting the phenomenon of 'dark energy' but also towards the goal of achieving a quantum theory of gravity. In these efforts, the observations of pulsars, especially those in binary systems, play an important role. Pulsars do not only provide the only evidence for the existence of gravitational waves so far, but they also provide precision tests of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. This talk summarizes the current state-of-art in these experiments and looks into the future.

  3. Very special relativity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrew G; Glashow, Sheldon L

    2006-07-14

    By very special relativity (VSR) we mean descriptions of nature whose space-time symmetries are certain proper subgroups of the Poincaré group. These subgroups contain space-time translations together with at least a two-parameter subgroup of the Lorentz group isomorphic to that generated by K(x) + J(y) and K(y)- J(x). We find that VSR implies special relativity (SR) in the context of local quantum field theory or of conservation. Absent both of these added hypotheses, VSR provides a simulacrum of SR for which most of the consequences of Lorentz invariance remain wholly or essentially intact, and for which many sensitive searches for departures from Lorentz invariance must fail. Several feasible experiments are discussed for which Lorentz-violating effects in VSR may be detectable. PMID:16907430

  4. General Relativity Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    A hundred years after its birth, general relativity has become a highly successful theory in the sese that it has passed many experimental and observational tests and finds widespread application to diverse set of cosmic phenomena. It remains an accurate research field as more tests are deployed, epitomized by the exciting prospect of detecting gravitational radiation directly. General realtivity is the essential foundation of modern cosmology and underlies our detailed description of the black holes and neutron stars that are ultimately responsible for the most powerful and dramatic cosmic sources. The interface with physics on both the largest and the smallest scales continues to be very fertile. In this talk I will attempt to highlight some key steps along the way to general relativity today.

  5. Relative value health insurance.

    PubMed

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-04-01

    Increases in health costs continue to outpace general inflation, and implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will exacerbate the problem by adding more Americans to the ranks of the insured. The most commonly proposed solutions--bureaucratic controls, greater patient cost sharing, and changes to physician incentives--all have substantial weaknesses. This article proposes a new paradigm for rationalizing health care expenditures called "relative value health insurance," a product that would enable consumers to purchase health insurance that covers cost-effective treatments but excludes cost-ineffective treatments. A combination of legal and informational impediments prevents private insurers from marketing this type of product today, but creative use of comparative effectiveness research, funded as a part of health care reform, could make relative value health insurance possible. Data deficits, adverse selection risks, and heterogeneous values among consumers create obstacles to shifting the health insurance system to this paradigm, but they could be overcome. PMID:24523448

  6. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Karoff, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. Aims: We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson S index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. Methods: We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. Results: We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by the small frequency separation, as well as an anti-correlation between the S index and the oscillation amplitudes. We argue that the average activity level of the stars shows a stronger correlation with the small frequency separation than with the absolute age that is often considered in the literature. Conclusions: The phenomenological laws discovered in this paper have the potential to become new important diagnostics to link stellar evolution theory with the dynamics of global magnetic fields. In particular we argue that the relation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the oscillation amplitudes is in good agreement with the findings of direct numerical simulations of magneto-convection.

  7. How relational systems perform

    SciTech Connect

    Date, C.J.

    1984-02-13

    Contrary to popular belief, relational DBMS can perform at least as well as, and quite possibly better than, older hierarchical or network systems. Ignoring the interference effects introduced when multiple transactions are run in parallel, the author concentrates on the performance of some given database transaction considered in isolation. The two principal factors determining the performance of such a transaction are, of course, the number of I/O operations and the pathlength (amount of CPU processing).

  8. Relative microvascular pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Min; Zemp, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Microcirculation may be characterized by the vascular pressure as it is influenced by pressure-driven perfusion. Crosssections of blood vessels can be visualized by photoacoustic imaging and compressing on vessels causes deformation. The photoacoustic signals of blood, when compressed to the point of vessel collapse, may or may not vanish depending on the buckling process it undergoes. We form relative pressure images of microvessels by tracking vessel collapse as a function of externally applied pressure using photoacoustic imaging.

  9. Gyroscope relativity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decher, R.

    1971-01-01

    A gyroscope test of general relativity theory is proposed. The basic ideas and hardware concepts conceived by the investigators to implement the experiment are discussed. The goal is to measure the extremely small relativistic precession of gyroscopes in an earth-orbiting satellite. The experiment hardware (cryogenic gyroscopes, a telescope and superconducting circuits) is enclosed in a liquid helium dewar. The experiment will operate in orbit for about one year.

  10. Matter in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  11. Industrial labor relations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  12. Antiphospholipid-Related Chorea

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Silvio; Antenora, Antonella; De Rosa, Anna; Roca, Alessandro; Maddaluno, Gennaro; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; De Michele, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Chorea is a movement disorder which may be associated with immunologic diseases, in particular in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Choreic movements have been linked to the isolated presence of plasmatic aPL, or to primary, or secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. The highest incidence of aPL-related chorea is detected in children and females. The presentation of chorea is usually subacute and the course monophasic. Choreic movements can be focal, unilateral, or generalized. High plasmatic titers of aPL in a choreic patient can suggest the diagnosis of aPL-related chorea; neuroimaging investigation does not provide much additional diagnostic information. The most relevant target of aPL is β2-glycoprotein I, probably responsible for the thrombotic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome. Etiology of the movement disorder is not well understood but a neurotoxic effect of aPL has been hypothesized, leading to impaired basal ganglia cell function and development of neuroinflammation. Patients affected by aPL-related chorea have an increased risk of thrombosis and should receive antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment. PMID:23097646

  13. Sleep related vehicle accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J. A.; Reyner, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. DESIGN--Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. SUBJECTS--Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. RESULTS--Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. CONCLUSIONS--Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries. PMID:7888930

  14. General Relativity and Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.

  15. Relative permeability through fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Diomampo, Gracel, P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood. In this study, nitrogen-water experiments were done on both smooth and rough parallel plates to determine the governing flow mechanism for fractures and the appropriate methodology for data analysis. The experiments were done using a glass plate to allow visualization of flow. Digital video recording allowed instantaneous measurement of pressure, flow rate and saturation. Saturation was computed using image analysis techniques. The experiments showed that gas and liquid phases flow through fractures in nonuniform separate channels. The localized channels change with time as each phase path undergoes continues breaking and reforming due to invasion of the other phase. The stability of the phase paths is dependent on liquid and gas flow rate ratio. This mechanism holds true for over a range of saturation for both smooth and rough fractures. In imbibition for rough-walled fractures, another mechanism similar to wave-like flow in pipes was also observed. The data from the experiments were analyzed using Darcy's law and using the concept of friction factor and equivalent Reynold's number for two-phase flow. For both smooth- and rough-walled fractures a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was seen. The calculated relative permeability curves follow Corey-type behavior and can be modeled using Honarpour expressions. The sum of the relative permeabilities is not equal one, indicating phase interference. The equivalent homogeneous single-phase approach did not give satisfactory representation of flow through fractures. The graphs of experimentally derived friction factor with the modified Reynolds number do not reveal a distinctive linear relationship.

  16. Dasatinib-Related Chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yen-Min; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Huang, Jen-Seng; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Lai, Chien-Hong; Wu, Tsung-Han; Chang, Pei-Hung; Chang, Yueh-Shih; Lan, Yii-Jenq

    2015-01-01

    Dasatinib is a potent second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. The most common adverse event associated with dasatinib therapy is fluid retention, including pleural effusion. Dasatinib-related chylothorax has rarely been reported. The clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, management, and prognosis are not fully understood. Here we report a 40-year-old woman presenting with chylothorax following dasatinib use. We propose the hypothesis of its mechanism as well as offering a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25805678

  17. Tachyons in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Charles

    2011-05-15

    We consider the motion of tachyons (faster-than-light particles) in the framework of general relativity. An important feature is the large contribution of low energy tachyons to the energy-momentum tensor. We also calculate the gravitational field produced by tachyons in particular geometric arrangements; and it appears that there could be self-cohering bundles of such matter. This leads us to suggest that such theoretical ideas might be relevant to major problems (dark matter and dark energy) in current cosmological models.

  18. Studies Relating to EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

  19. {alpha}-decay energy formula for superheavy nuclei based on the liquid-drop model

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Tiekuang; Ren Zhongzhou

    2010-09-15

    A formula of {alpha}-decay energy for superheavy nuclei based on the method of macroscopic model plus shell corrections is proposed. The macroscopic part of this formula is derived from the Bethe-Weizsaecker binding energy formula, and the shell corrections at N=152 and N=162 are expressed by the Mexican hat wavelet functions. The parameters of this formula are obtained through fitting to 170 {alpha}-decay energies for nuclei ranging from Z=90 to Z=118 with N{>=}140. Numerical results show that 170 existing {alpha}-decay energies can be reproduced very well; the average and standard deviations between theoretical results and experimental data are 0.177 and 0.226 MeV, respectively. The {alpha}-decay energies of newly synthesized nuclei {sup 293,294}117 and their {alpha}-decay products are also reproduced very well. In addition, the {alpha}-decay energies for nuclei with Z=110-120 are predicted and compared with the results calculated by the macroscopic-microscopic model. Great differences are found for nuclei with Z{>=}116 and N{>=}176 due to the shell effects near the hypothetical doubly magic nucleus {sup 298}114{sub 184} in the macroscopic-microscopic model. Therefore, by comparing experimental {alpha}-decay energies measured in the future with the ones predicted by these two methods, one can obtain useful information about the next proton and neutron magic numbers.

  20. Heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stewart, Lynsey K

    2011-06-01

    Heat-related illness is a set of preventable conditions ranging from mild forms (e.g., heat exhaustion, heat cramps) to potentially fatal heat stroke. Hot and humid conditions challenge cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms. Once core temperature reaches 104°F (40°C), cellular damage occurs, initiating a cascade of events that may lead to organ failure and death. Early recognition of symptoms and accurate measurement of core temperature are crucial to rapid diagnosis. Milder forms of heat-related illness are manifested by symptoms such as headache, weakness, dizziness, and an inability to continue activity. These are managed by supportive measures including hydration and moving the patient to a cool place. Hyperthermia and central nervous system symptoms should prompt an evaluation for heat stroke. Initial treatments should focus on lowering core temperature through cold water immersion. Applying ice packs to the head, neck, axilla, and groin is an alternative. Additional measures include transporting the patient to a cool environment, removing excess clothing, and intravenous hydration. Delayed access to cooling is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with heat stroke. Identification of at-risk groups can help physicians and community health agencies provide preventive measures. PMID:21661715

  1. HIV-related violence.

    PubMed

    Abdale, F

    1999-10-01

    Statistics are seldom recorded on the incidence of HIV-related verbal or physical abuse. The New York Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project (AVP), and San Francisco's Community United Against Violence are the only known programs to recognize and collect data on HIV-related violence. Psychological abuse, physical battery, harassment, and rape are all signs of domestic violence. Reluctance to report bias crimes is thought to stem from fear of discrimination and further violence. In addition, some community members are concerned that partner notification laws may foster more household violence, or discourage people from being tested. The repercussions of violence against people with HIV is evident, often resulting in depression, lack of sleep, and non-adherence to medication. Those victimized by violent situations can seek assistance in New York from AVP, which provides resources, counseling, legal aid and advocacy for victims. AVP also provides guidance and support through the process of criminal prosecution, and formulating a safety plan. A list of organizations that can assist victims of violence is provided, which includes contact information for each. PMID:11366876

  2. Liraglutide-related cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Hakan; Araz, Mustafa; Alkan, Samet; Akarsu, Ersin

    2015-10-01

    Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog and recently started to be using as an incretin-based treatment for diabetes mellitus. Liraglutide causes some adverse affects including nausea, vomiting, acute nasopharyngitis and acute pancreatitis. However, development of liraglutide-dependent cholelithiasis has not been reported in the literature. A 75-year-old female patient had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 10 years and she has been treated by liraglutide for 6 months. The patient was admitted to the emergency service due to sudden onset of abdominal pain. After laboratory and imaging studies, she was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. And then patient's oral intake was stopped, intravenous fluid and ceftriaxone 2 g/day were started. Furthermore, liraglutide treatment discontinued and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was started to treat cholelithiasis. During follow-up, abdominal pain completely relieved. Hepatobiliary ultrasonography in sixth month follow-up showed entirely regression of cholelithiasis. Any liraglutide-related cholelithiasis case has not been reported in the literature previously. Therefore, our case is the first case. Especially, elderly diabetic patients who are started to liraglutide treatment should be monitored closely for the formation of cholelithiasis. UDCA treatment would be an alternative prior to surgical treatment for liraglutide-related cholelithiasis. PMID:25725635

  3. My relational self psychology.

    PubMed

    Teicholz, Judith Guss

    2009-04-01

    In this article, I suggest recent sources of influence on psychoanalysis and describe a contemporary relational self psychology that is my personal attempt at integration. Even with this integration, I struggle to find the right "therapeutic" balance between my essential but imperfect instrument for empathic listening, on the one hand, and the risks of authentic engagement, on the other. These dialectical tensions in me mirror those in the psychoanalytic community as a whole, poised between a scientifically based practice and a healing "art"--or between a complex but teachable methodology or discipline-and an ordinary (yet extraordinary) human relationship in which spontaneity and even improvisation play a role. Complicating this balancing act, there is new evidence from neuroscientists, attachment theorists, and infant-caregiver researchers that, from birth onward, bidirectional influences on brain and psychic development create contingent and unpredictable outcomes in every intimately related dyad. Thus, the contemporary analyst must expect to be changed by the work and--while taking full responsibility for his or her own contribution--must recognize patient and analyst as co-creators of the psychoanalytic project. At the same time that we now recognize contingency, complexity, and chaos at the heart of human minds and relationships, we also acknowledge the central importance of a sense of continuity and coherence as the individual undertakes the pursuit of goals and relationships in life. What kind of relationship can facilitate these qualities in the sense of self? That is the question that this article undertakes to answer. PMID:19379236

  4. PMAG: Relational Database Definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keizer, P.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Genevey, A.; Staudigel, H.; Helly, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Scripps center for Physical and Chemical Earth References (PACER) was established to help create databases for reference data and make them available to the Earth science community. As part of these efforts PACER supports GERM, REM and PMAG and maintains multiple online databases under the http://earthref.org umbrella website. This website has been built on top of a relational database that allows for the archiving and electronic access to a great variety of data types and formats, permitting data queries using a wide range of metadata. These online databases are designed in Oracle 8.1.5 and they are maintained at the San Diego Supercomputer Center. They are directly available via http://earthref.org/databases/. A prototype of the PMAG relational database is now operational within the existing EarthRef.org framework under http://earthref.org/databases/PMAG/. As will be shown in our presentation, the PMAG design focuses around the general workflow that results in the determination of typical paleo-magnetic analyses. This ensures that individual data points can be traced between the actual analysis and the specimen, sample, site, locality and expedition it belongs to. These relations guarantee traceability of the data by distinguishing between original and derived data, where the actual (raw) measurements are performed on the specimen level, and data on the sample level and higher are then derived products in the database. These relations may also serve to recalculate site means when new data becomes available for that locality. The PMAG data records are extensively described in terms of metadata. These metadata are used when scientists search through this online database in order to view and download their needed data. They minimally include method descriptions for field sampling, laboratory techniques and statistical analyses. They also include selection criteria used during the interpretation of the data and, most importantly, critical information about the

  5. Relative constraints and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz

    2014-03-01

    Several mathematical models of evolving systems assume that changes in the micro-states are constrained to the search of an optimal value in a local or global objective function. However, the concept of evolution requires a continuous change in the environment and species, making difficult the definition of absolute optimal values in objective functions. In this paper, we define constraints that are not absolute but relative to local micro-states, introducing a rupture in the invariance of the phase space of the system. This conceptual basis is useful to define alternative mathematical models for biological (or in general complex) evolving systems. We illustrate this concept with a modified Ising model, which can be useful to understand and model problems like the somatic evolution of cancer.

  6. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  7. Gunpowder-related burns.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Monzonis, A; Benito-Ruiz, J; Baena-Montilla, P; Mena-Yago, A; de la Cruz-Ferrer, L I

    1992-04-01

    Gunpowder misuse is a frequent cause of burn injury in our area. The injuries are mostly minor lesions which may be treated on an outpatient basis, the more serious injuries need surgical treatment. Experience of the management of these burns is reported by reviewing 123 clinical charts of patients admitted between 1983 and 1990. The most frequent victims are teenage males who are involved mainly in accidents in the street. The most serious burns followed work-related accidents, with a fatal outcome in 47 per cent of the patients. The serious burns are usually deep dermal or full skin thickness. A common pattern affects groins, genitalia, hypogastrium and hands, and are produced when fireworks ignite in the pockets of the patient's trousers. The management of these lesions does not differ from burns caused by other agents, although attention should be paid to the presence of associated lesions, chiefly to eyes, ears and hands, due to the shockwave and shrapnel. PMID:1590935

  8. Bicycle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M J; Rivara, F P

    2001-05-15

    Bicycle riding is a popular form of recreation among persons of all ages, and related injuries cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most injuries occur in males and are associated with riding at high speed; most serious injuries and fatalities result from collisions with motor vehicles. Although superficial soft tissue injuries and musculoskeletal trauma are the most common injuries, head injuries are responsible for most fatalities and long-term disabilities. Overuse injuries may contribute to a variety of musculoskeletal complaints, compression neuropathies, perineal and genital complaints. Physicians treating such patients should consider medical factors, as well as suggest adjusting various components of the bicycle, such as the seat height and handlebars. Encouraging bicycle riders to wear helmets is key to preventing injuries; protective clothing and equipment, and general safety advice also may offer some protection. PMID:11388717

  9. Directions in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. L.; Ryan, M. P., Jr.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2005-10-01

    Preface; Dieter Brill: a spacetime perspective; 1. Thawing the frozen formalism: the difference between observables and what we observe A. Anderson; 2. Jacobi's action and the density of states J. D. Brown and J. W. York; 3. Decoherence of correlation histories E. Calzetta and B. L. Hu; 4. The initial value problem in light of Ashtekar's variables R. Capovilla, J. Dell and T. Jacobson; 5. Status report on an axiomatic basis for functional integration P. Cartier and C. DeWitt-Morette; 6. Solution of the coupled Einstein constraints on asymptotically Euclidean manifolds Y. Choquet-Bruhat; 7. Compact Cauchy horizons and Cauchy surfaces P. Chrusciel and J. Isenberg; 8. The classical electron J. M. Cohen and E. Mustafa; 9. Gauge (in)variance, mass and parity in D=3 revisited S. Deser; 10. Triality, exceptional Lie groups and Dirac operators F. Flaherty; 11. The reduction of the state vector and limitations on measurement in the quantum mechanics of closed systems J. B. Hartle; 12 Quantum linearization instabilities of de Sitter spacetime A. Higuchi; 13. What is the true description of charged black holes? G. T. Horowitz; 14. Limits on the adiabatic index in static stellar models L. Lindblom and A. K. M. Masood-ul-Alam; 15. On the relativity of rotation B. Mashhoon; 16. Recent progress and open problems in linearization stability V. E. Moncrief; 17. Brill waves N. Ó Murchadha; 18. You can't get there from here: constraints on topology change K. Schleich and D. M. Witt; 19. Time, measurement and information loss in quantum cosmology L. Smolin; 20. Impossible measurements on quantum fields R. Sorkin; 21. A new condition implying the existence of a constant mean curvature foliation F. J. Tipler; 22. Maximal slices in stationary spacetimes with ergoregions R. M. Wald; 23. (1 + 1) - Dimensional methods for general relativity J. H. Yoon; 24. Coalescence of primal gravity waves to make cosmological mass without matter D. E. Holz, W. A. Miller, M. Wakano and J. A. Wheeler.

  10. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  11. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  12. AIDS-related myopathy.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Rafiq A.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Munn, Robert; Ruebner, Boris H.; Ellis, William G.

    1999-09-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and wasting is one of the defining clinical features of AIDS. Muscular weakness due to myopathy may develop at any stage of HIV infection. We report two illustrative cases of HIV-associated myopathies. One was due to inflammatory myosits most likely directly related to the HIV infection, and the other was most likely the result of mitochondrial damage due to zidovudine, a nucleoside analogue commonly used in treating HIV infection. Biopsies from both patients showed alterations of myofiber structures, of varying severity, culminating in necrosis, lipid droplets, and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory response. The zidovudine-treated patient also showed distinctive mitochondrial changes, predominantly enlargement, variation in shape and size, and disorganization of the cristae. These two types of HIV-associated inflammatory myopathies are reviewed, along with other HIV-associated myopathies, including HIV wasting syndrome, nemaline rod myopathy, pyomyositis, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, and other miscellaneous myopathies associated with HIV infection. PMID:11810429

  13. Sports-related concussion

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Daniel M.; Galetta, Kristin M.; Phillips, H. Westley; Dziemianowicz, E. Mark S.; Wilson, James A.; Dorman, Emily S.; Laudano, Eric; Galetta, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Studies suggest that a lack of standardized knowledge may lead to underreporting and undertreatment of sports-related concussion. However, there has been little work done to establish how this knowledge may affect athletes’ behaviors toward reporting their concussions and removing themselves from play. We conducted an anonymous online survey to assess athletes’ knowledge of signs and symptoms of concussion, and also sought to estimate the potential frequency of underreporting in a collegiate athlete cohort. Among 262 athletes who responded to the survey, 43% of those with a history of concussion reported that they had knowingly hidden symptoms of a concussion to stay in a game, and 22% of athletes overall indicated that they would be unlikely or very unlikely to report concussion symptoms to a coach or athletic trainer in the future. These data suggest that there may be a substantial degree of underreporting of concussion among collegiate athletes, despite most acknowledging that they have been formally educated about the risks of concussion. PMID:24195017

  14. Pet-related infections.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Gordon, Zimra; Odofin, Lynda

    2007-11-01

    Human contact with cats, dogs, and other pets results in several million infections each year in the United States, ranging from self-limited skin conditions to life-threatening systemic illnesses. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common pet-related parasitic infections. Although toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic or mild, it may cause serious congenital infection if a woman is exposed during pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester. Common pet-borne fungal infections include tinea corporis/capitis (ringworm); campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are among the most common bacterial infections associated with pet ownership. Less commonly, pets can transmit arthropod-borne and viral illnesses (e.g., scabies, rabies). Infection in a pet can provide sentinel warning of local vectors and endemic conditions, such as Lyme disease risk. Treatment is infection-specific, although many infections are self-limited. Prevention involves common sense measures such as adequate hand washing, proper disposal of animal waste, and ensuring that infected animals are diagnosed and treated. Special precautions are indicated for immunocompromised persons. Increased communication between primary care physicians and veterinarians could improve treatment and prevention of these conditions. PMID:18019874

  15. [Alcohol-related dementia].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshifumi; Yokoyama, Akira; Matsushita, Sachio; Kozaki, Koichi; Higuchi, Susumu

    2014-04-01

    Excessive alcohol use is associated with health problems for the elderly in combination with their chronic conditions. One such complication, alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is brought about by direct or indirect ethanol intoxication, and coexisting nutritional deficiency, liver disease, cerebrovascular disease and traumatic brain injury. The elderly people with ARD have been underestimated and underdiagnosed. In these older alcoholics, atrophic changes, lacunar infarcts and deep white matter lesions of the brain are evident and are associated not only with their cognitive decline, but also with their frailty, leading to high morbidity and mortality ratio. Although lifelong abstinence can recover patients with ARD to temporally lull, aging, the severity of alcohol dependence, and the concomitant nutritional, physical and environmental factors can all impact negatively their outcome. Therefore, a comprehensive approach to lifestyle factors is recommended so that they can minimize preventable risks and maintain health status. Nursing home placement may be an appropriate treatment option for some refractory, long-term patients with ARD. PMID:24796110

  16. Sucrose and Related Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, Gillian

    Sucrose (α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1↔2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is the most common low-molecular-weight sugar found in the plant kingdom. It is ubiquitously known as common table sugar and primarily produced industrially from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris); the basics of the industrial manufacture of sucrose are outlined in this chapter. Commercial sucrose has a very high purity (> 99.9%) making it one of the purest organic substances produced on an industrial scale. Value-addition to sucrose via chemical and biotechnological reactions is becoming more important for the diversification of the sugar industry to maintain the industries' competitiveness in a world increasingly turning to a bio-based economy. The basis for the chemical reactivity of sucrose is the eight hydroxyl groups present on the molecule, although, sucrose chemical reactivity is regarded as difficult. Increasing use of enzymatic biotechnological techniques to derivatize sucrose is expected, to add special functionalities to sucrose products like biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. Analysis of sucrose by colorimetric, enzymatic, oxidation-reduction and chromatography methods are discussed. Oligosaccharides related to sucrose are outlined in detail and include sucrose-based plant, honey and in vitro oligosaccharides.

  17. Relative Critical Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Debra

    2013-05-01

    Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual) of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures - symplectic, Poisson, or variational - generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (co)adjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems - the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids - and generalizations of these systems.

  18. Neural relativity principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Alexei

    Olfaction is the final frontier of our senses - the one that is still almost completely mysterious to us. Despite extensive genetic and perceptual data, and a strong push to solve the neural coding problem, fundamental questions about the sense of smell remain unresolved. Unlike vision and hearing, where relatively straightforward relationships between stimulus features and neural responses have been foundational to our understanding sensory processing, it has been difficult to quantify the properties of odorant molecules that lead to olfactory percepts. In a sense, we do not have olfactory analogs of ``red'', ``green'' and ``blue''. The seminal work of Linda Buck and Richard Axel identified a diverse family of about 1000 receptor molecules that serve as odorant sensors in the nose. However, the properties of smells that these receptors detect remain a mystery. I will review our current understanding of the molecular properties important to the olfactory system. I will also describe a theory that explains how odorant identity can be preserved despite substantial changes in the odorant concentration.

  19. [Chronotherapy and relativity theory].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, N A

    2008-01-01

    The course of time itself in alive organisms is treated from positions of the special theory of the relativity created by A. Einstein in 1905 and added by the Nobel winners H.A.Lorentsem, M. Plankom, M. fon Laue. These achievements of fundamental physics have been put in a basis of special medical technology "Resonant chronophytotherapy" (SMT RCPT) which is applied in practice of treatment of chronic diseases for 27 years. Grass tinctures in various dosages are used in SMT RCPT, which patients take once a day during precisely designated time. Parameters "dosage-time" daily vary. SMT RCPT have been conducted in treatment of epilepsy bronchial asthma, rheumatism, sclerodermia, hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, vegeto-vascular dystonia, female sterility, circular alopecia, vitiligo, eczema, psoriasis, onychomycosis. SMT RCPT does have adverse events, has no contra-indications to its use, directed, first of all, on elimination of nonspecific signs of a disease, reduces dependence and complications of the use of chemical synthetic preparations. SMT RCPT can be combined with any kind of specific treatment. Internet-variant of SMT RCPT has been developed. Chronomedicine is priority tendency in industrialized countries of the world--the USA, the Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, Japan and appears on lead positions among alternative methods of treatment, both traditional, and non-traditional. PMID:19145832

  20. Sports related to drowning.

    PubMed

    Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. PMID:27581833

  1. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  2. Nephronophthisis and related syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Matthias T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Nephronophthisis (NPHP) represents an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease and is one of the most common genetic disorders causing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children and adolescents. NPHP is a genetically heterogenous disorder with twenty identified genes. NPHP occurs as an isolated kidney disease but approxmiately 15% of NPHP patients have additional extrarenal symptoms affecting other organs (e.g. eyes, liver, bones, and CNS). The pleiotropy in NPHP is explained by the finding that almost all NPHP gene products share expression in primary cilia, a sensory organelle present in most mammalian cells. If extrarenal symptoms are present in addition to NPHP, these disorders are classified as NPHP-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC). This review provides an update about the recent advances in the field of NPHP-RC. Recent findings The identification of novel disease-causing genes has improved our understanding of pathomechanisms contributing to NPHP-RC. Multiple interactions between different NPHP-RC gene products have been published and outline the interconnectivity of the affected proteins and shared pathways. Summary The significance of recently identified genes for NPHP-RC is discussed and the complex role and interaction of NPHP proteins in ciliary function and cellular signaling pathways is highlighted. PMID:25635582

  3. Shaping Relations: Exploiting Relational Features for Visuospatial Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livins, Katherine A.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.; Spivey, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although relational reasoning has been described as a process at the heart of human cognition, the exact character of relational representations remains an open debate. Symbolic-connectionist models of relational cognition suggest that relations are structured representations, but that they are ultimately grounded in feature sets; thus, they…

  4. Relating theories via renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.

    2013-02-01

    The renormalization method is specifically aimed at connecting theories describing physical processes at different length scales and thereby connecting different theories in the physical sciences. The renormalization method used today is the outgrowth of 150 years of scientific study of thermal physics and phase transitions. Different phases of matter show qualitatively different behaviors separated by abrupt phase transitions. These qualitative differences seem to be present in experimentally observed condensed-matter systems. However, the "extended singularity theorem" in statistical mechanics shows that sharp changes can only occur in infinitely large systems. Abrupt changes from one phase to another are signaled by fluctuations that show correlation over infinitely long distances, and are measured by correlation functions that show algebraic decay as well as various kinds of singularities and infinities in thermodynamic derivatives and in measured system parameters. Renormalization methods were first developed in field theory to get around difficulties caused by apparent divergences at both small and large scales. However, no renormalization gives a fully satisfactory formulation of field theory. The renormalization (semi-)group theory of phase transitions was put together by Kenneth G. Wilson in 1971 based upon ideas of scaling and universality developed earlier in the context of phase transitions and of couplings dependent upon spatial scale coming from field theory. Correlations among regions with fluctuations in their order underlie renormalization ideas. Wilson's theory is the first approach to phase transitions to agree with the extended singularity theorem. Some of the history of the study of these correlations and singularities is recounted, along with the history of renormalization and related concepts of scaling and universality. Applications, particularly to condensed-matter physics and particle physics, are summarized. This note is partially a

  5. Acupuncture-Related Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hampton, David A; Kaneko, Robert T; Simeon, Erika; Moren, Alexis; Rowell, Susan; Watters, Jennifer M

    2014-08-01

    Background: Acupuncture-related pneumothorax (PTX) is a poorly reported complication of thoracic needling. Recent Chinese literature reviews cited PTXs as the most common adverse outcome. Because of delayed presentation, this complication is thought to be underrecognized by acupuncturists and is largely addressed by hospital and emergency room personnel. The goal of this case study was to demonstrate common risk factors for a PTX, the mechanisms for its development, and protocols to use if one is suspected. Case: A 43-year-old, athletic female with chronic neck pain that was poorly managed with oral medications sought an alternative intervention for pain control. Her treatment plan consisted of weekly acupuncture sessions in the prone and supine positions targeting points along the Bladder, Gall Bladder, and Small Intestine meridians, as well as the right scapular Ah Shi point. She also received infrared lamp therapy. The aim of this approach was to help the patient achieve subjective pain reduction and increased range of motion. Results: One hour after her third treatment session, this patient experienced pleuritic chest pain and dyspnea. She was transported to a local Level-1 trauma center by emergency medical services and was diagnosed with a right-sided PTX. Conclusions: The acupoints addressed, a practitioner's knowledge of variations in anatomy, and a patient's body habitus and medical history are risk factors for PTX development. A patient's initial presentation does not predict future outcome. A benign presentation can evolve into a potentially life-threatening cardiovascular collapse. When PTX is suspected, discussing it with the patient and facilitating appropriate evaluation and intervention by a tertiary-care facility is warranted. PMID:25184016

  6. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  7. [Relations of the adolescent].

    PubMed

    Arballo Angulo, M A

    1990-01-01

    Adolescents often feel like sexual beings because of the physical and psychological changes produced by their hormones. Adolescents are sometimes disturbed by their newly occurring sexual fantasies and by lack of understanding from their parents of the changes they are experiencing. These factors together with social pressures of various kinds occasionally make the adolescent forget that decisions about how to behave sexually should be made by the individual, not by others. Adolescents should be able to evaluate personal relationships for their positive or destructive qualities. Decisions by adolescents about their sexual behavior and about when a personal relationship should become a sexual relationship are made more difficult by the conflicting social, group, and interpersonal pressures they face. In a good sexual relationship as in a good friendship, the 2 persons feel confident and behave honestly with each other. Neither dominates the other, and the relationship is pleasurable rather than negative for both. According to research, the 1st sexual relations of an adolescent often occur with an adult. Sex is usually unpremeditated and unplanned. Many adolescents are disappointed in their 1st sexual experiences, which may have occurred in unfavorable circumstances. The combination of inadequate sex education and knowledge of what to expect and unrealistically high expectations from movies or stories probably are principal causes of disappointment. Adolescents in the process of maturing from childhood into adulthood are not completely prepared psychologically or socioculturally for parenthood. In Mexico, 75% of 1st unions are believed to begin before the woman is 20 years old. Most adolescents who become pregnant do not use contraception. In 1976, only 16% of new family planning acceptors were believed to be 15-19 years old. The proportion of births to mothers under 18 was estimated to have increased from 3.1% in 1968-70 to 10% in 1976. Adolescent pregnancies

  8. Teaching Publicity and Media Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midura, Edmund

    Publicity and media relations are basic operations for many public relations practitioners. Establishing a good relationship with the media and getting positive publicity for the sponsoring organization are essential duties for most public relations professionals. The public relations practitioner needs to know how to prepare media kits; to work…

  9. Locality and the relativity principle beyond special relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortes, J. L.; Mazon, D.; Mercati, F.

    2011-10-15

    Locality of interactions is an essential ingredient of Special Relativity. Recently, a new framework under the name of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931.] has been proposed as a way to consider Planckian modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles. We note in this paper that the loss of absolute locality is a general feature of theories beyond Special Relativity with an implementation of a relativity principle. We give an explicit construction of such an implementation and compare it both with the previously mentioned framework of relative locality and the so-called Doubly Special Relativity theories.

  10. Cross-Domain Analogies as Relating Derived Relations among Two Separate Relational Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among…

  11. Arbitrarily Applicable Comparative Relations: Experimental Evidence for a Relational Operant

    PubMed Central

    Berens, Nicholas M; Hayes, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    Arbitrarily applicable derived relational responding has been argued by relational frame theorists to be a form of operant behavior. The present study examined this idea with 4 female participants, ages 4 to 5 years old, who could not perform a series of problem-solving tasks involving arbitrary more than and less than relations. In a combined multiple baseline (across responses and participants) and multiple probe design (with trained and untrained stimuli), it was shown that reinforced multiple-exemplar training facilitated the development of arbitrary comparative relations, and that these skills generalized not just across stimuli but also across trial types. The sequence of training identified potential prerequisites in the development of comparative relations (e.g., nonarbitrary comparative relations). Taken as a whole, the present data, along with previous work by others in this area, suggest that relating arbitrary events comparatively is an operant. The implications of this conclusion for the analysis of complex behavior are discussed. PMID:17471793

  12. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Age-related Macular Degeneration What is AMD? Click for more information Age-related macular degeneration, ... the macula allows you to see fine detail. AMD Blurs Central Vision AMD blurs the sharp central ...

  13. A Relational Theory of Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Building on diverse influences from critical perspectives in vocational psychology and the relational movement in contemporary psychological discourse, this article introduces the relational theory of working. Attending to the full array of people who work and who want to work, the relational theory conceptualizes working as an inherently…

  14. Labor Relations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, A. Lee; And Others

    The field of labor relations in colleges and universities is developing quite rapidly in the U.S. In the public sector, a variety of new labor relations laws are being adopted at the state level. Pending the possible adoption of federal legislation governing labor relations in public institutions, personnel officers who are without a state law…

  15. The Relative Importance of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to extend Michalos' [Social indicators research and health-related quality of life (QoL) research. "Social Indicators Research," 65, 27-72, 2004] discussion on bridging social indicators research and health-related QoL (HRQoL) research through an examination of (1) the relative importance of satisfaction with one's own health to…

  16. Education for Corporate Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Bill L.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed members of the Public Relations Society of America who reported that (1) students planning public relations careers in corporations should take courses in this order of priority: journalism, public relations, internships, speech communication, marketing, etc., and (2) an MBA degree was the best advanced education degree. (PD)

  17. The Caring Relation in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2012-01-01

    According to John Macmurray, "teaching is one of the foremost of personal relations". This paper describes that relation in some detail from the perspective of care ethics. This involves a discussion of the central elements in establishing and maintaining relations of care and trust which include listening, dialogue, critical thinking, reflective…

  18. Introducing Relativity into Quantum Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wai-Kee; Blinder, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    It is not often realized by chemists that the special theory of relativity is behind several aspects of quantum chemistry. The Schrdinger equation itself is based on relations between space-time and energy-momentum four vectors. Electron spin is, of course, the most obvious manifestation of relativity. The chemistry of some heavy elements is…

  19. Pennsylvania Public Employe Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, John D.

    This volume is intended to help public administrators and attorneys deal with the legal problems in Pennsylvania public sector labor relations. In it, the Pennsylvania Labor Relations Board is discussed and public sector labor relations court decisions are cited. The volume is intended to be a reference book and to reveal inconsistencies in…

  20. Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hongjing; Chen, Dawn; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    How can humans acquire relational representations that enable analogical inference and other forms of high-level reasoning? Using comparative relations as a model domain, we explore the possibility that bottom-up learning mechanisms applied to objects coded as feature vectors can yield representations of relations sufficient to solve analogy…

  1. RELATIVE POTENCY RANKING FOR CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently the National Center for Environmental Assessment-Cincinnati completed a feasibility study for developing a toxicity related relative potency ranking scheme for chlorophenols. In this study it was concluded that a large data base exists pertaining to the relative toxicity...

  2. Note on new KLT relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo; He, Song; Huang, Rijun; Jia, Yin

    2010-10-01

    In this short note, we present two results about KLT relations discussed in recent several papers. Our first result is the re-derivation of Mason-Skinner MHV amplitude by applying the S n-3 permutation symmetric KLT relations directly to MHV amplitude. Our second result is the equivalence proof of the newly discovered S n-2 permutation symmetric KLT relations and the well-known S n-3 permutation symmetric KLT relations. Although both formulas have been shown to be correct by BCFW recursion relations, our result is the first direct check using the regularized definition of the new formula.

  3. Towards a relational health promotion.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2016-03-01

    The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard. PMID:25080467

  4. Producing and recognizing analogical relations.

    PubMed

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  5. Shaping relations: Exploiting relational features for visuospatial priming.

    PubMed

    Livins, Katherine A; Doumas, Leonidas A A; Spivey, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Although relational reasoning has been described as a process at the heart of human cognition, the exact character of relational representations remains an open debate. Symbolic-connectionist models of relational cognition suggest that relations are structured representations, but that they are ultimately grounded in feature sets; thus, they predict that activating those features can affect the trajectory of the relational reasoning process. The present work points out that such models do not necessarily specify what those features are though, and endeavors to show that spatial information is likely a part of it. To this end, it presents 2 experiments that used visuospatial priming to affect the course of relational reasoning. The first is a relational category-learning experiment in which this type of priming was shown to affect which spatial relation was learned when multiple were possible. The second used crossmapping analogy problems, paired with this same type of priming, to show that visuospatial cues can make participants more likely to map analogs based on relational roles, even with short presentation times. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322829

  6. The principle of relativity and the de Broglie relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, Julio; Fiolhais, Manuel; Fernández, Luis A.

    2016-06-01

    The de Broglie relation is revisited in connection with an ab initio relativistic description of particles and waves, which is the same treatment that historically led to this famous relation. In the same context of the Minkowski four-vector formalism, we also discuss the phase and the group velocity of a matter wave, explicitly showing that both transform as ordinary velocities under a Lorentz transformation. We show that such a transformation rule is a necessary condition for the covariance of the de Broglie relation, and stress the pedagogical value of the Einstein-Minkowski-Lorentz relativistic context in the presentation of the de Broglie relation.

  7. Relating Derived Relations as a Model of Analogical Reasoning: Reaction Times and Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as chalk is to…

  8. Special Relativity in Week One: 1) The Principle of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    We like to begin an introductory physics course with a law of physics that applies to everything, has no known exceptions, and whose consequences are already familiar to students. That law is the principle of relativity. By focusing on the principle of relativity itself, and a careful selection of the thought experiments, we can comfortably…

  9. Reformulating the Quantum Uncertainty Relation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty principle is one of the cornerstones of quantum theory. In the literature, there are two types of uncertainty relations, the operator form concerning the variances of physical observables and the entropy form related to entropic quantities. Both these forms are inequalities involving pairwise observables, and are found to be nontrivial to incorporate multiple observables. In this work we introduce a new form of uncertainty relation which may give out complete trade-off relations for variances of observables in pure and mixed quantum systems. Unlike the prevailing uncertainty relations, which are either quantum state dependent or not directly measurable, our bounds for variances of observables are quantum state independent and immune from the "triviality" problem of having zero expectation values. Furthermore, the new uncertainty relation may provide a geometric explanation for the reason why there are limitations on the simultaneous determination of different observables in N-dimensional Hilbert space. PMID:26234197

  10. Reformulating the Quantum Uncertainty Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2015-08-01

    Uncertainty principle is one of the cornerstones of quantum theory. In the literature, there are two types of uncertainty relations, the operator form concerning the variances of physical observables and the entropy form related to entropic quantities. Both these forms are inequalities involving pairwise observables, and are found to be nontrivial to incorporate multiple observables. In this work we introduce a new form of uncertainty relation which may give out complete trade-off relations for variances of observables in pure and mixed quantum systems. Unlike the prevailing uncertainty relations, which are either quantum state dependent or not directly measurable, our bounds for variances of observables are quantum state independent and immune from the “triviality” problem of having zero expectation values. Furthermore, the new uncertainty relation may provide a geometric explanation for the reason why there are limitations on the simultaneous determination of different observables in N-dimensional Hilbert space.

  11. Crystal Microbalance Monitors Relative Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensor monitors water evaporation in industrial drying processes. Measured adsorption isotherm for instrument essentially linear over entire range of relative humidity. Testing at each temperature setting less than half hour for full relative-humidity range, with estimated frequency response time less than 10 seconds. Used to measure relative humidity of ambient atmosphere near drying paper, food textile fabrics and pulp to optimize water-drying portion of processing cycle.

  12. Thematic relations in adults' concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

    2001-03-01

    Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

  13. Remarks on turbulent constitutive relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that the concept of turbulent constitutive relations can be used to construct general models for various turbulent correlations. Some of the Generalized Cayley-Hamilton formulas for relating tensor products of higher extension to tensor products of lower extension are introduced. The combination of dimensional analysis and invariant theory can lead to 'turbulent constitutive relations' (or general turbulence models) for, in principle, any turbulent correlations. As examples, the constitutive relations for Reynolds stresses and scalar fluxes are derived. The results are consistent with ones from Renormalization Group (RNG) theory and two-scale Direct-Interaction Approximation (DIA) method, but with a more general form.

  14. Cross-domain analogies as relating derived relations among two separate relational networks.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-05-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among separate relational networks and by correlating participants' performance with a standard measure of analogical reasoning. In two experiments, adult participants first completed general intelligence and analogical reasoning tests. Subsequently, they were exposed to a computerized conditional discrimination training procedure designed to create two relational networks, each consisting of two 3-member equivalence classes. The critical test was a two-part analogical test in which participants had to relate combinatorial relations of coordination and distinction between the two relational networks. In Experiment 1, combinatorial relations for each network were individually tested prior to analogical testing, but in Experiment 2 they were not. Across both experiments, 65% of participants passed the analogical test on the first attempt. Moreover, results from the training procedure were strongly correlated with the standard measure of analogical reasoning. PMID:21547072

  15. Cross-Domain Analogies as Relating Derived Relations among Two Separate Relational Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Luciano, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary behavior analytic research is making headway in analyzing analogy as the establishment of a relation of coordination among common types of trained or derived relations. Previous studies have been focused on within-domain analogy. The current study expands previous research by analyzing cross-domain analogy as relating relations among separate relational networks and by correlating participants' performance with a standard measure of analogical reasoning. In two experiments, adult participants first completed general intelligence and analogical reasoning tests. Subsequently, they were exposed to a computerized conditional discrimination training procedure designed to create two relational networks, each consisting of two 3-member equivalence classes. The critical test was a two-part analogical test in which participants had to relate combinatorial relations of coordination and distinction between the two relational networks. In Experiment 1, combinatorial relations for each network were individually tested prior to analogical testing, but in Experiment 2 they were not. Across both experiments, 65% of participants passed the analogical test on the first attempt. Moreover, results from the training procedure were strongly correlated with the standard measure of analogical reasoning. PMID:21547072

  16. The principle of relativity and the indeterminacy of special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    This work ends a trilogy devoted to a journey into the foundations of special relativity. The first paper debated the meaning of the constancy of the two-way speed of light and its close relation to the conceptualization of time. The second one addressed the question of the possible constancy of the one-way speed of light and the trivial—but, unfortunately, even now somewhat controversial—question of the compatibility between the assumption of a special system of reference and Einstein's special relativity. The present study deals with the principle of relativity. Its historical evolution is reviewed and a 'weak' formulation is defended. It is emphasized that many assertions usually associated with special relativity, such as the 'relativity of time dilation' and 'relativity of space contraction' are indeed philosophical statements, as it has been established already by several authors in the past. Nonetheless, most teachers and scientists still believe nowadays they are implied by the theory and by the group property of the Lorentz transformation. This is by no means so, as it is reviewed and elucidated with the simple example on space contraction. It is argued that the lack of knowledge of the true value of the one-way speed of light in empty space leaves the theory undetermined. Einstein's special relativity corresponds to a simple and very elegant solution to this problem, allowing the study of relative motion without any concern with the study of absolute motion, which is considered to be superfluous. However, its standard interpretation is minimalist and even misleading. A large number of researchers have discussed this question, mostly within the conventionality of simultaneity thesis. The typical formulation of this thesis provides some new physical insight and points out the problem, but does not solve it. In contrast, it often leads to a labyrinth of difficult language which is herein clarified.

  17. Neurocognitive Development of Relational Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Eveline A.; Wendelken, Carter; van Leijenhorst, Linda; Honomichl, Ryan D.; Christoff, Kalina; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2009-01-01

    Relational reasoning is an essential component of fluid intelligence, and is known to have a protracted developmental trajectory. To date, little is known about the neural changes that underlie improvements in reasoning ability over development. In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, children aged 8-12 and adults…

  18. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms a person feels are related to psychological factors. These symptoms can't be traced to a specific physical cause. In people who have a somatic symptom and related disorder, medical test results are either normal or don't explain ...

  19. The Institutional Relations Review, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institutional Relations Review, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education's (ACPE) Institutional Relations Review seeks to provide the postsecondary schools in Alaska with information that pertains to the daily involvement with the Alaska Student Loan (ASL) Programs, Institutional Authorization, Compliance Audit functions and other related subjects. Four issues were…

  20. The Institutional Relations Review, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institutional Relations Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education's (ACPE) Institutional Relations Review seeks to provide the postsecondary schools in Alaska with information that pertains to the daily involvement with the Alaska Student Loan Programs (ASLP), Institutional Authorization, Compliance Audit functions and other related subjects. Four issues were…

  1. Training Guidelines for Employee Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotel and Catering Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This set of guidelines is intended for use by employers desiring to establish the training needs of those involved in employee relations. The 16 guidelines cover the following principal activities normally associated with employee relations: staff management policy and aims, staff recruitment and selection, terms and conditions of employment,…

  2. Internationalizing the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses broadening public relations to an international level by incorporating the topics of culture, international practices, and culturally sensitive theory development. Discusses rationale, design, and execution of an undergraduate course in international public relations. Suggests ways to incorporate assignments addressing international…

  3. Some Media Relations Success Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperbeck, John M.

    1997-01-01

    A panel of 29 extension faculty/staff members who work well with the media were interviewed to identify ways to improve their media relations. Reasons for working with the media, ways to develop relationships with media representatives, and suggestions for creating a more favorable climate for media relations in universities were noted. (JOW)

  4. Teaching Special Relativity without Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 many AAPT members received a booklet that is the first chapter of a physics textbook available on a CD. This book espouses the new educational philosophy of teaching special relativity as the first item in the topic of mechanics. Traditionally, special relativity is part of one or more modern physics chapters at the end of the text, and…

  5. Future University-Industry Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrows, Howard E.

    1983-01-01

    University and industry relations in the United States, it is suggested, must promote competitive U.S. industries. The prime motive for increasing university-industrial relations is competitive commercial products and services. Other countries' success results from national technology ventures based on superior marketing and marshalling of…

  6. Making Probabilistic Relational Categories Learnable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Wookyoung; Hummel, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of relational concept acquisition (e.g., schema induction) based on structured intersection discovery predict that relational concepts with a probabilistic (i.e., family resemblance) structure ought to be extremely difficult to learn. We report four experiments testing this prediction by investigating conditions hypothesized to facilitate…

  7. Macular degeneration - age-related

    MedlinePlus

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD); AMD ... distorted and wavy. There may be a small dark spot in the center of your vision that ... leafy vegetables, may also decrease your risk of age-related macular degeneration. If you have wet AMD, ...

  8. Simulation in International Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Brigid A.; Blake, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the educational implications of simulations in international relations. Highlights include the development of international relations simulations; the role of technology; the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) project at the University of Maryland; evolving information technology; and simulating real-world…

  9. Entropic error-disturbance relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Patrick; Furrer, Fabian

    2014-03-01

    We derive an entropic error-disturbance relation for a sequential measurement scenario as originally considered by Heisenberg, and we discuss how our relation could be tested using existing experimental setups. Our relation is valid for discrete observables, such as spin, as well as continuous observables, such as position and momentum. The novel aspect of our relation compared to earlier versions is its clear operational interpretation and the quantification of error and disturbance using entropic quantities. This directly relates the measurement uncertainty, a fundamental property of quantum mechanics, to information theoretical limitations and offers potential applications in for instance quantum cryptography. PC is funded by National Research Foundation Singapore and Ministry of Education Tier 3 Grant ``Random numbers from quantum processes'' (MOE2012-T3-1-009). FF is funded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, KAKENHI grant No. 24-02793.

  10. Multi-relational Clustering Based on Relational Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Luan; Li, Yun; Yin, Jiang; Sheng, Yan

    When clustering the tuples in the target table which is in a relational database, the prior task is to exactly and effectively calculate the relational distance between tuples. A lot of methods are used today, such as the relational distance measuring based on RIBL2. However, all these methods fail to consider the differences of similarity between the objects in both non-target table and target table, which stopped them from getting a high clustering accuracy. Using canonical correlation analysis in this paper and setting a weight for each table in the relational database, the weight indicated its role in the calculation of the distance among target tables. In addition, when calculating the distance between the two clusters to find the center of each cluster, turn the calculation of the distance between clusters into a distance between center points. Experiments show that this method ensures clustering efficiency and improved clustering accuracy.

  11. The Principle of Relativity and the Indeterminacy of Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    This work ends a trilogy devoted to a journey into the foundations of special relativity. The first paper debated the meaning of the constancy of the two-way speed of light and its close relation to the conceptualization of time. The second one addressed the question of the possible constancy of the one-way speed of light and the trivial--but,…

  12. Movement-related event-related desynchronization in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Leocani, Letizia; Comi, Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) provides information on the dynamics of cortical activation during cognitive and motor tasks and has been applied in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we focus on studies concerning movement-related activity, which showed changes in amount, topography, or time course in relation to not only involvement of the motor system--such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and stroke affecting the sensorimotor (SM) pathways--but also physiological aging, degenerative dementia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). In these disorders, the extent of abnormality in the pattern of ERD/ERS is related to the severity of the underlying pathology. Moreover in MS, a correlation with the severity of brain tissue has been found. While there is consistency in changes related to ipokinetic disorders, mainly consisting of delayed appearance of ERD to movement preparation, changes occurring in other brain disorders need to be replicated or raise doubts on the specificity of changes across different diseases. Further studies are needed in order to validate the usefulness of this methodology in the assessment of the single patient for diagnosis and monitoring of the natural course of the disease and of treatment efficacy. PMID:17071242

  13. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  14. [Catheter-related infections: microbiology].

    PubMed

    Timsit, J F

    2005-03-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas sp. are the most frequent microorganisms responsible for catheter-related infections. A relative frequency of microorganisms varies according to the countries, microenvironment and outbreaks of multiresistant bacterias. Infections due to fungi, S. aureus and Pseudomonas sp. are associated with the more severe complications. Recent data suggest that chlorhexidine, either used for cutaneous antisepsis or for catheter impregnation decreases infections due to gram positive cocci. Ecological data should be taken into account when deciding a probabilistic treatment in case of suspicion of catheter-related infection. PMID:15792563

  15. What's wrong with relativity theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meggie

    2014-03-01

    Relativity theory is the most successful theory in modern physics but insofar we have not be able to reconcile relativity theory and quantum physics. Through reevaluation results in literature we found hints leading to a new understanding of the basics of quantum physics. By reinterpretation quantum physic we have successfully conduced a photon-photon collision experiment which gives us support on our reinterpretation of quantum physics which in turn suggested relativity theory is in-complete and fell into a paradoxical trap. This helps us a new understanding of mass and gravity.

  16. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  17. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity includes efforts to identify individual toxicity risks and prevention strategies support the National Cancer Insitute's goal of reducing the burden of cancer diagnoses and treatment outcomes.

  18. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Your source for autoimmune related disease information. **We need your input** We want to know of your experiences with Non- ... email address with us. Please be assured that we will always keep your email private. We will ...

  19. Recursion relations from soft theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hui; Wen, Congkao

    2016-03-01

    We establish a set of new on-shell recursion relations for amplitudes satisfying soft theorems. The recursion relations can apply to those amplitudes whose additional physical inputs from soft theorems are enough to overcome the bad large- z behaviour. This work is a generalization of the recursion relations recently obtained by Cheung et al. for amplitudes in scalar effective field theories with enhanced vanishing soft behaviours, which can be regarded as a special case of those with non-vanishing soft limits. We apply the recursion relations to tree-level amplitudes in various theories, including amplitudes in the Akulov-Volkov theory and amplitudes containing dilatons of spontaneously-broken conformal symmetry.

  20. Some Pitfalls in Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, An-Ti

    1973-01-01

    The problem of observing a collision between two spaceships is utilized to illustrate the misuse of time dilation and length contraction, and the incorrect description of space-time coordinates in special relativity. (Author/DF)

  1. SUPERSITES INTEGRATED RELATIONAL DATABASE (SIRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of EPA's Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program (Program), the University of Maryland designed and developed the Supersites Integrated Relational Database (SIRD). Measurement data in SIRD include comprehensive air quality data from the 7 Supersite program locations f...

  2. Bayesian analogy with relational transformations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongjing; Chen, Dawn; Holyoak, Keith J

    2012-07-01

    How can humans acquire relational representations that enable analogical inference and other forms of high-level reasoning? Using comparative relations as a model domain, we explore the possibility that bottom-up learning mechanisms applied to objects coded as feature vectors can yield representations of relations sufficient to solve analogy problems. We introduce Bayesian analogy with relational transformations (BART) and apply the model to the task of learning first-order comparative relations (e.g., larger, smaller, fiercer, meeker) from a set of animal pairs. Inputs are coded by vectors of continuous-valued features, based either on human magnitude ratings, normed feature ratings (De Deyne et al., 2008), or outputs of the topics model (Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, 2007). Bootstrapping from empirical priors, the model is able to induce first-order relations represented as probabilistic weight distributions, even when given positive examples only. These learned representations allow classification of novel instantiations of the relations and yield a symbolic distance effect of the sort obtained with both humans and other primates. BART then transforms its learned weight distributions by importance-guided mapping, thereby placing distinct dimensions into correspondence. These transformed representations allow BART to reliably solve 4-term analogies (e.g., larger:smaller::fiercer:meeker), a type of reasoning that is arguably specific to humans. Our results provide a proof-of-concept that structured analogies can be solved with representations induced from unstructured feature vectors by mechanisms that operate in a largely bottom-up fashion. We discuss potential implications for algorithmic and neural models of relational thinking, as well as for the evolution of abstract thought. PMID:22775500

  3. Speed limits in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Robert J.

    1999-02-01

    Some standard results on the initial value problem of general relativity in matter are reviewed. These results are applied first to show that in a well defined sense, finite perturbations in the gravitational field travel no faster than light, and second to show that it is impossible to construct a warp drive as considered by Alcubierre (1994 The warp drive: hyper-fast travel within general relativity Class. Quantum Grav. 11 L73-7) in the absence of exotic matter.

  4. Exts and the AGT Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neguţ, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    We prove the connection between the Nekrasov partition function of {{N}=2} super-symmetric U(2) gauge theory with adjoint matter and conformal blocks for the Virasoro algebra, as predicted by the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa relations. Mathematically, this is achieved by relating the Carlsson-Okounkov Ext vector bundle on the moduli space of rank 2 sheaves with Liouville vertex operators. Our approach is geometric in nature, and uses a new method for intersection-theoretic computations of the Ext operator.

  5. Exts and the AGT Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neguţ, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    We prove the connection between the Nekrasov partition function of {N=2} super-symmetric U(2) gauge theory with adjoint matter and conformal blocks for the Virasoro algebra, as predicted by the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa relations. Mathematically, this is achieved by relating the Carlsson-Okounkov Ext vector bundle on the moduli space of rank 2 sheaves with Liouville vertex operators. Our approach is geometric in nature, and uses a new method for intersection-theoretic computations of the Ext operator.

  6. Complementarity relations for quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shuming; Hall, Michael J. W.

    2015-10-01

    Various measures have been suggested recently for quantifying the coherence of a quantum state with respect to a given basis. We first use two of these, the l1-norm and relative entropy measures, to investigate tradeoffs between the coherences of mutually unbiased bases. Results include relations between coherence, uncertainty, and purity; tight general bounds restricting the coherences of mutually unbiased bases; and an exact complementarity relation for qubit coherences. We further define the average coherence of a quantum state. For the l1-norm measure this is related to a natural "coherence radius" for the state and leads to a conjecture for an l2-norm measure of coherence. For relative entropy the average coherence is determined by the difference between the von Neumann entropy and the quantum subentropy of the state and leads to upper bounds for the latter quantity. Finally, we point out that the relative entropy of coherence is a special case of G-asymmetry, which immediately yields several operational interpretations in contexts as diverse as frame alignment, quantum communication, and metrology, and suggests generalizing the property of quantum coherence to arbitrary groups of physical transformations.

  7. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android. PMID:27350487

  8. Uncertainty-like relations of the relative entropy of coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Li, Fei; Chen, Jun; Xing, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Quantum coherence is an important physical resource in quantum computation and quantum information processing. In this paper, we firstly obtain an uncertainty-like expression relating two coherences contained in corresponding local bipartite quantum system. This uncertainty-like inequality shows that the larger the coherence of one subsystem, the less coherence contained in other subsystems. Further, we discuss in detail the uncertainty-like relation among three single-partite quantum systems. We show that the coherence contained in pure tripartite quantum system is greater than the sum of the coherence of all local subsystems.

  9. Relative Entropy and Squashed Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Winter, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    We are interested in the properties and relations of entanglement measures. Especially, we focus on the squashed entanglement and relative entropy of entanglement, as well as their analogues and variants. Our first result is a monogamy-like inequality involving the relative entropy of entanglement and its one-way LOCC variant. The proof is accomplished by exploring the properties of relative entropy in the context of hypothesis testing via one-way LOCC operations, and by making use of an argument resembling that by Piani on the faithfulness of regularized relative entropy of entanglement. Following this, we obtain a commensurate and faithful lower bound for squashed entanglement, in the form of one-way LOCC relative entropy of entanglement. This gives a strengthening to the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. Our result improves the trace-distance-type bound derived in Brandão et al. (Commun Math Phys, 306:805-830, 2011), where faithfulness of squashed entanglement was first proved. Applying Pinsker's inequality, we are able to recover the trace-distance-type bound, even with slightly better constant factor. However, the main improvement is that our new lower bound can be much larger than the old one and it is almost a genuine entanglement measure. We evaluate exactly the relative entropy of entanglement under various restricted measurement classes, for maximally entangled states. Then, by proving asymptotic continuity, we extend the exact evaluation to their regularized versions for all pure states. Finally, we consider comparisons and separations between some important entanglement measures and obtain several new results on these, too.

  10. Relative Prevalence and Relations among Stereotyped and Similar Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Gershon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Relative prevalence of stereotyped behaviors was studied with 246 children and adults with developmental disabilities. Two staff members completed a 54-item checklist assessing stereotyped behaviors, abnormal focused affections, compulsions, rigidity, savant skills, and defensiveness. Factor analyses produced weak evidence for a general stereotypy…

  11. Researcher/Researched: Relations of Vulnerability/Relations of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckaby, M. Francyne

    2011-01-01

    Turning to reflexive journals and fieldnotes, the author reconsiders Foucault's "relations of power" through her experiences with five research participants, who are professors of education. The paper explores: (1) the translation of Foucault for an analysis of power; (2) the dynamics of researching up and analyzing from below; and (3) the…

  12. Relational Language and the Development of Relational Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenstein, J.; Gentner, D.

    2005-01-01

    We test the claim that learning and using language for spatial relations can influence spatial representation and reasoning. Preschool children were given a mapping task in which they were asked to find a ''winner'' placed in a three-tiered box after seeing one placed in a virtually identical box. The correct choice was determined by finding the…

  13. Onsager-Casimir relations revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hubmer, G.F.; Titulaer, U.M.

    1987-10-01

    The authors study the fate of the Onsager-Casimir reciprocity relations for a continuous system when some of its variables are eliminated adiabatically. Just as for discrete systems, deviations appear in correction terms to the reduced evolution equation that are of higher order in the time scale ratio. The deviations are not removed by including correction terms to the coarse-grained thermodynamic potential. However, via a reformulation of the theory, in which the central role of the thermodynamic potential is taken over by an associated Lagrangian-type expression, they arrive at a modified form of the Onsager-Casimir relations that survives the adiabatic elimination procedure. There is a simple relation between the time evolution of the redefined thermodynamic forces and that of the basic thermodynamic variables; this relation also survives the adiabatic elimination. The formalism is illustrated by explicit calculations for the Klein-Kramers equation, which describes the phase space distribution of Brownian particles, and for the corrected Smoluchowski equation derived from it by adiabatic elimination of the velocity variable. The symmetry relation for the latter leads to a simple proof that the reality of the eigenvalues of the simple Smoluchowski equation is not destroyed by the addition of higher order corrections, at least not within the framework of a formal perturbation expansion in the time scale ratio.

  14. Mirages in galaxy scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosenkov, A. V.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    2014-06-01

    We analysed several basic correlations between structural parameters of galaxies. The data were taken from various samples in different passbands which are available in the literature. We discuss disc scaling relations as well as some debatable issues concerning the so-called Photometric Plane for bulges and elliptical galaxies in different forms and various versions of the famous Kormendy relation. We show that some of the correlations under discussion are artificial (self-correlations), while others truly reveal some new essential details of the structural properties of galaxies. Our main results are as follows: At present, we cannot conclude that faint stellar discs are, on average, more thin than discs in high surface brightness galaxies. The `central surface brightness-thickness' correlation appears only as a consequence of the transparent exponential disc model to describe real galaxy discs. The Photometric Plane appears to have no independent physical sense. Various forms of this plane are merely sophisticated versions of the Kormendy relation or of the self-relation involving the central surface brightness of a bulge/elliptical galaxy and the Sérsic index n. The Kormendy relation is a physical correlation presumably reflecting the difference in the origin of bright and faint ellipticals and bulges. We present arguments that involve creating artificial samples to prove our main idea.

  15. Relative judgement is relatively difficult: Evidence against the role of relative judgement in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Guest, Duncan; Adelman, James S; Kent, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    A variety of processes have been put forward to explain absolute identification performance. One difference between current models of absolute identification is the extent to which the task involves accessing stored representations in long-term memory (e.g. exemplars in memory, Kent & Lamberts, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 31, 289-305, 2005) or relative judgement (comparison of the current stimulus to the stimulus on the previous trial, Stewart, Brown & Chater, Psychological Review, 112, 881-911, 2005). In two experiments we explored this by tapping into these processes. In Experiment 1 participants completed an absolute identification task using eight line lengths whereby a single stimulus was presented on each trial for identification. They also completed a matching task aimed at mirroring exemplar comparison in which eight line lengths were presented in a circular array and the task was to report which of these matched a target presented centrally. Experiment 2 was a relative judgement task and was similar to Experiment 1 except that the task was to report the difference (jump-size) between the current stimulus and that on the previous trial. The absolute identification and matching data showed clear similarities (faster and more accurate responding for stimuli near the edges of the range and similar stimulus-response confusions). In contrast, relative judgment performance was poor suggesting relative judgement is not straightforward. Moreover, performance as a function of jump-size differed considerably between the relative judgement and absolute identification tasks. Similarly, in the relative judgement task, predicting correct stimulus identification based on successful relative judgement yielded the reverse pattern of performance observed in the absolute identification task. Overall, the data suggest that relative judgement does not underlie absolute identification and that the task is more likely reliant on an exemplar

  16. [Workplace related anxiety and phobia].

    PubMed

    Linden, M; Muschalla, B

    2007-01-01

    Work is an important aspect of life. Problems at the workplace must therefore have negative consequences on the mental status and mental problems will interfere with the working place. The relation between anxiety and the workplace is especially important because the workplace causes anxiety due to its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general, and work related anxieties in particular, are workplace phobias, with panic when approaching or even thinking of the workplace. This is a serious complication with negative consequences for the further course of illness. It makes special therapeutic intervention necessary. This paper describes the phenomenon of workplace related anxieties and phobia and provides a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:17106728

  17. Hospitals focus on physician relations.

    PubMed

    Rubright, R

    1987-09-01

    Many hospital administrators are shifting their marketing focus from consumers and referral agents to the hospital's attending physicians. These new comprehensive physician relations or retention programs are much broader than those implemented in the past and are used to build mutual exchanges between hospitals and physicians, sharpen the physicians' awareness of the hospital's most appealing attributes, compete with nearby hospitals that develop their own aggressive physician relations programs, and ensure a more promising financial picture for both parties. "Cutting-edge" physician relations plans in Catholic hospitals include the following: Marketing plans for the medical staff alone or with key medical staff sections; A strong physician data base; A physician referral system; A director of medical affairs; Practice enhancement and business assistance services; A young physicians section; Continuing marketing auditing and research into physicians' opinions, attitudes, and behavior patterns; Physician inclusion in all major programs, services, policies, and events; Programs for physician office staff; Marketing committees consisting of physicians. PMID:10283486

  18. Ethnicity effects in relative pitch.

    PubMed

    Hove, Michael J; Sutherland, Mary Elizabeth; Krumhansl, Carol L

    2010-06-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the rare ability to identify a musical pitch, occurs at a higher rate among East Asian musicians. This has stimulated considerable research on the comparative contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Two studies examined whether a similar ethnicity effect is found for relative pitch (RP), identifying the distance or interval between two tones. Nonmusicians (n = 103) were trained to label musical intervals and were subsequently tested on interval identification. We establish similar ethnicity effects: Chinese and Korean participants consistently outperformed other participants in RP tasks, but not in a "relative rhythm" control task. This effect is not driven by previous musical or tone-language experience. The parallel with the East Asian advantage for AP suggests that enhanced perceptual-cognitive processing of pitch is more general and is not limited to highly trained musicians. This effect opens up many research questions concerning the environmental and genetic contributions related to this more general pitch-based ability. PMID:20551351

  19. Mammalian Sperm Fertility Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Nathan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is an important aspect of human and animal reproduction and still presents with much etiological ambiguity. As fifty percent of infertility is related to the male partner, molecular investigations on sperm and seminal plasma can lead to new knowledge on male infertility. Several comparisons between fertile and infertile human and other species sperm proteome have shown the existence of potential fertility markers. These proteins have been categorized into energy related, structural and other functional proteins which play a major role in sperm motility, capacitation and sperm-oocyte binding. The data from these studies show the impact of sperm proteome studies on identifying different valuable markers for fertility screening. In this article, we review recent development in unraveling sperm fertility related proteins. PMID:24151436

  20. [Selected work-related nephropathies].

    PubMed

    Wołyniec, Wojciech; Renke, Marcin; Wójcik-Stasiak, Małgorzata; Renke, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Infections, high temperature and many of the toxic substances can cause kidney damage. Acute kidney injury is a well known complication of some work-related diseases, e.g., lead intoxication. Chronic kidney disease can also be caused by some occupational factors. Three work-related nephropathies, in which causal connection with work has been proved, are discussed in this article. There are different risk factors of nephrolithiasis, lead nephropathy and silica nephropathy, but each of them can cause chronic kidney disease. Prevention of these nephropaties seems to be relatively simple. The principles of protection from the toxic effects of heavy metals and silica dust are very specific. The most important prevention of kidney stones is correct fluid intake. In addition to providing adequate quantities of drinking water, it is also important to educate exposed workers and assure enough rest breaks at work. PMID:26536975

  1. Pregnancy-related liver disorders.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Jamwal, Kapil D; Ramachandran, Anup; Balasubramanian, Kunissery A; Eapen, Chundamannil E

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy-related liver disorders accounted for 8% of all maternal deaths at our center from 1999 to 2011. Of the three pregnancy-related liver disorders (acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), HELLP (Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome and pre-eclamptic liver dysfunction, which can lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcome, AFLP is most typically under - diagnosed. Risk of maternal death can be minimised by timely recognition and early/aggressive multi-specialty management of these conditions. Urgent termination of pregnancy remains the cornerstone of therapy for some of these life threatening disorders, but recent advancements in our understanding help us in better overall management of these patients. This review focuses on various aspects of pregnancy-related liver disorders. PMID:25755551

  2. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  3. Recent advances in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Janis, A.I.; Porter, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The papers included in this book arose from a Discussion Conference on Recent Advances in General Relativity, which was held at the University of Pittsburgh, May 3-5, 1990, in honor of Ted Newman on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The book opens with a contribution outlining successes and problems of general relativity. Two contributions are devoted to quantum gravity. Discussions are included about general relativistic astrophysics, mathematics, and gravitational radiation. There are also workshop reports on classical gravity and quantum gravity.

  4. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  5. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Budzinskaia, M V

    2014-01-01

    The review provides an update on the pathogenesis and new treatment modalities for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The impact of polymorphism in particular genes, including complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2/LOC387715), and serine peptidase (HTRA1), on AMD development is discussed. Clinical presentations of different forms of exudative AMD, that is classic, occult, or more often mixed choroidal neovascularization, retinal angiomatous proliferation, and choroidal polypoidal vasculopathy, are described. Particular attention is paid to the results of recent clinical trials and safety issues around the therapy. PMID:25715554

  6. Quasilocal Hamiltonians in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-10-15

    We analyze the definition of quasilocal energy in general relativity based on a Hamiltonian analysis of the Einstein-Hilbert action initiated by Brown-York. The role of the constraint equations, in particular, the Hamiltonian constraint on the timelike boundary, neglected in previous studies, is emphasized here. We argue that a consistent definition of quasilocal energy in general relativity requires, at a minimum, a framework based on the (currently unknown) geometric well-posedness of the initial boundary value problem for the Einstein equations.

  7. Collagen VI related muscle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, A; Bushby, K

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding collagen VI (COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3) cause Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), two conditions which were previously believed to be completely separate entities. BM is a relatively mild dominantly inherited disorder characterised by proximal weakness and distal joint contractures. UCMD was originally described as an autosomal recessive condition causing severe muscle weakness with proximal joint contractures and distal hyperlaxity. Here we review the clinical phenotypes of BM and UCMD and their diagnosis and management, and provide an overview of the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of collagen VI related disorders. PMID:16141002

  8. Gravitation. [Book on general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misner, C. W.; Thorne, K. S.; Wheeler, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    This textbook on gravitation physics (Einstein's general relativity or geometrodynamics) is designed for a rigorous full-year course at the graduate level. The material is presented in two parallel tracks in an attempt to divide key physical ideas from more complex enrichment material to be selected at the discretion of the reader or teacher. The full book is intended to provide competence relative to the laws of physics in flat space-time, Einstein's geometric framework for physics, applications with pulsars and neutron stars, cosmology, the Schwarzschild geometry and gravitational collapse, gravitational waves, experimental tests of Einstein's theory, and mathematical concepts of differential geometry.

  9. BOOK REVIEW An Introduction to Relativity An Introduction to Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian

    2011-02-01

    As is clearly stated in the preface, this book is a fresh rewrite of Narlikar's published lecture notes [1] from 1978, resulting in a unique historical perspective with a modernized presentation. For workers in the field, this book provides a fascinating glimpse of the state of the art 30 years ago, but there are some inevitable idiosyncracies which might make it less useful to the beginner, especially those attempting to read this book on their own. The author is well-known for his informal, readable style, and this book is no exception. Although the treatment is overly algebraic from this reviewer's modern perspective, that is not necessarily a drawback, and does accurately reflect contemporary usage. This text is a `math first' approach to relativity, presenting the tensor calculus first, and the physics second. Not surprisingly given the author's interests, there is an emphasis on cosmological applications. After a quick review of special relativity, the book jumps right in with a fairly standard introduction to tensor calculus, followed almost immediately by chapters on Einstein's equations, the Schwarzschild solution, experimental tests, relativistic astrophysics, and black holes, followed in turn by several chapters on cosmology. This new text is a faithful adaptation of the earlier text, with essentially identical tables of contents. In fact, the only notable differences are the opening chapter summarizing special relativity, a brief new chapter on gravitational radiation, and the exclusion of a lecture on the Steady State Theory — and that material appears separately in the author's cosmology text [2]. Some of the material, such as the excellent chapter on symmetries, is largely identical to the original, but most of the material has been extensively rewritten, with most of the changes being to presentation, rather than content. There are some seldom seen gems in this book, such as the aforementioned discussion of symmetries, the extensive discussion of

  10. Diet-related DNA adduct formation in relation to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-08-01

    The human diet contributes significantly to the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. It has become clear that the human diet contains several groups of natural foodborne chemicals that are at least in part responsible for the genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic potential of certain foodstuffs. Electrophilic chemicals are prone to attack nucleophilic sites in DNA, resulting in the formation of altered nucleobases, also known as DNA adducts. Since DNA adduct formation is believed to signal the onset of chemically induced carcinogenesis, the DNA adduct-inducing potential of certain foodstuffs has been investigated to gain more insight into diet-related pathways of carcinogenesis. Many studies have investigated diet-related DNA adduct formation. This review summarizes work on known or suspected dietary carcinogens and the role of DNA adduct formation in hypothesized carcinogenesis pathways. PMID:27330144

  11. Whales. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  12. Transportation. The Neglected Related Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mary; And Others

    This monograph presents a five-module staff training program used to improve the related service of transportation of children with disabilities in Union County, North Carolina. Each module takes from 4 to more than 8 hours of training and bus drivers and transportation safety assistants with current certificates in all five modules receive a…

  13. Age-related hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is no known single cause of age-related hearing loss. Most commonly, it is caused by changes in the inner ear that occur as you grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following ...

  14. Public Relations in Special Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Hollace Ann; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue includes 11 articles on public relations (PR) in special libraries. Highlights include PR at the Special Libraries Association (SLA); sources for marketing research for libraries; developing a library image; sample PR releases; brand strategies for libraries; case studies; publicizing a consortium; and a bibliography of pertinent…

  15. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Flavorings-Related Lung Disease Exposures to ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  16. Effective Public Relations in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Public relations efforts of the Carroll County (Ohio) extension office included periodic reports to legislators, a toll-free number distributed on refrigerator magnets, annual calendar/report to the public, newspaper supplements, and town meetings. Long-term effects were a 116% increase in funding, used to upgrade staff, programs, and…

  17. Documents Related to the Quincentenary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Charles R., Comp.

    1993-01-01

    Presents three documents related to the Columbus Quincentenary and indigenous populations. Includes the Declaration of Quito (Ecuador) of July 21, 1990; the final text of the Declaration of Xelaju (Guatemala); and the document "After the 500 Years: Indigenous and Peoples' Unity Proposals for Political Action." (CFR)

  18. Mathematical Caring Relations in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackenberg, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    In a small-scale, 8-month teaching experiment, the author aimed to establish and maintain "mathematical caring relations" (MCRs) (Hackenberg, 2005c) with 4 6th-grade students. From a teacher's perspective, establishing MCRs involves holding the work of orchestrating mathematical learning for students together with an orientation to monitor and…

  19. Public Relations Writing "Is" Different.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, John S.

    Because public relations (PR) writing is different from the writing required in journalism, broadcasting, and advertising, PR practitioners require a background in editing, graphics, planning, campaigning, special events, public opinion, and evaluation beyond that required of a newswriter. Responses to a survey of 38 PR educators across the nation…

  20. Steam-water relative permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  1. Genetics in Relation to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, J. Bird

    1987-01-01

    Claims that most instruction dealing with genetics is limited to sex education and personal hygiene. Suggests that the biology curriculum should begin to deal with other issues related to genetics, including genetic normality, prenatal diagnoses, race, and intelligence. Predicts these topics will begin to appear in British examination programs.…

  2. Community Relations: A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J.

    For junior colleges that cannot support a full-time public-relations director, the author suggests a program using the resources at hand. A flow chart must be made so that the faculty or administration member handling the program knows where to collect his information. (If possible, he should receive released time or extra pay.) Faculty members…

  3. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-01

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible. PMID:21750825

  4. Be an Alumni Relations Revolutionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Kathy

    2000-01-01

    Presents marketing guru Guy Kawasaki's seven rules for revolutionaries, and examples of alumni relations innovators who are implementing change with cutting-edge programs, services, and business practices. Rules include: "jump curves" (look for new paths); "break down barriers" (challenge roadblocks of ignorance and inertia); and "let a thousand…

  5. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  6. University Relations: The HP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard benefited from one of the earliest examples of knowledge transfer in a strategic relationship, with the investment by Stanford University professor Frederick Terman in the work of former students Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett. Today, HP University Relations (UR) works with university partners to create similar valuable synergy. UR…

  7. International Relations: Library Instruction Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathie

    In support of the United States Naval Academy's program in international relations, library reference staff developed an instruction unit featuring appropriate research guides and a videotape produced at the Naval Academy Educational Resource Center. The videotape illustrates a sample search strategy and then highlights the use of four basic…

  8. Testing general relativity on accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2015-11-01

    Within the general theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime is related to the energy and momentum of the present matter and radiation. One of the more specific predictions of general relativity is the deflection of light and particle trajectories in the gravitational field of massive objects. Bending angles for electromagnetic waves and light in particular were measured with a high precision. However, the effect of gravity on relativistic massive particles was never studied experimentally. Here we propose and analyze experiments devoted to that purpose. We demonstrate a high sensitivity of the laser Compton scattering at high energy accelerators to the effects of gravity. The main observable - maximal energy of the scattered photons - would experience a significant shift in the ambient gravitational field even for otherwise negligible violation of the equivalence principle. We confirm predictions of general relativity for ultrarelativistic electrons of energy of tens of GeV at a current level of resolution and expect our work to be a starting point of further high-precision studies on current and future accelerators, such as PETRA, European XFEL and ILC.

  9. [The "relational" touch in care?].

    PubMed

    Gabay, Juliette; Hérisson, Brigitte

    2013-03-01

    Training in "relational" touch is offered by a nurse and a psychologist working in tandem, according to a theoretical-practical approach. This is based on nurses' experience, their impressions and interdisciplinarity. The carers are therefore supported in the (re)discovery of thisprecioussensewhichoffers a different way of communicating. PMID:23641576

  10. Banking and Related Financial Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Les

    This curriculum guide lists competencies for banking and related financial services occupations, validated by educators and experienced persons in the field in Arizona. The competencies describe the skills required of entry-level workers. The guide is in two parts with one focusing on teller or teller-like positions, and the other focusing on…

  11. TRENDS IN HUMAN RELATIONS RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WINICK, CHARLES

    A REVIEW OF MAIN TRENDS IN RECENT HUMAN RELATIONS RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES, PARTICULARLY AS ILLUSTRATED IN THE WORK OF SIGMUND LIVINGSTON FELLOWS, IS PRESENTED. THE FOCUS IS ON STUDIES DEALING WITH ETHNIC, RACIAL, OR RELIGIOUS CATEGORIES, AND ON RESEARCH DEALING WITH INTERGROUP PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION. THE THREE MAJOR TRENDS IN RESEARCH…

  12. Medicating Relational Trauma in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Children who have experienced relational trauma present a host of problems and are often diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and then medicated. But there is evidence that commonly used drugs interfere with oxytocin or vasopressin, the human trust and bonding hormones. Thus, psychotropic drugs may impair interpersonal relationships and impede…

  13. Beaches. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  14. Children's Social Relations Interview Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Richard

    The Children's Social Relations Interview Scale (CSRIS) was developed to assess the role expectations and role behaviors associated with physical disabilities, namely low status and independence. Three traits are assessed: succorance, the seeking of help and support; restraint, physical and social limitation and circumscription by others; and…

  15. Varieties of Work Related Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, P. Robert-Jan; Ruijters, Manon C. P.

    2008-01-01

    Based on 30 interviews with and observations of professionals, 5 prototypical metaphors of learning are described and related to existing theories about learning. Two of the metaphors were previously described by Sfard: the acquisition and participation metaphors. As well, three new metaphors were found: the discovery metaphor, the apperception…

  16. Multivariate Analysis of Triadic Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; Kenny, David A.; Broome Elizabeth Horn; Stokes-Zoota, Juli J.; Richard, Francis D.

    2000-01-01

    Extends the Triadic Relations Model of C. Bond, E. Horn, and D. Kenny (1997) to analyze the covariances between triadic variables. Specifies a bivariate version of the model and presents estimation methods that can be used to decompose the covariance between 2 triadic variables into 33 covariance components. (Author/SLD)

  17. Thinking Relationally about Studying "Up"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Amy E.; Colyar, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors argue that despite a resurgence of elite studies, the majority of existing scholarship works to reify and legitimize social inequality through its language and method. In particular, the authors utilize Pierre Bourdieu's concept of relational thinking to review and critique contemporary research on elite education and…

  18. Waterbirds. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Barbara

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  19. RESEARCH BULLETIN ON INTERGROUP RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSE, PETER I.

    IN APRIL 1961, QUESTIONNAIRES WERE MAILED TO MEMBERS OF MANY ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO DISCOVER RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF INTERGROUP RELATIONS. APPROXIMATELY 200 PERSONS WROTE OF RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN. ABSTRACTS OF THE REPORTED RESEARCH ARE PRESENTED UNDER ONE OF THREE HEADINGS--COMPLETED, CURRENT, AND PLANNED. COMPLETED AND CURRENT…

  20. Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…

  1. General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1975-01-01

    Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

  2. Public Relations for Rehabilitation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Alan D.

    The goal of this publication is to provide rehabilitation facilities with a guide to improve their image in the community and increase contract sales, job placements, donations, and client numbers. It is intended (1) to assist them in identifying individuals or groups that facilities should be trying to reach with their public relations efforts…

  3. FLASH LIDAR Based Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazzel, Jack; Clark, Fred; Milenkovic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Relative navigation remains the most challenging part of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. In recent years, flash LIDARs, have been increasingly selected as the go-to sensors for proximity operations and docking. Flash LIDARS are generally lighter and require less power that scanning Lidars. Flash LIDARs do not have moving parts, and they are capable of tracking multiple targets as well as generating a 3D map of a given target. However, there are some significant drawbacks of Flash Lidars that must be resolved if their use is to be of long-term significance. Overcoming the challenges of Flash LIDARs for navigation-namely, low technology readiness level, lack of historical performance data, target identification, existence of false positives, and performance of vision processing algorithms as intermediaries between the raw sensor data and the Kalman filter-requires a world-class testing facility, such as the Lockheed Martin Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC). Ground-based testing is a critical step for maturing the next-generation flash LIDAR-based spacecraft relative navigation. This paper will focus on the tests of an integrated relative navigation system conducted at the SOSC in January 2014. The intent of the tests was to characterize and then improve the performance of relative navigation, while addressing many of the flash LIDAR challenges mentioned above. A section on navigation performance and future recommendation completes the discussion.

  4. Soccer-Related Eye Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    A review of medical charts of 13 youths (age 8-15) with soccer-related eye injuries identified as causes: a head butt, kicks, the ball. Risks can be lessened by use of polycarbonate eyeguards, properly inflated balls, adequate conditioning and practice before scrimmages, a moderate and balanced practice/playing schedule and good sportsmanship.…

  5. Patient Relations and Workplace Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The workbook contains lessons and exercises in patient relations and workplace communication in a medical services office, particularly for interactions involving one or more non-native speaker of English. Seven units address these topics: (1) greetings and basic assistance, greeting established patients, and measuring height and weight and taking…

  6. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  7. CAREERS RELATED TO INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELLIS, BETTY W.

    THE GUIDANCE FORMAT FOR EACH OCCUPATION INCLUDES FIVE MAJOR TOPICS--PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS, EDUCATION AND TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES IN JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, OPPORTUNITIES BEYOND HIGH SCHOOL, ADVANCEMENT AND OUTLOOK, AND RELATED AND SPECIALIST OCCUPATIONS. THE OUTLINES ARE INTENDED TO HELP THE STUDENT IDENTIFY AND APPRAISE HIS OWN PATTERN OF…

  8. Verifying the Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1975-01-01

    This article, based on a talk the author gave to the 'Innominates', an interdisciplinary faculty group at the University of Chicago, focuses on events of the years surrounding the British Expeditions to Brazil and West Africa in 1919 that led to the confirmation of Einstein's theory of relativity. (BT)

  9. Power Relations and Staffroom Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    In this lighthearted article, the author explores how the use of staffroom space can reflect significant hierarchies of power and influence in the school. She contends that who sits where in a staffroom can reflect wider power relations within a school, so understanding this may be a clue as to other ways in which people and groups will interact.

  10. Relational Communication in Intercultural Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cools, Carine A.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study utilises the relational dialectics of Baxter and Montgomery (1996) to examine the relationship communication of six heterosexual intercultural couples living in Finland. In this study, I attempt to answer the following questions: what cultural issues are relevant in the couples' relationship? What intercultural relational…

  11. Relative humidity from psychrometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical equation for computing relative humidity as function of wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, and atmospheric pressure is suitable for use with calculator or computer. Analytical expressions may be useful for chemical process control systems and building environmental control systems.

  12. Behavioral Research in Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David; Feuille, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines and assesses the behavioral content of industrial relations research in a variety of social science disciplines. The authors compare economic research on the wage and productivity consequences of unionism with psychological research on worker attitudes toward unions, sociological research on the negotiation process and conflict…

  13. Relational Demography in Coaching Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagas, Michael; Paetzold, Ramona; Ashley, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The decline in the proportion of female head coaches in the intercollegiate ranks is one of the most significant issues in the realm of women's sports today. To extend the body of research that has studied this topic, we investigated the impact relational demographic effects on the work attitudes of coaches, which differs from previous research…

  14. Confidant Relations of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tigges, Leann M.; And Others

    The confidant relationship is a qualitatively distinct dimension of the emotional support system of the aged, yet the composition of the confidant network has been largely neglected in research on aging. Persons (N=940) 60 years of age and older were interviewed about their socio-environmental setting. From the enumeration of their relatives,…

  15. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  16. Employment-Related Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galpern, Lois; Hills, Tynette W.

    The two major sections of this report discuss issues in employer-sponsored child care, specifically describing four child-care service alternatives. Issues emphasized in the discussion include the advantages of employment-related child care, financial considerations, and implications of various forms of sponsorship. Additional issues discussed are…

  17. Necessary relations for nucleotide frequencies.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Genome composition analysis of di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide frequencies is known to be evolutionarily informative, and useful in metagenomic studies, where binning of raw sequence data is often an important first step. Patterns appearing in genome composition analysis may be due to evolutionary processes or purely mathematical relations. For example, the total number of dinucleotides in a sequence is equal to the sum of the individual totals of the sixteen types of dinucleotide, and this is entirely independent of any assumptions made regarding mutation or selection, or indeed any physical or chemical process. Before any statistical analysis can be attempted, a knowledge of all necessary mathematical relations is required. I show that 25% of di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide frequencies can be written as simple sums and differences of the remainder. The vast majority of organisms have circular genomes, for which these relations are exact and necessary. In the case of linear molecules, the absolute error is very nearly zero, and does not grow with contiguous sequence length. As a result of the new, necessary relations presented here, the foundations of the statistical analysis of di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide frequencies, and k-mer analysis in general, need to be revisited. PMID:25843217

  18. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Methods Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. Results The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. Conclusions This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians’ positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians. PMID:24884491

  19. Statistical Learning is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one’s environment, plays a role in young children’s acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from fluent speech and the learning of syntactic structure, some recent studies have explored the extent to which individual differences in statistical learning are related to literacy-relevant knowledge and skills. The present study extends on this literature by investigating the relations between two measures of statistical learning and multiple measures of skills that are critical to the development of literacy—oral language, vocabulary knowledge, and phonological processing—within a single model. Our sample included a total of 553 typically developing children from prekindergarten through second grade. Structural equation modeling revealed that statistical learning accounted for a unique portion of the variance in these literacy-related skills. Practical implications for instruction and assessment are discussed. PMID:26478658

  20. The Concept of General Relativity is not Related to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    The concept of general relativity is not related to reality. It is not real or factual Science. GR cannot account for objects falling to earth or for the weight of objects sitting on the earth. The Cavendish demonstration showing the attraction between two masses at right angles to earth's gravity, is not explained by GR. No one can prove the existence of ``space fabric.'' The concept of ``space time'' effects causing gravitational attraction between masses is wrong. Conservation law of energy - momentum does not exist in GR. LIGO fails in detecting ``gravity waves'' because there is no ``space fabric'' to transmit them. The Gravity B Probe data manipulated to show some effects, is not proof of ``space fabric.'' It is Nuclear Quantum Gravitation that provides clear definitive explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 clear, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santilli-foundation.org/inconsistencies-gravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics, by Paul Marmet http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/

  1. Quantum decoherence and interlevel relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crull, Elise M.

    Quantum decoherence is a dynamical process whereby a system's phase relations become delocalized due to interaction and subsequent entanglement with its environment. This delocalization, or decoherence, forces the quantum system into a state that is apparently classical (or apparently an eigenstate) by prodigiously suppressing features that typically give rise to so-called quantum behavior. Thus it has been frequently proposed by physicists and philosophers alike that decoherence explains the dynamical transition from quantum behavior to classical behavior. Statements like this assume the existence of distinct realms, however, and the present thesis is an exploration of the metaphysical consequences of quantum decoherence motivated by the question of the quantum-to-classical transition and interlevel relations: if there are in-principle "classical" and "quantum" levels, what are the relations between them? And if there are no such levels, what follows? Importantly, the following philosophical investigations are carried out by intentionally leaving aside the measurement problem and concerns about particular interpretations of quantum mechanics. Good philosophical work, it is argued, can be done without adopting a specific interpretational framework and without recourse to the measurement problem. After introducing the physics of decoherence and exploring the four canonical models applied to system-environment interactions, it is argued that, ontologically speaking, there exist no levels. This claim---called the "nontological thesis"---exposes as ill-posed questions regarding the transition from the quantum regime to the classical regime and reveals the inappropriateness of interlevel relations (like reduction, supervenience and emergence) operating within metaphysical frameworks. The nontological thesis has further important consequences regarding intralevel relations: not only are there no meaningful ways to carve the world into levels, but there are no meaningful

  2. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity

  3. Relation chain based clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-ning; Zhao, Ming-yang; Luo, Hai-bo

    2011-08-01

    Clustering analysis is currently one of well-developed branches in data mining technology which is supposed to find the hidden structures in the multidimensional space called feature or pattern space. A datum in the space usually possesses a vector form and the elements in the vector represent several specifically selected features. These features are often of efficiency to the problem oriented. Generally, clustering analysis goes into two divisions: one is based on the agglomerative clustering method, and the other one is based on divisive clustering method. The former refers to a bottom-up process which regards each datum as a singleton cluster while the latter refers to a top-down process which regards entire data as a cluster. As the collected literatures, it is noted that the divisive clustering is currently overwhelming both in application and research. Although some famous divisive clustering methods are designed and well developed, clustering problems are still far from being solved. The k - means algorithm is the original divisive clustering method which initially assigns some important index values, such as the clustering number and the initial clustering prototype positions, and that could not be reasonable in some certain occasions. More than the initial problem, the k - means algorithm may also falls into local optimum, clusters in a rigid way and is not available for non-Gaussian distribution. One can see that seeking for a good or natural clustering result, in fact, originates from the one's understanding of the concept of clustering. Thus, the confusion or misunderstanding of the definition of clustering always derives some unsatisfied clustering results. One should consider the definition deeply and seriously. This paper demonstrates the nature of clustering, gives the way of understanding clustering, discusses the methodology of designing a clustering algorithm, and proposes a new clustering method based on relation chains among 2D patterns. In

  4. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. PMID:27392191

  5. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  6. Energy loss in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Lim, P.H.

    1987-07-15

    Implicit assumptions regarding continuity in energy-loss calculations in general relativity are examined. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner energy integral is treated in a new manner as a universal vehicle for energy loss. Two explicit examples are given: the electric dipole radiation flux is computed using general relativity as well as the gravitational-radiation flux from a linear mass quadrupole oscillator. In this approach, the latter is seen as a nonlinear problem in the sense that the lower-order metric serves as a source for the required order metric as computed within the wave front. Logarithmic terms which threaten to induce divergences, as has been found in other works, are averted by functions of integration which are required to sustain the gauge conditions and finally yield the usual fluxes.

  7. Observations on related ecological exponents.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T Richard E; May, Robert M; Sugihara, George

    2006-05-01

    We observe a relationship among three independently derived power laws in ecology: (i) total number of species versus area, (ii) species frequency versus species length, and (iii) maximal body size versus area. Aside from showing how these historically disparate phenomena are connected, we show how recent empirical results relating the maximal body size of top terrestrial vertebrates to the square root of land area conform to a prior theoretical expectation given by two of the above power laws. Of particular interest is the observation that the exponent relating species length to species frequency suggests a dimension for niche space for terrestrial vertebrate assemblages of D approximately 3/2. This value, along with power law for maximal body size, versus area, gives rise to the canonical species area exponent z approximately 1/4. PMID:16641099

  8. Swearing, euphemisms, and linguistic relativity.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jeffrey S; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  9. General Relativity and Spacetime Relationism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefer, Carl

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation takes up the project of showing that, in the context of the general theory of relativity (GTR), spacetime relationism is not a refuted or hopeless view, as many in the recent literature have maintained (John Earman, Michael Friedman, and others). Most of the challenges to the relationist view in General Relativity can be satisfactorily answered; in addition, the opposing absolutist and substantivalist views of spacetime can be shown to be problematic. The crucial burden for relationists concerned with GTR is to show that the realistic cosmological models, i.e. those that may be roughly accurate representations of our universe, satisfy Mach's ideas about the origin of inertia. This dissertation clears the way for and begins such a demonstration. After a brief discussion of the problem of the nature of spacetime and its history in the Introduction, chapters 2 and 3 provide conceptual analysis and criticism of contemporary philosophical arguments about relationism, absolutism, and particularly substantivalism. The current best arguments in favor of substantivalism are shown to be flawed, with the exception of the argument from inertial and metrical structure; and on this issue, it is shown that both relationism and substantivalism need to argue for modifications of GTR (restriction of its models to those with certain features) in order to have a non-trivial explanation of inertial and metrical structure. For relationists, a Machian account of the origin of inertia in some models of GTR is required. Chapter 4 demonstrates that such a Machian account is equivalent to the demand for a truly general relativity of motion. Chapter 5 explores the history of Einstein's commitment to Mach's ideas in his work on GTR. Through an examination of the history of Einstein's attempts to impose Machian constraints on the models of General Relativity, further insight into the nature of this problem is obtained, as are reasons to believe that the project is by no means

  10. Discrete Hamiltonian for general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziprick, Jonathan; Gegenberg, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Beginning from the Ashtekar formulation of general relativity, we derive a physical Hamiltonian written in terms of (classical) loop gravity variables. This is done by defining the gravitational fields within a complex of three-dimensional cells and imposing that curvature and torsion vanish within each cell. The resulting theory is holographic, with the bulk dynamics being captured completely by degrees of freedom living on cell boundaries. Quantization is readily obtainable by existing methods.

  11. Water relations of tetrapod integument.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B

    2006-01-01

    The vertebrate integument represents an evolutionary compromise between the needs for mechanical protection and those of sensing the environment and regulating the exchange of materials and energy. Fibrous keratins evolved as a means of strengthening the integument while simultaneously providing a structural support for lipids, which comprise the principal barrier to cutaneous water efflux in terrestrial taxa. Whereas lipids are of fundamental importance to water barriers, the efficacy of these barriers depends in many cases on structural features that enhance or maintain the integrity of function. Amphibians are exceptional among tetrapods in having very little keratin and a thin stratum corneum. Thus, effective lipid barriers that are present in some specialized anurans living in xeric habitats are external to the epidermis, whereas lipid barriers of amniotes exist as a lipid-keratin complex within the stratum corneum. Amphibians prevent desiccation of the epidermis and underlying tissues either by evaporating water from a superficial aqueous film, which must be replenished, or by shielding the stratum corneum with superficial lipids. Water barrier function in vertebrates generally appears to be relatively fixed, although various species have ;plasticity' to adjust the barrier effectiveness facultatively. While it is clear that both phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation can account for covariation between environment and skin resistance to water efflux, studies of the relative importance of these two phenomena are few. Fundamental mechanisms for adjusting the skin water barrier include changes in barrier thickness, composition and physicochemical properties of cutaneous lipids, and/or geometry of the barrier within the epidermis. While cutaneous lipids have been studied extensively in the contexts of disease and cosmetics, relatively little is known about the processes of permeability barrier ontogenesis related to adaptation and environment. Advances in

  12. Relations between prolactin and calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshin, V.A.; Brindak, O.I.; Zagurovskii, V.M.

    1986-04-01

    In the present investigation, the hypotheses that administration of prolactin can raise the blood calcitonin concentration were tested, and an attempt was made to determine the true character of relations between the prolactin and calcitonin levels in the intact organism. Blood samples were taken from the heart of the experimental and control intact animals under ether anesthesia, and these were tested for their calcitonin concentration by radioimmunoassay, using the Calcitonin /sup 125/I RIA kit.

  13. Relational competence and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, F; Ostuzzi, R

    2007-06-01

    Eating Disorders are very widespread within the adolescent population. A possible interpretation and the comprehension of such forms of psychopathology may revolve around the failure to develop a well-defined personal identity, an incapacity to achieve a sense of differentiation with respect to others, an incapacity to measure oneself against others, dependence on others, the fear of rejection and a sense of inadequacy. This study explores the relational styles and behaviour of individuals suffering from eating disorders and their influence on the development of the personality, with reference being made in particular to self-valuation, dependence on others and levels of differentiation. A sample population of 90 women with eating disorders was studied. The subjects were subdivided into 3 groups (30 with restricting anorexia nervosa, 30 with binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and 30 with bulimia nervosa), overlapping in terms of age, duration of disorders and interrelation style, using the Relational Competence Test. The most significant results of this study concern the question of the definition of an autonomous personal identity. This process seems to be in progress in young women suffering from bulimia nervosa who appear to be driven towards a "definition of the self in opposition" with the consequent tendency towards relational experiences outside their own family. In women with binge-eating/purging AN moreover an awareness of the difference between the self and others and of their state of dependence would appear to be present, however behaviour aimed at the determination of an autonomous self is not evident. In women with restricting anorexia nervosa a definition of the identity is totally absent; these women develop an omnipotent self in their 'oneness' with others. These relational aspects lead to the identification of a continuum between restricting anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in an evolutionary

  14. Galaxies, Axisymmetric Systems and Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCallum, M. A. H.

    2011-06-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Prof. W. B. Bonnor: a biological sketch; Part I. Galaxies and Cosmology: 1. The origin of large scale cosmic structure B. J. T. Jones and P. L. Palmer; 2. The problem of origin of the primordial pertubations and the modern cosmology V. N. Lukash and I. D. Novikov; 3. The automorphism group and field equations for Bianchi universes W. L. Rogue and G. F. R. Ellis; 4. New perspectives on galaxy formation J. Silk; Part II. Axisymmetric Systems: 5. On exact radiative solutions representing finite sources J. Bicak; 6. Proof of a generalized Geroch conjecture I. Hauser and F. J. Ernst; 7. Limits of the double Kerr solution C. Hoenselaers; 8. Non-inheritance of static symmetry by Maxwell fields M. A. H. MacCallum and N. Van den Bergh; 9. Stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum fields in general relativity G. Neugebauer and D. Kramer; 10. An almost conformal approach to axial symmetry Z. Perjes; 11. Conformally stationary axisymmetric space-times J. Winicour; Part III. Relativity: 12. A family of conformally flat space-times having the same curvature tensor in a given co-ordinate frame C. D. Collinson; 13. On the Bell-Szekeres solution for colliding electromagnetic waves J. B. Griffiths; 14. A remark on the Hauser metric A. Held; 15. Numerical relativity by power series R. Penrose; 16. Projective relativity and the equation of motion E. Schmutzer; 17. On generalized equations of goedesic deviation B. F. Schutz; 18. Lobatchevski plane gravitational waves S. T. C. Siklos; 19. Perfect fluid and vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations with flat 3-dimensional slices H. Stephani and Th. Wolf; 20. Self-similar solutions of Einstein's equations J. Wainwright.

  15. Relativity on Rotated Graph Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    We present visual calculations in special relativity using spacetime diagrams drawn on graph paper that has been rotated by 45 degrees. The rotated lines represent lightlike directions in Minkowski spacetime, and the boxes in the grid (called light-clock diamonds) represent ticks of an inertial observer's lightclock. We show that many quantitative results can be read off a spacetime diagram by counting boxes, using a minimal amount of algebra.

  16. Relative transition probabilities of cobalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roig, R. A.; Miller, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    Results of determinations of neutral-cobalt transition probabilities measured relative to Co I 4150.43 A and Co II 4145.15 A, using a gas-driven shock tube as the spectroscopic light source. Results are presented for 139 Co I lines in the range from 3940 to 6640 A and 11 Co II lines in the range from 3840 to 4730 A, which are estimated to have reliabilities ranging from 8 to 50%.

  17. Sgr A* and general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannsen, Tim

    2016-06-01

    General relativity has been widely tested in weak gravitational fields but still stands largely untested in the strong-field regime. According to the no-hair theorem, black holes in general relativity depend only on their masses and spins and are described by the Kerr metric. Mass and spin are the first two multipole moments of the Kerr spacetime and completely determine all higher-order moments. The no-hair theorem and, hence, general relativity can be tested by measuring potential deviations from the Kerr metric affecting such higher-order moments. Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is a prime target for precision tests of general relativity with several experiments across the electromagnetic spectrum. First, near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of stars orbiting around Sgr A* with current and new instruments is expected to resolve their orbital precessions. Second, timing observations of radio pulsars near the Galactic center may detect characteristic residuals induced by the spin and quadrupole moment of Sgr A*. Third, the event horizon telescope, a global network of mm and sub-mm telescopes, aims to study Sgr A* on horizon scales and to image the silhouette of its shadow cast against the surrounding accretion flow using very-long baseline interferometric (VLBI) techniques. Both NIR and VLBI observations may also detect quasiperiodic variability of the emission from the accretion flow of Sgr A*. In this review, I discuss our current understanding of the spacetime of Sgr A* and the prospects of NIR, timing, and VLBI observations to test its Kerr nature in the near future.

  18. Health-related intrusive thoughts.

    PubMed

    Freeston, M H; Gagnon, F; Ladouceur, R; Thibodeau, N; Letarte, H; Rhéaume, J

    1994-04-01

    Two studies address the prevalence, concomitants, and appraisal of health-related intrusive thoughts. Eighty-three percent of adults (N = 658) in waiting rooms of two general hospitals reported at least one intrusive thought during the preceding month and 75.0% of patients and 55.5% of people accompanying them reported a health-related intrusive thought in the same period. The intrusions were associated with anxious and depressive symptoms. Health related intrusive thoughts were reported by 61% of a sample of university students (N = 608) and were the most frequent intrusive thought among 19.9% of the students. First, triggering stimuli reported by the subjects were significant predictors of thought frequency, worry, removal difficulty, and effort used in removing the thought. Second, appraisals of high probability were significant predictors of high frequency, worry, and especially difficulty in removing the thought. Finally, perceived responsibility and disapproval of the thought were also significant predictors of thought frequency, worry, removal difficulty, effort used in removing the thought, and guilt. These data support the position that cognitive appraisal of intrusive thoughts is closely linked to the subjective experience of the thought: more extreme appraisals were associated with more troublesome thoughts. The clinical implications of these studies are discussed in terms of current models of hypochondriasis and health anxiety. PMID:8027960

  19. Uncertainty relation in Schwarzschild spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng

    2015-04-01

    We explore the entropic uncertainty relation in the curved background outside a Schwarzschild black hole, and find that Hawking radiation introduces a nontrivial modification on the uncertainty bound for particular observer, therefore it could be witnessed by proper uncertainty game experimentally. We first investigate an uncertainty game between a free falling observer and his static partner holding a quantum memory initially entangled with the quantum system to be measured. Due to the information loss from Hawking decoherence, we find an inevitable increase of the uncertainty on the outcome of measurements in the view of static observer, which is dependent on the mass of the black hole, the distance of observer from event horizon, and the mode frequency of quantum memory. To illustrate the generality of this paradigm, we relate the entropic uncertainty bound with other uncertainty probe, e.g., time-energy uncertainty. In an alternative game between two static players, we show that quantum information of qubit can be transferred to quantum memory through a bath of fluctuating quantum fields outside the black hole. For a particular choice of initial state, we show that the Hawking decoherence cannot counteract entanglement generation after the dynamical evolution of system, which triggers an effectively reduced uncertainty bound that violates the intrinsic limit -log2 ⁡ c. Numerically estimation for a proper choice of initial state shows that our result is comparable with possible real experiments. Finally, a discussion on the black hole firewall paradox in the context of entropic uncertainty relation is given.

  20. The redshift-distance relation.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I E

    1993-01-01

    Key predictions of the Hubble law are inconsistent with direct observations on equitable complete samples of extragalactic sources in the optical, infrared, and x-ray wave bands-e.g., the predicted dispersion in apparent magnitude is persistently greatly in excess of its observed value, precluding an explanation via hypothetical perturbations or irregularities. In contrast, the predictions of the Lundmark (homogeneous quadratic) law are consistent with the observations. The Lundmark law moreover predicts the deviations between Hubble law predictions and observation with statistical consistency, while the Hubble law provides no explanation for the close fit of the Lundmark law. The flux-redshift law F [symbol, see text] (1 + z)/z appears consistent with observations on equitable complete samples in the entire observed redshift range, when due account is taken of flux limits by an optimal statistical method. Under the theoretical assumption that space is a fixed sphere, as in the Einstein universe, this law implies the redshift-distance relation z = tan2(r/2R), where R is the radius of the spherical space. This relation coincides with the prediction of chronometric cosmology, which estimates R as 160 +/- 40 Mpc (1 parsec = 3.09 x 10(16) m) from the proper motion to redshift relation of superluminal sources. Tangential aspects, including statistical methodology, fundamental physical theory, bright cluster galaxy samples, and proposed luminosity evolution, are briefly considered. PMID:11607390

  1. Reciprocal relations between kinetic curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablonsky, G. S.; Gorban, A. N.; Constales, D.; Galvita, V. V.; Marin, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    We study coupled irreversible processes. For linear or linearized kinetics with microreversibility, \\dot{x}=Kx , the kinetic operator K is symmetric in the entropic inner product. This form of Onsager's reciprocal relations implies that the shift in time, exp(Kt), is also a symmetric operator. This generates the reciprocity relations between the kinetic curves. For example, for the Master equation, if we start the process from the i-th pure state and measure the probability pj(t) of the j-th state (j≠i), and, similarly, measure pi(t) for the process, which starts at the j-th pure state, then the ratio of these two probabilities pj(t)/pi(t) is constant in time and coincides with the ratio of the equilibrium probabilities. We study similar and more general reciprocal relations between the kinetic curves. The experimental evidence provided as an example is from the reversible water gas shift reaction over iron oxide catalyst. The experimental data are obtained using Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) pulse-response studies. These offer excellent confirmation within the experimental error.

  2. A genesis of special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messager, Valérie; Letellier, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    The genesis of special relativity is intimately related to the development of the theory of light propagation. When optical phenomena were described, there are typically two kinds of theories: (i) One based on light rays and light particles and (ii) one considering the light as waves. When diffraction and refraction were experimentally discovered, light propagation became more often described in terms of waves. Nevertheless, when attempts were made to explain how light was propagated, it was nearly always in terms of a corpuscular theory combined with an ether, a subtle medium supporting the waves. Consequently, most of the theories from Newton's to those developed in the 19th century were dual and required the existence of an ether. We therefore used the ether as our Ariadne thread for explaining how the principle of relativity became generalized to the so-called Maxwell equations around the 1900's. Our aim is more to describe how the successive ideas were developed and interconnected than framing the context in which these ideas arose.

  3. Relative Mortality among Criminals in Norway and the Relation to Drug and Alcohol Related Offenses

    PubMed Central

    Skardhamar, Torbjørn; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-01-01

    Background Registered offenders are known to have a higher mortality rate, but given the high proportion of offenders with drug-addiction, particularly among offenders with a custodial sentence, higher mortality is expected. While the level of overall mortality compared to the non-criminal population is of interest in itself, we also estimate the risk of death by criminal records related to substance abuse and other types of criminal acts, and separate between those who receive a prison sentence or not. Methods Age-adjusted relative risks of death for 2000–2008 were studied in a population based dataset. Our dataset comprise the total Norwegian population of 2.9 million individuals aged 15–69 years old in 1999, of whom 10% had a criminal record in the 1992–1999 period. Results Individuals with a criminal record have twice the relative risk (RR) of death of the control group (non-offenders). Males with a record of use/possession of drugs and a prison record have an 11.9 RR (females, 15.6); males with a drug record but no prison record have a 6.9 RR (females 10.5). Males imprisoned for driving under the influence of substances have a 4.4 RR (females 5.6); males with a record of driving under the influence but no prison sentence have a 3.2 RR (females 6.5). Other male offenders with a prison record have a 2.8 RR (females 3.7); other male offenders with no prison record have a 1.7 RR (females 2.3). Conclusion Significantly higher mortality was found for people with a criminal record, also for those without any record of drug use. Mortality is much higher for those convicted of substance-related crimes: more so for drug- than for alcohol-related crimes and for women. PMID:24223171

  4. Work-related lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Weston, Ainsley

    2011-01-01

    Work-related respiratory diseases affect people in every industrial sector, constituting approximately 60% of all disease and injury mortality and 70% of all occupational disease mortality. There are two basic types: interstitial lung diseases, that is the pneumoconioses (asbestosis, byssinosis, chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), silicosis, flock workers' lung, and farmers' lung disease), and airways diseases, such as work-related or exacerbated asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiolitis obliterans (a disease that was recognized in the production of certain foods only 10 years ago). Common factors in the development of these diseases are exposures to dusts, metals, allergens and other toxins, which frequently cause oxidative damage. In response, the body reacts by activating primary immune response genes (i.e. cytokines that often lead to further oxidative damage), growth factors and tissue remodelling proteins. Frequently, complex imbalances in these processes contribute to the development of disease. For example, tissue matrix metalloproteases can cause the degradation of tissue, as in the development of CWP small profusions, but usually overexpression of matrix metalloproteases is controlled by serum protein inhibitors. Thus, disruption of such a balance can lead to adverse tissue damage. Susceptibility to these types of lung disease has been investigated largely through candidate gene studies, which have been characteristically small, often providing findings that have been difficult to corroborate. An important exception to this has been the finding that the HLA-DPB11(E69) allele is closely associated with chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitivity. Although chronic beryllium disease is only caused by exposure to beryllium, inheritance of HLA-DPB1(E69) carries an increased risk of between two- and 30-fold in beryllium exposed workers. Most, if not all, of these occupationally related diseases are

  5. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  6. Human alcohol-related neuropathology.

    PubMed

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  7. Comparing records with related chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Albert, Paul; Kearney, Rebecca; Staff, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to integrate ice, terrestrial and marine records, it is necessary to deal with records on different timescales. These timescales can be grouped into those that use a common fundamental chronometer (such as Uranium-Thorium dating or Radiocarbon) and can also be related to one another where we have chronological tie points such as tephra horizons. More generally we can, through a number of different methodologies, derive relationships between different timescales. A good example of this is the use of cosmogenic isotope production, specifically 10Be and 14C to relate the calibrated radiocarbon timescale to that of the Greenland ice cores. The relationships between different timescales can be mathematically expressed in terms of time-transfer functions. This formalism allows any related record to be considered against any linked timescale with an appropriate associated uncertainty. The prototype INTIMATE chronological database allows records to be viewed and compared in this way and this is now being further developed, both to include a wider range of records and also to provide better connectivity to other databases and chronological tools. These developments will also include new ways to use tephra tie-points to constrain the relationship between timescales directly, without needing to remodel each associated timescale. The database as it stands allows data for particular timeframes to be recalled and plotted against any timescale, or exported in spreadsheet format. New functionality will be added to allow users to work with their own data in a private space and then to publish it when it has been through the peer-review publication process. In order to make the data easier to use for other further analysis and plotting, and with data from other sources, the database will also act as a server to deliver data in a JSON format. The aim of this work is to make the comparison of integrated data much easier for researchers and to ensure that good practice in

  8. Laparoscopic morcellator-related complications.

    PubMed

    Milad, Magdy P; Milad, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Morcellation at laparoscopy is a commonly used minimally invasive method to extract bulky tissue from the abdomen without extending abdominal incisions. Despite widespread use of morcellation, complications still remain underreported and poorly understood. We performed a systematic review of surgical centers in the United States to identify, collate and update the morcellator-related injuries and near misses associated with powered tissue removal. We searched articles on morcellator-related injuries published from 1993 through June 2013. In addition, all cases reported to MedSun and the FDA device database (MAUDE) were evaluated for inclusion. We used the search terms "morcellation," "morcellator," "parasitic," and "retained" and model name keywords "Morcellex," "MOREsolution," "PlasmaSORD," "Powerplus," "Rotocut," "SAWALHE," "Steiner," and "X-Tract." During the past 15 years, 55 complications were identified. Injuries involved the small and large bowels (n = 31), vascular system (n = 27), kidney (n = 3), ureter (n = 3), bladder (n = 1), and diaphragm (n = 1). Of these injuries, 11 involved more than 1 organ. Complications were identified intraoperatively in most patients (n = 37 [66%]); however, the remainder were not identified until up to 10 days postoperatively. Surgeon inexperience was a contributing factor in most cases in which a cause was ascribed. Six deaths were attributed to morcellator-related complications. Nearly all major complications were identified from the FDA device database and not from the published literature. The laparoscopic morcellator has substantially expanded our ability to complete procedures using minimally invasive techniques. Associated with this opportunity have been increasing reports of major and minor intraoperative complications. These complications are largely unreported, likely because of publication bias associated with catastrophic events. Surgeon experience likely confers some protection against these injuries

  9. History of asbestos related disease

    PubMed Central

    Bartrip, P

    2004-01-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  10. Polarised antibranes from Smarr relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Maldonado, Diego; Diaz, Juan; Gautason, Fridrik Freyr

    2016-05-01

    We study the backreaction of smeared and localised anti M2-branes placed at the tip of the CGLP background. To this end we derive a Smarr relation for backreacted antibranes at zero and finite temperature. For extremal antibranes we show that if smeared they cannot have regular horizons, whereas localised M2-branes can potentially be regular when polarised into M5-branes, in agreement with the probe result of Klebanov and Pufu. We further discuss antibranes at finite temperature and argue that localised antibrane solutions with regular horizons are not excluded.

  11. Lithium overdosage and related tests.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2016-12-01

    Lithium acts biochemically through the inositol depletion in brain cortex. At low doses, however, it is partly effective and/or ineffective, whereas in high concentrations is toxic. We would like to make one point about this review. In fact, in our view, the patient should be given a support to correct hypernatremia and even sodium levels should be tested serially-along with serum lithium concentrations-because high sodium levels reduce the rate of elimination of lithium. Lithium is mainly a neurotoxicant. Lithium-related central nervous system toxicity as well as the cardiovascular and thyroid changes are most likely due to the cations (Na2 (+) and K(+)) competition. PMID:26753697

  12. History of asbestos related disease.

    PubMed

    Bartrip, P W J

    2004-02-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  13. Relative Sizes of Organic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This computer graphic depicts the relative complexity of crystallizing large proteins in order to study their structures through x-ray crystallography. Insulin is a vital protein whose structure has several subtle points that scientists are still trying to determine. Large molecules such as insuline are complex with structures that are comparatively difficult to understand. For comparison, a sugar molecule (which many people have grown as hard crystals in science glass) and a water molecule are shown. These images were produced with the Macmolecule program. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  14. The relative motion of membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Mark D.

    2010-12-01

    The relative classical motion of membranes is governed by the equation ( w {/β c α c } r βa ) a = R {/δγβ α } r gb x δa p {/a γ }, where w is the hessian. This is a generalization of the geodesic deviation equation and can be derived from the lagrangian p · ṙ. Quantum mechanically the picture is less clear. Some quantizations of the classical equations are attempted so that the question as to whether the Universe started with a quantum fluctuation can be addressed.

  15. The relative motion of membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Mark

    2010-12-01

    The relative classical motion of membranes is governed by the equation (w β cα c r βa)a = R δγβα r gb x δa p aγ, where w is the hessian. This is a generalization of the geodesic deviation equation and can be derived from the lagrangian p · ṙ. Quantum mechanically the picture is less clear. Some quantizations of the classical equations are attempted so that the question as to whether the Universe started with a quantum fluctuation can be addressed.

  16. Aspiration-related lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Prather, Andrew D; Smith, Tristan R; Poletto, Dana M; Tavora, Fabio; Chung, Jonathan H; Nallamshetty, Leelakrishna; Hazelton, Todd R; Rojas, Carlos A

    2014-09-01

    Aspiration is a common but underrecognized clinicopathologic entity, with varied radiographic manifestations. Aspiration represents a spectrum of diseases, including diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, aspiration pneumonitis, airway obstruction by foreign body, exogenous lipoid pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, and aspiration pneumonia with or without lung abscess formation. Many patients who aspirate do not present with disease, suggesting that pathophysiology is related to a variety of factors, including decreased levels of consciousness, dysphagia, impaired mucociliary clearance, composition of aspirate, and impaired host defenses. In this pictorial essay, we will review the different types of aspiration lung diseases, focusing on their imaging features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24911122

  17. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  18. Post splenectomy related pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palkar, Atul V; Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Sameer; Iftikhar, Asma; Miller, Edmund J; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy predisposes patients to a slew of infectious and non-infectious complications including pulmonary vascular disease. Patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic events due to various mechanisms that may lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The development of CTEPH and pulmonary vasculopathy after splenectomy involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms, some of which remain unclear. This review attempts congregate the current evidence behind our understanding about the etio-pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease related to splenectomy and highlight the controversies that surround its management. PMID:26949600

  19. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Gabriela; Schor, Eduardo; Kopelman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with N-acetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic) and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26841161

  20. Catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Goede, Matthew R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-04-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) are a common, frequently preventable complication of central venous catheterization. CR-BSIs can be prevented by strict attention to insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters and removing unneeded catheters as soon as possible. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated catheters are also an effective tool to prevent infections. The diagnosis of CR-BSI is made largely based on culture results. CR-BSIs should always be treated with antibiotics, and except in rare circumstances the infected catheter needs to be removed. PMID:19281894

  1. Epistemology and Rosen's Modeling Relation

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1999-11-07

    Rosen's modeling relation is embedded in Popper's three worlds to provide an heuristic tool for model building and a guide for thinking about complex systems. The utility of this construct is demonstrated by suggesting a solution to the problem of pseudo science and a resolution of the famous Bohr-Einstein debates. A theory of bizarre systems is presented by an analogy with entangled particles of quantum mechanics. This theory underscores the poverty of present-day computational systems (e.g., computers) for creating complex and bizarre entities by distinguishing between mechanism and organism.

  2. General Relativity and Gravitation, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Neil; Bartlett, David F.; Wyss, Walker

    2005-10-01

    Part I. Classical Relativity and Gravitation Theory: 1. Global properties of exact solutions H. Friedrich; 2. Numerical relativity T. Nakamura; 3. How fast can a pulsar spin? J. L. Friedman; 4. Colliding waves in general relativity V. Ferrari; Part II. Relativistic Astrophysics, Early Universe, and Classical Cosmology: 5. Observations of cosmic microwave radiation R. B. Partridge; 6. Cosmic microwave background radiation (theory) M. Panek; 7. Inflation and quantum cosmology A. D. Linde; 8. Observations of lensing B. Fort; 9. Gravitational lenses: theory and interpretation R. Blandford; Part III. Experimental Gravitation and Gravitational Waves: 10. Solar system tests of GR: recent results and present plans I. Shapiro; 11. Laser interferometer detectors R. Weiss; 12. Resonant bar gravitational wave experiments G. Pizzella; 13. A non-inverse square law test E. Adelberger; Part IV. Quantum Gravity, Superstrings, Quantum Cosmology: 14. Cosmic strings B. Unruh; 15. String theory as a quantum theory of gravity G. Horowitz; 16. Progress in quantum cosmology J. B. Hartle; 17. Self-duality, quantum gravity, Wilson loops and all that A. V. Ashtekar; Part V. Summary Talk: 18. GR-12 Conference summary J. Ehlers II; Part VI. Reports on Workshops/Symposia: 19. Exact solutions and exact properties of Einstein equations V. Moncrieff; 20. Spinors, twistors and complex methods N. Woodhouse; 21. Alternative gravity theories M. Francaviglia; 22. Asymptotia, singularities and global structure B. G. Schmidt; 23. Radiative spacetimes and approximation methods T. Damour; 24. Algebraic computing M. MacCallum; 25. Numerical relativity J. Centrella; 26. Mathematical cosmology J. Wainwright; 27. The early universe M. Turner; 28. Relativistic astrophysics M. Abramowitz; 29. Astrophysical and observational cosmology B. Carr; 30. Solar system and pulsar tests of gravitation R. Hellings; 31. Earth-based gravitational experiments J. Faller; 32. Resonant bar and microwave gravitational wave

  3. General Relativity and Gravitation, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Neil; Bartlett, David F.; Wyss, Walker

    1990-11-01

    Part I. Classical Relativity and Gravitation Theory: 1. Global properties of exact solutions H. Friedrich; 2. Numerical relativity T. Nakamura; 3. How fast can a pulsar spin? J. L. Friedman; 4. Colliding waves in general relativity V. Ferrari; Part II. Relativistic Astrophysics, Early Universe, and Classical Cosmology: 5. Observations of cosmic microwave radiation R. B. Partridge; 6. Cosmic microwave background radiation (theory) M. Panek; 7. Inflation and quantum cosmology A. D. Linde; 8. Observations of lensing B. Fort; 9. Gravitational lenses: theory and interpretation R. Blandford; Part III. Experimental Gravitation and Gravitational Waves: 10. Solar system tests of GR: recent results and present plans I. Shapiro; 11. Laser interferometer detectors R. Weiss; 12. Resonant bar gravitational wave experiments G. Pizzella; 13. A non-inverse square law test E. Adelberger; Part IV. Quantum Gravity, Superstrings, Quantum Cosmology: 14. Cosmic strings B. Unruh; 15. String theory as a quantum theory of gravity G. Horowitz; 16. Progress in quantum cosmology J. B. Hartle; 17. Self-duality, quantum gravity, Wilson loops and all that A. V. Ashtekar; Part V. Summary Talk: 18. GR-12 Conference summary J. Ehlers II; Part VI. Reports on Workshops/Symposia: 19. Exact solutions and exact properties of Einstein equations V. Moncrieff; 20. Spinors, twistors and complex methods N. Woodhouse; 21. Alternative gravity theories M. Francaviglia; 22. Asymptotia, singularities and global structure B. G. Schmidt; 23. Radiative spacetimes and approximation methods T. Damour; 24. Algebraic computing M. MacCallum; 25. Numerical relativity J. Centrella; 26. Mathematical cosmology J. Wainwright; 27. The early universe M. Turner; 28. Relativistic astrophysics M. Abramowitz; 29. Astrophysical and observational cosmology B. Carr; 30. Solar system and pulsar tests of gravitation R. Hellings; 31. Earth-based gravitational experiments J. Faller; 32. Resonant bar and microwave gravitational wave

  4. Food-related energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E

    1974-04-12

    I have used data from input-output studies to determine the quantities of primary and electric energy consumed in the agricultural, processing, transportation, wholesale and retail trade, and household sectors for personal consumption of food. Before one draws conclusions from these results, it is important to note the assumptions and approximations used in this analysis. First, the economic input-output data published by the Department of Commerce are subject to a number of inaccuracies, including lack of complete coverage for an industry, restriction of data for proprietary reasons, and use of different time periods for different data. Second, aggregation can combine within the same sector industries whose energy intensities differ widely. For example, eating and drinking establishments probably consume more energy per dollar of sales (because of refrigerators, stoves, and freezers) than do department stores. However, both types of establishment are included in retail trade. Thus energy use for food-related retail trade may be underestimated because of aggregation. Third, the energy coefficients are subject to error. In particular, the coefficients for the agricultural and trade sectors are vulnerable because energy use within these sectors is not well documented. Finally, the scaling factor used to estimate food-related energy use for the 1960's is approximate, in that it neglects the possibility that these energy coefficients changed differently with time. Because of these limitations, which are described more fully by Herendeen (6), a number of important issues were not addressed here. such as relative energy requirements for fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables; and for soybeans as compared to beef. This analysis shows that the U.S. food cycle consumes a considerable amount of energy, about 12 percent of the total national energy budget. The residential sector, which accounts for 30 percent of the total, is the most energy-intensive sector in terms of energy

  5. Chemokines in cancer related inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Allavena, Paola; Germano, Giovanni; Marchesi, Federica; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-03-10

    Chemokines are key players of the cancer-related inflammation. Chemokine ligands and receptors are downstream of genetic events that cause neoplastic transformation and are abundantly expressed in chronic inflammatory conditions which predispose to cancer. Components of the chemokine system affect multiple pathways of tumor progression including: leukocyte recruitment, neo-angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and survival, invasion and metastasis. Evidence in pre-clinical and clinical settings suggests that the chemokine system represents a valuable target for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies.

  6. Recent developments in classical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. G.

    2001-10-01

    In the period spanned by the Texas meetings,-the term ``classical relativity'' was not yet coined 40 years ago-the notions of gravitational collapse, gravitational radiation singularities and black hole where in the center of almost all investigations and developments. 40 years ago black holes were exotic theoretical concepts far from reality. Now they seem to exist all over the univers. In the last 40 years a scenarium describing the collaps or collision of stellar objects or BHs has formed. In my talk I want to outline this picture, tell you which parts are firmly established and where the big open questions are. .

  7. The HELIOS Image Related Services.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, U; Schröter, A; Günnel, U; Demiris, A M; Makabe, M; Evers, H; Meinzer, H P

    1994-12-01

    The HELIOS Software Engineering Environment is a tool for the construction of medical ward information systems. This paper describes the image processing tools which are a part of this system. The Image Related Services can be used both as ready-to-use end-user tools and as software modules for the construction of integrated multimedia applications. The tasks and architecture of the end-user tools and their integration into the HELIOS architecture are described. It is shown how the available image processing functionality can be used to build up new applications. PMID:7882676

  8. Friction Forces in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, D.; Gregoris, D.; Rosquist, K.

    2015-01-01

    Friction forces play an important role in a wide class of phenomena both in the contexts of classical mechanics and general relativity. This paper discusses the Poynting-Robertson approach to the description of the motion of a massive test particle inside a perfect fluid undergoing dissipative effects in curved space. Specific cases of motions 1) inside a photon gas near a Schwarzschild black hole; 2) inside a photon gas in the Tolman metric are then discussed with applications to models of accretion disks of a black hole and to motion inside a static radiation dominated Universe.

  9. How black holes saved relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  10. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  11. Holography: childrens' window to relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacShane, James E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of the concept of natural education. Psychology has discovered that all humans learn intuitively the cultural concepts of time from birth to eight and one-half to ten years of age. Einstein showed us that this must also be the natural time for the development of spatial concepts. The importance of this has been dramatized for me in the past eight years that I have been developing the Laser Arts and Holography Programs and Workshops. I have worked with over 100,000 students kindergarten through eighth grade. I have worked with 175 students age 8 to 10 in three hour and one half workshops specifically on the development of time and space concepts. The concepts developed are based upon the vast amount of psychological evidence related to the natural development of time and space understandings, Dr. Nils Abramson's 'Light in Flight' and subsequent work on the clarification of relativity through holography, and Maria Montessori's method of Scientific Education. The paper also demonstrates the natural method of teaching science to younger students is to teach scientifically. All of the research which has been done in the past 100 years has been used by the educational institutions to try to improve the system. What has not been done is changing the system to how humans learn. Because of the perceived hi-tech nature of the program I am able to dramatize the potential. An outline for a holography curriculum kindergarten through eighth grade is included.

  12. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement. PMID:26357049

  13. Preventing paraffin-related injury.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Swart, Dehran

    2009-07-01

    Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages-especially its comparatively low cost to produce-it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ‎discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ‎multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ‎and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ‎successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ‎initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations. ‎ PMID:21483184

  14. Aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Lee, Joyce S; Pianosi, Paolo T; Ryu, Jay H

    2015-03-01

    Aspiration of foreign matter into the airways and lungs can cause a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders with various presentations. The type of syndrome resulting from aspiration depends on the quantity and nature of the aspirated material, the chronicity, and the host responses. Aspiration is most likely to occur in subjects with a decreased level of consciousness, compromised airway defense mechanisms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, and recurrent vomiting. These aspiration-related syndromes can be categorized into airway disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction, large airway obstruction with a foreign body, bronchiectasis, bronchoconstriction, and diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, or parenchymal disorders, including aspiration pneumonitis, aspiration pneumonia, and exogenous lipoid pneumonia. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, aspiration has been implicated in disease progression and acute exacerbation. Aspiration may increase the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in patients who have undergone a lung transplant. Accumulating evidence suggests that a causative role for aspiration is often unsuspected in patients presenting with aspiration-related pulmonary diseases; thus, many cases go undiagnosed. Herein, we discuss the broadening spectrum of these pulmonary syndromes with a focus on presenting features and diagnostic aspects. PMID:25732447

  15. Relative prevalence of different fetishes.

    PubMed

    Scorolli, C; Ghirlanda, S; Enquist, M; Zattoni, S; Jannini, E A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the relative frequency of Fetishes in a large sample of individuals. Using the Internet as a data source, we examined 381 discussion groups. We estimate, very conservatively, that at least 5000 individuals were targeted. The relative frequency of each preference category was estimated considering (a) the number of groups devoted to the category, (b) the number of individuals participating in the groups and (c) the number of messages exchanged. The three measures agree both parametrically (Cronbach's alpha=0.91) and non-parametrically (Kendall's W=0.94, P<0.01). Preferences for body parts or features and for objects usually associated with the body were most common (33 and 30%, respectively), followed by preferences for other people's behavior (18%), own behavior (7%), social behavior (7%) and objects unrelated to the body (5%). Feet and objects associated with feet were the most common target of preferences. These findings provide the first large database in an area, where the knowledge is particularly scarce. PMID:17304204

  16. [Age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Garcia Layana, A

    1998-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the occidental world. Patients suffering this process have an important reduction on their quality of life being handicapped to read, to write, to recognise faces of their friends, or even to watch the television. One of the main problems of that disease is the absence of an effective treatment able to revert the process. Laser treatment is only useful in a limited number of patients, and even in these cases recurrent lesions are frequent. These facts and the progressive ageing of our society establish the ARMD as one of the biggest aim of medical investigations for the next century, and currently is focus of attention in the most industrialised countries. One of the most promising pieces of research is focused in the investigation of the risk factors associated with the age-related macular degeneration, in order to achieve a prophylactic treatment avoiding its appearance. Diet elements such as fat ingestion or reduced antioxidant intakes are being investigated as some of these factors, what open a new possibility for a prophylactic treatment. Finally, research is looking for new therapeutic modalities such as selective radiotherapy in order to improve or maintain the vision of these patients. PMID:10420956

  17. Numerical Relativity meets Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waveforms (GW) from coalescing black hole binaries obtained by Numerical Relativity (NR) play a crucial role in the construction and validation of waveform models used as templates in GW matched filter searches and parameter estimation. In previous efforts, notably the NINJA and NINJA-2 collaborations, NR groups and data analysts worked closely together to use NR waveforms as mock GW signals to test the search and parameter estimation pipelines employed by LIGO. Recently, however, NR groups have been able to simulate hundreds of different binary black holes systems. It is desirable to directly use these waveforms in GW data analysis, for example to assess systematic errors in waveform models, to test general relativity or to appraise the limitations of aligned-spin searches among many other applications. In this talk, I will introduce recent developments that aim to fully integrate NR waveforms into the data analysis pipelines through a standardized interface. I will highlight a number of select applications for this new infrastructure.

  18. Relative dispersion in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCasce, Joe; Graff, Lise; Guttu, Sigmund

    2014-05-01

    The relative dispersion of pairs of particles in flows is of central importance when describing environmental dispersion, for example of volcanic ash. Atmospheric relative dispersion was examined previously in two balloon experiments in the Southern Hemisphere (the EOLE and TWERLE experiments). In both cases, the dispersion at scales below 1000 km grew exponentially in time, indicating the kinetic energy spectrum is steep. Subsequent analyses suggested though that the dispersion had a power law dependence on time, implying a shallower kinetic energy spectrum. The results from studies employing synthetic particles advected by reanalysis winds are similarly inconsistent, with indications of exponential growth in some cases and power law growth in others. Here we use a different statistic---the probability density function (PDF) of pair displacements---to study dispersion the dispersion of large numbers of synthetic particles, advected by ERA-Interim reanalysis winds. The particles were deployed in the troposphere and stratosphere, both in the tropics and the extra-tropics. We examine the PDFs for the different deployments and compare them to analytical expressions derived for different turbulent inertial ranges. In line with the earlier balloon experiments, the results indicate exponential growth at the sub-deformation (1000 km) scales. At larger scales, the dispersion is anisotropic (predominantly zonal) and pair motion becomes decorrelated. Structure functions calculated from the wind data are in line with these conclusions.

  19. Contact lens related corneal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. The presenting symptoms of contact lens related corneal ulcers include eye discomfort, foreign body sensation and lacrimation. More serious symptoms are redness (especially circum-corneal injection), severe pain, photophobia, eye discharge and blurring of vision. The diagnosis is established by a thorough slit lamp microscopic examination with fluorescein staining and corneal scraping for Gram stain and culture of the infective organism. Delay in diagnosing and treatment can cause permanent blindness, therefore an early referral to ophthalmologist and commencing of antimicrobial therapy can prevent visual loss. PMID:25606178

  20. Perioperative Acupuncture and Related Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chernyak, Grigory V.; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2005-01-01

    Acupuncture and related techniques are increasingly practiced in conventional medical settings, and the number of patients willing to use these techniques is increasing. Despite more than 30 years of research, the exact mechanism of action and efficacy of acupuncture have not been established. Furthermore, most aspects of acupuncture have yet to be adequately tested. There thus remains considerable controversy about the role of acupuncture in clinical medicine. Acupuncture apparently does not reduce volatile anesthetic requirement by a clinically important amount. However, preoperative sedation seems to be a promising application of acupuncture in perioperative settings. Acupuncture may be effective for postoperative pain relief but requires a high level of expertise by the acupuncture practitioner. Acupuncture and related techniques can be used for treatment and prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in routine clinical practice in combination with, or as an alternative to, conventional antiemetics when administered before induction of general anesthesia. Summary Statement: The use of acupuncture for perioperative analgesia, nausea and vomiting, sedation, anesthesia, and complications is reviewed. PMID:15851892

  1. Blackhole formula and example relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    Black hole formula 1) Second dimension (x,y) f(x)=y Energy E=m*c2 2) Third dimension (x,y,z) really x=y=z Black hole formula Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) As mass go the velocity of light, mass become black hole so there are energy as multiply by mass. Example relativity When E=m*c2 1) Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) 2) 3*c*Root(c2)=3*c*Root(E/m)=3*c2 From 1) to 2) as an example, As velocity is faster, mass increased. It means when velocity is increased, sec(time) is slower, and m(distance) is increased. The number is good to study physics.

  2. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-06-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  3. Rectangular groupoids and related structures

    PubMed Central

    Boykett, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The quasivariety of groupoids (N,∗) satisfying the implication a∗b=c∗d⇒a∗d=c∗b=a∗b generalises rectangular semigroups and central groupoids. We call them rectangular groupoids and find three combinatorial structures based upon arrays, matrices and graphs that are closely related. These generalise several groupoids of independent interest. The quasivariety generates the variety of all groupoids; they satisfy no nontrivial equations. We see some strong connections with isotopy, this being one of the classes of algebras (along with quasigroups) closed under isotopy. We investigate some constructions and show that a regular automorphism exists iff the groupoid is derived from a group via a Cayley graph construction. PMID:23836949

  4. Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Tom

    2006-12-13

    Over the past century Special Relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics, and its Lorentz invariance is a foundation of every current fundamental theory of physics. So it is crucial that it be thoroughly tested experimentally. The many tests of SR will be discussed, including several modern high-precision measurements. Several experiments that appear to be in conflict with SR will also be discussed, such as claims that the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley actually have a non-null result, and the similar but far more extensive measurements of Dayton Miller that 'determined the absolute motion of the earth'. But the errorbars for these old experiments are huge, and are larger than their purported signals. In short, SR has been tested extremely well and stands un-refuted today, but current thoughts about quantum gravity suggest that it might not truly be a symmetry of nature.

  5. Relative Locality in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we construct the action describing dynamics of the particle moving in curved spacetime, with a nontrivial momentum space geometry. Curved momentum space is the core feature of theories where relative locality effects are present. So far aspects of nonlinearities in momentum space have been studied only for flat or constantly expanding (de Sitter) spacetimes, relying on their maximally symmetric nature. The extension of curved momentum space frameworks to arbitrary spacetime geometries could be relevant for the opportunities to test Planck-scale curvature/deformation of particles momentum space. As a first example of this construction we describe the particle with κ-Poincaré momentum space on a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime, where the contributes of momentum space curvature turn out to be negligible. The analysis of this problem relies crucially on the solution of the soccer ball problem.

  6. Lay obligations in professional relations.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M

    1985-02-01

    Little has been written recently about the obligations of lay people in professional relationships. Yet the Code of Medical Ethics adopted by the American Medical Association in 1847 included an extensive statement on "Obligations of patients to their physicians'. After critically examining the philosophical foundations of this statement, I provide an alternative account of lay obligations in professional relationships. Based on a hypothetical social contract and included in a full specification of professional as well as lay obligations, this account requires lay people to honor commitments and disclose relevant information. Ethically, the account assumes that all parties in lay-professional relationships should be given equal consideration and respect in determining rights and obligations. Factually, it assumes that the treatment of many illnesses and injuries required collaboration and cooperation among lay persons and health professionals, that medical resources and personnel are limited, and that medicine, nursing, and related health professions, are, in MacIntyre's sense, practices. PMID:3884726

  7. Methylene blue related sterile endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Lim, A K E; Ulagantheran V, V; Siow, Y C; Lim, K S

    2008-08-01

    To report a case of methylene blue related endophthalmitis. Observational case report. Review of clinical record, photographs. A 60 year old man developed endophthalmitis after methylene blue was accidentally used to stain the anterior capsule during phacoemulsification of cataract. His left visual acuity deteriorated from 6/12 to 6/36 two weeks after the operation. Despite intensive treatment with topical and intravitreal antibiotics, his condition deteriorated. A vitrectomy and silicone oil injection eventually managed to control the progression of the disease and salvage the eye. However the visual outcome remained poor due to corneal decompensation and retinal ischemia. Both vitreous tap and vitreous biopsy were negative for any organism. Methylene blue is extremely toxic to ocular structures and should not be used intraocularly. PMID:19248701

  8. Pulsar timing and general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.; Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for accounting for relativistic effects in the analysis of pulsar signals. Design features of instrumentation used to achieve millisecond accuracy in the signal measurements are discussed. The accuracy of the data permits modeling the pulsar physical characteristics from the natural glitches in the emissions. Relativistic corrections are defined for adjusting for differences between the pulsar motion in its spacetime coordinate system relative to the terrestrial coordinate system, the earth's motion, and the gravitational potentials of solar system bodies. Modifications of the model to allow for a binary pulsar system are outlined, including treatment of the system as a point mass. Finally, a quadrupole model is presented for gravitational radiation and techniques are defined for using pulsars in the search for gravitational waves.

  9. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  10. Relative chronology of Martian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landheim, R.; Barlow, N. G.

    1991-01-01

    Impact cratering is one of the major geological processes that has affected the Martian surface throughout the planet's history. The frequency of craters within particular size ranges provides information about the formation ages and obliterative episodes of Martian geologic units. The Barlow chronology was extended by measuring small craters on the volcanoes and a number of standard terrain units. Inclusions of smaller craters in units previously analyzed by Barlow allowed for a more direct comparison between the size-frequency distribution data for volcanoes and established chronology. During this study, 11,486 craters were mapped and identified in the 1.5 to 8 km diameter range in selected regions of Mars. The results are summarized in this three page report and give a more precise estimate of the relative chronology of the Martian volcanoes. Also, the results of this study lend further support to the increasing evidence that volcanism has been a dominant geologic force throughout Martian history.

  11. The Environment in International Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Oran R.

    2009-11-01

    In this lucid and well-organized text, Kate O'Neill provides a survey of current thinking in the field of international environmental politics. To make her effort manageable, she approaches this task as an analysis of the “politics of global environmental governance” (p. 1). This approach has the effect of orienting the survey toward research on efforts to develop cooperative and lasting solutions to a variety of environmental problems. The downside of this approach is a relative lack of emphasis on various forms of environmental conflict that lead to outcomes such as growth in the number of environmental refugees and the destruction of important ecosystems. But the virtue of the decision to focus on environmental governance is that it provides a coherent and easily understandable framework for the chapters that follow.

  12. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy)-related hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manish M; Belson, Martin G; Longwater, Adam B; Olson, Kent R; Miller, Michael A

    2005-11-01

    MDMA (or 3, 4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) was first manufactured in the 1920s and found to have structural similarities to both mescaline and amphetamines. Used briefly by some therapists in the 1970s and early 1980s as an adjunct to psychotherapy, it is now primarily abused by teenagers and young adults as an illicit recreational drug known as "ecstasy." As its popularity has increased, so have the number of fatalities and adverse events related to its use. We report six patients suffering fatal or life-threatening hyperthermia after MDMA use. These cases illustrate that hyperthermia associated with MDMA use cannot be solely attributed to rave parties (high ambient temperatures, excessive dancing, dehydration, and overcrowded conditions), drug contaminants, or co-ingestants. A better understanding of the etiology of hyperthermia after MDMA use is needed so that appropriate harm-reduction measures can be developed and instituted. PMID:16243206

  13. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  14. Burns related to sunbed use.

    PubMed

    Hemington-Gorse, S J; Slattery, M A; Drew, P J

    2010-09-01

    The quest for a year round tan has led to an increase in the use of artificial tanning devices, namely sunbeds. There has been much debate in the press recently regarding the dangers of sunbed use and calls for tighter regulation of the industry, particularly the licensing of unmanned tanning salons. The dangers of sunbed use have long been recognised and the body of evidence linking sunbed use to skin malignancy is growing, in fact this month the Lancet published a review from the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying UV emitting tanning devices as carcinogenic to humans. At the Welsh Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery we noticed a rise in the number of patients presenting with burns related to sunbed use and present our data surrounding this injury over the last 6 years. PMID:20171016

  15. Stimulant-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Mike; Riguzzi, Christine; Frenkel, Oron; Nagdev, Arun

    2015-03-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a rare but increasingly recognized mimic of acute coronary syndrome. Patients present with angina,ST-segment changes on electrocardiogram (both elevations and depressions),and rapid rises in cardiac biomarkers. Many kinds of stressful events have been associated with TC, but only a handful of drug-related cases have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 58-year-old woman who developed TC 2 days after crack cocaine use, a diagnosis first suggested as bedside echocardiography in the emergency department.Recognition of the classic echocardiographic appearance of TC—apical hypokinesis causing “ballooning” of the left ventricle during systole—may greatly assist providers in the early identification of this condition. PMID:25308824

  16. Experimental Tests of Special Relativity

    ScienceCinema

    Roberts, Tom [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2009-09-01

    Over the past century Special Relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics, and its Lorentz invariance is a foundation of every current fundamental theory of physics. So it is crucial that it be thoroughly tested experimentally. The many tests of SR will be discussed, including several modern high-precision measurements. Several experiments that appear to be in conflict with SR will also be discussed, such as claims that the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley actually have a non-null result, and the similar but far more extensive measurements of Dayton Miller that 'determined the absolute motion of the earth'. But the errorbars for these old experiments are huge, and are larger than their purported signals. In short, SR has been tested extremely well and stands un-refuted today, but current thoughts about quantum gravity suggest that it might not truly be a symmetry of nature.

  17. Earthquakes and relative sealevel changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melini, D.; Piersanti, A.; Spada, G.; Soldati, G.; Casarotti, E.; Boschi, E.

    2004-05-01

    Using a spherical model of postseismic deformation, for the first time we have computed the global contribution of large earthquakes to the relative sealevel variations in the twentieth century. We have found that great earthquakes have the overall tendency to produce a sealevel rise, and that they affect the measurements taken at those tide-gauge sites that are commonly employed to obtain global estimates of sealevel rise. Though on a global scale most of the signal is associated with thrust events, on a regional scale the effects of great transcurrent earthquakes cannot be neglected. Depending on the viscosity of the asthenosphere, the contribution of earthquakes to the long-term sealevel changes amounts to at least 0.1 mm/yr. Thus, the climate-driven long-term sealevel changes deduced by tide-gauge observations may be slightly, but not negligibly, overestimated.

  18. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    PubMed

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

  19. Space Weather - Sun Earth Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, K. Sundara

    2011-03-01

    Sun, a star of spectral type G2 is the main source of energy to the Earth. Being close to the Earth, Sun produces a resolvable disk of great detail, which is not possible for other stars. Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are the enigmatic phenomena that occur in the solar atmosphere and regularly bombard the Earth's environment in addition to the solar wind. Thus it becomes important for us not only to understand these physical processes of the Sun, but in addition how these activities affect the Earth and it's surrounding. Thus a branch of study called "Space Weather" had emerged in the recent past, which connects the Sun Earth rela-tions. This paper details about the solar activity and associated energetic phenomena that occur in the atmosphere of the Sun and their influence on the Earth.

  20. Geometric Mean Neutrino Mass Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Zee, A.

    Present experimental data from neutrino oscillations have provided much information about the neutrino mixing angles. Since neutrino oscillations only determine the mass squared differences Δ m2ij = m2i - m2j, the absolute values for neutrino masses mi, can not be determined using data just from oscillations. In this work we study implications on neutrino masses from a geometric mean mass relation m2 = √ {m1m_3} which enables one to determined the absolute masses of the neutrinos. We find that the central values of the three neutrino masses and their 2σ errors to be m1 = (1.58 ± 0.18)meV, m2 = (9.04 ± 0.42)meV, and m3 = (51.8 ± 3.5)meV. Implications for cosmological observation, beta decay and neutrinoless double beta decays are discussed.

  1. Relativity on rotated graph paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Roberto B.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a method for constructing spacetime diagrams for special relativity on graph paper that has been rotated by 45°. The diagonal grid lines represent light-flash worldlines in Minkowski spacetime, and the boxes in the grid (called "clock diamonds") represent units of measurement corresponding to the ticks of an inertial observer's light clock. We show that many quantitative results can be read off a spacetime diagram simply by counting boxes, with very little algebra. In particular, we show that the squared interval between two events is equal to the signed area of the parallelogram on the grid (called the "causal diamond") with opposite vertices corresponding to those events. We use the Doppler effect—without explicit use of the Doppler formula—to motivate the method.

  2. Nanoimaging for prion related diseases.

    PubMed

    Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V; Portillo, Alexander M; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Deckert, Volker; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2010-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of prion proteins is linked to a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) and its variants: Kuru, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. In prion diseases, infectious particles are proteins that propagate by transmitting a misfolded state of a protein, leading to the formation of aggregates and ultimately to neurodegeneration. Prion phenomenon is not restricted to humans. There are a number of prion-related diseases in a variety of mammals, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, also known as "mad cow disease") in cattle. All known prion diseases, collectively called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are untreatable and fatal. Prion proteins were also found in some fungi where they are responsible for heritable traits. Prion proteins in fungi are easily accessible and provide a powerful model for understanding the general principles of prion phenomenon and molecular mechanisms of mammalian prion diseases. Presently, several fundamental questions related to prions remain unanswered. For example, it is not clear how prions cause the disease. Other unknowns include the nature and structure of infectious agent and how prions replicate. Generally, the phenomenon of misfolding of the prion protein into infectious conformations that have the ability to propagate their properties via aggregation is of significant interest. Despite the crucial importance of misfolding and aggregation, very little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms of these processes. While there is an apparent critical need to study molecular mechanisms underlying misfolding and aggregation, the detailed characterization of these single molecule processes is hindered by the limitation of conventional methods. Although some issues remain unresolved, much progress has been recently made primarily due to the application of nanoimaging tools. The use of nanoimaging methods shows

  3. GATA-related hematologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    The transcription factors GATA1 and GATA2 are fundamental regulators of hematopoiesis and have overlapping expression profiles. GATA2 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and early erythroid-megakaryocytic progenitors and activates a certain set of early-phase genes, including the GATA2 gene itself. GATA2 also initiates GATA1 gene expression. In contrast, GATA1 is expressed in relatively mature erythroid progenitors and facilitates the expression of genes associated with differentiation, including the GATA1 gene itself; however, GATA1 represses the expression of GATA2. Switching the GATA factors from GATA2 to GATA1 appears to be one of the key regulatory mechanisms underlying erythroid differentiation. Loss-of-function analyses using mice in vivo have indicated that GATA2 and GATA1 are functionally nonredundant and that neither can compensate for the absence of the other. However, transgenic expression of GATA2 under the transcriptional regulation of the Gata1 gene rescues lethal dyserythropoiesis in GATA1-deficient mice, illustrating that the dynamic expression profiles of these GATA factors are critically important for the maintenance of hematopoietic homeostasis. Analysis of naturally occurring leukemias in GATA1-knockdown mice revealed that leukemic stem cells undergo functional alterations in response to exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. This mechanism may also underlie the aggravating features of relapsing leukemias. Recent hematologic analyses have suggested that disturbances in the balance of the GATA factors are associated with specific types of hematopoietic disorders. Here, we describe GATA1- and GATA2-related hematologic diseases, focusing on the regulation of GATA factor gene expression. PMID:27235756

  4. Gender relations and economic issues.

    PubMed

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US. PMID:12320735

  5. The relative relativity of material and experiential purchases.

    PubMed

    Carter, Travis J; Gilovich, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to spending disposable income, experiential purchases tend to make people happier than material purchases (Van Boven & Gilovich, 2003). But why are experiences more satisfying? We propose that the evaluation of experiences tends to be less comparative than that of material possessions, such that potentially invidious comparisons have less impact on satisfaction with experiences than with material possessions. Support for this contention was obtained in 8 studies. We found that participants were less satisfied with their material purchases because they were more likely to ruminate about unchosen options (Study 1); that participants tended to maximize when selecting material goods and satisfice when selecting experiences (Study 2); that participants examined unchosen material purchases more than unchosen experiential purchases (Study 3); and that, relative to experiences, participants' satisfaction with their material possessions was undermined more by comparisons to other available options (Studies 4 and 5A), to the same option at a different price (Studies 5B and 6), and to the purchases of other individuals (Study 5C). Our results suggest that experiential purchase decisions are easier to make and more conducive to well-being. PMID:20053039

  6. The Increasing Importance of Employee Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keckley, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Surveys corporate public relations executives for information about their concern for and involvement with employee relations programming in their organizations and analyzes current public relations education as it relates to these findings. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland,…

  7. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as "the ball between the man and the drawer"). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a-d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  8. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J.; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a–d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  9. Cancer-Related and Treatment-Related Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin Shelley; Woodruff, Jeanie F.

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is a distressing and persistent symptom for patients with gynecological cancer and for survivors. Debilitating cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is produced by both the disease and its treatment. Although awareness and study of CRF have grown in recent years, consistent assessment has not been a priority in routine medical practice. The pathophysiological mechanisms that induce CRF remain unclear, and effective pharmacological interventions have yet to be established. Based on the literature and our own research results, this review focuses on recent progress toward understanding the nature and causes of CRF and on several promising treatment modalities. Given the prevalence and severity of CRF in the gynecological cancer patient population, establishing standardized fatigue measurement and management methods in routine clinical oncology care is of utmost importance. Whether CRF has an underlying inflammatory cause is still hypothetical, however, and no mechanism-driven symptom intervention is currently in clinical use, even though the development of such interventions would provide patients with greater symptom control. Advancing translational and clinical fatigue research will require anatomical pathway studies and well-designed clinical investigations that focus on the development of mechanism-driven interventions based on physiological–behavioral fatigue research, implementation of guidelines for experimental designs, and discovery of biomarkers identifying individuals at high risk for CRF. Validated patient-reported outcomes measures are an essential component of such clinical studies. Because numerous subscales, unidimensional measures, and multidimensional measures exist, clinicians and researchers should consider individual circumstances, good clinical practice, and research goals as guides for choosing the most appropriate fatigue measurement tool. Additionally, education about CRF should be made available to all patients and their caregivers, as

  10. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases caused ... peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location of the ...

  11. Chronotype ontogeny related to gender

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, L.L.; Menna-Barreto, L.; Miguel, M.A.L.; Louzada, F.; Araújo, J.; Alam, M.; Areas, R.; Pedrazzoli, M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronotype is an established concept designed to identify distinct phase relationships between the expression of circadian rhythms and external synchronizers in humans. Although it has been widely accepted that chronotype is subjected to ontogenetic modulation, there is no consensus on the interaction between age and gender. This study aimed to determine the relationship between age- and gender-related changes in the morningness-eveningness character in a large sample of people. A total of 14,650 volunteers were asked to complete the Brazilian version of the Horne and Östberg chronotype questionnaire. The data demonstrated that, on average, women were more morning-oriented than men until the age of 30 and there were no significant differences between men and women from 30 to 45 years of age. In contrast to the situation observed until the age of 30, women older than 45 years were more evening-oriented than men. These results suggest that the ontogenetic development of the circadian timekeeping system is more plastic in men, as represented by the larger amplitude of chronotype changes throughout their aging process. The phase delay of adolescence and phase advance of the elderly seem to be phenomena that are more markedly present in men than in women. Thus, our data, for the first time, provide support that sharply opposes the view that there is a single path toward morningness as a function of age, regardless of gender. PMID:24714814

  12. Arguments concerning Relativity and Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Klein, O

    1971-01-29

    In the first place I have reviewed the true foundation of Einstein's theory of general relativity, the so-called principle of equivalence, according to which there is no essential difference between "genuine" gravitation and inertial forces, well known from accelerated vehicles. By means of a comparison with Gaussian geometry of curved surfaces-the background of Riemannian geometry, the tool used by Einstein for the mathematical formulation of his theory-it is made clear that this principle is incompatible with the idea proposed by Mach and accepted by Einstein as an incitement to his attempt to describe the main situation in the universe as an analogy in three dimensions to the closed surface of a sphere. In the later attempts toward a mathematical description of the universe, where Einstein's cosmology was adapted to the discovery by Hubble that its observed part is expanding, the socalled cosmological postulate has been used as a kind of axiomatic background which, when analyzed, makes it probable that this expansion is shared by a very big, but still bounded system. This implies that our expanding metagalaxy is probably just one of a type of stellar objects in different phases of evolution, some expanding and some contracting. Some attempts toward the description of this evolution are sketched in the article with the hope that further investigation, theoretical and observational, may lead to an interesting advance in this part of astrophysics. PMID:17808634

  13. Entropic origin of allometry relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Bruce J.; West, Damien

    2015-03-01

    The theoretical allometry relation (AR) between the size of a network Y and a property of the network X is of the form X = aYb and has been known for nearly two centuries. The allometry coefficient a and allometry exponent b have been fit by various data sets over that time. The ubiquity of ARs in biology, sociology, ecology and indeed in virtually all the other science disciplines entreats science to find the origin of ARs. Data analysis indicates that the empirical AR is obtained with the replacements X → and Y → and the brackets denote an average over an ensemble of realizations of the network. It has been shown that the empirical AR cannot usually be derived from the theoretical one by simple averaging due to the fractal statistics of the fluctuations. Consequently we hypothesize that a possible origin of AR is the Principle of Minimum Entropy Generation (PMEG). We establish in support of this hypothesis that if the fluctuations in the allometry variables have fractal statistics then the PMEG entails the AR between a complex host network and a subnetwork strongly coupled to it.

  14. Community relations 2.0.

    PubMed

    Kane, Gerald C; Fichman, Robert G; Gallaugher, John; Glaser, John

    2009-11-01

    Before the Internet, organizations had far more time to monitor and respond to community activity, but that luxury is long gone, leaving them in dire need of a coherent outreach strategy, fresh skills, and adaptive tactics. Drawing on the authors' study of more than two dozen firms, this article describes the changes wrought by social media in particular and shows managers how to take advantage of them--lessons that Kaiser Permanente, Domino's, and others learned the hard way. Social media platforms enhance the power of communities by promoting deep relationships, facilitating rapid organization, improving the creation and synthesis of knowledge, and enabling robust filtering of information. The authors cite many examples from the health care industry, where social media participation is vigorous and influential. For instance, members of Sermo, an online network exclusively for doctors, used the site to call attention to and organize against insurers' proposed reimbursement cuts. And on PatientsLikeMe, where people share details about their chronic diseases and the treatments they've pursued, charts and progress curves help members visualize their own complex histories and allow comparisons and feedback among peers. As you modernize your company's approach to community outreach, you'll need to assemble a social media team equipped to identify new opportunities for engagement and prevent brand damage. In the most successful firms the authors studied, community management was a dedicated function, combining marketing, public relations, and information technology skills. PMID:19891388

  15. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels. PMID:15807043

  16. Headaches related to sexual activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lance, J W

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-one patients experienced headache related to sexual activity. Two varieties of headache could be distinguished from the clinical histories. The first, developing as sexual excitement mount, had the characteristics of muscle contraction headache. The second, severe, throbbing or 'explosive' in character, occurring at the time of orgasm, was presumably of vascular origin associated with a hyperdynamic circulatory state. Two of the patients with the latter type of headache had each experienced episodes of cerebral vascular insufficiency on one occasion which subsequently resolved. A third patient in this category had a past history of drop attacks. No evidence of any structural lesion was obtained on clinical examination or investigation, including cerebral angiography in seven patients. Eighteen patients have been followed up for periods of two to seven years without any serious intracranial disorder becoming apparent. While the possibility of intracranial vascular or other lesions must always be borne in mind, there appears to be a syndrome of headache associated with sexual excitement where no organic change can be demonstrated, analogous to benign cough headache and benign exertional headache. PMID:1011034

  17. [Grieving among relatives and caregivers].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Angel María; Santamaría, Juan Luis

    2009-11-01

    This article provides a definition and description of grief, its characteristics, and the current explanatory models of this phenomenon (the stage model, task model, constructivist model and dual process model). The authors argue that a state of mourning in advance is produced in the process of dementia as a result of significant relational loss before death and describe the risk factors for complicated grief in caregivers: overload, lack of personal and material resources, delegation of care, and complex feelings such as guilt. The need for healthcare organizations to provide professional caregivers with the appropriate means to help with grief and to develop their own measures to prevent burnout is stressed. These measures could include protocols that provide bereavement intervention with the family, the primary caregiver, other patients and/or residents and the professional caregiving team. Finally, losses in persons with dementia must be taken into consideration, avoiding phenomena such as silencing and overprotection and encouraging acceptance and emotional support of their pain so that organic and emotional complications do not occur. PMID:19837483

  18. Categorical and associative relations increase false memory relative to purely associative relations.

    PubMed

    Coane, Jennifer H; McBride, Dawn M; Termonen, Miia-Liisa; Cutting, J Cooper

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of associative strength and similarity in terms of shared features to the production of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott list-learning paradigm. Whereas the activation/monitoring account suggests that false memories are driven by automatic associative activation from list items to nonpresented lures, combined with errors in source monitoring, other accounts (e.g., fuzzy trace theory, global-matching models) emphasize the importance of semantic-level similarity, and thus predict that shared features between list and lure items will increase false memory. Participants studied lists of nine items related to a nonpresented lure. Half of the lists consisted of items that were associated but did not share features with the lure, and the other half included items that were equally associated but also shared features with the lure (in many cases, these were taxonomically related items). The two types of lists were carefully matched in terms of a variety of lexical and semantic factors, and the same lures were used across list types. In two experiments, false recognition of the critical lures was greater following the study of lists that shared features with the critical lure, suggesting that similarity at a categorical or taxonomic level contributes to false memory above and beyond associative strength. We refer to this phenomenon as a "feature boost" that reflects additive effects of shared meaning and association strength and is generally consistent with accounts of false memory that have emphasized thematic or feature-level similarity among studied and nonstudied representations. PMID:26250805

  19. Uncertainty relations for angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammeier, Lars; Schwonnek, René; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we study various notions of uncertainty for angular momentum in the spin-s representation of SU(2). We characterize the ‘uncertainty regions’ given by all vectors, whose components are specified by the variances of the three angular momentum components. A basic feature of this set is a lower bound for the sum of the three variances. We give a method for obtaining optimal lower bounds for uncertainty regions for general operator triples, and evaluate these for small s. Further lower bounds are derived by generalizing the technique by which Robertson obtained his state-dependent lower bound. These are optimal for large s, since they are saturated by states taken from the Holstein-Primakoff approximation. We show that, for all s, all variances are consistent with the so-called vector model, i.e., they can also be realized by a classical probability measure on a sphere of radius \\sqrt{s(s+1)}. Entropic uncertainty relations can be discussed similarly, but are minimized by different states than those minimizing the variances for small s. For large s the Maassen-Uffink bound becomes sharp and we explicitly describe the extremalizing states. Measurement uncertainty, as recently discussed by Busch, Lahti and Werner for position and momentum, is introduced and a generalized observable (POVM) which minimizes the worst case measurement uncertainty of all angular momentum components is explicitly determined, along with the minimal uncertainty. The output vectors for the optimal measurement all have the same length r(s), where r(s)/s\\to 1 as s\\to ∞ .

  20. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    It took much effort in the early days of non-Euclidean geometry to break away from the mindset that all spaces are flat and that two distinct parallel lines do not cross. Up to that point, all that was known was Euclidean geometry, and it was difficult to imagine anything else. We have suffered a similar handicap brought on by the enormous relevance of Boolean algebra to the problems of our age-logic and set theory. Previously, I demonstrated that the algebra of questions is not Boolean, but rather is described by the free distributive algebra. To get to this stage took much effort, as many obstacles-most self-placed-had to be overcome. As Boolean algebras were all I had ever known, it was almost impossible for me to imagine working with an algebra where elements do not have complements. With this realization, it became very clear that the sum and product rules of probability theory at the most basic level had absolutely nothing to do with the Boolean algebra of logical statements. Instead, a measure of degree of inclusion can be invented for many different partially ordered sets, and the sum and product rules fall out of the associativity and distributivity of the algebra. To reinforce this very important idea, this paper will go over how these constructions are made, while focusing on the underlying assumptions. I will derive the sum and product rules for a distributive lattice in general and demonstrate how this leads to probability theory on the Boolean lattice and is related to the calculus of quantum mechanical amplitudes on the partially ordered set of experimental setups. I will also discuss the rules that can be derived from modular lattices and their relevance to the cross-ratio of projective geometry.

  1. Augmentation-related brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  2. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  3. Representing objects, relations, and sequences.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Stephen I; Okaywe, T Wendy

    2013-08-01

    Vector symbolic architectures (VSAs) are high-dimensional vector representations of objects (e.g., words, image parts), relations (e.g., sentence structures), and sequences for use with machine learning algorithms. They consist of a vector addition operator for representing a collection of unordered objects, a binding operator for associating groups of objects, and a methodology for encoding complex structures. We first develop constraints that machine learning imposes on VSAs; for example, similar structures must be represented by similar vectors. The constraints suggest that current VSAs should represent phrases ("The smart Brazilian girl") by binding sums of terms, in addition to simply binding the terms directly. We show that matrix multiplication can be used as the binding operator for a VSA, and that matrix elements can be chosen at random. A consequence for living systems is that binding is mathematically possible without the need to specify, in advance, precise neuron-to-neuron connection properties for large numbers of synapses. A VSA that incorporates these ideas, Matrix Binding of Additive Terms (MBAT), is described that satisfies all constraints. With respect to machine learning, for some types of problems appropriate VSA representations permit us to prove learnability rather than relying on simulations. We also propose dividing machine (and neural) learning and representation into three stages, with differing roles for learning in each stage. For neural modeling, we give representational reasons for nervous systems to have many recurrent connections, as well as for the importance of phrases in language processing. Sizing simulations and analyses suggest that VSAs in general, and MBAT in particular, are ready for real-world applications. PMID:23607563

  4. Deformation-related recrystallization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Martyn R.; Urai, Janos L.

    1990-02-01

    Recrystallization is a common microstructural transformation that occurs during deformation, metamorphism and diagenesis of rocks. Studies on minerals and rock analogues have demonstrated that a wide range of recrystallization mechanisms can occur. The range of mechanisms is related to the various ways in which two basic processes, grain boundary migration and new grain boundary formation combine to transform the microstructure. Two recent papers (Drury et al., 1985; Urai et al., 1986) have proposed different schemes for the description of recrystallization mechanisms. The purpose of this paper is to provide a unified framework for the description of mechanisms. Recrystallization mechanisms are divided into three main types; rotation mechanisms which principally involve the formation of new grain boundaries; migration mechanisms which principally involve grain boundary migration; and general mechanisms which involve both basic processes. A further distinction is made on the basis of the continuity of the microstructural transformation with respect to time. Each of the three main types of mechanism can be divided into a number of sub-types depending on whether the processes of grain boundary migration, new grain boundary formation and new grain formation occur in a discontinuous or continuous manner with respect to time. As the terms continuous and discontinuous have been used in the metallurgical literature to signify the spatial continuity of the microstructural transformation, the terms discontinuai and continual are used to refer to the temporal continuity of the transformation. It is recommended that the following aspects should be specified, if possible, in a general description of recrystallization mechanisms: (1) How do the basic processes combine to transform the microstructure. (2) If new grain development occurs, what is the development mechanism, and does new grain formation occur in a continual or discontinuai manner. (3) If grain boundary migration is

  5. Visual Routines for Extracting Magnitude Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michal, Audrey L.; Uttal, David; Shah, Priti; Franconeri, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Linking relations described in text with relations in visualizations is often difficult. We used eye tracking to measure the optimal way to extract such relations in graphs, college students, and young children (6- and 8-year-olds). Participants compared relational statements ("Are there more blueberries than oranges?") with simple…

  6. Discourse Expectations and Relative Clause Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Douglas; Mauner, Gail; O'Meara, Carolyn; Yun, Hongoak

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the role of discourse context in relative clause processing. We first replicated Reali and Christiansen's (2007a) finding that pronominal object relative clauses are easier to process than analogous subject relative clauses (an effect which stands in contrast to previous research on pronominal relative clauses). We then analyzed…

  7. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  8. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  9. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  10. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  11. 31 CFR 515.339 - Close relative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Close relative. 515.339 Section 515... § 515.339 Close relative. (a) For purposes of this part, the term close relative used with respect to.... Your mother's first cousin is your close relative for purposes of this part, because you are both...

  12. Diversity-Related Burnout among Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed Israeli teachers to determine whether diversity related burnout was empirically distinguishable from general teacher burnout and explore the extent to which diversity related burnout was predicted by variables related to school cultural heterogeneity, organizational culture, and teacher background and attitudes. Diversity related burnout…

  13. Public Relations History Misses "Her Story."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creedon, Pamela J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines coverage of women in 10 recent public relations textbooks. Finds that every book except 1 mentioned at least one woman by name in its public relations history section. Argues that the history of public relations should be written to include more women, such as the public relations pioneer Doris E. Fleischman. (MM)

  14. Entanglement monogamy relations of qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the monogamy relations related to the concurrence and the entanglement of formation. General monogamy inequalities given by the αth power of concurrence and entanglement of formation are presented for N-qubit states. The monogamy relation for entanglement of assistance is also established. Based on these general monogamy relations, the residual entanglement of concurrence and entanglement of formation are studied. Some relations among the residual entanglement, entanglement of assistance, and three tangle are also presented.

  15. The Measurement-Disturbance Relation and the Disturbance Trade-off Relation in Terms of Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chang-shui

    2016-09-01

    We employ quantum relative entropy to establish the relation between the measurement uncertainty and its disturbance on a state in the presence (and absence) of quantum memory. For two incompatible observables, we present the measurement-disturbance relation and the disturbance trade-off relation. We find that without quantum memory the disturbance induced by the measurement is never less than the measurement uncertainty and with quantum memory they depend on the conditional entropy of the measured state. We also generalize these relations to the case with multiple measurements. These relations are demonstrated by two examples.

  16. The Measurement-Disturbance Relation and the Disturbance Trade-off Relation in Terms of Relative Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chang-shui

    2016-04-01

    We employ quantum relative entropy to establish the relation between the measurement uncertainty and its disturbance on a state in the presence (and absence) of quantum memory. For two incompatible observables, we present the measurement-disturbance relation and the disturbance trade-off relation. We find that without quantum memory the disturbance induced by the measurement is never less than the measurement uncertainty and with quantum memory they depend on the conditional entropy of the measured state. We also generalize these relations to the case with multiple measurements. These relations are demonstrated by two examples.

  17. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed. PMID:27574515

  18. Biomedical Relation Extraction: From Binary to Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical relation extraction aims to uncover high-quality relations from life science literature with high accuracy and efficiency. Early biomedical relation extraction tasks focused on capturing binary relations, such as protein-protein interactions, which are crucial for virtually every process in a living cell. Information about these interactions provides the foundations for new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, more interests have been shifted to the extraction of complex relations such as biomolecular events. While complex relations go beyond binary relations and involve more than two arguments, they might also take another relation as an argument. In the paper, we conduct a thorough survey on the research in biomedical relation extraction. We first present a general framework for biomedical relation extraction and then discuss the approaches proposed for binary and complex relation extraction with focus on the latter since it is a much more difficult task compared to binary relation extraction. Finally, we discuss challenges that we are facing with complex relation extraction and outline possible solutions and future directions. PMID:25214883

  19. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related Lymphoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  20. Cycloid kinematics of relative plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, V.S.

    1987-11-01

    The trajectory of a point on one plate as observed from another plate is generally a complex curve and not a small circle around a single axis of relative motion, as is commonly assumed. The shape of the relative-motion path is given the general name spherical cycloid because of its morphological similarity to cycloid planetary trajectories described by early astronomers. The cycloid relative-motion model predicts that the following phenomena occur during finite displacements: (1) the relative velocity and the curvature of the trajectory of a point on one plate relative to another plate varies systematically; (2) plates wobble relative to one another; and (3) the angle of convergence and/or divergence varies systematically along the length of any given transform fault. The small-circle relative-motion model, whereby transform faults have been considered lines of pure slip along which crust is conserved, is not generally valid for finite relative displacements.

  1. The Relative Clause in Three Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert P.

    1970-01-01

    Presents a transformationally oriented analysis of the relative clause in English, Hindi, and Baghdad Arabic and points out differences in emphasis which must be observed when teaching the English restrictive relative clause to Hindi and Baghdad Arabic speakers. (FB)

  2. Visual Disturbances: Related to Migraine or Not?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Not? Print Email Visual Disturbances: Related to Migraine or Not? ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our ... e-mail address below. Visual Disturbances: Related to Migraine or Not? By: Deborah I. Friedman, MD, MPH ...

  3. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  4. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the level of a ...

  5. Introduction to Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Timothy H.

    1989-01-01

    Defines Law-Related Education and describes its goals: citizenship and ethics education, delinquency prevention, teaching survival, and critical thinking skills. Justifies Law-Related Education's place in the social studies curriculum. (CH)

  6. Maneuver Design Using Relative Orbital Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, David A.; Lovell, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    Relative orbital elements provide a geometric interpretation of the motion of a deputy spacecraft about a chief spacecraft. The formulation yields an intuitive understanding of how the relative motion evolves with time, and by incorporating velocity changes in the local-vertical, local-horizontal component directions, the change in relative motion due to impulsive maneuvers can be evaluated. This paper utilizes a relative orbital element formulation that characterizes relative motion where the chief spacecraft is assumed to be in a circular orbit. Expressions are developed for changes to the relative orbital elements as a function of the impulsive maneuver components in each coordinate direction. A general maneuver strategy is developed for targeting a set of relative orbital elements, and this strategy is applied to scenarios that are relevant for close proximity operations, including establishing a stationary relative orbit, natural motion circumnavigation, and station-keeping in a leading or trailing orbit.

  7. Pixels, Imagers and Related Fabrication Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Pixels, imagers and related fabrication methods are described. The described methods result in cross-talk reduction in imagers and related devices by generating depletion regions. The devices can also be used with electronic circuits for imaging applications.

  8. How I Created the Theory of Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.

    1982-01-01

    This translation of a lecture given in Kyoto (Japan) on 14 December l922 sheds light on Einstein's path to the theory of relativity and offers insights into many other aspects of his work on relativity. (Author/JN)

  9. Public Relations Strategies for Scholastic Publication Staffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance to scholastic publications staffs of four public relations strategies: meticulous research, systematic planning, strengthening communication efforts, and evaluation. Notes internal and external factors crucial to good public relations. Lists activities to consider. (SR)

  10. Family Factors Related to Adolescent Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardeck, Jean A.; Pardeck, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes role that the family plays in the development of adolescent autonomy. Three family factors are analyzed in relation to the development of adolescent autonomy: parenting styles, family interaction, and transitions related to the family life cycle. (Author/NB)

  11. Consistency relations for non-Gaussianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Yi

    2008-09-01

    We investigate consistency relations for non-Gaussianity. We provide a model-independent dynamical proof for the consistency relation for three-point correlation functions from the Hamiltonian and field redefinition. This relation can be applied to single-field inflation, multi-field inflation and the curvaton scenario. This relation can also be generalized to n-point correlation functions up to arbitrary order in perturbation theory and with arbitrary number of loops.

  12. Descent relations in cubic superstring field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, I. Y.; Gorbachev, R.; Medvedev, P. B.; Rychkov, D. V.

    2008-01-01

    The descent relations between string field theory (SFT) vertices are characteristic relations of the operator formulation of SFT and they provide self-consistency of this theory. The descent relations langleV2|V1rangle and langleV3|V1rangle in the NS fermionic string field theory in the κ and discrete bases are established. Different regularizations and schemes of calculations are considered and relations between them are discussed.

  13. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  14. School Community Relations and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, John E., Jr.

    This research examined the relationship between effective school-community relations and student achievement. The purpose of the study was to determine how the five variables of access, communication, involvement, participation, and resolution interact with a measure of effective school-community relations, how the five variables related to…

  15. Future Directions in Public Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalupa, Frank B.; Allen, T. Harrell

    1982-01-01

    Survey of public relations practitioners and educators shows strong agreement for (1) changes and improvements in public relations education; (2) more business courses and greater emphasis on social science research; and (3) separate degree programs, not public relations majors within a journalism degree. For journal availability, see CS 705 902.…

  16. Acquisition Order of Coherence Relations in Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirgunes, Sercan

    2015-01-01

    Coherence as one of the criteria for textuality is the main element of a well-produced text. In the literature, there are many studies on the classification of coherence relations. Although there are different classifications on coherence relations, similar findings are reported regarding the acquisition order of coherence relations in different…

  17. 15 CFR 766.23 - Related persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Related persons. 766.23 Section 766.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS § 766.23 Related persons....

  18. Public Relations Writing Methods by Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Ron

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes public relations writing as an activity which is uniquely related to organizational goals and objectives. Provides a basis for theory by linking rhetorical theory and communication management and describes a method for framing public relations writing objectives. Notes that objective statements are useful because, among other things, they…

  19. 77 FR 51824 - Environmental and Related Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... COMMISSION Environmental and Related Services AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION.... 332-533, Environmental and Related Services. DATES: October 4, 2012: Deadline for filing requests to... services, and a second on renewable energy and related services, and deliver the reports in 8 and 11...

  20. Relational Knowledge in Higher Cognitive Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.

    Explicit representation of relations plays some role in virtually all higher cognitive processes, but relational knowledge has seldom been investigated systematically. This paper considers how relational knowledge is involved in some tasks that have been important to cognitive development, including transitivity, the balance scale, classification…

  1. Semantic Indeterminacy in Object Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gennari, Silvia P.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined whether semantic indeterminacy plays a role in comprehension of complex structures such as object relative clauses. Study 1 used a gated sentence completion task to assess which alternative interpretations are dominant as the relative clause unfolds; Study 2 compared reading times in object relative clauses containing…

  2. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  3. Organizations, Environments, and Models of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.

    Noting that little theory has been developed to explain how and why organizations choose to manage public relations, this paper argues that theorists cannot improve the practice of public relations until they can explain what public relations is and what it contributes to the functions of an organization. The paper addresses that issue by…

  4. Local Influences on International Relations in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Ilona

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the possible contributions of a socialist country, using Hungary as an example, to give a fresh perspective on international relations. Examines relations between the state (central government) and the local community. Concludes that the paradigm of international relations can be realized only on more democratic and decentralized…

  5. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related ... About Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd ...

  6. Public Relations Bibliography: Tenth Edition, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Includes 1800 citations relevant to the practice and professional development of public relations, in the following categories: public relations, communication, research, media relations, publicity, advertising, health and welfare, lobbying, and activism, etc. (Available from Communication Research Associates, 7100 Baltimore Blvd., Suite 500,…

  7. Factors Associated with Evaluating Public Relations Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    More than 150 public relations practitioners responded to a survey designed to identify and clarify factors associated with evaluative research in public relations. Responses indicated that (1) no more than half the practitioners formally evaluate their public relations activities on a regular basis; (2) the majority of evaluation is done…

  8. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin-Lam, Toh

    2004-01-01

    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  9. Measuring Moral Values in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Donald K.

    A study was conducted to examine the ethical and moral values of public relations personnel. Subjects were 105 American public relations practitioners, 104 Canadian practitioners, and 215 public relations students. Subjects completed an instrument based on P. Crissman's scale of moral value judgments, which contained 50 items scored on a…

  10. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  11. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical…

  12. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  13. Assessing the Concreteness of Relational Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Jonathan R.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that people's ability to transfer abstract relational knowledge across situations can be heavily influenced by the concrete objects that fill relational roles. This article provides evidence that the concreteness of the relations themselves also affects performance. In 3 experiments, participants viewed simple relational…

  14. Automating Relational Database Design for Microcomputer Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Hao-Che

    1991-01-01

    Discusses issues involved in automating the relational database design process for microcomputer users and presents a prototype of a microcomputer-based system (RA, Relation Assistant) that is based on expert systems technology and helps avoid database maintenance problems. Relational database design is explained and the importance of easy input…

  15. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  16. A General Framework for Relative Impact Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the assessment and comparison of scientific journals, bibliometrics, and types of impact factors focuses on a general framework for the relative comparison of journal impact. Highlights include the relative impact of a journal within a set of journals, or meta-journal; and mathematical explorations of relative indicators. (Author/LRW)

  17. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  18. Personality-Cognition Relations across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Although an increasing number of studies have investigated relations between dimensions of personality and level of cognitive functioning, the research results have been somewhat inconsistent. Furthermore, relatively little is known about whether the personality-cognition relations vary as a function of age in adulthood. The current project…

  19. Related Services. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Related services" means transportation and any other developmental, corrective or other supportive services that a child needs to benefit from special education. Some children need related services in order to meet the goals in their Individualized Education Program (IEP). This paper presents information about related services.

  20. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  1. Weighting Relations Using Web Search Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Mizuki; Matsuo, Yutaka

    Measuring the weight of the relation between a pair of entities is necessary to use social networks for various purposes. Intuitively, a pair of entities has a stronger relation than another. It should therefore be weighted higher. We propose a method, using a Web search engine, to compute the weight of the relation existing between a pair of entities. Our method receives a pair of entities and various relations that exist between entities as input. It then outputs the weighted value for the pair of entities. The method explores how search engine results can be used as evidence for how strongly the two entities pertain to the relation.

  2. On Clifford Space Relativity, Black Hole Entropy, Rainbow Metrics, Generalized Dispersion and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    An analysis of some of the applications of Clifford space relativity to the physics behind the modified black hole entropy-area relations, rainbow metrics, generalized dispersion and minimal length stringy uncertainty relations is presented.

  3. On Clifford Space Relativity, Black Hole Entropy, Rainbow Metrics, Generalized Dispersion and Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    An analysis of some of the applications of Clifford space relativity to the physics behind the modified black hole entropy-area relations, rainbow metrics, generalized dispersion and minimal length stringy uncertainty relations is presented.

  4. On the evolution of cluster scaling relations

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-12-20

    Understanding the evolution of scaling relations between the observable properties of clusters and their total mass is key to realizing their potential as cosmological probes. In this study, we investigate whether the evolution of cluster scaling relations is affected by the spurious evolution of mass caused by the evolving reference density with respect to which halo masses are defined (pseudo-evolution). We use the relation between mass, M, and velocity dispersion, σ, as a test case, and show that the deviation from the M-σ relation of cluster-sized halos caused by pseudo-evolution is smaller than 10% for a wide range of mass definitions. The reason for this small impact is a tight relation between the velocity dispersion and mass profiles, σ(relation is generically expected for a variety of density profiles, as long as halos are in approximate Jeans equilibrium. Thus, as the outer 'virial' radius used to define the halo mass, R, increases due to pseudo-evolution, halos approximately preserve their M-σ relation. This result highlights the fact that tight scaling relations are the result of tight equilibrium relations between radial profiles of physical quantities. We find exceptions at very small and very large radii, where the profiles deviate from the relations they exhibit at intermediate radii. We discuss the implications of these results for other cluster scaling relations and argue that pseudo-evolution should have a small effect on most scaling relations, except for those that involve the stellar masses of galaxies. In particular, we show that the relation between stellar-mass fraction and total mass is affected by pseudo-evolution and is largely shaped by it for halo masses ≲ 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}.

  5. Classifying Multiple Imbalanced Attributes in Relational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Amal S.; Venkatesh, Svetha; West, Geoff

    Real-world data are often stored as relational database systems with different numbers of significant attributes. Unfortunately, most classification techniques are proposed for learning from balanced non-relational data and mainly for classifying one single attribute. In this paper, we propose an approach for learning from relational data with the specific goal of classifying multiple imbalanced attributes. In our approach, we extend a relational modelling technique (PRMs-IM) designed for imbalanced relational learning to deal with multiple imbalanced attributes classification. We address the problem of classifying multiple imbalanced attributes by enriching the PRMs-IM with the "Bagging" classification ensemble. We evaluate our approach on real-world imbalanced student relational data and demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting student performance.

  6. Relativistic virial relation for cosmological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadinezhad, Reza; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the relativistic Boltzmann equation for a system of particles defined by a distribution function, we have derived the virial relation for a spherical structure within an expanding background in the context of general relativity. This generalized form of the virial relation is then applied to the static case of a spherically symmetric structure to see the difference in the simplest case to the Newtonian relation. A relativistic mass-temperature relation for this simple case is also derived which can be applied to compact objects in astrophysics. Our general virial relation is then applied to the nonstatic case of a structure within an expanding universe where an extra term, usually missed in studies of structures in the presence of the dark energy, appears.

  7. Relative entropies in conformal field theory.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Nima

    2014-08-01

    Relative entropy is a measure of distinguishability for quantum states, and it plays a central role in quantum information theory. The family of Renyi entropies generalizes to Renyi relative entropies that include, as special cases, most entropy measures used in quantum information theory. We construct a Euclidean path-integral approach to Renyi relative entropies in conformal field theory, then compute the fidelity and the relative entropy of states in one spatial dimension at zero and finite temperature using a replica trick. In contrast to the entanglement entropy, the relative entropy is free of ultraviolet divergences, and is obtained as a limit of certain correlation functions. The relative entropy of two states provides an upper bound on their trace distance. PMID:25126908

  8. Semantic indeterminacy in object relative clauses

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, Silvia P.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examined whether semantic indeterminacy plays a role in comprehension of complex structures such as object relative clauses. Study 1 used a gated sentence completion task to assess which alternative interpretations are dominant as the relative clause unfolds; Study 2 compared reading times in object relative clauses containing different animacy configurations to unambiguous passive controls; and Study 3 related completion data and reading data. The results showed that comprehension difficulty was modulated by animacy configuration and voice (active vs. passive). These differences were well correlated with the availability of alternative interpretations as the relative clause unfolds, as revealed by the completion data. In contrast to approaches arguing that comprehension difficulty stems from syntactic complexity, these results suggest that semantic indeterminacy is a major source of comprehension difficulty in object relative clauses. Results are consistent with constraint-based approaches to ambiguity resolution and bring new insights into previously identified sources of difficulty. PMID:19724662

  9. Similarity issues of confluence of fuzzy relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, Tomas; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-04-01

    We study similarity issues of confluence and related properties of fuzzy relations. The ordinary notions of divergence, convergence, convertibility, and confluence are essential properties of relations which appear in abstract rewriting systems. In a graded setting, we can introduce analogous notions related to the idea of approximate rewriting. This paper is a continuation of our previous paper (Belohlavek et al. 2010), where we have introduced such notions using residuated structures of truth degrees, leaving the ordinary notions a particular case when the underlying structure of truth degrees is the two-valued Boolean algebra. In this paper, we focus on similarity issues of confluence and present formulas which provide approximations of degrees of confluence and related properties based on similarity of the original fuzzy relations.

  10. The endotopism semigroups of an equivalence relation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuchok, Yu V; Toichkina, E A

    2014-05-31

    In this work we investigate six types of endotopism semigroups for a given equivalence relation. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of all such endotopisms are presented. Conditions for the regularity and coregularity of each of the endotopism semigroups of a given type are established. The notion of the endotype of a binary relation with respect to its endotopisms is introduced and the endotype of an arbitrary equivalence relation is calculated. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  11. General Relativity Theory: Recognition through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Zhuk, A. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E. V.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    2015-10-01

    The book provides an overview of the current state of the General Relativity Theory on the eve of its centennial. The authors describe briefly the basis of this theory, systematize experimental verifications and outline the main areas of its applications in astrophysics, cosmology and astrometry in the light of the last decade. For researchers and students specializing in the Relativity Theory as well as for anyone interested in Relativity Theory, relativistic astrophysics and cosmology.

  12. Relative Humidity Measurement Assurance Program Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerezo, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    During the summer of 1992, the National Conference of Standards Laboratories sponsored a relative humidity measurement assurance program (RHMAP) whose purpose was to enable each participating center to assess the quality of relative humidity calibrations being performed by their respective standards laboratories. This paper presents the data which was submitted by the participants during the first round of the program and shows the multi-laboratory comparisons of the 20%, 50%, and 80% relative humidity meaurements performed.

  13. Deformed symmetries from quantum relational observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girelli, Florian; Poulin, David

    2007-05-01

    Deformed Special Relativity (DSR) is a candidate phenomenological theory to describe the Quantum Gravitational (QG) semi-classical regime. A possible interpretation of DSR can be derived from the notion of deformed reference frame. Observables in (quantum) General Relativity can be constructed from (quantum) reference frame - a physical observable is then a relation between a system of interest and the reference frame. We present a toy model and study an example of such quantum relational observables. We show how the intrinsic quantum nature of the reference frame naturally leads to a deformation of the symmetries, comforting DSR to be a good candidate to describe the QG semi-classical regime.

  14. The General Fishbone Like Dispersion Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-12-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Motivation and outline * Fundamental equations * The collisionless gyrokinetic equation * Vorticity equation * Quasi-neutrality condition * Perpendicular Ampère's law * Studying collective modes in burning plasmas * Ideal plasma equilibrium in the low-β limit * Approximations for the energetic population * Characteristic frequencies of particle motions * Alfvén wave frequency and wavelength orderings * Applications of the general theoretical framework * The general fishbone like dispersion relation * Properties of the fishbone like dispersion relation * Derivation of the fishbone like dispersion relation * Special cases of the fishbone like dispersion relation * Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE) * Alfvén Cascades * Summary and discussions * Acknowledgments * References

  15. Two basic Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Angelow, Andrey

    2011-04-07

    In the present article, we discuss two types of uncertainty relations in Quantum Mechanics-multiplicative and additive inequalities for two canonical observables. The multiplicative uncertainty relation was discovered by Heisenberg. Few years later (1930) Erwin Schroedinger has generalized and made it more precise than the original. The additive uncertainty relation is based on the three independent statistical moments in Quantum Mechanics-Cov(q,p), Var(q) and Var(p). We discuss the existing symmetry of both types of relations and applicability of the additive form for the estimation of the total error.

  16. Two basic Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelow, Andrey

    2011-04-01

    In the present article, we discuss two types of uncertainty relations in Quantum Mechanics-multiplicative and additive inequalities for two canonical observables. The multiplicative uncertainty relation was discovered by Heisenberg. Few years later (1930) Erwin Schrödinger has generalized and made it more precise than the original. The additive uncertainty relation is based on the three independent statistical moments in Quantum Mechanics-Cov(q,p), Var(q) and Var(p). We discuss the existing symmetry of both types of relations and applicability of the additive form for the estimation of the total error.

  17. Spin-current noise from fluctuation relations

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Jong Soo; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa

    2013-12-04

    We present fluctuation relations that connect spin-polarized current and noise in mesoscopic conductors. In linear response, these relations are equivalent to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates equilibrium current-current correlations to the linear conductance. More interestingly, in the weakly nonlinear regime of transport, these relations establish a connection between the leading-order rectification spin conductance, the spin noise susceptibility and the third cumulant of spin current fluctuations at equilibrium. Our results are valid even for systems in the presence of magnetic fields and coupled to ferromagnetic electrodes.

  18. Rapid estimates of relative water content.

    PubMed

    Smart, R E

    1974-02-01

    Relative water content may be accurately estimated using the ratio of tissue fresh weight to tissue turgid weight, termed here relative tissue weight. That relative water content and relative tissue weight are linearly related is demonstrated algebraically. The mean value of r(2) for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) leaf tissue over eight separate sampling occasions was 0.993. Similarly high values were obtained for maize (Zea mays cv. Cornell M-3) (0.998) and apple (Malus sylvestris cv. Northern Spy) (0.997) using a range of leaf ages. The proposal by Downey and Miller (1971. Rapid measurements of relative turgidity in maize (Zea mays L.). New Phytol. 70: 555-560) that relative water content in maize may be estimated from water uptake was also investigated for grapevine leaves; this was found to be a less reliable estimate than that obtained with relative tissue weight. With either method, there is a need for calibration, although this could be achieved for relative tissue weight at least with only a few subsamples. PMID:16658686

  19. Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.

    2015-09-01

    A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.

  20. Data dictionary model for relational databases

    SciTech Connect

    Seesing, P.R.

    1983-10-01

    Data Dictionary is an important tool in information engineering, especially when the data is maintained in relational structures. Using the formal concepts from which relational DBMS technology is derived, it is possible to construct a meta-informational dictionary to model relational database. This general model can be used to evaluate the design of existing and planned databases, as well as modeling business or scientific data. Such a dictionary model is described and its potential uses and benefits are explored with emphasis on integrity constraints. Issues related to the balancing of such formal conceptualization against real-world operations are presented.

  1. Overt and Relational Aggression and Perceived Popularity: Developmental Differences in Concurrent and Prospective Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; wenson, Lance P.; Waller, Erika M.

    2004-01-01

    Relations of overt and relational aggression with perceived popularity among children and early adolescents were examined in 2 studies (Ns = 607 and 1,049). Among older youths, positive concurrent relations found between overt aggression and perceived popularity became nonsignificant when relational aggression was controlled, whereas positive…

  2. Spatial variation in gender-biased parasitism: host-related, parasite-related and environment-related effects.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Matthee, Sonja

    2010-09-01

    The gender-biased pattern of parasite infestation has been shown to be a complicated phenomenon that cannot be explained by a single mechanism but rather involves several different mechanisms. We asked what are the factors that affect the manifestation and extent of gender-biased parasitism and studied the relationship between parasite-related (mean abundance, mean species richness and total species richness of all parasites), host-related (rodent density and proportion of reproductive males and females both separately and together) and environment-related (mean daily maximal and minimal temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity) factors and the magnitude of gender-biased infestation of a South African rodent Rhabdomys pumilio by ixodid ticks, gamasid mites, lice and fleas. We found that spatial variation in gender differences in parasite infestation was affected by parasite-, host- and environment-related factors, although the set of factors affecting gender differences in infestation differed among higher taxa of ectoparasites. Gender differences in infestation by fleas and lice were affected mainly by parasite-related factors, whereas gender differences in infestation by ticks and, in part, by mites were affected mainly by host-related and environmental factors. In addition, spatial variation in most measures of gender difference in mite infestation remained unexplained. PMID:20550754

  3. Relational Control Patterns in Families of Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Anne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined patterning of relational control in families of schizophrenic patients, and relationship between control in the family and the course of the illness. Transcripts of conversations among 17 schizophrenic outpatients and their families were coded into Relational Control Coding System. Found rigid, one-up messages from family members to…

  4. Relative deprivation and mortality in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Salti, Nisreen

    2010-03-01

    This paper tests the relative income hypothesis by considering the relationship between mortality, income and relative deprivation in South Africa using individual-level data on income and five measures of relative deprivation each with a different reference group. We find that income tends to be protective of, and relative deprivation detrimental to health, but the latter often gives a better account of mortality than does income alone. For some population groups the fit is improved in specifications which include both income and relative deprivation. Overall, there seems to be solid evidence in support of the relative income hypothesis, particularly for the more economically disadvantaged population groups. Relative deprivation is especially significant when age is the reference group, suggesting that the comparison of socio-economic standing that has an impact on health tends to happen within cohorts. The results are robust to splitting the sample into urban/rural subsamples and to looking at the incidence of illness as the health outcome rather than mortality. While little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effect of relative deprivation on health and mortality, the consistent evidence in favor of age as a reference group, particularly in a context like South Africa's suggests that intra-cohort comparisons should be an avenue for more in depth investigation. PMID:20045239

  5. Bibliography of Sources Relating to Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of State, Lansing.

    The publication of this bibliography is part of the ongoing effort of the Michigan History Division to make historical resources within the state more readily available. This bibliography cites various unpublished source materials relating to women which are available in a number of archives in Michigan. Representative collections relating to all…

  6. A Relational Frame Theory Account of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardaga, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The current paper proposes a Relational Frame Theory (RFT, Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001a) conceptualization of empathy and perspective taking that follows previous literature outlining a relationship between those phenomena and general functioning. Deictic framing, a relational operant investigated by RFT researchers, constitutes the…

  7. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision loss among the elderly is an important health problem. Approximately one person in three has some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65 [1]. Age-related cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are the major diseases resulting in visu...

  8. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  9. Biochar can positively influence soil moisture relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One major issue related to climate change is the potential to improve soil water relations in light of changes in future precipitation patterns or reductions in water availability in drier portions of the world (such as the western US). It appears that biochar may play a positive role, but that rol...

  10. Work-Related Child Care in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Margie I.

    This study provides information on work-related child care programs and services in Canada today. In an overview of the subject, Chapter 1 discusses the criteria used to select programs for presentation in the study; defines work-related child care; and examines the increasing number of women in the workplace and the adaptation of the workplace to…

  11. Transformative Learning Approaches for Public Relations Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motion, Judy; Burgess, Lois

    2014-01-01

    Public relations educators are frequently challenged by students' flawed perceptions of public relations. Two contrasting case studies are presented in this paper to illustrate how socially-oriented paradigms may be applied to a real-client project to deliver a transformative learning experience. A discourse-analytic approach is applied…

  12. Nonlinear SUSY General Relativity Theory and Significances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Kazunari; Tsuda, Motomu

    2012-02-01

    We show some interesting consequences of the nonliear supersymmetric general relativity theory(NLSUSYGR) on particle physics, cosmology and their relations. They may geiv new insights into the SUSY breaking mechanism, dark energy, dark matter and the low enegy superpartner particles which are compatible with the recent LHC data.

  13. Gender-Related Differences in Neonatal Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Orvos, Hajnalka; Pal, Attila

    2007-01-01

    Socio-emotional behaviour is in part sex-related in humans, although the contribution of the biological and socio-cultural factors is not yet known. This study explores sex-related differences during the earliest communicative exchange, the neonatal imitation in 43 newborn infants (3-96 hours old) using an index finger extension imitative gesture.…

  14. The Computerized Human Relations Program - Humrelat -

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This is the report of a study accomplished in two separate parts: (1) Part I dealt with evaluation of an existing course of instruction in human relations at The Moraine Park Technical Institute, and (2) Part II dealt with the development of a proposed course of instruction in human relations for the technical institute. (Author)

  15. Spatial relations for tactical robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skubic, Majorie A.; Chronis, George; Matsakis, Pascal; Keller, James M.

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of our on-going work using spatial relations for mobile robot navigation. Using the histogram of forces, we show how linguistic expressions can be generated to describe a qualitative view of the robot with respect to its environment. The linguistic expressions provide a symbolic link between the robot and a human user, thus facilitating two-way, human-like communication. In this paper, we present two ways in which spatial relations can be used for robot navigation. First, egocentric spatial relations provide a robot-centered view of the environment (e.g., there is an object on the left). Navigation can be described in terms of spatial relations (e.g., move forward while there is an object on the left, then turn right), such that a complete navigation task is generated as a sequence of navigation states with corresponding behaviors. Second, spatial relations can be used to analyze maps and facilitate their use in communicating navigation tasks. For example, the user can draw an approximate map on a PDA and then draw the desired robot trajectory also on the PDA, relative to the map. Spatial relations can then be used to convert the relative trajectory to a corresponding navigation behavior sequence. Examples are included using a comparable scene from both a robot environment and a PDA-sketched trajectory showing the corresponding generated linguistic spatial expressions.

  16. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  17. 42 CFR 447.255 - Related information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Related information. 447.255 Section 447.255 Public... Facility Services Payment Rates § 447.255 Related information. The Medicaid agency must submit, with the assurances described in § 447.253(a), the following information: (a) The amount of the estimated...

  18. 42 CFR 447.255 - Related information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Related information. 447.255 Section 447.255 Public... Facility Services Payment Rates § 447.255 Related information. The Medicaid agency must submit, with the assurances described in § 447.253(a), the following information: (a) The amount of the estimated...

  19. An Introduction to the Onsager Reciprocal Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Charles W.; Newman, John

    2007-01-01

    The Onsager reciprocal relations are essential to multicomponent transport theory. A discussion of the principles that should be used to derive flux laws for coupled diffusion is presented here. Fluctuation theory is employed to determine the reciprocal relation for transport coefficients that characterize coupled mass and heat transfer in binary…

  20. Toward More Authentic Interpersonal Relations, Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorne, Colin

    Using a conceptual framework which it was believed would facilitate the establisment of authentic interpersonal relations between blacks and whites, a course entitled "The Psychology of Interracial Relations" offered an opportunity to allow those involved with more than the black-white problem a way to look at themselves and deal with more…

  1. The Institutional Relations Review, December 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institutional Relations Review, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education's (ACPE) Institutional Relations Review seeks to provide the postsecondary schools in Alaska with information that pertains to the daily involvement with the Alaska Student Loan Programs, Institutional Authorization, Compliance Audit functions and other related subjects. This first edition also…

  2. Toward a Comprehensive History of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Carolyn M.

    Standard histories of public relations privilege the field's association with business enterprise, and traditionally place the origins of the field in the press agentry of the 19th century and in the rise of corporate concern with public opinion in the first decade of the 20th century. However, the roots of public relations reach both farther and…

  3. Public Relations Gold Mine, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusch, Dee, Ed.

    Seventeen articles present an overview of ideas dealing with many facets of school public relations. Topics singled out for coverage include (1) the importance of school public relations programs now and in the future: (2) potential contributions of citizens advisory committees; (3) formation and use of small-scale public opinion polls; (4) key…

  4. Organizational Constraints on Corporate Public Relations Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Catalogs various internal constraints under which many public relations practitioners work, including constraints on (1) access to management; (2) information collection; (3) dissemination of timely, accurate information; and (4) the public relations mission. Reports that most practitioners see organizational constraints as more of a problem for…

  5. The Public Relations Body of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert

    All evidence from all sources--the literature, survey of practitioners and educators, selected educational programs, and the views of abstractors of data for computerized information retrieval--points to the body of public relations knowledge as consisting of all knowledge as it applies to resolving public relations problems and goals. What…

  6. Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamanna, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses background and nature of alcohol-related birth defects. Describes a continuum of impairment to offspring of drinking mothers that is dose-related and produces serious behavioral/learning deficits. The continuum includes young people of normal intelligence who perform below expected levels and find school adjustment difficult. Offers…

  7. Relational Database Design in Information Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on database management system (dbms) applications designed by library school students for university community at University of Iowa. Three dbms design issues are examined: synthesis of relations, analysis of relations (normalization procedure), and data dictionary usage. Database planning prior to automation using data dictionary approach…

  8. In Pursuit of General Behavioral Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles

    1996-01-01

    Discusses behavioral momentum and the general behavioral relation between the persistence of behavior and the rate of reinforcement obtained in a given situation. Strategies for establishing the generality of behavioral relations are reviewed, followed by a brief summary of evidence for the generality of behavioral momentum. (Author/CR)

  9. Do Young Children Understand Relative Value Comparisons?

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children’s choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children’s pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously. PMID:25875949

  10. How to Calculate an Employee Relations Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, William B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes using an employee relations index (ERI) to measure factors affecting employee relations and job performance ability. Examines five of ten major ERI factors: attenance, turnover, safety, grievances/complaints, and motor vehicle accidents. Discusses weighing the factors and interpreting the outcome. (CSS)

  11. Student Agency Experience in Public Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Becky A.; Carrick, Tonya

    This study examined the existence and use of student-operated public relations/advertising agencies which operate outside the classroom as well as in conjunction with a class. Journalism programs in the United States which were listed as having a public relations sequence, major, emphasis, or concentration were surveyed; of these 110 responded for…

  12. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

  13. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  14. Public Relations in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Richard E.

    Approximately 70,000 to 100,000 people work in public relations today in the United States. This document discusses the field of public relations at present and the view for 1980 as seen by practitioners and educators. The thesis is advanced that practitioners, educators, and students must raise the field to greater professional heights in order…

  15. Public Relations Department Helps Promote Bookstore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavelle, Alexander

    1980-01-01

    Because of real estate tax problems, most college stores are unable to advertise off campus, but at the University of Rochester the public relations department periodically prepares a news release that centers around the bookstore. Another public relations tool, a pamphlet with rules, procedures, and operational information, is reprinted. (MLW)

  16. Components of a Model Public Relations Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, William A.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need to organize and maintain public relations through adequate internal and external communication. Cites use of orientations, manuals, newsletters, closed-circuit TV and films, and special group meetings for internal communication. Press relations, publications, special events and speakers, and fund raising activities are described…

  17. Relation between Democratic Leadership and Organizational Cynicism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ali Riza; Derin, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to analyze the relation between school principals' leadership styles and teachers' perception of organizational cynicism. The study group consists of 268 participants teaching at high schools in the Balikesir district of Turkey during 2014-2015 academic year. In the study, which used relational survey model, data was collected…

  18. Teaching General Relativity to the Layperson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egdall, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a lay course on general relativity (GR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at Florida International University. It is presented in six hour-and-a-half weekly sessions. Other courses offered by the author include special relativity (which precedes the course described here), quantum theory, and cosmology. Students…

  19. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six…

  20. Teachers' Beliefs about Pedagogy and Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Vicki E.; Roehl, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs about pedagogical issues as well as related educational and professional issues. Six hundred K-12 teachers in three Midwestern states received surveys and 60% returned them. Results of the survey indicated that teachers were relatively unified in their beliefs, and few differences emerged around demographic…