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Sample records for bhupendra singh vivek

  1. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  2. Plaque Production by Arboviruses in Singh's Aedes albopictus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yunker, C. E.; Cory, J.

    1975-01-01

    We report plaquing tests of 124 virus strains, mostly arboviruses of 21 serological groups, in Singh's line of Aedes albopictus cells. Thirty of these plaqued; all were arboviruses of six groups and were known or presumed to be mosquito borne. Failing to plaque were 86 strains of arboviruses, mostly tick borne, two strains of insect pathogens, and six animal viruses not classified as arboviruses. Among mosquito-borne agents, plaquing ability appeared related to serological classification. California group and most A-group viruses failed to plaque, but nearly all members of B and Bunyamwera groups readily plaqued. Within serological group B, 14 of 16 mosquito-borne agents plaqued, but none of 13 tick-borne or vector-unassociated viruses did so. Some implications of these results for recognition and classification of arboviruses are discussed. Images PMID:234160

  3. Neurovirology: neurotropic viruses and the brain. Interview with Sunit K Singh by Hannah Branch.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunit K

    2013-08-01

    Sunit K Singh speaks to Hannah Branch, Commissioning Editor Sunit K Singh obtained a Bachelor's degree from GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology (India) followed by his Master's degree from the Central Institute of Fisheries Education (India). Upon the completion of his Master's degree, Singh moved to the University of Wuerzburg (Germany) to complete his PhD degree in the field of Molecular Infection Biology. Subsequently, he undertook his postdoctoral training at Yale University School of Medicine (CT, USA) and at the University of California Davis Medical Center (CA, USA). Singh has also been visiting faculty at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (NY, USA), Department of Pathology and Immunology, University of Geneva (Switzerland) and the Institute of Parasitology (Czech Republic). At present, he is a permanent member of faculty in the Section of Infectious Diseases and Immunobiology Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB; India) and is leading a research group in the area of neurovirology there. Singh has been an author of a number of papers published in peer-reviewed journals, and has been honored with several awards, including the Skinner Memorial Award, Young Scientist Award, Travel Grant Award and the NIH-Fogarty Fellowship. In addition, he is a valued editorial board member of several journals, including Future Microbiology. PMID:23902142

  4. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  5. The Role of Contrast in the Perception of Achromatic Transparency: Comment on Singh and Anderson (2002) and Anderson (2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Marc K.

    2008-01-01

    M. Singh and B. L. Anderson proposed a perceptual theory of achromatic transparency in which the perceived transmittance of a perceived transparent filter is determined by the ratio of the Michelson contrast seen in the region of transparency to that of the background seen directly. Subsequently, B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, and J. Meng proposed that…

  6. Processes of Quantum Associative Memory (QuAM) Through New Maximally Entangled States (Singh-Rajput MES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    Using Singh-Rajput MES as memory states in the evolutionary process of pattern storage and the non-evolutionary process of pattern recall (the two fundamental constituents of QuAM), the suitability and superiority of these MES over Bell's MES have been demonstrated in both these processes. It has been shown that, under the operations of all the possible memorization operators for a two-qubit system, the first two states of Singh-Rajput MES are useful for storing the pattern |11> and the last two of these MES are useful in storing the pattern |10> while Bell's MES are not much suitable as memory states in a valid memorization process. The recall operations have also been conducted by separately choosing Singh-Rajput MES and Bell's MES as memory states for possible various queries and it has been shown that in each case the choices of Singh-Rajput MES as valid memory states are much more suitable than those of Bell's MES.

  7. Processes of Quantum Associative Memory (QuAM) Through New Maximally Entangled States (Singh-Rajput MES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.

    2016-02-01

    Using Singh-Rajput MES as memory states in the evolutionary process of pattern storage and the non-evolutionary process of pattern recall (the two fundamental constituents of QuAM), the suitability and superiority of these MES over Bell's MES have been demonstrated in both these processes. It has been shown that, under the operations of all the possible memorization operators for a two-qubit system, the first two states of Singh-Rajput MES are useful for storing the pattern |11> and the last two of these MES are useful in storing the pattern |10> while Bell's MES are not much suitable as memory states in a valid memorization process. The recall operations have also been conducted by separately choosing Singh-Rajput MES and Bell's MES as memory states for possible various queries and it has been shown that in each case the choices of Singh-Rajput MES as valid memory states are much more suitable than those of Bell's MES.

  8. Applications of Singh-Rajput Mes in Recall Operations of Quantum Associative Memory for a Two- Qubit System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.

    2016-03-01

    Recall operations of quantum associative memory (QuAM) have been conducted separately through evolutionary as well as non-evolutionary processes in terms of unitary and non- unitary operators respectively by separately choosing our recently derived maximally entangled states (Singh-Rajput MES) and Bell's MES as memory states for various queries and it has been shown that in each case the choices of Singh-Rajput MES as valid memory states are much more suitable than those of Bell's MES. it has been demonstrated that in both the types of recall processes the first and the fourth states of Singh-Rajput MES are most suitable choices as memory states for the queries `11' and `00' respectively while none of the Bell's MES is a suitable choice as valid memory state in these recall processes. It has been demonstrated that all the four states of Singh-Rajput MES are suitable choice as valid memory states for the queries `1?', `?1', `?0' and `0?' while none of the Bell's MES is suitable choice as the valid memory state for these queries also.

  9. Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) from carnivores in southern Africa, with validation of the related genera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Lane, Emily P; McRee, Anna E; Foggin, Chris; van Dyk, D Schalk; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2013-09-01

    Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 are described from carnivores from southern Africa. Cylicospirura crocutae Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Crocuta crocuta (Erxleben) in Zimbabwe is distinguished from its congeners by combinations of characters, including the presence of four cephalic and four external labial papillae, while internal labial papillae were not distinct, the presence of groups of small accessory teeth between the six large tricuspid teeth, the fifth and the sixth pairs of the caudal papillae being equidistant from the cloaca, and a large ratio of length of the muscular oesophagus to that of the glandular oesophagus. Cylicospirura pardalis Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) in the Republic of South Africa is characterized by having tricuspid teeth with large, claw-like, abaxial cusps, four cephalic and six internal labial papillae. Based on the number of caudal papillae and the position of the vulva, the subgenera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952 are re-elevated to generic rank. Amended diagnoses are proposed for the genera Cylicospirura, Gastronodus and Skrjabinocercina. Petrowospirura lyncis Matschulsky, 1952 is recognized as valid and, together with P. petrowi Sadykhov, 1957 and P. barusi Arya, 1979, is transferred to Cylicospirura as C. lyncis (Matschulsky, 1952) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., C. petrowi (Sadykhov, 1957) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n. and C. barusi (Arya, 1979) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., respectively. PMID:24261135

  10. Demonstration of a very inexpensive, turbidimetric, real-time, RT-LAMP detection platform using shrimp Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) as a model.

    PubMed

    Arunrut, Narong; Suebsing, Rungkarn; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of pathogens under field laboratory conditions is necessary for effective control of veterinary pathogens. Here we describe a prototype, portable, pathogen detection device developed for single tube, real-time, reverse transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) using Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) as a model. LSNV is an RNA virus and a component cause of growth retardation in black tiger shrimp. We chose its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene as the target for our tests. The basis for detection was measurement of turbidity arising from formation of a white, insoluble magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate byproduct upon amplification of the RdRp target sequence from 100 ng template RNA extracted from shrimp. The measurement device consisted of a heating block to maintain constant temperature in the RT-LAMP reaction for 8 Eppindorf sample tubes, a light-emitting diode (LED) light source providing red light emission at 650 nm wavelength to pass through sample tubes, a light dependent resistance (LDR) photo-detector and a software program to report turbidity events and could potentially be marketed for under US$3000. The device was connected to a computer to display real-time results in a variety of formats. The optimized protocol for LSNV detection consisted of incubation of the sample tubes at 65 °C for 1 h during which turbidity was continuously measured, and quantitative results could be obtained by reaction time measurement. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of conventional nested RT-PCR and there was no cross reaction with other common shrimp viruses. The device was used for quantitative measurement of relative copy numbers of LSNV RdRp in 8 shrimp tissues and they were found to be highest in the gills followed in order by the lymphoid organ and hemolymph (p ≤ 0.05). This platform can be easily adapted for detection of other pathogens under field laboratory settings. PMID:25255231

  11. Comment on 'A reinterpretation of the linear heat flow and heat production relationship for the exponential model of the heat production in the crust' by R.N. Singh & J.G. Negi.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In their recent paper, Singh & Negi, (This journal, 57, 741-744) contend that if thd slope of the empirical linear relation between heat flow and heat production is interpreted as the decay-length of an exponential depth-distribution of sources, a discrepancy rises, whereas if it is interpreted as the depth of a step distribution, it does not. I should like to point out that their discrepancy follows from their arbitrary assumption of one of a range of physical possibilities unconstrained by the observations; with an equally valid alternate assumption (Lachenbruch 1970) the discrepancy disappears. In any case such discrepancies are probably minor compared to physical difficulties that arise from the step model, and to uncertainties introduced by other assumptions in any simple model.-Author

  12. Philosophizing cannot substitute for experimentation: comment on Hoffman, Singh & Prakash

    PubMed Central

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    The perception of 3D shape must be excluded from Hoffman et al., “interface theory” primarily because shape is characterized by its symmetries. When these symmetries are used as a priori constraints, 3D shapes are always recovered from 2D retinal images veridically. These facts make it clear that 3D shape perception is completely different from, as well as more important than, all other perceptions because the veridicality of our perception of 3D shapes (and 3D scenes) accounts for our successful adaptation to the natural environment. PMID:26384989

  13. The age of deep, steep continental subduction in the NW Himalaya: Relating zircon growth to metamorphic history. Comment on: “The onset of India-Asia continental collision: Early, steep subduction required by the timing of UHP metamorphism in the western Himalaya” by Mary L. Leech, S. Singh, A.K. Jain, Simon L. Klemperer and R.M. Manickavasagam, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 234 (2005) 83-97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Patrick J.

    2006-05-01

    Leech et al. [Mary L. Leech, S. Singh, A.K. Jain, Simon L. Klemperer and R.M. Manickavasagam, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 234 (2005) 83-97], present 3 clusters of ages for growth stages in zircon from quartzo-feldspathic gneisses hosting coesite-bearing eclogite from the Tso Morari Complex, NW India. These age clusters, from oldest to youngest, are interpreted to represent the age of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism, a subsequent eclogite facies overprint and a later amphibolite facies retrogression and require subduction of Indian crust to have started earlier than previously accepted. However, no petrographic evidence, such as inclusions in the zircons relating to particular metamorphic events, is presented to substantiate the proposed sequence of metamorphic stages. Previously published data from eclogites of the same area indicate that coesite-eclogite is not the first but at least the second eclogite facies stage. In addition, the newly proposed time interval between coesite-eclogite and the amphibolite facies overprint is longer than previously indicated by diffusion modelling of natural garnet-garnet couples in eclogite. Neither the age of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism nor the timing of initiation of subduction is reliably constrained by the presented data.

  14. Raja Sawai Jai Singh II: An 18th Century Medieval Astronomer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Offers a description of the instrumentation and methods utilized in this attempt at naked eye astronomy one century after the invention of the telescope. Also examines the motives which resulted in the implementation of an antiquated mode of observation. (Author/CP)

  15. New combination bronchodilators for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: current evidence and future perspectives Dave Singh

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Fixed dose combination (FDC) dual bronchodilators that co-administer a long acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) and a long acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) are a new class of inhaled treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This review focuses on the clinical evidence for the benefit of LABA/LAMA FDCs compared with monocomponent treatments, and also compared with active comparators that are widely used for the treatment of COPD, namely tiotropium and salmeterol-fluticasone. Novel FDC dual bronchodilators include QVA149 and umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI). Long term clinical trials show that QVA149 and UMEC/VI are superior to monocomponent therapy in terms of trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), although the FEV1 improvement was limited to approximately 80–90% of the added monocomponent values. This suggests that the effect of combining a LABA and a LAMA is not fully additive. LABA/LAMA FDC were associated with the largest mean changes in symptoms and health status that were above the minimal clinically important difference, in contrast to the monocomponents. Furthermore, these LABA/LAMA FDCs demonstrated superiority over the active comparators tiotropium and salmeterol-fluticasone in terms of trough FEV1 and patient-reported outcomes. LABA/LAMA FDCs offer a simplified means of maximizing bronchodilation for COPD patients, with the improvements in lung function being mirrored by benefits in terms of symptoms and exacerbations. The use of LABA/LAMA FDCs in clinical practice is set to grow and further studies are needed to define their optimal place in treatment guidelines. PMID:25377687

  16. Contribution to our knowledge of the whitefly genus Aleuroclava Singh (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China, including Taiwan and Hong Kong, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Two new whitefly species, Aleuroclava sterculiae sp. nov., collected from Sterculia nobilis (Malvales: Sterculiaceae) of Qingxiu hill park (Guangxi, China), and Aleuroclava rosae sp. nov., collected from Stranvaesia sp. (Rosales: Rosaceae) of Maoer Mountain (Guangxi, China), are described with morphology, line illustrations, photographs and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. In addition, two other whitefly species, Aleuroclava lefroyi (Sundararaj & David) and Aleuroclava manii (David), are reported as new to the fauna of China, and are discussed. An identification key to Aleuroclava species known from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong is provided. The specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Yangzhou University (YZU). PMID:27470767

  17. Surgeon General

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Conversation → Step it Up! Help Make Our Communities Walkable YouTube embedded video: https://www.youtube-nocookie. ... Surgeon General Vivek H. Murthy to make our communities more walkable. Watch the video . See All Videos → ...

  18. Comment on "Atomic structure calculations and identification of EUV and SXR spectral lines in Sr XXX" by A. Goyal, I. Khatri, S. Aggarwal, A.K. Singh, M. Mohan [J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2015;161:157

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.

    2015-11-01

    Recently, Goyal et al. [1] reported energies and lifetimes (τ) for the lowest 113 levels of the 2s22p5, 2s2p6, 2s22p43ℓ, 2s2p53ℓ and 2p63ℓ configurations of F-like Sr XXX. For the calculations they adopted the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) and the flexible atomic code (FAC). Additionally, they also listed radiative rates (A- values), oscillator strengths (f- values) and line strengths (S- values) for four types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1) and magnetic quadrupole (M2), but only from the ground to the higher excited levels. However, there are two clear anomalies in their reported data. Firstly, the f-values listed from FAC in their Tables 3-6 are larger than from MCDF by a factor of two, for all transitions. This is because they have blindly listed the output from FAC without realising that, unlike MCDF, FAC lists ωf where ω is the statistical weight, and happens to be exactly 2 in the present case. Secondly, their lifetime for level 2 (2s22p51/2 o 2P) is incorrect. This is because the dominant contributing transition for this level is 1-2 M1 for which A=3.25×106 s-1, listed (correctly) in their Table 5, and this leads to τ=3.08×10-7 s, and not 1.54×10-7 s, as listed in their Table 1.

  19. Comment on “Structural, dielectric, optical and ferroelectric property of urea succinic acid crystals grown in aqueous solution containing maleic acid” by B.K. Singh et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Solids 71 (2010) 1774

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylczyński, Zbigniew

    2012-07-01

    The volume of elementary cell of the urea succinic acid (M-USA) growing from a solution containing 1 mol% maleic acid is 69% greater than that of urea succinic acid (USA) grown in the usual conditions. M-USA crystallises in the monoclinic system with a centre of symmetry, which excludes the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. The results presented in the paper commented on are artefacts.

  20. Unlocking Shelves: Fostering a Culture of Reading and Inclusion through Open Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukunda, Usha; Vellanki, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    This article features a conversation between Usha Mukunda, who identifies herself as a librarian, and Vivek Vellanki, who is currently pursuing a doctoral degree in education. Mukunda has been successful in challenging the stereotypical image of the librarian as being serious, angry, and detached. Shortly after meeting her, one would likely be…

  1. Education Policy and the Pursuit of Equality: Perspectives from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf; Vellanki, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    1994 is an important year in South African history. It brought about significant socio-political changes in an attempt to undo the unjust practices perpetuated during the apartheid regime. The apartheid government had severely impacted all spheres and institutions of society, including education. In this interview, Vivek Vellanki asks Doctor Yusuf…

  2. Reply to comment by P.J. O'Brien on: “The onset of India-Asia continental collision: Early, steep subduction required by the timing of UHP metamorphism in the western Himalaya” by Mary L. Leech, S. Singh, A.K. Jain, Simon L. Klemperer and R.M. Manickavasagam, Earth Planetary Science Letters 234 (2005) 83-97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leech, Mary L.; Singh, Sandeep; Jain, A. K.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Manickavasagam, R. M.

    2006-05-01

    We thank O'Brien for directing our attention to his recent publication on modeling of diffusion in garnets, including one garnet from the Tso Morari Complex [1], and allowing us to show how our data and existing interpretation are consistent with his model. It seems O'Brien wants the timing of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM) in the Tso Morari Complex to be the same as the well-established 46 Ma UHPM event in Kaghan over 500 km to the northwest (e.g., [2]), and is attempting to reinterpret our U-Pb zircon dating from the Tso Morari Complex to fit his notion. But rather than fight the age data, why not develop a model that fits the data? Guillot et al. [3] describe a warped geometry of the Indian subduction plane that places the Tso Morari Complex and Kaghan at different depths based on their ages of UHPM; this model allows for a 55-54 Ma UHP event in the Tso Morari Complex and a 46 Ma event in Kaghan [4].

  3. Physicochemical characterization of ezetimibe and its impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Katarzyna; Bańkowski, Krzysztof; Sidoryk, Katarzyna; Zagrodzka, Joanna; Łaszcz, Marta; Trzcińska, Kinga; Szyprowska, Anna; Cmoch, Piotr; Maruszak, Wioleta

    2011-04-01

    The physicochemical characterization of major degradation and process-related impurities associated with the synthesis of ezetimibe was performed. The possibility of forming the undesirable ( R, R, S) stereoisomer of ezetimibe has been mentioned in literature (Vinod KK, Suhail A, Bhupendra T, Nitin G US 2010/0010212 A1, Ind-Swift Laboratories Limited WO 2008/096372), but no study of its structure determination has been published yet. This paper discusses the structure elucidation of the ( R, R, S) stereoisomer as well as ezetimibe degradation product on the bases of NMR, IR and MS data. Other potential impurities of ezetimibe are also described. A selective and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method with dual UV detection was developed for the determination of chemical and stereochemical purity of ezetimibe. The characterization of particle size and shape for ezetimibe and its stereoisomer is also described.

  4. The New Leader of the Free World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    On January 20, 2009, Dr. Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India, became the leader of the free world. The free world's attention was focused elsewhere: Senator Barack Obama, who on that day became President Barack Obama, quietly abdicated the role now taken up by Dr. Singh, having run an election campaign premised upon the ever-present but…

  5. Codes, Ciphers, and Cryptography--An Honors Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    At the suggestion of a colleague, I read "The Code Book", [32], by Simon Singh to get a basic introduction to the RSA encryption scheme. Inspired by Singh's book, I designed a Ball State University Honors Colloquium in Mathematics for both majors and non-majors, with material coming from "The Code Book" and many other sources. This course became…

  6. Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013). Bhupendra Kumar Tiwari Department of Physics, A.P.S.University, Rewa(M.P.) Email: - btiwtari70@yahoo.com mobile 09424981974 Abstract- The geospace environment is dominated by disturbances created by the sun, it is observed that coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar flare events are the causal link to solar activity that produces geomagnetic storm (GMS).CMEs are large scale magneto-plasma structures that erupt from the sun and propagate through the interplanetary medium with speeds ranging from only a few km/s to as large as 4000 km/s. When the interplanetary magnetic field associated with CMEs impinges upon the earth’s magnetosphere and reconnect occur geomagnetic storm. Based on the observation from SOHO/LASCO spacecraft for solar activity and WDC for geomagnetism Kyoto for geomagnetic storm events are characterized by the disturbance storm time (Dst) index during the period 2006-2013. We consider here only intense geomagnetic storm Dst <-100nT, are 12 during 2006-2013.Geomagnetic storm with maximum Dst< -155nT occurred on Dec15, 2006 associated with halo CME with Kp-index 8+ and also verify that halo CME is the main cause to produce large geomagnetic storms.

  7. Methods in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Matt; Singh, Krish

    2013-05-01

    Our ability to image the structure of the human brain is well established, but the technique of magnetoencephalograpy is now providing insights into how the mind actually functions, as Matt Brookes and Krish Singh explain.

  8. 5 Diet Drugs: Which Ones Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159359.html 5 Diet Drugs: Which Ones Work? Side effects are one consideration, study says To use the sharing features ... been known about how they stack up against one another, said Dr. Siddharth Singh, the lead researcher ...

  9. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-05-01

    * Low-Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children, by. H.O. Gupta and Rakshpal Singh, p 610. * Synthesis of Exotic Soaps in the Chemistry Laboratory, by Otto Phanstiel IV, Eric Dueno, and Queenie Xianghong Wang, p 612.

  10. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jamal A, Homa DH, O’Connor E, Babb SD, Caraballo RS, Singh T, et al. Current cigarette ... Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Cholesterol Salt Video: Know Your Risk Factors Three species of opisthomonorchiine monorchiids (Digenea) in Carangoides spp. (Perciformes: Carangidae) from off New Caledonia, with a description of Opisthomonorchis dinema n. sp.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2013-06-01

    Three opisthomonorchiinae species are described from fishes obtained at the Fish Market in Nouméa, New Caledonia. Opisthomonorchis dinema n. sp. from Carangoides dinema Bleeker differs from the other recognised species in the genus by the long recurved genital atrium, arcing anteriorly. Also described are Opisthomonorchis carangis Yamaguti, 1952 from Carangoides sp. and Pseudopisthomonorchis thapari (Varma & Singh, 1979) n. comb. for Opisthomonorchis thapari Varma & Singh, 1979 from Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier). The features distinguishing Opisthomonorchis Yamaguti, 1952 and Pseudopisthomonorchis Madhavi, 1974 are discussed. PMID:23673693

  11. Comment on 'Further evidence for lightning at Venus'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Cloutier, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    In contradiction to the findings of Singh and Russell (1986), the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) electric-field data are not found to provide evidence for either lightning or volcanism at Venus. It is suggested that the noise considered by Singh and Russell to be clustered at low altitudes actually appears frequently at high altitudes. The frequent appearance of the broadband noise in the upper ionosphere indicates that this noise, like that attributed to lightning by Scarf et al. (1980), is actually generated within the ionosphere near the PVO by the solar wind interaction with the ionosphere.

  12. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-08

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  13. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  14. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, S; Jain, Jithesh; Simon, Sequiera Peter; Battur, Hemanth; Supreetha, S; Haridas, Reshmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between periodontal diseases and ABO blood groups. Materials & Methods: An epidemiological study was was carried out on 220 subjects who were randomly selected from individuals referred for periodontal treatment or for other reasons regarding Oral health at Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences. Results: The findings of our study revealed that subject’s blood group O (65.8) and Rh positive (73.33%) had a greater propensity for periodontitis. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed blood groups and Rh factor can act as a determinant of periodontitis. How to cite this article: Vivek S, Jain J, Simon SP, Battur H, Supreetha S, Haridas R. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):30-34. PMID:24155617

  15. Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind). PMID:23234435

  16. In Defence of Modest Doxasticism About Delusions.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Lisa

    2012-04-01

    Here I reply to the main points raised by the commentators on the arguments put forward in my Delusions and Other Irrational Beliefs (OUP, 2009). My response is aimed at defending a modest doxastic account of clinical delusions, and is articulated in three sections. First, I consider the view that delusions are in-between perceptual and doxastic states, defended by Jacob Hohwy and Vivek Rajan, and the view that delusions are failed attempts at believing or not-quite-beliefs, proposed by Eric Schwitzgebel and Maura Tumulty. Then, I address the relationship between the doxastic account of delusions and the role, nature, and prospects of folk psychology, which is discussed by Dominic Murphy, Keith Frankish, and Maura Tumulty in their contributions. In the final remarks, I turn to the continuity thesis and suggest that, although there are important differences between clinical delusions and non-pathological beliefs, these differences cannot be characterised satisfactorily in epistemic terms. PMID:22485124

  17. Adult Learning and the Future of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.

    This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

  18. Children with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior Using Chin Movements to Operate Microswitches to Obtain Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tota, Alessia; Antonucci, Massimo; Oliva, Doretta

    2006-01-01

    In these two studies, two children with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior were assessed to see if they could use chin movements to operate microswitches to obtain environmental stimulation. In Study I, we applied an adapted version of a recently introduced electronic microswitch [Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N.,…

  19. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    Epidemiological studies have shown ...

  1. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  2. The Moderating Role of Adult Connections in High School Students' Sense of School Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Amy Dutton

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that students who had a strong sense of school belonging exhibited greater academic motivation and performance (E. Anderman, 2002; Faircloth & Hamm, 2005), had fewer emotional and behavioral difficulties (Furrer & Skinner, 2003; McMahon, Singh, Garner, & Benhorin; 2004), and were less likely to dropout of school…

  3. Evaluating outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Shane

    2015-12-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post “Quantifying the success of public engagement” (22 October, http://ow.ly/TIWYJ), which discussed criticisms (made by science writer Simon Singh) of certain projects designed to boost interest in science.

  4. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  5. A Framework for Inclusion: Plurilingual Teachers in Day and Community Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural diversity is becoming a feature of the teaching profession in OECD countries with the increase in global migration and mobility (Reid, Collins & Singh, 2014). Plurilingual teachers, however, tend to experience marginalisation in terms of gaining employment and in their workplace experiences. Although there is a body of…

  6. Teaching with the Flow: Fixity and Fluidity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I suggest that as educators we need to understand that the spaces and cultures our students inhabit are to be found not so much in predefinitions of cultural background or in studies of classrooms as cultural spaces as in the transcultural flows with which our students engage. Thus, my argument is not only that, as Singh and Doherty…

  7. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Maltais, F., Singh, S., Donald, A., Crater, G., Church, A., Goh, A. et al. (2014) Effects of a combination of umeclidinium/vilanterol on exercise endurance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: two randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Ther Adv Respir Dis 8: 169-181. PMID:27255756

  8. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Jenkins, C., Arulogun, O. S., Singh, A., Mande, A. T., Ajayi, E., Calys-Tagoe, B., . . . the SIREN Team (2016). Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network: Community engagement and outreach within phenomics core. Health Education & Behavior, 43(1 Suppl.), 82S-92S. (Original DOI: 10.1177/1090198116634082). PMID:27365255

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS (P.
    SinghI, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, D.L. Doerfler2 and M.I. Gilmour2, 1NCSU, Ra...

  10. Height, weight and body mass index of girls and boys in a rural school in Punjab India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All the students at this Bhagat Puran Singh Memorial School in Punjab, India were educated about the importance of caloric intake and physical activity. Body weight and height were recorded once a month for 12 consecutive months for 632 students, age 8-23 years (7584 observations). For US and Euro...

  11. Evaluation of Simulated Photochemical Partitioning of Oxidized Nitrogen in the Upper Troposphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional and global chemical transport models underpredict NOx (NO +NO2) in the upper troposphere where it is a precursor to the greenhouse gas ozone. The NOx bias has been shown in model evaluations using aircraft data (Singh et al., 2007) and to...

  12. Strategic Human Resource Development. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on strategic human resource (HR) development. "Strategic HR Orientation and Firm Performance in India" (Kuldeep Singh) reports findings from a study of Indian business executives that suggests there is a positive link between HR policies and practices and workforce motivation and loyalty and sustainable…

  13. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST ON PULMONARY RESPONSES DURING ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION TO AEROSOLIZED OVALBUMIN IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Pulmonary Responses During Allergic Sensitization to Aerosolized Ovalbumin in BALB/c Mice. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels1, D. Andrews1, E. Boykin1, W. P. Linak2 and M.I. Gilmour1. 1USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC. 2 USEPA, ORD, NRMRL, RTP, NC.

    Inhala...

  14. CYTOTOXICITY AND CELL SIGNALING IN MH-S CELLS: RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL AND COAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytotoxicity and Cell Signaling in MH-S Cells: Relative Potency of Diesel and Coal Combustion Particles P. Singh1, Y. Kostetski2, M. Daniels1, T. Stevens3 and MI Gilmour 1USEPA, RTP, NC, 2National University of Singapore, Singapore, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC<...

  15. Principles of Contour Information: Reply to Lim and Leek (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Manish; Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Lim and Leek (2012) presented a formalization of information along object contours, which they argued was an alternative to the approach taken in our article (Feldman & Singh, 2005). Here, we summarize the 2 approaches, showing that--notwithstanding Lim and Leek's (2012) critical rhetoric--their approach is substantially identical to ours, except…

  16. They Can Still Act Chinese and Be Canadian at the Same Time: Reflections on Multiculturalism and the Alberta Art Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiserman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how Canadian identity remains a white identity through an examination of the ways in which cultural diversity in Canada has been promoted and controlled in law and in practice through Jakeet Singh's (2004) notion of "culture-blind multiculturalism." It then turns to one instance of this kind of myopic cultural reproduction…

  17. A Comparison of Challenging Behaviour in an Adult Group with Down's Syndrome and Dementia Compared with an Adult Down's Syndrome Group without Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging…

  18. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant Behavior…

  19. From Village to the World: Books with Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2008-01-01

    The Pardada Pardadi Girls Vocational School (PPGVS) in India was established in 2000 by Virendera (Sam) Singh, a retired U.S. Dupont South Asia department head to address the issue of gender bias in India. According to the school's website, nearly half of India's population is illiterate: males outnumber females two-to-one in literacy and drop-out…

  20. DIESEL AND CARBON PARTICLES ENHANCE HOUSE DUST MITE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel and Carbon Particles Enhance House Dust Mite-Induced Pulmonary Hypersensitivity in Brown Norway Rats. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels2, D. Winsett2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, M. Madden2 and M.I. Gilmour2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC and 2 USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Ep...

  1. Cosmopolitanism and Rural Education: A Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Carol

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, recent research into the global movement of teachers [C. Reid, J. Collins, and M. Singh. 2014. "Global Teachers, Australian Perspectives: Goodbye Mr Chips, Hello Ms Banerjee." Singapore: Springer] and their experiences in rural areas of Australia are discussed in order to make the case for a cosmopolitan education theory…

  2. Editorial: Looking to the Future of Hydrologic Engineering

    EPA Science Inventory

    Being one of the more recent journals of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Journal of Hydrologic Engineering (JHE) has made significant strides under the forward-thinking leadership of previous editors (M. Levent Kavvas 1996-2004, and V. P. Singh, 2004-2012) si...

  3. The Mathematics of "Star Trek"--An Honors Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    After the success of a course on cryptography for a general audience, based on Simon Singh's "The Code Book" [49], I decided to try again and create a mathematics course for a general audience based on "The Physics of Star Trek" by Lawrence Krauss [32]. This article looks at the challenges of designing a physics-based mathematics course "from…

  4. Natural enemies managing the invasion of the Fig whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting a Ficus benjamina hedge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fig whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) is a recent invasive species that has become a major pest in Florida feeding on Ficus shrubs and trees. A pilot study was conducted on a weeping fig, Ficus benjamina shrub hedge to determine the efficacy and compatibility of a biopesticide (PFR 97™=Isaria...

  5. EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY AND OXIDATIVE MARKERS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN VIVO
    C A J Dick', P Singh2, P. Evansky3, S Becker3 and M I Gilmour3.
    'Center For Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 2NCSU, Raleigh, NC 'Experimental Toxicolog...

  6. Mechanisms of Modal and Amodal Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Marc K.

    2007-01-01

    P. J. Kellman and T. F. Shipley (1992) and P. J. Kellman, P. Garrigan, and T. F. Shipley (2005) suggested that completion of partly occluded objects and illusory objects involve the same or similar mechanisms at critical stages of contour interpolation. B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, and R. W. Fleming and B. L. Anderson (2007) presented a number of…

  7. Fictionalized Indian English Speech and the Representations of Ideology in Indian Novels in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthiah, Kalaivahni

    2009-01-01

    I investigate the spoken dialogue of four Indian novels in English: Mulk Raj Anand's "Untouchable" (1935), Khushwant Singh's "Train to Pakistan" (1956), Rasipuram Krishnaswami Narayan's "The World of Nagaraj" (1990), and Rohinton Mistry's "Family Matters" (2002). Roger Fowler has said that literature, as a form of discourse, articulates ideology;…

  8. MUTAGENESIS OF L5178Y/TK(+/-)-3.7.2C MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS BY THE CLASTOGEN ELLIPTICINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antitumor drug ellipticine is clastogenic in CHO cells (Bhuyan et al., 1972) but is only weakly mutagenic at the hprt locus in CHO cells (DeMarini et al., 1983; Singh and Gupta, 1983a,b). In the present study, the mutagenic and clastogenic activities of ellipticine were evalu...

  9. MUTAGENICITY AND CLASTOGENICITY OF TENIPOSIDE (VM-26) IN L5178Y/TK(+/-)-3.7.2C MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The antitumor drug teniposide (VM-26) is a potent inducer of DNA breaks (Long et al., Cancer Res., 45:3106, 1985), but it is only weakly mutagenic at the hprt locus in CHO cells (Singh and Gupta, Cancer Res., 43:577, 1983). In the present study, the mutagenic and clastogenic acti...

  10. Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°...

  11. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  12. Topics in Culture Learning, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Richard W., Ed.; Hamnett, Michael P., Ed.

    The first section of this volume includes articles on cross-cultural teaching: "Mau Piailug's Navigation of Hokule'a from Hawaii to Tahiti," by David Lewis; "The New World Order and the Globalization of Social Science: Some Implications for Teaching Cross-Culturally," by Amarjit Singh; "Ponape: Cross-Cultural Contact, Formal Schooling, and Foreign…

  13. Examining the Effects of Jyoti Meditation on Stress and the Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.

  14. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b0Eu = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to

  15. Studying Recombination with High-Throughput Sequencing: An Educational Primer for Use with “Fine-Scale Heterogeneity in Crossover Rate in the garnet-scalloped Region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome”

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Caiti S. Smukowski; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2013-01-01

    An article by Singh and colleagues in this issue of GENETICS quantifies variation in recombination rate across a small region of the Drosophila melanogaster genome, providing an opportunity for instructors of genetics to introduce or reinforce important concepts such as recombination and recombination rate variation, genome sequencing, and sequence features of the genome. Additional background information, a detailed explanation of the methods used in this study, and discussion questions are provided. Related article in GENETICS: Singh, N. D., E. A. Stone, C. F. Aquadro, and A. G. Clark, 2013 Fine-scale heterogeneity in crossover rate in the garnet-scalloped region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. Genetics 194: 375–387. PMID:23733850

  16. India takes nuclear path to go green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-11-01

    Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India, last month announced a major new emphasis on nuclear power that could see the country generate as much as 470GW of power from nuclear reactors by 2050. Speaking at the opening of the International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in New Dehli, Singh said that the programme would sharply reduce India's dependence on fossil fuels and be a "major contribution" to global efforts to combat climate change. "If we use the power of the atom wisely for the universal good, the possibilities are unbounded," he said. However, even with this capacity, nuclear power would still only account for 25% of India's energy mix, with the bulk of the rest coming from coal.

  17. Radiative effects and the missing energy paradox in the ideal two capacitors problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzúa, Gilberto A.; Jiménez, Omar; Maass, Fernando; Restuccia, Álvaro

    2016-05-01

    Starting from the Poynting theorem, which arises from the exact Maxwell equations, we establish the balance of energy for the radiating ideal two capacitors problem. This balance of energy results in a nonlinear differential equation governing the time evolution of the voltage V. Boykin, Hite and Singh, following an approach not based on first principles, were the first to obtain this nonlinear differential equation and proposed an exponentially decaying voltage as a unique solution for it. We claim that the space of solutions for this differential equation is much richer. In fact, besides the exponentially decaying solution just mentioned there exist solutions with a sudden death behavior. The radiative effect introduced by Boykin, Hite and Singh, complemented with our analysis based on the exact Maxwell equations and the characterization of the more general space of solution of the nonlinear differential equation, explain the missing energy paradox in the ideal two capacitors problem.

  18. 2016: Creating a Culture of Safety in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Nurses play vital roles in preventing errors and improving the quality of care for patients. However, in the breakthrough Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System (IOM, 1999) and Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century (IOM, 2001), it was estimated that about 44,000-98,000 Americans die each year as a result of medical errors. Gibson and Singh's (2003) book, Wall of Silence: The Untold Story of the Medical Mistakes That Kill and Injure Millions of Americans, shared real-life stories of medical mistakes to help raise awareness and create a sense of urgency for the issues surrounding healthcare errors. Gibson and Singh (2003) also included aspects of the human side of errors-the perceptions of the healthcare providers regarding their errors and the responses of patients who had been harmed. 
. PMID:26991701

  19. News and Views: Where at a supermassive black hole do gamma-rays come from? Keep libel laws out of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    Radio observations of galaxy M87 at the time of a massive gamma-ray flare have established that the gamma-ray emission arises close to the central black hole, in the inner jet. Writer Simon Singh is being sued for libel by the British Chiropractic Association because he wrote a newspaper article about the evidence for the effectiveness of spinal manipulation as a treatment for childhood illnesses. Why should scientists care about this action, asks Sue Bowler?

  20. Lipoid Proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Hitesh C; Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Singh, Gurdarshan

    2016-01-01

    A case report of a 6-year-old male child who reported with recurrent oral and skin ulcerations since childhood and was diagnosed as lipoid proteinosis manifesting with generalized thickening, hardening, and scarring of the skin and hoarseness of voice; is presented here. How to cite this article: Mittal HC, Yadav S, Malik S, Singh G. Lipoid Proteinosis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):149-151. PMID:27365938

  1. Are icons sense data?

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Brian P; Green, E J

    2015-12-01

    We argue that Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (Psychon Bull Rev, this issue) have not made the case that "the language of space-time and physical objects is the wrong language for describing the true structure of the objective world." Further, we contend that, contrary to what Hoffman et al. claim, the perceptual icons posited by interface theory seem best taken to be sense data. PMID:26384993

  2. CAM, free speech, and the British legal system: overstepping the mark?

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Lionel R

    2009-10-01

    The British Chiropractic Association recently won a libel case against the science writer and CAM 'skeptic' Dr Simon Singh for publishing an article in a British newspaper in which he accused them of promoting 'bogus' treatments. This has ignited a campaign in the UK to 'keep the libel laws out of science'. In this article, the tension between media freedom of expression and defamation law is examined, and possible ramifications for CAM in the UK explored. PMID:19848549

  3. Lipoid Proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Singh, Gurdarshan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A case report of a 6-year-old male child who reported with recurrent oral and skin ulcerations since childhood and was diagnosed as lipoid proteinosis manifesting with generalized thickening, hardening, and scarring of the skin and hoarseness of voice; is presented here. How to cite this article: Mittal HC, Yadav S, Malik S, Singh G. Lipoid Proteinosis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):149-151. PMID:27365938

  4. Scientific overview: CSCI - CITAC Annual General Meeting and Young Investigator's Forum 2012.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Ghadi; Ram, Véronique D; Wang, Xin; Wilcox, Jared T; Yoon, Ju-Yoon

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the Annual General Meeting of the Clinical Investigator Trainee Association of Canada - Association des cliniciens-chercheurs en formation du Canada (CITAC - ACCFC) and the Canadian Society of Clinician Investigators (CSCI) was held 19-21 September in Ottawa. Several globally-renowned scientists, including 2012 Friesen International Prize recipient, Dr. Marc Tessier-Lavigne, the CSCI/Royal College Henry Friesen Award recipient, Dr. Morley Hollenberg, and the recipient of the Joe Doupe Young Investigator Award, Dr. Phillip Awadalla, presented on a range of topics on research in basic and translational science in medicine. This year's CITAC Symposium featured presentations by Dr. Alain Beaudet, Dr. Michael Strong and Dr. Vivek Goel on the Role of Physician Scientists in Public Health and Policy, which was followed by a lively discussion on the role of basic science and clinical research in patient-oriented policy development. This scientific overview highlights the research presented by trainees at both the oral plenary and poster presentation sessions. As at previous meetings, research questions investigated by this year's trainees span multiple medical disciplines; from basic science to clinical research to medical education. Below is a summary of the presentations showcased at the Young Investigator's Forum. PMID:24088329

  5. On the relationship between visual magnitudes and gas and dust production rates in target comets to space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Singh, P. D.; Misra, A.; Miguel Torres, R.; Boice, D. C.; Huebner, W. F.

    In this paper, we report the results of a cometary research, developed during the last 10 years by us, involving a criterious analysis of gas and dust production rates in comets directly associated to recent space missions. For the determination of the water release rates we use the framework of the semi-empirical model of observed visual magnitudes [Newburn Jr., R.L. A semi-empirical photometric theory of cometary gas and dust production. Application to P/Halley's production rates, ESA-SP 174, 3, 1981; de Almeida, A.A., Singh, P.D., Huebner, W.F. Water release rates, active areas, and minimum nuclear radius derived from visual magnitudes of comets - an application to Comet 46P/Wirtanen, Planet. Space Sci. 45, 681-692, 1997; Sanzovo, G.C., de Almeida, A.A., Misra, A. et al. Mass-loss rates, dust particle sizes, nuclear active areas and minimum nuclear radii of target comets for missions STARDUST and CONTOUR, MNRAS 326, 852-868, 2001.], which once obtained, were directly converted into gas production rates. In turn, the dust release rates were obtained using the photometric model for dust particles [Newburn Jr., R.L., Spinrad, H. Spectrophotometry of seventeen comets. II - the continuum, AJ 90, 2591-2608, 1985; de Freitas Pacheco, J.A., Landaberry, S.J.C., Singh, P.D. Spectrophotometric observations of the Comet Halley during the 1985-86 apparition, MNRAS 235, 457-464, 1988; Sanzovo, G.C., Singh, P.D., Huebner, W.F. Dust colors, dust release rates, and dust-to-gas ratios in the comae of six comets, A&AS 120, 301-311, 1996.]. We applied these models to seven target comets, chosen for space missions of "fly-by"/impact and rendezvous/landing.

  6. A Kinematic Model for Surface Irrigation: An Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Bernard; Singh, Vijay P.

    1982-06-01

    The kinematic model for surface irrigation, reported previously by Sherman and Singh (1978), is extended. Depending upon the duration of irrigation and time variability of infiltration, three cases are distinguished. Explicit solutions are obtained when infiltration is constant. When infiltration is varying in time, a numerical procedure is developed which is stable and has fast convergence. A rigorous theoretical justification is developed for computation of the depth of water at and the time history of the front wall of water advancing down an infiltrating plane or channel. A derivation is given of the continuity and momentum equations when there is lateral inflow and infiltration into the channel bed.

  7. Tonometry and Care of Tonometers

    PubMed Central

    S Choudhari, Nikhil; Deep Singh, Manav

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the only modifiable risk factor in the management of glaucoma. Hence, IOP and its appropriate measurement deserve our ongoing interest. Over the years, not only has our understanding of glaucoma changed but also has changed our approach to the measurement of the IOP. This review is an attempt to elucidate the commonly techniques of tonometry, and critically evaluate each of them, in current glaucoma practice. How to cite this article: Maheshwari R, Choudhari NS, Singh MD. Tonometry and Care of Tonometers. J Current Glau Prac 2012;6(3):124-130. PMID:26997768

  8. On the interpretation of measured ion streams in the wake of the Shuttle Orbiter in terms of plasma expansion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Hwang, K. S.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the flow vector and current density of ion streams between 11 and 18 m downstream in the near wake of the Shuttle Orbiter during the Spacelab 2 mission are compared with a one-dimensional, time-dependent plasma expansion model for wake filling. The model is based on the self-consistent plasma model of Singh et al. (1987) modified to simulate the one-dimensional expansion of counter-streaming plasmas. The results show good agreement between the model and the experimental results, suggesting that the measured streams can be interpreted in terms of collisionless plasma expansion.

  9. Modified 8×8 quantization table and Huffman encoding steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongning; Sun, Shuliang

    2014-10-01

    A new secure steganography, which is based on Huffman encoding and modified quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients, is provided in this paper. Firstly, the cover image is segmented into 8×8 blocks and modified DCT transformation is applied on each block. Huffman encoding is applied to code the secret image before embedding. DCT coefficients are quantized by modified quantization table. Inverse DCT(IDCT) is conducted on each block. All the blocks are combined together and the steg image is finally achieved. The experiment shows that the proposed method is better than DCT and Mahender Singh's in PSNR and Capacity.

  10. Supergranulation, a convective phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2015-08-01

    Observation of the Solar photosphere through high resolution instruments have long indicated that the surface of the Sun is not a tranquil, featureless surface but is beset with a granular appearance. These cellular velocity patterns are a visible manifestation of sub- photospheric convection currents which contribute substantially to the outward transport of energy from the deeper layers, thus maintaining the energy balance of the Sun as a whole.Convection is the chief mode of transport in the outer layers of all cool stars such as the Sun (Noyes,1982). Convection zone of thickness 30% of the Solar radius lies in the sub-photospheric layers of the Sun. Convection is revealed on four scales. On the scale of 1000 km, it is granulation and on the scale of 8-10 arcsec, it is Mesogranulation. The next hierarchial scale of convection ,Supergranules are in the range of 30-40 arcsec. The largest reported manifestation of convection in the Sun are ‘Giant Cells’or ‘Giant Granules’, on a typical length scale of about 108 m.'Supergranules' is caused by the turbulence that extends deep into the convection zone. They have a typical lifetime of about 20hr with spicules marking their boundaries. Gas rises in the centre of the supergranules and then spreads out towards the boundary and descends.Broadly speaking supergranules are characterized by the three parameters namely the length L, the lifetime T and the horizontal flow velocity vh . The interrelationships amongst these parameters can shed light on the underlying convective processes and are in agreement with the Kolmogorov theory of turbulence as applied to large scale solar convection (Krishan et al .2002 ; Paniveni et. al. 2004, 2005, 2010).References:1) Noyes, R.W., The Sun, Our Star (Harvard University Press, 1982)2) Krishan, V., Paniveni U., Singh , J., Srikanth R., 2002, MNRAS, 334/1,2303) Paniveni , U., Krishan, V., Singh, J., Srikanth, R., 2004, MNRAS, 347, 1279-12814) Paniveni , U., Krishan, V., Singh, J

  11. Supergranular Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2015-12-01

    Observation of the Solar photosphere through high resolution instruments have long indicated that the surface of the Sun is not a tranquil, featureless surface but is beset with a granular appearance. These cellular velocity patterns are a visible manifestation of sub- photospheric convection currents which contribute substantially to the outward transport of energy from the deeper layers, thus maintaining the energy balance of the Sun as a whole.Convection is the chief mode of transport in the outer layers of all cool stars such as the Sun (Noyes,1982). Convection zone of thickness 30% of the Solar radius lies in the sub-photospheric layers of the Sun. Here the opacity is so large that heat flux transport is mainly by convection rather than by photon diffusion. Convection is revealed on four scales. On the scale of 1000 km, it is granulation and on the scale of 8-10 arcsec, it is Mesogranulation. The next hierarchial scale of convection , Supergranules are in the range of 30-40 arcsec. The largest reported manifestation of convection in the Sun are ‘Giant Cells’or ‘Giant Granules’, on a typical length scale of about 108 m.'Supergranules' is caused by the turbulence that extends deep into the convection zone. They have a typical lifetime of about 20hr with spicules marking their boundaries. Gas rises in the centre of the supergranules and then spreads out towards the boundary and descends.Broadly speaking supergranules are characterized by the three parameters namely the length L, the lifetime T and the horizontal flow velocity vh . The interrelationships amongst these parameters can shed light on the underlying convective processes and are in agreement with the Kolmogorov theory of turbulence as applied to large scale solar convection (Krishan et al .2002 ; Paniveni et. al. 2004, 2005, 2010).References:1) Noyes, R.W., The Sun, Our Star (Harvard University Press, 1982)2) Krishan, V., Paniveni U., Singh , J., Srikanth R., 2002, MNRAS, 334/1,2303) Paniveni

  12. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 21

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2015-07-15

    This evaluation of A = 21 has been updated from previous evaluations published in 2004Fi10, 1998En04, 1990En08, and 1978En02. Coverage includes properties of adopted levels and γ-rays, decay-scheme data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and cross reference entries. The following tables continue the tradition of showing the systematic relationships between levels in A = 21. Much of the new data in this evaluations were taken directly from the xundl database, compiled under the direction of Balraj Singh, McMaster University. The evaluator is particularly appreciative of the efforts of the xundl compilers.

  13. Ayurvedic heritage of J & K: a review of Sri Ranbira Cikitsa Sudha Sāra.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Singh, G; Kumar, N

    2001-01-01

    This work reviews the contents of an Ayurvedic treatise "Sri Ranbira Cikitsa Sudha Sāra" authored by Kaviraj Neel Kanth in the year 1931 of Vikrami, in 'Takari' script, the official script during the reign of his highness Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Jammu and Kashmir. A copy of the book is presently available with Raghunath Sanskrit Library, Jammu in torn condition. This is a humble effort by the authors for the exploration of hidden and old Ayurvedic literature of Jammu and Kashmir. PMID:12841189

  14. Dilepton production as a useful probe of quark gluon plasma with temperature dependent chemical potential quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, S. Somorendro

    2016-07-01

    We extend the previous study of dilepton production using [S. Somorendro Singh and Y. Kumar, Can. J. Phys. 92 (2014) 31] based on a simple quasiparticle model of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). In this model, finite value of quark mass uses temperature dependent chemical potential the so-called Temperature Dependent Chemical Potential Quark Mass (TDCPQM). We calculate dilepton production in the relevant range of mass region. It is observed that the production rate is marginally enhanced from the earlier work. This is due to the effect of TDCPQM and its effect is highly significant in the production of dilepton.

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.

    2015-07-01

    This evaluation of A = 21 has been updated from previous evaluations published in 2004Fi10, 1998En04, 1990En08, and 1978En02. Coverage includes properties of adopted levels and γ-rays, decay-scheme data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and cross reference entries. The following tables continue the tradition of showing the systematic relationships between levels in A = 21. Much of the new data in this evaluations were taken directly from the xundl database, compiled under the direction of Balraj Singh, McMaster University. The evaluator is particularly appreciative of the efforts of the xundl compilers.

  16. The X-Ray Spectra of Blazars: Analysis of the Complete EXOSAT Archive: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Barr, Paul; Giommi, Paolo; Maraschi, Laura; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Treves, Aldo

    1995-07-01

    In the paper "The X-Ray Spectra of Blazars: Analysis of the Complete EXOSAT Archive" by Rita M. Sambruna, Paul Barr, Paolo Giommi, Laura Maraschi, Gianpiero Tagliaferri, and Aldo Treves (ApJS, 95,371 [1994]), the section regarding the object PKS 1510-08 (Section 4.4.14) contains an erroneous quotation. K. P. Singh, A.R. Rao, and M.N. Vahia (ApJ, 365,455 [1990]) in fact detected: emission line only in the 1984 data, and not in the 1985 spectrum, as stated.

  17. Darwin and Mendel today: a comment on "Limits of imagination: the 150th Anniversary of Mendel's Laws, and why Mendel failed to see the importance of his discovery for Darwin's theory of evolution".

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Xiuju

    2016-01-01

    We comment on a recent paper by Rama Singh, who concludes that Mendel deserved to be called the father of genetics, and Darwin would not have understood the significance of Mendel's paper had he read it. We argue that Darwin should have been regarded as the father of genetics not only because he was the first to formulate a unifying theory of heredity, variation, and development -- Pangenesis, but also because he clearly described almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, including what he called "prepotency" and what we now call "dominance" or "Mendelian inheritance". The word "gene" evolved from Darwin's imagined "gemmules", instead of Mendel's so-called "factors". PMID:26651239

  18. A possible mechanism for the observed streaming of O(+) and H(+) ions at nearly equal speeds in the distant magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.

    1985-07-01

    In recent years, O(+) and H(+) ions streaming away from the earth along geomagnetic field lines have been observed in the distant magnetotail region. In the present paper, it is suggested that the transverse acceleration of the ions occurs on auroral field lines at altitudes above the field-aligned potential drops, where ion beams and electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron (EHC) waves have been simultaneously observed. It is pointed out that the preferential acceleration of O(+) relative to H(+) occurs through the interaction of O(+) ions with weak EHC waves, as suggested by Singh et al. (1983). A quantitative explanation is provided for the observed relationship between the energies of O(+) and H(+) ions.

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 152

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.J.

    2013-11-15

    Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=152. The experimental data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for level and γ–ray energies, γ intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given. This evaluation replaces the A=152 evaluation published by Agda Artna–Cohen in Nuclear Data Sheets 79, 1 (1996) and the evaluation for 152Dy prepared by Balraj Singh and published in Nuclear Data Sheets 95, 995 (2002)

  20. Comment on ''Capacitance-voltage measurements in amorphous Schottky barriers''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, M. J.; Döhler, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    The band-bending potential profile V(x) in the space-charge region of an amorphous semiconductor moves regidly in the x direction, with increased bias, irrespective of the form of the density of localized states N(E). A recent paper by Singh and Cohen [J. Appl. Phys. 51, 413 (1980)] which suggest this is not true is incorrect in this point. This property leads to simplified schemes for the analysis of C-V measurements and field-effect conductance measurements.

  1. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 91

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2013-10-15

    Experimental nuclear structure and decay data for all known A=91 nuclides (As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd) have been evaluated. This evaluation, covering data received by 1 September 2013, supersedes the 1998 evaluation by C. M. Baglin published in Nuclear Data Sheets86, 1 (1999) (15 December 1998 literature cutoff), and subsequent evaluations by C. M. Baglin added to the ENSDF database for Kr, Sr and Zr (29 December 2000 literature cutoff) and by B. Singh for {sup 91}Tc (6 November 2000 literature cutoff)

  2. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Using the law to improve access to treatments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard; Parmar, Sharan; Divan, Vivek; Berger, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    The XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa in July 2000 focused worldwide attention on the problem of accessing treatments in developing countries. In the interim, thanks to the work of activists - from demonstrations to court cases, and from acts of public courage by people living with HIV/AIDS to ongoing lobbying of politicians and trade negotiators - some very significant developments have occurred. But the reality is that the vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS still lack access to affordable, quality medicines. This article, a summary of a paper presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India, explores three approaches for improving access. In the first part, Richard Elliott provides an overview of the state of the right to health as embodied in international human rights law; comments on the experience to date in litigating claims to the right to health; and identifies potential strategies activists can adopt to advance recognition of the right to health. In the second part, Sharan Parmar and Vivek Divan describe price-control and drug-financing mechanisms used by industrialized countries to increase the affordability of medicines; and discuss how some of these mechanisms could be adapted for use in developing countries. Finally, Jonathan Berger describes the use of litigation in the courts by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa. PMID:14743817

  3. Hierarchical resilience with lightweight threads.

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes methodology for providing robustness and resilience for a highly threaded distributed- and shared-memory environment based on well-defined inputs and outputs to lightweight tasks. These inputs and outputs form a failure 'barrier', allowing tasks to be restarted or duplicated as necessary. These barriers must be expanded based on task behavior, such as communication between tasks, but do not prohibit any given behavior. One of the trends in high-performance computing codes seems to be a trend toward self-contained functions that mimic functional programming. Software designers are trending toward a model of software design where their core functions are specified in side-effect free or low-side-effect ways, wherein the inputs and outputs of the functions are well-defined. This provides the ability to copy the inputs to wherever they need to be - whether that's the other side of the PCI bus or the other side of the network - do work on that input using local memory, and then copy the outputs back (as needed). This design pattern is popular among new distributed threading environment designs. Such designs include the Barcelona STARS system, distributed OpenMP systems, the Habanero-C and Habanero-Java systems from Vivek Sarkar at Rice University, the HPX/ParalleX model from LSU, as well as our own Scalable Parallel Runtime effort (SPR) and the Trilinos stateless kernels. This design pattern is also shared by CUDA and several OpenMP extensions for GPU-type accelerators (e.g. the PGI OpenMP extensions).

  4. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on the drying kinetics of brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Shekhar U; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2015-03-01

    The effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on the drying kinetics of brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum under hot-air convective drying was investigated. Pretreatments were carried out at ultrasound intensity levels ranging from 7.00 to 75.78 Wcm(-2) for 10 min using an ultrasonic probe system. It was observed that ultrasound pre-treatments reduced the drying time required. The shortest drying times were obtained from samples pre-treated at 75.78 Wcm(-2). The fit quality of 6 thin-layer drying models was also evaluated using the determination of coefficient (R(2)), root means square error (RMSE), AIC (Akaike information criterion) and BIC (Bayesian information criterion). Drying kinetics were modelled using the Newton, Henderson and Pabis, Page, Wang and Singh, Midilli et al. and Weibull models. The Newton, Wang and Singh, and Midilli et al. models showed the best fit to the experimental drying data. Color of ultrasound pretreated dried seaweed samples were lighter compared to control samples. It was concluded that ultrasound pretreatment can be effectively used to reduce the energy cost and drying time for drying of A. nodosum. PMID:25454823

  5. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam. PMID:27095662

  6. Drying characteristics of paddy in an integrated dryer.

    PubMed

    Manikantan, M R; Barnwal, P; Goyal, R K

    2014-04-01

    Drying characteristics of paddy (long grain variety PR-118 procured from PAU, Ludhiana) in an integrated dryer using single as well as combined heating source was studied at different air temperatures. The integrated dryer comprises three different air heating sources such as solar, biomass and electrical. Drying of paddy occurred in falling rate period. It was observed that duration of drying of paddy from 22 to 13 % moisture content (w.b.) was 5-9 h depending upon the source of energy used. In order to select a suitable drying curve, six thin layer-drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio data. Among the mathematical models investigated, Wang and Singh model best described the drying behaviour of paddy using solar, biomass and combined heating sources with highest coefficient of determination (r (2)) values and least chi-square, χ (2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) values. However, Page model adequately described the drying behavior of paddy using electrical heating source. PMID:24741181

  7. Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Corners Under Opening Bending Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, N.; Kwatra, N.; Kanwar, V. S.

    2013-03-01

    In the past few years, there has been growing use of finite element method for analysis of RCC structures to eliminate the expensive testing. However, validations of numerical models are instrumental towards making models reliable, which is, fundamental towards truly predictive prototyping. Keeping this in view, paper presents the results of numerical study of Reinforced Concrete Corners under opening moments using general-purpose finite element analysis software (ANSYS) and the comparison of results to the experimental results available in the literature [Singh and Kaushik, J Inst Eng (India), 84:201-209, 2003]. The Load deflection behaviour obtained is compared with the results corresponding to four different reinforcement detailing investigated experimentally [Singh and Kaushik, J Inst Eng (India), 84:201-209, 2003]. Details of the FE modeling of Reinforced Concrete Corners with four different reinforcement detailing have been presented. The best reinforcement detailing of Reinforced Concrete Corners on the basis of load deflection behaviour has been judged and advocated further on the basis of finite element analysis. The second phase of the study, investigates the effect of diameter of main steel, grade of concrete and spacing of shear reinforcement on load deformation behavior of the corners under opening bending moments.

  8. Does disorder destroy eg' pockets in Na0.3CoO2? A new ab initio method for disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlijn, Tom; Volja, Dimitri; Ku, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Hydrated Na0.3CoO2 shows interesting superconductivity[1], with evidence of a nodal order parameter[2]. One possible origin of the nodal structure is f-wave pairing[3] due to the six eg' pockets predicted by the local density approximation[4]. However, ARPES experiments[5] showed no sign of these hole pockets. In this talk, we will investigate a recent proposal[6] of destruction of the eg' pockets due to disorder. An affordable ab initio Wannier function based method will be presented that takes into account spatial distributions of disorder, beyond existing mean-field approximations (e.g. VCA, CPA). We also use our Wannier functions to analyse the crystal field splitting, the sign of which critically determines the role of correlation in DMFT. [3pt] [1] K. Takada et al, Nature 422, 53 (2003)[0pt] [2] Zheng G. et al, JPCM 18, L63 (2006)[0pt] [3] Kuroki K. et al, PRL 93, 077001-1 (2004)[0pt] [4] D. Singh, PRB 61, 13397 (2000)[0pt] [5] Hasan M.Z. et al, PRL 92, 246402 (2004)[0pt] [6] D. Singh et al PRL 97, 016404 (2006)

  9. Characterization of a 21-Story Reinforced Building in the Valley of Mexico Using MEMS Accelerometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husker, A. L.; Dominguez, L. A.; Becerril, A.; Espejo, L.; Cochran, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Low cost MEMS accelerometers are becoming increasingly higher resolution making them useful in strong motion studies. Here we present a building response analysis in the lakebed zone of the Valley of Mexico. The Valley of Mexico represents one of the highest seismic risk locations in the world and incorporates Mexico City and part of Mexico State. More than 20 million people live there and it is the political and economic center of Mexico. In addition the valley has very high site effects with amplifications 100 - 500 times that of sites outside of the basin (Singh et al., 1988; Singh et al., 1995). We instrumented a 21-story building with MEMS accelerometers as part of the Quake Catcher Network or Red Atrapa Sismos as it is called in Mexico. The building known as the Centro Cultural de Tlateloco is located in an important historical and political area as well as a zone with some of the highest amplifications in the Valley of Mexico that had some of the worst destruction after the 1985 M8.1 Michoacan earthquake. During the earthquake most of the buildings that failed were between 7 - 18 stories tall. The peak accelerations near Tlateloco were at periods of 2 seconds. Since the earthquake the building has been retrofitted with N-S crossing supports to help withstand another earthquake. We present the measurements of frequencies and amplifications between floors for the length of the building.

  10. On the relationship between visual magnitudes and gas and dust production rates in target comets to space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A.; Sanzovo, G.; Singh, P.; Misra, A.; Torres, R. Miguel; Boice, D.; Huebner, W.

    at frequent intervals and published periodically in International Comet Quartely (ICQ). We use the semi -classical photometric model, described in details by Newburn (1981) and de Almeida, Singh &Huebner (1997) which with some modifications introduced by us, allowed the determination of the gas production rates from observed visual magnitudes measurements, mainly for short period comets (P < 20 years). These water release rates are then used in the determination of the total surface active areas, lower limits of nuclear radii estimates, when the whole sunlit hemisphere is active, and gas mass loss rates. Also we make a systematic and uniform analysis of continuum fluxes observed at optical wavelengths, with the purpose to study the behaviour of the dust. For this, we use the framework of the photometric model of dust particles developed by Newburn &Spinrad (1985, 1989), with contributions given by de Freitas Pacheco, Landaberrry &Singh (1988) and, more recently, by Sanzovo, Singh &Huebner (1996), Singh et al. (1997) and Sanzovo et al. (2001, 2002). This way, we determine the dust release rates and evaluate the effective dust particle sizes as well as their variations with heliocentric distance. Another important result from the above photometric models is the dust-to-gas mass ratio and its behaviour with the heliocentric distance. Whenever possible, the variations of dust release rates with the heliocentric distance were compared with the quantity AFRHO (in cm), defined as the product between the albedo of the dust particles, the fraction of the aperture filled by the dust, and the radius of the slit aperture projected on the comet. This parameter was introduced by A'Hearn et al. (1984) and is frequently used, since a gas release rate divided by AFRHO give essentially, the gas-to-dust ratio. In summary, in this oral communication we report the results of a cometary research, developed during the last 10 years by our group, involving a criterious analysis of gas and

  11. Spectroscopic study of ZnO doped CeO 2-PbO-B 2O 3 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal Singh, Gurinder; Singh, D. P.

    2011-09-01

    Glass samples of compositions xZnO- xCeO 2-(30- x)PbO-(70- x)B 2O 3 with x varying from 2% to 10% mole fraction are prepared by the melt quench technique. The structural and optical analysis of glasses is carried out by XRD, FTIR, density and UV-visible spectroscopic measurement techniques. The FTIR spectral analysis indicates that with the addition of ZnO contents in glass network, structural units of BO 3 are transformed into BO 4. It has been observed in our previous work that band gap decreases from 2.89 to 2.30 eV for CeO 2-PbO-B 2O 3 glasses with cerium content varying from 0% to 10% [Gurinder Pal Singh, Davinder Paul Singh, Physica B 406(3) (2011) 640-644]. With the incorporation of zinc in CeO 2-PbO-B 2O 3 glasses, the optical band gap energy decreases further from 2.38 to 2.03 eV. This causes more compaction of the borate network, which results in an increase of density (3.39-4.02 g/cm 3). Transmittance shows that ZnO in glass samples acts as a reducing agent thathelps to convert Ce 4+→Ce 3+ ions.

  12. Determining the Probability Distribution of Hillslope Peak Discharge Using an Analytical Solution of Kinematic Wave Time of Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-04-01

    Hillslope hydrology is fundamental for understanding the flood phenomenon and for evaluating the time of concentration. The latter is a key variable for predicting peak discharge at the basin outlet and for designing urban infrastructure facilities. There have been a multitude of studies on the hydrologic response at the hillslope scale, and the time of concentration has been derived for different approaches. One approach for deriving hillslope response utilizes, in a distributed form, the differential equations of unsteady overland flow, specifically developed at the hydrodynamic scale, in order to account for the spatial heterogeneity of soil characteristics, topography, roughness and vegetation cover on the hillslope. Therefore, this approach seemingly mimics the complete hydraulics of flow. However, the very complex patterns generated by spatial heterogeneity can cause considerable error in the prediction even by very sophisticated models. Another approach that directly operates at the hillslope scale is by averaging over the hillslope the soil hydraulics, the topography, and the roughness characteristics. A physically-based lumped model of hillslope response was first proposed by Horton (1938), under the assumption that the flow regime is intermediate between laminar and turbulent regimes (transitional flow regime), by applying the mass conservation equation to the hillslope as a whole and by using the kinematic wave assumption for the friction slope (Singh, 1976, 1996). Robinson et al. (1995) and Robinson and Sivapalan (1996) generalized Horton's approach, suggesting an approximate solution of the overland flow equation that is valid for all flow regimes. Agnese et al. (2001) derived an analytical solution of a nonlinear storage model of hillslope response that is valid for all flow regimes, and the associated time of concentration. Recently, the well-known kinematic wave equation for computing the time of concentration for impervious surfaces has been

  13. Theoretical study of magnetism and superconductivity in three-dimensional transition-metal-MgB2 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prabhakar P.; Joseph, P. Jiji Thomas

    2002-12-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of three-dimensional transition-metal-MgB2 alloys, Mg0.97TM0.03B2, (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation method in the atomic-sphere approximation. For unpolarized calculations, our results for Mg0.97TM0.03B2 alloys are similar to that of 3d impurities in other s and s-p metals. In particular, the local densities of states (DOS) associated with the 3d impurities are similar to our earlier work on 3d impurities in bulk Al (Singh P P 1991 Phys. Rev. B 43 3975; Singh P P 1991 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 3 3285). For spin-polarized calculations, we find only the alloys of V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co with MgB2 to be magnetic of all the 3d elements. We also find that Cr and Mn in MgB2 have a relatively large local magnetic moment of 2.43 and 2.87μB, respectively. We have used the unpolarized, self-consistent potentials of Mg0.97TM0.03B2 alloys, obtained within the coherent-potential approximation, to calculate the electron-phonon coupling constant λ using the Gaspari-Gyorffy formalism and the superconducting transition temperature Tc using the Allen-Dynes equation. We find that the calculated Tc is lowest for Mg0.97Cr0.03B2 and highest for Mg0.97Zn0.03B2, in qualitative agreement with experiment. The calculated trend in variation of Tc from Mn to Zn is also similar to the available experimental data. Our analysis of the variation in Tc, in terms of the DOS and the spectral function along the Γ to A direction, shows the variation to be an interplay between the total DOS at the Fermi energy and the creation/removal of states along the Γ to A direction (Singh P P 2002 Preprint cond-mat/0201093).

  14. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.

    2012-08-01

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements

  15. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 5 FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E.

    2012-03-14

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, radionuclide, inorganic, and anion concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their

  16. Statistical Analysis of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide1, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements

  17. Study of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering of Alizarin and Crystal Violet Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Ram; Swarnkar, Raj Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) plays a vital role in analytical chemistry to characterize ultra trace quantity of organic compounds and biological samples. Two mechanisms have been considered to explain the SERS effect. The main contribution arises from a huge enhancement of the local electromagnetic field close to surface roughness of the metal structures, due to the excitation of a localized surface plasmon, while a further enhancement can be observed for molecules adsorbed onto specific sites when resonant charge transfer occurs. SERS signals have been observed from adsorbates on many metallic surfaces like Ag, Au, Ni, Cu etc. Additionally, metal oxide nanoparticles also show SERS signals It has now been established that SERS of analyte material is highly dependent on the type of substrate involved. Many types of nanostructures like nanofilms, nanorods, nanospheres etc. show highly efficient SERS signals. In particular, there are two routes available for the synthesis of these nanomaterials: the chemical route and the physical route. Chemical route involves many types of reducing agents and capping agents which can interfere in origin and measurement of these signals. The physical route avoids these anomalies and therefore it is suitable for the study of SERS phenomenon. Pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium is an excellent top down technique to produce colloidal solution of nanoparticles with desired shape and size having surface free from chemical contamination, which is essential requirement for surface application of nanoparticles. The present work deals with the study of SERS of Crystal violet dye and Alizarin group dye on Cu@ Cu_2O and Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation. M. Fleishchmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillian Chem. Phys. Lett., 26, 163, 1974. U. Wenning, B. Pettinger, and H. Wetzel Chem. Phys. Lett., 70, 49, 1980. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, P. Ankit, M. C. Chattopadhyaya, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc

  18. Failure of intertrochanteric fracture fixation with a dynamic hip screw in relation to pre-operative fracture stability and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Han, C H; Park, J I; Kim, J Y

    2001-01-01

    We have reviewed 178 intertrochanteric fractures treated by dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation between March 1995 and December 1999 and followed for a minimum of 1 year. We used Singh's classification of the trabecular bone structure in the proximal femur as a measure of osteoporosis and also classified the fractures according to three different systems (Boyd-Griffin, Evans, AO). The postoperative radiographs were examined for loss of reduction, i.e. varus angulation >100, perforation of the femoral head, more than 20-mm extrusion of a lag screw or metal failure. We found 49 cases which showed radiographic failures. Two were stable fractures and 47 unstable fractures (Evans' classification). Unstable fractures with osteoporosis had a failure rate of more than 50%. In such cases DHS should not be the first choice for treatment. PMID:11820441

  19. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Inclusion of inverse triad corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh

    2016-06-01

    We consider the loop quantization of the (diagonal) Bianchi type IX cosmological model. We explore different quantization prescriptions that extend the work of Wilson-Ewing and Singh. In particular, we study two different ways of implementing the so-called inverse triad corrections. We construct the corresponding Hamiltonian constraint operators and show that the singularity is formally resolved. We find the effective equations associated with the different quantization prescriptions, and study the relation with the isotropic k = 1 model that, classically, is contained within the Bianchi IX model. Somewhat surprisingly, we find the most natural quantization does not reduce to the k = 1 model. We use geometrically defined scalar observables to explore the physical implications of each of these theories. This is the first part in a series of papers analyzing different aspects of the Bianchi IX model, with inverse corrections, within loop quantum cosmology (LQC).

  20. Signatures of Noncommutative Geometry in Muon Decay for Nonsymmetric Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dinesh; Mobed, Nader; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe

    2010-12-01

    It is shown how to identify potential signatures of noncommutative geometry within the decay spectrum of a muon in orbit near the event horizon of a microscopic Schwarzschild black hole. This possibility follows from a re-interpretation of Moffat’s nonsymmetric theory of gravity, first published in Phys. Rev. D 19:3554, 1979, where the antisymmetric part of the metric tensor manifests the hypothesized noncommutative geometric structure throughout the manifold. It is further shown that for a given sign convention, the predicted signatures counteract the effects of curvature-induced muon stabilization predicted by Singh and Mobed in Phys. Rev. D 79:024026, 2009. While it is unclear whether evidence for noncommutative geometry may become observable anytime soon, this approach at least provides a useful direction for future quantum gravity research based on the ideas presented here.

  1. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  2. Uptake and translocation of Cd[sup 109] by two aquatic ferns in relation to relative toxic response

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.; Viswanathan, P.N. ); Gupta, M.; Devi, S. )

    1993-12-01

    Considerable variations exist in the phytotoxic response of different plants to cadmium exposure and uptake as observed in experimental and field studies. Quantitative and qualitative variations in comparative anatomy, physiology and biochemistry could be responsible for selective toxicity. Variations in uptake, translocation, sequestration by cell wall, phytochelation or formation of inclusion bodies have been reported in phytotoxic response to cadmium. Earlier studies by Singh et al. (1991) with the aquatic fern Marsilea minuta Linn showed Cd[sup 2+] induced both ultrastructural lesions and metallothioneins at concentrations above 0.5 ppm. However, another aquatic fern, Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brogn was even more sensitive to the basis of this variation, the comparative uptake and translocation of radioactive Cd[sup 109] by these plans was studied. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  3. B2 RNA and 7SK RNA, RNA polymerase III transcripts, have a cap-like structure at their 5' end.

    PubMed Central

    Shumyatsky, G P; Tillib, S V; Kramerov, D A

    1990-01-01

    We found that hydrolysates of poly(A)+ RNA from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells which were transcribed by RNA polymerase III contained an unusual component designated as X. It was part of B2 RNA representing a transcript of B2 retroposon, typical of rodents. The component X possesses a cap-like structure, xppp5'G, where x has a non-nucleotide structure. About half of all B2 RNAs contained this group at the 5' end. Previously, Epstein et al. (1) detected a similar structure at the 5' end of small nuclear U6 RNA. Later, Singh and Reddy (2) showed methyl to be the blocking group in the component x of U6 RNA. Besides B2 RNA, we found 5' ends containing methyl groups in 7SK RNA. Images PMID:1700854

  4. Monogenoids from the gills of spiny eels (Teleostei: Mastacembelidae) in India and Iraq, proposal of Mastacembelocleidus gen. n., and status of the Indian species of Actinocleidus, Urocleidus and Haplocleidus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae).

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Pandey, K C; Agrawal, Nirupama; Abdullah, Shamall

    2004-12-01

    Mastacembelocleidus gen. n. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is proposed to include two species collected and redescribed from spiny eels (Mastacembelidae) in India and Iraq: Mastacembelocleidus bam (Tripathi, 1959) comb. n. (syn. Ancyrocephalus bam Tripathi, 1959) from the gills of Macrognathus pancalus (new host record) and Macrognathus aculeatus (Synbranchiformes: Mastacembelidae) from Lucknow, India; and Mastacembelocleidus heteranchorus (Kulkami, 1969) comb. n. (syn. Urocleidus heteranchorus Kulkarni, 1969) from the gills of Mastacembelus armatus from Lucknow, India, and Mastacembelus mastacembelus (new host record) from the environs of Erbil, Iraq (new locality record). Urocleidus rhyncobdelli Jain, 1959, Haliotrema tandani Agrawal et Singh, 1982 and Urocleidus raipurensis Dubey, Gupta et Agarwal, 1992 are considered junior subjective synonyms of M. bam. PMID:15729940

  5. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Archana; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Misuriya, Abhinav; Maroli, Sohani; Manjula, S; Singh, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic levels. It has the potential to bring enormous changes into the fields of medicine and dentistry. A day may soon come when nanodentistry will succeed in maintaining near-perfect oral health through the aid of nanorobotics, nanomaterials and biotechnology. However, as with all developments, it may also pose a risk for misuse. Time, economical and technical resources, and human needs will determine the direction this revolutionizing development may take. This article reviews the current status and the potential clinical applications of nanotechnology, nanaomedicine and nanodentistry. How to cite the article: Bhardwaj A, Bhardwaj A, Misuriya A, Maroli S, Manjula S, Singh AK. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future. J Int Oral Health 2013;6(1):121-6. PMID:24653616

  6. Nuclear data sheets update for A = 78

    SciTech Connect

    Rab, S.

    1991-05-01

    The experimental nuclear data for mass 78 have been reviewed superseding the 1981 evaluation by Singh and Viggars (81Si13). Nuclear structure, decay and reaction properties of all the nine isobars (An, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, and Sr) of mass 78 are reviewed, and an adopted data set for each nucleus is prepared with proper J{pi} arguments for the levels. There is not much new information available for {sup 78}Zn, {sup 78}Ga, {sup 78}Ge, {sup 78}As and {sup 78}Br. New data are available on heavy ion reactions for {sup 78}Se,k {sup 78}Kr, {sup 78}Rb and {sup 78}Sr as well as on particle transfer studies for 78 Ge, {sup 78}Se and {sup 78}Kr. There are also new experimental data available in (n, {gamma}) studies for {sup 78}Se.

  7. No-signaling, perfect bipartite dichotomic correlations and local randomness

    SciTech Connect

    Seevinck, M. P.

    2011-03-28

    The no-signaling constraint on bi-partite correlations is reviewed. It is shown that in order to obtain non-trivial Bell-type inequalities that discern no-signaling correlations from more general ones, one must go beyond considering expectation values of products of observables only. A new set of nontrivial no-signaling inequalities is derived which have a remarkably close resemblance to the CHSH inequality, yet are fundamentally different. A set of inequalities by Roy and Singh and Avis et al., which is claimed to be useful for discerning no-signaling correlations, is shown to be trivially satisfied by any correlation whatsoever. Finally, using the set of newly derived no-signaling inequalities a result with potential cryptographic consequences is proven: if different parties use identical devices, then, once they have perfect correlations at spacelike separation between dichotomic observables, they know that because of no-signaling the local marginals cannot but be completely random.

  8. A New Framework for Adptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, Barbara

    2005-06-01

    Yonas Demissie, a research assistant supported by the project, has successfully created artificial data and assimilated it into coupled Modflow and artificial neural network models. His initial findings show that the neural networks help correct errors in the Modflow models. Abhishek Singh has used test cases from the literature to show that performing model calibration with an interactive genetic algorithm results in significantly improved parameter values. Meghna Babbar, the third research assistant supported by the project, has found similar results when applying an interactive genetic algorithms to long-term monitoring design. She has also developed new types of interactive genetic algorithms that significantly improve performance. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has shown that sampling branches of phytoremediation trees is an accurate approach to estimating soil and groundwater contaminations in areas surrounding the trees at the Argonne 317/319 site.

  9. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, B.; Stenflo, L.; Bingham, R.; Mendonça, J. T.; Mendonça

    2013-12-01

    This special issue is devoted to the memory of Professor Padma Kant Shukla, who passed away 26 January 2013 on his travel to New Delhi, India to receive the prestigious Hind Rattan (Jewel of India) award. Padma was born in Tulapur, Uttar Pradesh, India, 7 July 1950, where he grew up and got his education. He received a PhD degree in Physics at the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, in 1972, under the supervision of late Prof. R. N. Singh, and a second PhD degree in Theoretical Plasma Physics from Umeå University in Sweden in 1975, under the supervision of Prof. Lennart Stenflo. He worked at the Faculty of Physics & Astronomy, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany since January 1973, where he was a permanent faculty member and Professor of International Affairs, a position that was created for him to honour his international accomplishments and reputation.

  10. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parul; Jain, Eesha; Khurana, Heena; Badole, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gingival health in the form of size, shape, consistency and appearance are essential components responsible for an attractive smile as well as may cause unpleasant appearance. Melanin pigmentation often occurs in the gingiva as a result of an abnormal deposition of melanin which can compromise the confidence level from the age of childhood. The present article describes and discusses the two cases of gingival melanin pigmentation in 12 and 13 years of female patient and their early surgical intervention with successful follow-up of 9 and 6 months. Patients were instructed to prevent sun exposure, intake of hot foods or beverages like cold drinks, tea, coffee and brushing immediately after surgery. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Singh P, Jain E, Khurana H, Badole G. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):197-200. PMID:25206222

  11. Management of pigmented gingiva in child patient: a new era to the pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Namdeoraoji Bahadure, Rakesh; Singh, Parul; Jain, Eesha; Khurana, Heena; Badole, Gautam

    2013-09-01

    Gingival health in the form of size, shape, consistency and appearance are essential components responsible for an attractive smile as well as may cause unpleasant appearance. Melanin pigmentation often occurs in the gingiva as a result of an abnormal deposition of melanin which can compromise the confidence level from the age of childhood. The present article describes and discusses the two cases of gingival melanin pigmentation in 12 and 13 years of female patient and their early surgical intervention with successful follow-up of 9 and 6 months. Patients were instructed to prevent sun exposure, intake of hot foods or beverages like cold drinks, tea, coffee and brushing immediately after surgery. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Singh P, Jain E, Khurana H, Badole G. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):197-200. PMID:25206222

  12. Landscape level analysis of disturbance regimes in protected areas of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, P. Hari; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Randeep; Jha, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify the human influence on landscape as disturbance regimes was realized for prioritization of the protected areas. The present study has attempted to describe the landscape level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geospatial analysis of disturbance regimes indicates 61.75% of the total PAs are under moderate disturbance index followed by 28.64% and 9.61% under low and high respectively. Among the 28 protected areas- National Chambal WLS, Jaisamand WLS, Kumbhalgarh WLS, Sawai Man Singh WLS, Kailadevi WLS and Bandh Baratha WLS are representing high level of disturbance. The present study has emphasized the moderate to low disturbance regimes in protected areas, which infer low biotic pressure and conservation effectiveness of PA network in Rajasthan. The spatial information generated on PAs is of valuable use for forest management and developing conservation strategies.

  13. Inertia in Friedmann Universes with variable and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.

    2015-09-01

    In light of the recent interest in dynamical dark energy models based on a cosmology with varying gravitational and cosmological parameters and , we present here a model of inertia in a type of Friedmann universe with ; being the dimensionless scale factor, that was recently studied by Singh et al. (Astrophys. Space Sci. 345:213, 2013). The proposed Machian model of inertia utilizes the curved space generalization of Sciama's law of inertial induction, which is based on the analogy between the retarded far fields of electrodynamics and those of gravitation, and expresses the total inertial force on an accelerating mass in terms of contributions from all matter in the observable Universe. We show that for a varying Friedmann model with , inertial induction alone can account for the total inertial force on the accelerating mass. We then compare this cosmological model with current observational constraints for the variation of.

  14. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  15. 2540 km: bimagic baseline for neutrino oscillation parameters.

    PubMed

    Dighe, Amol; Goswami, Srubabati; Ray, Shamayita

    2010-12-31

    We show that a source-to-detector distance of 2540 km, motivated recently [S. K. Raut, R. S. Singh, and S. U. Sankar, arXiv:0908.3741] for a narrow band superbeam, offers multiple advantages for a low energy neutrino factory with a detector that can identify muon charge. At this baseline, for any neutrino hierarchy, the wrong-sign muon signal is almost independent of CP violation and θ(13) in certain energy ranges. This allows the identification of the hierarchy in a clean way. In addition, part of the muon spectrum is also sensitive to the CP violating phase and θ(13), so that the same setup can be used to probe these parameters as well. PMID:21231644

  16. Early-time plasma expansion characteristics of ionized clouds in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1988-01-01

    A series of Vlasov-Poisson simulations were conducted with barium and lithium gas mixtures expanding into an O(+) background plasma, with the values for the Ba(+)/Li(+) composition ratios and the cloud/background density ratios based on anticipated release values in the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) experiment. The results obtained on the early-time expansion of high-density Ba(+), Li(+), and Ba(+)-Li(+) plasma clouds into low-density O(+) background plasma complement the H(+)-O(+) expansions of Gurevich et al. (1973) and Singh and Schunk (1982, 1983), and the characteristic features observed apply to the very-early-time expansion phase of the CRRES releases.

  17. Providencia vermicola sp. nov., isolated from infective juveniles of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema thermophilum.

    PubMed

    Somvanshi, Vishal S; Lang, Elke; Sträubler, Bettina; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Ganguly, Sudershan; Saxena, Anil K; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2006-03-01

    In the course of isolating bacteria from infective juveniles of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema thermophilum Ganguly & Singh, 2000, three isolates were obtained (OP1T, OP29 and VS3). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and riboprint patterns, these three strains were identical to each other but distinct from the type strains of the five recognized species of the genus Providencia. Based on biochemical and genomic analysis and supported by the low (<35 %) DNA-DNA relatedness between strain OP1T and the type strain of its phylogenetically closest relative, Providencia rettgeri (99.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), strain OP1T was considered to be sufficiently distinct from recognized Providencia species to warrant the description of a novel species. The name Providencia vermicola sp. nov. is proposed, with OP1T (= DSM 17385T = CIP 108829T) as the type strain. PMID:16514040

  18. Sex revolution and psychosocial disorder: a historical perspective on the delusion of medical neutrality.

    PubMed

    Trundle, Robert; Vossmeyer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We augment A. Singh's "Regulation of Human Sexual Behavior, Sex Revolution and Emergence of AIDS: A Historical Perspective," Bull. Ind. Inst. Hist. Med. (1997), by clarifying why medicine is ignored despite unprecedented pathogenic norms of Western society. While these societal norms are well correlated to etiological findings on divorce and extramarital sex, the norms cannot be rooted properly in our psychobiological nature without committing a 'naturalistic fallacy'. Accepted axiomatically in the West, the fallacy specifies that what ought to be the case is not inferable from what is the case about our nature. Thus although natural norms implicit in medicine were implied historically by a natural theology shared by major religions, the latter are wrongly deemed unscientific and irrelevant by secular politics. Lying furtively behind political policies that induce psychosocial disorders and preventable disease, the fallacy's exclusion is as relevant as medicine to averting disease. PMID:17154115

  19. Esse est percipi & verum factum est.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-12-01

    I go into the historical roots of the fundamental issues relating to the "interface theory of perception," concentrating on the sciences rather than on philosophy. The basic ideas have been around throughout historical time. In modern times--I concentrate on a period straddling 1900--they became perhaps "respectable," although interest has dwindled in the recent, post-World War II period. This has been due to an ill-conceived reliance on "physical reality" that has shaped the sciences and philosophy alike. An investigation of the historical development of these ideas serves to shed additional light on various topics treated in the target article (D.D.Hoffman, M.Singh and C.Prakash: The interface theory of perception (this issue)). PMID:26384990

  20. Determination of the stoichiometry, structure, and distribution in living cells of protein complexes from analysis of single-molecular-complexes FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneman, Michael R.; Patowary, S.; Roesch, M. T.; Singh, D. R.; Strogolov, V.; Oliver, J. A.; Raicu, V.

    2011-03-01

    Advances in two-photon microscopy with spectral resolution (TPM-SR) and the development of a simple theory of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for single molecular complexes recently lead to the development of a novel method for the determination of structure and localization in living cells of membrane protein complexes (Raicu et al., Nature Photon., 3, 2009). An appealing feature of this method is its ability to provide such important information while being unaffected by spurious signals originating from stochastic FRET (Singh and Raicu, Biophys. J., 98, 2010). We will present the results obtained from our recent studies of trimeric FRET calibration standards expressed in the cytoplasm of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, as well as a model G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the membrane of yeast. Emphasis will be placed on the measurement and analysis of single-molecular-complex FRET data for determination of the quaternary structure of some proteins (or the protein complex structure).

  1. Analytical Modeling for Mechanical Strength Prediction with Raman Spectroscopy and Fractured Surface Morphology of Novel Coconut Shell Powder Reinforced: Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Savita; Singh, Alok; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an analytical modeling and prediction of tensile and flexural strength of three dimensional micro-scaled novel coconut shell powder (CSP) reinforced epoxy polymer composites have been reported. The novel CSP has a specific mixing ratio of different coconut shell particle size. A comparison is made between obtained experimental strength and modified Guth model. The result shows a strong evidence for non-validation of modified Guth model for strength prediction. Consequently, a constitutive modeled equation named Singh model has been developed to predict the tensile and flexural strength of this novel CSP reinforced epoxy composite. Moreover, high resolution Raman spectrum shows that 40 % CSP reinforced epoxy composite has high dielectric constant to become an alternative material for capacitance whereas fractured surface morphology revealed that a strong bonding between novel CSP and epoxy polymer for the application as light weight composite materials in engineering.

  2. Ultrasonic disruption of algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. M.; Nowotarski, K.; Joyce, E. M.; Mason, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    During last decade there has been increasing interest in the production of sustainable fuels from microalgae (R.H. Wijffels and M.J. Barbosa, 2010; Singh et al 2011; D.H. Lee 2011). The aim of this project was to determine if algal cells can be ultrasonically disrupted to release lipids for biofuel production. Ultrasonic disruption of two unicellular algal species: Dunnaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated using a 20 kHz probe. Haemocytometer, optical density, UV-Vis, fluoro-spectrophotometer and confocal microscopy results demonstrated complete cell destruction of Dunaliella salina within 16 minutes of sonication. Results obtained for Nannochloropsis oculata differed in that ultrasound dispersed clumped cells with little or no cell disruption, as observed by haemocytometer and confocal microscopy analysis. However, UV-Visible and fluoro-spectrophotometer analysis indicated chlorophyll release following sonication, suggesting some cell disruption had occurred.

  3. Acknowledgements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Singh, Tejinder

    2014-03-01

    tifrLogo Vishwa Mimansa An interpretative exposition of the Universe Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) 14th-19th December, 2011 GOA, India (The conference component of the ICTS Programme: Frontiers of Cosmology and Gravitation 1st-23rd December, 2011) The Silver Jubilee Meeting of the ICGC series organized jointly by International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, TIFR & Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG) Publication sponsor: Sir Dorabji Tata Trust and the Allied Trusts Editors: B S Sathyaprakash and Tejinder P Singh Assistant Editor: V Chellathurai Conference Co-sponsors: Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune Association of Friends of Astronomy, Goa Centre for AstroParticle Physics, SINP, Kolkata Department of Science, Technology and Environment, Goa Foundational Questions Institute, USA Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad Infosys Science Foundation, Bangalore Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai iagrgicts

  4. Essentiality of Early Diagnosis of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Children and Review of its Clinical Presentation, Etiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhay Kumar; Saha, Sonali; Singh, Jaspal

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. It presents at eruption of these teeth. One to four molars, and often also the incisors, could be affected. Since first recognized, the condition has been puzzling and interpreted as a distinct phenomenon unlike other enamel disturbances. Early diagnosis is essential since, rapid breakdown of tooth structure may occur, giving rise to acute symptoms and complicated treatment. The purpose of this article is to review MIH and illustrate its diagnosis and clinical management in young children. How to cite this article: Garg N, Jain AK, Saha S, Singh J. Essentiality of Early Diagnosis of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Children and Review of its Clinical Presentation, Etiology and Management. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):190-196. PMID:25206166

  5. Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on plant and grain nutrition of wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Datta, Partha Sarathi

    2010-08-01

    We recently reported the use of low dose gamma irradiation to improve plant vigor, grain development and yield attributes of wheat ( Singh and Datta, 2010). Further, we report here the results of a field experiment conducted to assess the effect of gamma irradiation at 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 kGy on flag leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthetic rate and plant and grain nutritional quality. Gamma irradiation improved plant nutrition but did not improve the nutritional quality of grains particularly relating to micronutrients. Grain carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, was higher in irradiated grains. Low grain micronutrients seem to be caused by a limitation in the source to sink nutrient translocation rather than in the nutrient uptake capacity of the plant root.

  6. Characterization of MeV Electron Generation using 527 nm Laser Pulses for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosejevs, Robert; Higginson, D. P.; Friesen, H.; Sorokovikova, A.; Jarrott, C. C.; Link, A.; Kemp, G. E.; Hey, D.; Ping, Y.; Bush, I.; Tiedje, H. F.; Mo, M. Z.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Westover, B.; Beg, F. N.; Akli, K. U.; Freeman, R. R.; van Woerkom, L. D.; Schumacher, D.; Chen, C.; McLean, H. S.; Patel, P.; Doeppner, T.; Stephens, R. B.; Pasley, J.

    2011-10-01

    J WESTWOOD, J TAIT, A BEAUDRY, S SINGH, U of Alberta, and MH Key, LLNL. We investigate electron generation at intensities of relevance to Fast Ignition using second harmonic laser pulses, motivated by the need to understand the wavelength scaling of the processes and also the ability to obtain clean, prepulse free, target interaction conditions. 700fs duration pulses with peak intensities up to 5 x 1019 W cm-2 were employed at the TITAN laser facility at LLNL. Both planar and cone target geometries were studied using copper k-alpha imaging of tracer layers, Bremsstrahlung x-ray emission measurements of conversion efficiency and beam divergence and magnetic spectrometer measurements of escaping electrons to characterize the electron generation and propagation. Results of electron temperature and angular divergence will be presented.

  7. A Shape-Memory Alloy Thermal Conduction Switch for Use at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Raj

    2004-01-01

    The following summarizes the activities performed under NASA grant NAG10-323 from September 1, 2002 through September 30, 2004 at the. Univ ersity of Central Florida. A version of this has already been submitt ed for publication in the international journal Swart Materials and S tructures in December 2004. Additionally, a version of this has alrea dy appeared in print in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, American Institute of Physics, (2004) 50A 26-3; in an article entitled "A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch" by V.B. Krish nan. J.D. Singh. T.R. Woodruff. W.U. Notardonato and R. Vaidyanathan (article is attached at the end of this report).

  8. A taxonomic review of the genus Goffartia Hirschmann, 1952 (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae) with a note on the relationship of congeners.

    PubMed

    Tahseen, Qudsia; Mustaqim, Malka

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the descriptions and diagnoses of the species of the relatively rare and poorly-understood genus Goffartia Hirschmann, 1952. A comparative account of the salient morphological characters including stoma, amphids, pharynx, and the male accessory sex organs of the six species viz., G. africana (Micoletzky, 1915) Hirschmann, 1952; G. filicaudata (Andrássy, 1968) Sudhaus & Fürst von Lieven, 2003; G. heteroceri Hirschmann, 1952; G. praepilata Shoshin, 1989 and G. variabilis (Micoletzky, 1922) Hirschmann, 1952 and the recently described G. phalacra Singh, Yousuf, Kumar & Ahmad, 2014, has been given. This paper also discusses the variations among and the relationships between these congeners, and provides an identification key. PMID:26624431

  9. Possible Indian participation in a 10 metre optical telescope project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    A special session on "Possible Indian participation in a 10 meter optical telescope" was organised at the XIX Annual Meeting of the Astronomical Society of India on 2 February 1999 at Bangalore. The following presentations were made in this session: Introductory remarks by S. N. Tandon, 10m GTC Project and possible Indian participation by K. P. Singh, Science with 10m telescope: Extragalactic studies by A. K. Kembhavi and Science with 10m telescope : Galactic studies by N. K. Rao. Also, a number of observational programmes with the 10 metre telescope were presented in the posters on display. After the presentations, a panel discussion was organised. The panelists were Gopal Krishna (NCRA), T. P. Prabhu (IIA), A. Ray (TIFR) and S. N. Tandon (IUCAA). Prof. B. V. Sreekantan (NIAS) presided over and summarized the panel discussion. The poster presentations and the summary of the panel discussion are being reproduced here in the following articles.

  10. Usefulness of the Modified NRCS-CN Method for the Assessment of Direct Runoff in a Mountain Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wałęga, Andrzej; Rutkowska, Agnieszka

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of modified methods, developed on the basis of NRCS-CN method, in determining the size of an effective rainfall (direct runoff). The analyses were performed for the mountain catchment of the Kamienica river, right-hand tributary of the Dunajec. The amount of direct runoff was calculated using the following methods: (1) Original NRCS-CN model, (2) Mishra- Singh model (MS model), (3) Sahu-Mishra-Eldho model (SME model), (4) Sahu 1-p model, (5) Sahu 3-p model, and (6) Q_base model. The study results indicated that the amount of direct runoff, determined on the basis of the original NRCS-CN method, may differ significantly from the actually observed values. The best results were achieved when the direct runoff was determined using the SME and Sahu 3-p model.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Electronic Apex Locators and Radiovisiography for Working Length Determination in Primary Teeth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neerja; Rathore, Monika S; Tandon, Shobha; Rajkumar, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two different varieties of electronic apex locators and radiovisiography (RVG) for working length determination in primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of 30 primary teeth indicated for pulpectomy in children aged 3 to 8 years were randomly selected and subjected to working length determination using two varieties of electronic apex locators and RVG separately. The data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A very strong correlation between electronic measurement methods and RVG length was observed. Conclusion: Radiovisiography and apex locators are equally effective in determining working length in primary teeth. How to cite this article: Abdullah A, Singh N, Rathore MS, Tandon S, Rajkumar B. Comparative Evaluation of Electronic Apex Locators and Radiovisiography for Working Length Determination in Primary Teeth in vivo. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):118-123. PMID:27365931

  12. Study of naturally occurring Precambrian native iron through high-pressure Mössbauer Spectroscopy up to 10 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Usha; Parthasarathy, G.

    2009-06-01

    We report here the Mössbauer spectroscopic studies on native iron sample obtained from Proterozoic Mica Schist of Chaibasa SinghBhum craton of Eastern India at ambient condition as well as under high pressure up to 10 GPa using Diamond Anvil Cell and 4:1 methanol -- ethanol mixture as hydrostatic pressure medium. The results were compared with the studies on metallic iron under high pressure [1,2] . A slight variation in isomer shift up to 5.6 GPa and onset of a new peak corresponding to BCC->HCP transformation at 9.1 GPa might indicate the magnitude of impact experienced by the sample before attaining the thermodynamical equilibrium. [1] Pipkorn D.N., Edge C.K., Debrunner P., De Pasquali G., Drickamer H.G. and Fraunfelder H. (1964) 135, 1604. [2] Chandra usha, Mudgal Prerana, Kumar Manoj, Rawat Rajeev, Parthasarathy, Dilawar Nita and Bandyopadhyay A.K. (2005), Hyper. Inter.163, 129.

  13. Management of stroke risk factors during the process of rehabilitation. Secondary stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Halar, E M

    1999-11-01

    Epidemiologic and prospective cohort studies have shown a strong correlation between risk factors and stroke morbidity and mortality. The reduction or control of risk factors, on the other hand, can reduce stroke morbidity and mortality. Rehabilitation professionals involved in comprehensive rehabilitation of stroke patients may include the management of risk factors in the scope of their practice and thus contribute to longer life expectancy and improved quality of life of these patients. Decreasing disability, improving quality of life, and prolonging life are chief goals of the rehabilitation process. This article reviews the rationale for risk management and stresses the value of aerobic and conditioning exercises and is intended to supplement the article on stroke prevention co-authored by Daryl Gress and Vineeta Singh. PMID:10573711

  14. Description and evaluation of the QUIC bio-slurry scheme: droplet evaporation and surface deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zajic, Dragan; Brown, Michael J; Nelson, Matthew A; Williams, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC) dispersion modeling system was developed with the goal of improving the transport and dispersion modeling capabilities within urban areas. The modeling system has the ability to rapidly obtain a detailed 3D flow field around building clusters and uses an urbanized Lagrangian random-walk approach to account for transport and dispersion (e.g., see Singh et al., 2008; Williams et al., 2009; and Gowardhan et al., 2009). In addition to wind-tunnel testing, the dispersion modeling system has been evaluated against full-scale urban tracer experiments performed in Salt Lake City, Oklahoma City, and New York City (Gowardhan et al., 2006; Gowardhan et al., 2009; Allwine et al., 2008) and the wind model output to measurements taken in downtown Oklahoma City.

  15. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Thayath, Muhamad Nishad; Singh, Shikha; Sinha, Anju

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm and low birthweight children comprise approximately 6% of all live births. It is now a well-known fact that premature children experience many oral complications associated with their preterm births. Prematurely born infants have a short prenatal development period and they are prone to many serious medical problems during the neonatal period, which may affect the development of oral tissues. Adverse perinatal factors, premature birth and exceptional early adaptation to extra-uterine life and functional activity may influence dental occlusal development and symmetry in the jaws. Thus, the goal of the present paper is to elucidate further the effect of preterm birth on the development of the dentition. How to cite this article: Zaidi I, Thayath MN, Singh S, Sinha A. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 215-219. PMID:26628856

  16. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 192

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2012-08-15

    Experimental structure and decay data for all nuclei with mass A=192 (Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At) have been evaluated. This evaluation, covering data received by 15 June 2012, supersedes the 1998 evaluation by C. M. Baglin (Nuclear Data Sheets84, 717 (1998), literature cutoff August 1998) and the subsequent inclusion in the ENSDF database of the new nuclide {sup 192}At (C. M. Baglin, literature cutoff 16 May 2006). It also incorporates the current evaluation of superdeformed-band information by B. Singh. Since the last publication, {sup 192}Ta, {sup 192}W and {sup 192}At have been observed, and an isomeric state has been identified in {sup 192}Re. The {epsilon} decay of {sup 192}Au has been studied using a multidetector array resulting in an extensively revised level scheme for {sup 192}Pt.

  17. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 1. The Electron

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 1. The Electron Just over a century ago, British physicist J.J. Thompson experimenting with electric currents and charged particles inside empty glass tubes, showed that atoms are divisible into indivisible elementary particles. But how could atoms be built up of these so called "corpuscles"? An exciting 30 year race ensued, to grasp the planetary model of the atom with its orbiting electrons, and the view inside the atom was born. Whilst the number of electrons around the nucleus of an atom determines their the chemistry of all elements, the power of electrons themselves have been harnessed for everyday use: electron beams for welding,cathode ray tubes and radiation therapy.

  18. Effects of differential rotation on the periods of small adiabatic oscillations of stars in binary systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V. P.; Sharma, M. K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a method for computing the eigenfrequencies of small adiabatic oscillations of stellar models distorted by differential rotation and tidal forces. The method is based on the approach adopted by Mohan and Singh (1982) in conjunction with the averaging concept introduced by Kippenhahn and Thomas (1970). The angular velocity of rotation is assumed to be the function of the square of the distance of fluid element from the axis of rotation. Tidal distortions are assumed to be caused by a nearby point mass. Such studies have practical importance in astrophysics in determining the periods of small adiabatic oscillations of differentially rotating stars in binary systems. Comparison of results with observational data is also presented.

  19. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 4. The Neutrino

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". It's the most populous particle in the universe. Millions of these subatomic particles are passing through each one of us. With no charge and virtually no mass they can penetrate vast thicknesses of matter without any interaction - indeed the sun emits huge numbers that pass through earth at the speed of light. Neutrinos are similar to the more familiar electron, with one crucial difference: neutrinos do not carry electric charge. As a result they're extremely difficult to detect . But like HG Wells' invisible man they can give themselves away by bumping into things at high energy and detectors hidden in mines are exploiting this to observe these rare interactions.

  20. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 1. The Electron

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 1. The Electron Just over a century ago, British physicist J.J. Thompson experimenting with electric currents and charged particles inside empty glass tubes, showed that atoms are divisible into indivisible elementary particles. But how could atoms be built up of these so called "corpuscles"? An exciting 30 year race ensued, to grasp the planetary model of the atom with its orbiting electrons, and the view inside the atom was born. Whilst the number of electrons around the nucleus of an atom determines their the chemistry of all elements, the power of electrons themselves have been harnessed for everyday use: electron beams for welding,cathode ray tubes and radiation therapy.

  1. Research Burnout: a refined multidimensional scale.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra N; Dalal, Nikunj; Mishra, Sanjay

    2004-12-01

    In a prevailing academic climate where there are high expectations for faculty to publish and generate grants, the exploration of Research Burnout among higher education faculty has become increasingly important. Unfortunately, it is a topic that has not been well researched empirically. In 1997 Singh and Bush developed a unidimensional scale to measure Research Burnout. A closer inspection of the definition of this construct and the composition of its items suggests, however, that the construct may be multidimensional and analogous to Maslach's Psychological Burnout Scale. In this paper, we propose a refined, multidimensional Research Burnout scale and test its factorial validity using confirmatory factor analysis. The nomological validity of this refined scale is established by examining hypothesized relationships between Research Burnout and other constructs such as Intrinsic Motivation for doing research, Extrinsic Pressures to do research, and Knowledge Obsolescence. PMID:15762409

  2. Map showing depth to bedrock of the Tacoma and part of the Centralia 30' x 60' quadrangles, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan-Banks, Jane M.; Collins, Donley S.

    1994-01-01

    The heavily populated Puget Sound region in the State of Washington has experienced moderate to large earthquakes in the recent past (Nuttli, 1952; Mullineaux and others, 1967). Maps showing thickness of unconsolidated sedimentary deposits are useful aids in delineating areas where damage to engineered structures can result from increased shaking resulting from these earthquakes. Basins containing thick deposits of unconsolidated materials can amplify earthquakes waves and cause far more damage to structures than the same waves passing through bedrock (Singh and others, 1988; Algermissen and others, 1985). Configurations of deep sedimentary basins can also cause reflection and magnification of earthquake waves in ways still not fully understood and presently under investigation (Frankel and Vidale, 1992).

  3. A Method for Calculating Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of a Helium-Xenon Gas Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    A method for calculating viscosity and thermal conductivity of a helium-xenon (He-Xe) gas mixture was employed, and results were compared to AiResearch (part of Honeywell) analytical data. The method of choice was that presented by Hirschfelder with Singh's third-order correction factor applied to thermal conductivity. Values for viscosity and thermal conductivity were calculated over a temperature range of 400 to 1200 K for He-Xe gas mixture molecular weights of 20.183, 39.94, and 83.8 kg/kmol. First-order values for both transport properties were in good agreement with AiResearch analytical data. Third-order-corrected thermal conductivity values were all greater than AiResearch data, but were considered to be a better approximation of thermal conductivity because higher-order effects of mass and temperature were taken into consideration. Viscosity, conductivity, and Prandtl number were then compared to experimental data presented by Taylor.

  4. Dental and Periodontal Health Status of Beta Thalassemia Major and Sickle Cell Anemic Patients: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaideep; Singh, Nitin; Kumar, Amit; Kedia, Neal Bharat; Agarwal, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to assess the dental and periodontal health status of beta thalassemia major and sickle cell anemic patients in Bilaspur, Chattishgarh, India. Materials & Methods: A total of 750 patients were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups I (n=250), II (n=250) and III (n=250), ranging from 3-15 years. After performing a thourough general examination, including their demographic data, intraoral examination was done using Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth Index (DMFT Index), Plaque index (PI) and Gingival index (GI). Statistical analysis was done using statistical software SPSS 17.5 version. Chi square test & student t test was used for the comparison of study and control groups. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: In the present study, it was found that, prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases was significantly more in beta thalassemic patients followed by sickle cell anemic patients than control group. However, when group I (beta thalassemia) was compared with group II (sickle cell anemia), results were found to highly significant (P<0.001) only for decayed missing filled tooth. Conclusion: Appropriate dental and periodontal care improves a patient's quality of life. Preventive dental care is must for thalassemic and Sickle cell disease patients. How to cite this article: Singh J, Singh N, Kumar A, Kedia NB, Agarwal A. Dental and Periodontal Health Status of Beta Thalassemia Major and Sickle Cell Anemic Patients: A Comparative Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):53-8. PMID:24324305

  5. Moisture characteristics over Indian region during Summer Monsoon using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardanan, Rajesh; Rajanayagam, Lorna; Mohanakumar, Kesavapillai

    In this study, the spatial characteristics of the total Precipitable Water during monsoon season over Indian region, based on the sensitivity experiments performed by a regional climate model for an anomalously dry year. The present study uses a recent version (Version-III) of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). RegCM3 has been integrated at 60 km horizontal resolution over the Indian domain. The planetary boundary layer scheme used is that of Holtslag, cumulus parameterization scheme Emanuel of MIT, SUBEX large scale precipitation scheme and BATS ocean flux parameterization scheme. The model is run from 1st May to 30th September. The first month is taken for the spin up. The next four months are taken to study the monsoon. The experiments are carried out by increasing the initial conditions of Sea Surface Temperature by steps of 0.1 degree ranging up to 1degree. The change in the Total Precipitable water and their spatial distribution are studied. The zonal and meridional moisture transports are also analysed. The features simulated by RegCM3 are compared with those of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Key words:- Peninsular India, model integration, Monsoon Rainfall Reference: K. C. chow, Yiming Liu, Johnny C. L. Chan and Yihui Ding, Int. J. Climatol. 26: 1339-1359 (2006) K. C. Chow, Hang-Wai Tong and Johnny C. L. Chan, Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-007- 0301-6 G. P. Singh, Jai-Ho Oh, Jin-Young Kim and Ok-Yeon Kim; ", SOLA, Vol. 2, pp.29-32 (2006) Dash S. K., Shekhar M. S., Singh G. P. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 86(1-4): 161 (2006)

  6. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    PubMed

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%). PMID:27390647

  7. Core-Penetrating Rydberg Series of BaF: New Electronic States in the n* ≈ 4 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubek, Zygmunt J.; Field, Robert W.

    1996-09-01

    We report results of our studies of the electronic spectrum of the BaF molecule in the energy region of T0= 31 460-32 400 cm -1(3.88 < n* < 4.16). We have observed four new electronic states (all constants in cm -1): K2Π 1/2( T0= 31 996), 4.08 2Σ +( T0= 32 166.293(2), B0= 0.2333892(17)), 3.94 2Δ ( T1= 32 252.426(2), B1= 0.2294684(16), A1= 0.879(13)), and J2Π ( T0= 32 297.918(2), B0= 0.22952165(51), A0= 57.196(1)). In addition, the previously observed G2Σ +( T0= 30 969.715(2), B0= 0.2297411(13)) and H2Σ +( T0= 31 606.238(2), B0= 0.23031573(85)) states were rotationally analyzed for the first time. We verified by isotope analysis that the G2Σ +state, previously reported by J. Singh and H. Mohan [ Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys.11,918-922 (1973)], had been incorrectly assigned vibrationally. The I2Σ +state, which Singh and Mohan observed at low resolution, was absent from our spectra and we suspect that this state belongs to a species other than BaF. Electronic term values for the remaining seven not yet observed BaF core-penetrating Rydberg states below n* = 6 were predicted by interpolation of well-characterized Rydberg series. We suggest that the E″ state, assigned by Effantin et al.as a 2Π 1/2state [C. Effantin, A. Bernard, J. D'Incan, E. Andrianavalona, and R. F. Barrow, J. Mol. Spectrosc.145,456-457 (1991)] must be reassigned as a 2Δ state.

  8. Inferences on sediment provenance and source weathering using major, trace and Sr-Nd isotopic compositional variations in alluvial sediments from Sirhind, Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, D.; Amir, M.; Sinha, R.; Singh, A.; Balakrishnan, S.

    2013-12-01

    sediments show less radiogenic Sr and more radiogenic Nd (Higher Himalayan signature) whereas sediments deposited around the post-LGM show more radiogenic Sr and less radiogenic in Nd (Lesser Himalayan signature). These variations can be attributed to decreased monsoon precipitation and larger ice cover over the Higher Himalaya during LGM that reduced Higher Himalayan contribution to the post-LGM samples. Similarly, decreasing glacial cover during Holocene may have resulted in relatively more sediment contribution from the Higher Himalayas giving rise to lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher ɛNd values. The findings of this study are consistent with those from the down-stream (Ghaggar river) core sediments2 and Ganga-Yamuna interfluve sediments1. Sr-Nd compositions coupled with CIA values indicate a dominant control of climate on provenance and source weathering. 1Rahaman, W., S. K. Singh., R. Sinha., and S. K. Tondon (2009), Geology, 37, 559-526. 2Singh, A., D. Paul., S. K. Singh., and R. Sinha (2013), PAGES 4th meeting, Goa, India.

  9. Seismo-electromagnetic phenomena in the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Biagi, Pier; Namorado Rosa, Rui; Salgueiro da Silva, Manuel; Caldeira, Bento; Heitor Reis, Artur; Borges, José Fernando; Tlemçani, Mouhaydine; Manso, Marco

    2010-05-01

    variations of EM properties of the crust/plate in relation with the strain field, and in space in relation with composition and temperature and stress fields. Further, the interplay between atmospheric (and solar) perturbations with crust perturbations will be monitored, to observe geomagnetic perturbations at different locations. Our study will be focused in the analyses of low magnitude earthquakes with M =< 4, these events are frequent in the WENP region, but have been almost completely disregarded in literature [5,6]. [1] J. Borges, A. J. S. Fitas, M. Bezzeghoud, and P. Teves-Costa, Tectonophysics 337, 373 (2001). [2] V. Chauhan, O.P. Singh, V. Kushwah, V. Singh, B. Singh, Journal of Geodynamics 48, 68 (2009). [3] L. Telesca, V. Lapenna, M. Macchiato, and K. Hattori, Earth and Planet. Science Lett. 268, 219 (2008). [4] P. F. Biagi, L. Castellana, T. Maggipinto, D. Loiacono, L. Schiavulli, T. Ligonzo, M. Fiore, E. Suciu, and A. Ermini, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 9, 1551 (2009). [5] A. Rozhnoi , M.S. Solovieva, O.A. Molchanov, and M. Hayakawa, Phys. and Chem. of the Earth 29, 589-598 (2004). [6] K. Hattori, I. Takahashi, C. Yoshino, N. Isezaki, H. Iwasaki, M. Harada, K. Kawabata, E. Kopytenko, Y. Kopytenko, P. Maltsev, V. Korepanov, O. Molchanov, M. Hayakawa, Y. Noda, T. Nagao, S. Uyeda, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 29, 481-494 (2004).

  10. Application of an extension of the MAI method to the Acapulco City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, M.; Aguirre, J.

    2001-12-01

    The site effects and the source parameters, are inverted from a Fourier displacement spectra of seismograms that are corrected by geometrical spreading and regional attenuation valid for south center of Mexico(Ordaz and Singh, 1992). We used Genetic Algorithms (GA) to perform the non-linear inversion, like in the MAI method (Moya et al., 2000) . The GA have proved to produce better results than other traditional methods which are frequently trapped in a local minimum. GA is a method that mimics the evolution laws in living creatures. The best individuals reproduce and develop themselves with every generation. In our case each individual correspond to one source and the genes correspond to the source parameters. As in nature, the best source remain and are improved with each iteration. We assume that the site effect at each station are the same independently of the earthquake, because of that we can search for the combination of sources that can produce the smaller standard deviation of the estimated site effects from the different Fourier displacement earthquake spectra. Then we use the obtained site effects to generate a Fourier displacement spectra of an earthquake scenario. With this, we are able to compute the response spectra by means of random vibration theory (Reinoso et al., 1990). We apply this method to four stations located in the Acapulco City, Mexico, that recorded four earthquakes with epicenter located in the Guerrero Subduction Zone. The site effect estimated for one of the stations, called ACAZ, shows a good agreement with the estimated by Chávez-García et al. (1994) using spectral ratios between the ACAZ station and a rock reference site. Also we compare the response spectra from other earthquake, obtained by the former method and the response spectra computed using the acceleration record. We find an acceptable correlation between them. Chávez-García, J. Cuenca y M. Cárdenas (1994), "Estudio complementario de efectos de sitio en Acapulco

  11. Numerical modelling of potential submarine landslides and generated tsunami in Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Nieto, E.; Mangeney, A.; Singh, S. C.; Chauhan, A.; Bouchut, F.; Castro Díaz, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggests that tsunami risk along the SW coast of Sumatra could be due to co-seismic slip along a backthrust at the NE Margin of the Mentawai Island and associated landslides (Singh et al., 2010). Using a combination of high-resolution seismic reflection and bathymetry data, they observed deposits of large submarine landslides at the NE margin of Mentawai Island and suggest that the high wave that occurred in 1797 might have been enhanced by landslides, producing a large localised tsunami. Until now most of the work devoted to tsunami hazard assessment in the area of Sumatra Island focussed on megaearthquakes earthquakes generated tsunamis. Therefore, estimating the run up heights due to submarine landslides is essential for risk mitigation along the SW coast of Sumatra. A series of numerical scenarios are performed here to simulate potential submarine landslides and generated tsunamis in the area of Sumatra Island. The height and velocity of the water wave and the impact zones are calculated using a new numerical model solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with high order finite volume methods. This model corresponds to the 2D extension of the model developed by Fernández-Nieto et al., 2008. The fluidized mass is modeled using a generalization of the Savage-Hutter model [Savage and Hutter, 1989] by including the role of buoyancy and fluid into the thin-layer equations with a Coulomb-type friction law. Our model takes into account the coupling between the fluid and the landslides and incorporates the rigorous description of topography effects that play a key role in the dynamics of landslides. We study the magnitude of variation of the wave expected depending on the location and volume released. These results shows that landslide generated tsunamis have to be taken into account for risk assessment in the area of Sumatra Island. E.D. Fernández-Nieto, F. Bouchut, D. Bresch, M.J. Castro, A. Mangeney, 2008. A new Savage-Hutter type model

  12. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ira J.; Godinez, Guillermo L.; Singh, Baljit K.; McCaughey, Kelly M.; Alcantara, Raniel R.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S.; Nguyen, Henry N.; Friera, Annabelle M.; White, Kathy A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Claypool, Mark D.; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C.; Gelman, Marina S.; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L.; Creger, Daniel P.; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Powers, Scott K.; Masuda, Esteban S.; Taylor, Vanessa C.; Payan, Donald G.; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.—Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  13. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  14. Effects of warm Arabian Sea Surface Temperature on the Summer Monsoon over Peninsular Indian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardanan, Rajesh; Mohanakumar, Kesavapillai; Rajanayagam, Lorna

    This study investigates the characteristics of circulation and precipitation during monsoon season over peninsular Indian region, based on the sensitivity experiments performed by a regional climate model for the year 2002. The present study uses a recent version (Version-III) of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). The planetary boundary layer scheme used is that of Holtslag, cumulus parameterization scheme Emanuel of MIT, SUBEX large scale precipitation scheme and BATS ocean flux parameterization scheme. The model is run from 1st May to 30th September. The first month is taken for the spin up. The next four months are taken to study the monsoon. RegCM3 has been integrated at 60 km horizontal resolution over the Indian domain. The experiments are carried out by changing the initial conditions of Sea Surface Temperature by 0.1 degree steps ie. 0.1, 0.2 etc. to 1 degree maximum. The sensitivity experiments showed that the wind strength increases significantly to the northeastern and central parts of India. The change in wind strength is pronounced over the southern peninsula when the Sea Surface Temperature increased by 0.4 degree. The response in precipitation over the peninsular Indian region is also studied. The monsoon circulation features simulated by RegCM3 are compared with those of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and the simulated rainfall is validated against observations from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Key words:- Peninsular India, model integration, Monsoon Rainfall Reference: K. C. chow, Yiming Liu, Johnny C. L. Chan and Yihui Ding, Int. J. Climatol. 26: 1339-1359 (2006) K. C. Chow, Hang-Wai Tong and Johnny C. L. Chan, Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-007- 0301-6 G. P. Singh, Jai-Ho Oh, Jin-Young Kim and Ok-Yeon Kim; ", SOLA, Vol. 2, pp.29-32 (2006) Dash S. K., Shekhar M. S., Singh G. P. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 86(1-4): 161 (2006)

  15. Raman scattering investigations of the interaction of a COV with pure and acid doped ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facq, S.; Oancea, A.; Focsa, C.; Chazallon, B.

    2009-04-01

    (183 K to 273 K). Information at the molecular level on the surface structure can be derived from accompanying changes observed in band shapes and vibrational mode frequencies. The influence of the presence of nitric acid on the molecular interactions with the trapped organic species in ice particles can be also spectroscopically characterized. (1) Gao et al., Science, 2004, 303, 516. (2) Journet et al., J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, 109, 14112. (3)H. Singh, M. Kanakidou, P.J Crutzen & D.J Jacob, Nature, 1995, 378, 50. (4)H. Singh, Y. Chen, A. Staudt, D. Jacob, D. Blake, B. Heikes & J. Snow, Nature, 2001, 410, 1078. (5)F. Dominé & P.B Shepson, Science, 2002, 297, 1506

  16. Microbial Decontamination of Dried Alaska Pollock Shreds Using Corona Discharge Plasma Jet: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soee; Puligundla, Pradeep; Mok, Chulkyoon

    2016-04-01

    Nonthermal techniques for microbial decontamination are becoming more common for ensuring food safety. In this study, a corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) was used for inactivation of microbial contaminants of dried Alaska pollock shreds. Corona plasma jet was generated at a current strength of 1.5 A, and a span length of 25 mm was maintained between the electrode tip and the sample. Upon the CDPJ treatment (0 to 3 min) of dried shreds, microbial contaminants namely aerobic and marine bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus were inactivated by 2.5, 1.5, and >1.0 log units, respectively. Also, a one-log reduction of molds and yeasts contaminants was observed. The inactivation patterns are fitted well to the pseudo-first-order kinetics or Singh-Heldman model. The CDPJ treatment did not exert statistically significant (P > 0.05) changes in physicochemical properties, namely color characteristics, volatile basic nitrogen, and peroxide value of dried fish shreds, with some exceptions, as compared to untreated controls. Furthermore, CDPJ treatment had no significant impact on the sensory characteristics of dried fish shreds. PMID:26953810

  17. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Aman; Singh, Vijay Pratap

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the most important steps is accurate impression making for fabrication of fixed partial denture. The two different putty-wash techniques that are commonly used are: (1) Putty-wash one-step technique, (2) putty-wash two-step technique. A uniform wash space is needed for an accurate impression. Nissan et al recommended the use of two-step technique for accurate impression making as there is uniform wash space for the light body material to polymerize. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of stone casts obtained from different putty-wash impression techniques using various spacer thickness. The critical factor that influences the accuracy of putty-wash impression techniques is the controlled wash bulk which is absent in one-step putty-wash impression technique and with polyethylene spacer was used. How to cite this article: Chugh A, Arora A, Singh VP. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):33-38. PMID:25206132

  18. Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. J.; Haberl, H.

    2012-04-01

    Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales Simron Jit Singh and Helmut Haberl Institute of Social Ecology, Vienna, Austria Understanding trajectories of change in coupled socio-ecological (or human-environment) systems requires monitoring and analysis at several spatial and temporal scales. Long-term ecosystem research (LTER) is a strand of research coupled with observation systems and infrastructures (LTER sites) aimed at understanding how global change affects ecosystems around the world. In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that sustainability concerns require extending this approach to long-term socio-ecological research, i.e. a more integrated perspective that focuses on interaction processes between society and ecosystems over longer time periods. Thus, Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research, abbreviated LTSER, aims at observing, analyzing, understanding and modelling of changes in coupled socio-ecological systems over long periods of time. Indeed, the magnitude of the problems we now face is an outcome of a much longer process, accelerated by industrialisation since the nineteenth century. The paper will provide an overview of a book (in press) on LTSER with particular emphasis on 'socio-ecological transitions' in terms of material, energy and land use dynamics across temporal and spatial scales.

  19. Computation of phonon dispersion in non-crystalline Mg-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    The computation of the phonon dispersion curves (PDC) and the related properties of three Mg-based metallic glasses, viz. Mg70Zn30, Mg84Ni16 and Mg85.5Cu14.5, are made using the well recognized model potential of Gajjar et al. The pseudo-alloy atom model is applied for the first time instead of the Vegard's law. The three theoretical approaches given by Hubbard-Beeby, Takeno-Goda and Bhatia-Singh are used in the present study to compute the PDC of the systems. Five local-field correction functions proposed by Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru-Utsumi, Farid et al. and Sarkar et al. are employed for the first time to see the effects of exchange and correlation. The thermodynamic and elastic properties are computed from the elastic limits of the PDC and found to be in qualitative agreement with the available theoretical or experimental data. The present findings for the PDC of Mg70Zn30 alloy are found in fair agreement with available theoretical and experimental data.

  20. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  1. Half-Life and Magnetic Moment of the First Excited State in ^132I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, S.; Tanigaki, M.; Ouchi, H.; Sasaki, A.; Hoshino, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Sato, N.; Shimada, K.; Wakui, T.; Shinozuka, T.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2009-10-01

    The half-life and the magnetic moment of the first excited state in ^132I are reported. There have been a long time confusion on the half-life measurements of the first excited state in ^132I. Several groups performed the lifetime measurements, but the reported values range from 1 ns to 7 ns. The only reported value of the magnetic moment for this state was measured by Singh, but their result should be treated as unreliable because the time-integral perturbed angular correlation technique (TIPAC), which requires the life time data of this state, was used in their measurement. From this point of view, the half-life and the magnetic moment of this state were measured. ^132I was obtained as the radioactive beam of ^132Te and ^132Sb from the newly developed RF-IGISOL (Radio Frequency IGISOL system) at Tohoku University. The half-life for this state was determined to be 1.120 ± 0.015 ns by a conventional coincidence technique with a pair of BaF2 detectors. The TDPAC measurement for the ^132I implanted kinematically into nickel was performed with the help of a strong hyperfine field at iodine site in nickel, and the magnetic moment of this state was determined to be μ=+ (2.06 ± 0.18)μN. The configuration of this state based on the present results will be discussed.

  2. An exposure-response method for assessing the long term health effects of the bhopal gas disaster.

    PubMed

    Dhara, V R; Kriebel, D

    1993-12-01

    Approximately 200,000 persons were exposed to methyl isocyanate in the Bhopal Gas leak in Bhopal, India. 4037 deaths have resulted and 30 per cent of the population are estimated to be suffering from long-term health effects. Though inflammatory damage to the eyes and lungs is the main cause of morbidity, other systems are also reported to be affected. For a disaster of this magnitude, there is a relative paucity of medical information. Very little information has been published on the late recovery period, a phase in which the detection of chronic and long-term effects is vital. Early cross-sectional studies suffer from a number of defects in study design, including validity and precision of exposure and outcome variables, selection of study and control groups, etc. By using exposure concentrations derived from Singh's analytic dispersion model, this paper outlines a strategy for doing community epidemiology in Bhopal using exposure strata for sampling. Pulmonary dose can be estimated from exposure concentration, duration and activity during exposure. For respiratory end-points, a sample size of 100/stratum will ensure study power of 90 per cent. Using multiple linear regression, data from the study can be used to build a model for prediction of lung function parameters. Exposure-stratified sampling techniques may provide valid estimates of exposure-response without including the total exposed community. PMID:20958771

  3. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Singh, Balraj

    2016-07-01

    The experimental data are evaluated for known nuclides of mass number A = 42 (Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr). Detailed evaluated level properties and related information are presented, including adopted values of level and γ-ray energies, decay data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and other spectroscopic data. This work supersedes earlier full evaluations of A = 42 published by B. Singh, J.A. Cameron - Nucl.Data Sheets 92, 1 (2001) and P.M. Endt - Nucl. Phys. A521, 1 (1990); Errata and Addenda Nucl. Phys. A529, 763 (1991); Errata Nucl. Phys. A564, 609 (1993) (also P.M. Endt - Nucl. Phys. A633, 1 (1998) update). No excited states are known in 42Al, 42P, 42V and 42Cr, and structure information for 42Si and 42S is quite limited. There are no decay schemes available for the decay of 42Al, 42Si, 42P, 42V and 42Cr, while the decay schemes of 42Cl and 42Ti are incomplete in view of scarcity of data, and large gap between their Q-values and the highest energy levels populated in corresponding daughter nuclei. Structures of 42Ca, 42K, 42Sc and 42Ar nuclides remain the most extensively studied via many different nuclear reactions and decays.

  4. Giant photocontraction effects in obliquely-deposited chalcogenide glass thin-films*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Boolchand, P.; Rajagopalan, T.; Chopra, K. L.

    2006-03-01

    GexSe1-x thin-films at several obliqueness angles α (= 0, 20, 45, 60, 80) and compositions x ( = 0.15, 0.20, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.33) were vapor-deposited, and examined in Raman scattering and SEM measurements both in the pristine and illuminated state. The films, placed in an inert ambient, were exposed to Hg lamp radiation, and photo-contraction of the films established using a profilometer. Raman scattering of the pristine and exposed films were studied as a function of depth using a confocal microscope attachment. Our results show (i) Raman scattering of the normally deposited (α = 0) films in the pristine state are similar to those of corresponding bulk glasses, (ii) obliquely deposited films at x = 1/3 reveal Raman lineshapes that change qualitatively with α, suggestive of nanoscale phase separation of the films, while those at x = 0.23 show Raman lineshapes that are largely independent of α, (iii) the photocontraction effect maximizes in the 0.20< x < 0.25 range, confirming the earlier finding (ref1) (iv) light illumination partially undoes effects associated with nanoscale phase separation. Possible interpretation of these results in relation to origin of photocontraction effects will be presented. *Supported by NSF grant DMR 04-56472. 1.Bhanwar Singh, S. Rajagopalan, P. K. Bhat, D. K. Pandya and K. L. Chopra, Solid State Communications, Vol. 29, pp. 167-169 (1979)

  5. The Toxicology of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, Ken; Poland, Craig; Duffin, Rodger; Bonner, James

    2012-06-01

    1. Carbon nanotube structure, synthesis and applications C. Singh and W. Song; 2. The aerodynamic behaviour and pulmonary deposition of carbon nanotubes A. Buckley, R. Smith and R Maynard; 3. Utilising the concept of the biologically effective dose to define the particle and fibre hazards of carbon nanotubes K. Donaldson, R. Duffin, F. Murphy and C. Poland; 4. CNT, biopersistence and the fibre paradigm D. Warheit and M. DeLorme; 5. Length-dependent retention of fibres in the pleural space C. Poland, F. Murphy and K. Donaldson; 6. Experimental carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes in the context of other fibres K. Unfried; 7. Fate and effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. Ryman-Rasmussen, M. Andersen and J. Bonner; 8. Responses to pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes V. Castranova and R. Mercer; 9. Genotoxicity of carbon nanotubes R. Schins, C. Albrecht, K. Gerloff and D. van Berlo; 10. Carbon nanotube-cellular interactions; macrophages, epithelial and mesothelial cells V. Stone, M. Boyles, A. Kermanizadeh, J. Varet and H. Johnston; 11. Systemic health effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. McDonald; 12. Dosimetry and metrology of carbon nanotubes L. Tran, L. MacCalman and R. Aitken; Index.

  6. Cavity optomechanics -- beyond the ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meystre, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The coupling of coherent optical systems to micromechanical devices, combined with breakthroughs in nanofabrication and in ultracold science, has opened up the exciting new field of cavity optomechanics. Cooling of the vibrational motion of a broad range on oscillating cantilevers and mirrors near their ground state has been demonstrated, and the ground state of at least one such system has now been reached. Cavity optomechanics offers much promise in addressing fundamental physics questions and in applications such as the detection of feeble forces and fields, or the coherent control of AMO systems and of nanoscale electromechanical devices. However, these applications require taking cavity optomechanics ``beyond the ground state.'' This includes the generation and detection of squeezed and other non-classical states, the transfer of squeezing between electromagnetic fields and motional quadratures, and the development of measurement schemes for the characterization of nanomechanical structures. The talk will present recent ``beyond ground state'' developments in cavity optomechanics. We will show how the magnetic coupling between a mechanical membrane and a BEC - or between a mechanical tuning fork and a nanoscale cantilever - permits to control and monitor the center-of-mass position of the mechanical system, and will comment on the measurement back-action on the membrane motion. We will also discuss of state transfer between optical and microwave fields and micromechanical devices. Work done in collaboration with Dan Goldbaum, Greg Phelps, Keith Schwab, Swati Singh, Steve Steinke, Mehmet Tesgin, and Mukund Vengallatore and supported by ARO, DARPA, NSF, and ONR.

  7. Mixed fluvial systems of Messak Sandstone, a deposit of Nubian lithofacies, southwestern Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    The Messak Sandstone is a coarse to pebbly, tabular cross-bedded, Lower Cretaceous deposit of the widespread Nubian lithofacies. It was deposited at the northern edge of the Murzuq basin in southwestern Libya. Although the sedimentary record is predominantly one of braided fluvial systems, a common subfacies within the formation is interpreted to record the passage of straight-crested sand waves across laterally migrating point bars in sinuous rivers, similar to the pattern documented by Singh and Kumar on the modern Ganga and Yamuna Rivers. Because the sand waves were larger on the lower parts of the point bars, lateral migration created diagnostic thinning-upward, unidirectional cosets of tabular cross-beds as well as fining-upward, grain-size trends. Common, thick, interbedded claystones, deposited in associated paludal and lacustrine environments, and high variance in cross-bed dispersion patterns also suggest the local presence of sinuous fluvial systems within the overall braided regime. The Messak Sandstone contains some of the features that led Harms et al to propose an unconventional low-sinuosity fluvial environment for the Nubian lithofacies in Egypt, and the continuously high water levels of this model may explain channel-scale clay drapes and overturned cross-beds in the Messak. However, most of the Messak characteristics are incompatible with the low-sinuosity model, suggesting instead that the fluvial channels in the Murzuq basin alternated between braided and high-sinuosity patterns.

  8. Tracking and Monitoring Oil Slicks Using remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemas, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    Tracking and Monitoring Oil Slicks Using Remote Sensing Victor Klemas, Ph.D. , College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 Abstract Oil spills can harm marine life in the ocean, estuaries and wetlands. To limit the damage by a spill and facilitate cleanup efforts, emergency managers need information on spill location, size and extent, direction and speed of oil movement, wind, current, and wave information for predicting oil drift and dispersion. The main operational data requirements are fast turn-around time and frequent imaging to monitor the dynamics of the spill. Radar and multispectral remote sensors on satellites and aircraft meet most of these requirements by tracking the spilled oil at various resolutions, over wide areas and at frequent intervals. They also provide key inputs to drift prediction models and facilitate targeting of skimming and booming efforts. Satellite data are frequently supplemented by information provided by aircraft, ships and remotely controlled underwater robots. The Sea Princess tanker grounding off the coast of Wales and the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico provide two representative, yet different, scenarios for evaluating the effectiveness of remote sensors during oil spill emergencies. Session NH17: Remote Sensing of Natural Hazards Session Chair: Ramesh P. Singh Sponsor: Natural Hazards (NH)

  9. Magnetism and transport properties of layered rare-earth cobaltates Ln{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Knížek, K. Novák, P.; Jirák, Z.; Hejtmánek, J.; Maryško, M.; Buršík, J.

    2015-05-07

    The ab-initio (GGA+U) electronic structure calculations of layered cobaltates Ln{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 2} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd) prepared by ionic exchange from Na{sub 0.90}CoO{sub 2} precursors have been performed. The data are used for numerical modeling of Seebeck coefficient within Boltzmann transport theory using BoltzTraP program [G. K. H. Madsen and D. J. Singh, Comput. Phys. Commun. 175, 67 (2006)], as well as for determination of the crystal field split levels of rare-earth ions using a method based on a transformation of Bloch states into the basis of Wannier functions [P. Novák et al., Phys. Rev. B 87, 205139 (2013)]. An overall agreement with observed magnetism and transport properties is obtained. In particular, the high p-type thermopower is well reproduced in a broad temperature range, but instead of theoretical linear decrease down to the lowest temperatures, the real systems exhibit an anomalous change of Seebeck sign, which might be related to the change of bare metallic carriers into the polaronic ones.

  10. The thin-layer drying characteristics of sewage sludge by the appropriate foaming pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Ling; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Jing; Wang, Li-Ke; Gou, Cheng-Liu; Yan, Jing-Wu; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    As dewatered sludge is highly viscous and sticky, the combination of foaming pretreatment and drying process seems to be an alternative method to improve the drying performance of dewatered sludge. In this study, CaO addition followed by mechanical whipping was employed for foaming the dewatered sludge. It was found that the foams were stable and the diameters of bubbles mainly ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 mm. The drying experiments were carried out in a drying oven in the convective mode. The results indicated that foamed sludge at 0.70 g/cm(3) had the best drying performance at each level of temperature, which could save 35-45% drying time to reach 20% moisture content compared with the non-foamed sludge. The drying rate of foamed sludge at 0.70 g/cm(3) was improved with the increasing of drying temperature. The impact of sample thickness on drying rate was not obvious when the sample thickness increased from 2 to 8 mm. Different mathematical models were used for the simulation of foamed sludge drying curves. The Wang and Singh model represented the drying characteristics better than other models with coefficient of determination values over 0.99. PMID:24804660

  11. Drying kinetics of syrup of Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa.

    PubMed

    Benhura, Chakare; Kugara, Jameson; Muchuweti, Maud; Nyagura, Stella F; Matarise, Florence; Gombiro, Power E; Nyandoro, George

    2015-08-01

    Drying properties of syrup prepared from Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa prepared from the syrup and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) meal were studied using a convective tray drier at temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C and air velocity of 0.72 m/s. Nine mathematical models namely Henderson and Pabis, Lewis, Midilli et al., Modified Page, Page, Two Term, Weibull, Modified Page Equation (II) and Wang and Singh were fitted to data for thin layer drying of the products using non-linear regression analysis. Thin layer drying processes for the syrup and zvambwa were best described by the Modified Page model. Effective moisture diffusivities for drying of syrup were higher than those for drying of zvambwa. The activation energies for drying of syrup and zvambwa were 21.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol and19.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol respectively. PMID:26243916

  12. Scientific overview: CSCI-CITAC Annual General Meeting and Young Investigators' Forum 2014.

    PubMed

    Keow, Jonathan; Zhao, Eric; Samuel, Nardin; Dey, Ayan; Schneider, Raphael; Chen, Michael; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Society of Clinician Investigators (CSCI) and Clinical Investigator Trainee Association of Canada/Association des cliniciens-chercheurs en formation du Canada (CITAC/ACCFC) annual general meeting (AGM) was held in Toronto during November 21-24, 2015 for the first time in conjunction with the University of Toronto Clinician-Investigator Program Research Day. The overall theme for this year's meeting was the role of mentorship in career development, with presentations from Dr. Chaim Bell (University of Toronto), Dr. Shurjeel Choudhri (Bayer Healthcare), Dr. Ken Croitoru (University of Toronto), Dr. Astrid Guttman (University of Toronto), Dr. Prabhat Jha (University of Toronto) and Dr. Sheila Singh (McMaster University). The keynote speakers of the 2014 AGM included Dr. Qutayba Hamid, who was presented with the Distinguished Scientist Award, Dr. Ravi Retnakaran, who was presented with the Joe Doupe Award, and Dr. Lorne Babiuk, who was the CSCI-RCPSC Henry Friesen Award winner. The highlight of the conference was, once again, the outstanding scientific presentations from the numerous clinician investigator (CI) trainees from across the country who presented at the Young Investigators' Forum. Their research topics spanned the diverse fields of science and medicine, ranging from basic science to cutting-edge translational research, and their work has been summarized in this review. Over 120 abstracts were presented at this year's meeting. This work was presented during two poster sessions, with the six most outstanding submitted abstracts presented in the form of oral presentations during the President's Forum. PMID:26278424

  13. Plasmodium knowlesi: the emerging zoonotic malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Antinori, Spinello; Galimberti, Laura; Milazzo, Laura; Corbellino, Mario

    2013-02-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi was initially identified in the 30s as a natural Plasmodium of Macaca fascicularis monkey also capable of experimentally infecting humans. It gained a relative notoriety in the mid-30s as an alternative to Plasmodium vivax in the treatment of the general paralysis of the insane (neurosyphilis). In 1965 the first natural human infection was described in a US military surveyor coming back from the Pahang jungle of the Malaysian peninsula. P. knowlesi was again brought to the attention of the medical community when in 2004, Balbir Singh and his co-workers reported that about 58% of malaria cases observed in the Kapit district of the Malaysian Borneo were actually caused by P. knowlesi. In the following years several reports showed that P. knowlesi is much more widespread than initially thought with cases reported across Southeast Asia. This infection should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of any febrile travellers coming back from a recent travel to forested areas of Southeast Asia. P. knowlesi can cause severe malaria with a rate of 6-9% and with a case fatality rate of 3%. Respiratory distress, acute renal failure, shock and hyperbilirubinemia are the most frequently observed complications of severe P. knowlesi malaria. Chloroquine is considered the treatment of choice of uncomplicated malaria caused by P. knowlesi. PMID:23088834

  14. Principles of contour information: Reply to Lim and Leek (2012).

    PubMed

    Singh, Manish; Feldman, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Lim and Leek (2012) presented a formalization of information along object contours, which they argued was an alternative to the approach taken in our article (Feldman & Singh, 2005). Here, we summarize the 2 approaches, showing that--notwithstanding Lim and Leek's (2012) critical rhetoric--their approach is substantially identical to ours, except for the technical details of the formalism. Following the logic of our article point by point, Lim and Leek (a) defined probabilistic expectations about the geometry of smooth contours (which they based on differential contour geometry, while we used a discrete approximation--the only essential difference in their approach), (b) assumed that information along the contour was proportional to the negative logarithm of probability, following standard information theory, and then (c) extended this formulation to closed contours. We analyze what they described as errors in our approach, all of which rest on mathematical misunderstandings or bizarre misreadings of our article. We also show that their extension to 3-dimensional surfaces and their "modified minima rule" contain fatal deficiencies. PMID:22775501

  15. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of High Field Polars (FUSE 00)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The following work has been accomplished: 1) The emission lines of O VI1 and He II were used to produce Doppler tomograms of the plasma emission. 2) An improved interstellar absorption model is being developed for the CIAO spectral fitting program, Sherpa. Use of the earlier version of this model showed it to be inadequate for its purpose. Once this model is working, we intend to complete our analysis of V884 Her and those of other FUSE programs. In addition to the above work, this grant has helped support the following related work: 1) The publication of the paper "Periodicities in the X-ray intensity variations of TV Columbae: an Intermediate Polar" by Rana, V. R., Singh, K. P., Schlegel, E. M., & Barrett, P. 2004, AJ, 126,489, and 2) FUSE data of a possible nova-like variable Ret 1 has been analyzed and shown to contain a hot (37000 deg) white dwarf (WD 0334-6400). The FUV spectrum shows strong absorption lines of C III.

  16. A Study of Correlation of Various Growth Indicators with Chronological Age

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Navreet; Puri, Taruna; Gulati, Ritika; Kashyap, Rita

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of chronological age with cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, frontal sinus width and antegonial notch depth and a correlation, if any, among the three variables. Materials and methods: The samples were derived from lateral cephalometric radiographs of 80 subjects (40 males, 40 females; age range: 10 to 19 years). Cervical vertebral development was evaluated by the method of Hassel and Farman, frontal sinus width was measured by the method described by Ertürk and antegonial notch depth as described by Singer et al. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients were estimated to assess the relationship of chronological age with cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, frontal sinus width and antegonial notch depth. Results: The Pearson’s correlation coefficient were 0.855 (p < 0.001) between chronological age and cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, and 0.333 (p < 0.001) between chronological age and frontal sinus width. Conclusion: A highly significant positive correlation was found between chronological age and cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, and between chronological age and frontal sinus width. Nonsignificant correlation was found between chronological age and antegonial notch depth. How to cite this article: Singh S, Sandhu N, Puri T, Gulati R, Kashyap R. A Study of Correlation of Various Growth Indicators with Chronological Age. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 190-195. PMID:26628853

  17. Treatment of Oroantral Fistula in Pediatric Patient using Buccal Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Ruchi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Virendra; Bhagol, Amrish

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brief background: Oroantral communication (OAC) is the space created between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity, which, if not treated, will progress to oroantral fistula (OAF). Several methods of surgical OAC repair have been described, but only a few have gained recognition. Materials and methods: A 13 years old male child patient with complaint of difficulty in drinking water and change in voice diagnosed as OAF managed with closure with buccal fat pad (BFP). Discussion: Oroantral fistula is an abnormal communication resulting most frequently from extraction of the upper posterior teeth. Many techniques have been proposed for the closure. The preferred technique may vary from one surgeon to another. Conclusion: The adequate availability of BFP in children, effortless mobilization excellent blood supply and minimal donor site morbidity make it a perfect flap for OAF closure in pediatric patient. How to cite this article: Agrawal A, Singhal R, Kumar P, Singh V, Bhagol A. Treatment of Oroantral Fistula in Pediatric Patient using Buccal Fat Pad. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):138-140. PMID:26379383

  18. Optimizing Available Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils Fertilized with Diammonium Phosphate and Phosphoric Acid Using Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aCb/a) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L−1) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L−1, compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation. PMID:24307878

  19. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long- Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, Barbara

    2003-06-01

    The Argonne team has gathered available data on monitoring wells and measured hydraulic heads from the Argonne 317/319 site and sent it to UIUC. Xiaodong Li, a research assistant supported by the project, has reviewed the data and is beginning to fit spatiotemporal statistical models to it. Another research assistant, Yonas Demissie, has gotten the site's Modflow model working and is developing a transport model that will be used to generate artificial data. Abhishek Singh, a third research assistant supported by the project, has performed a literature review on inverse modeling and is receiving training on the software that will be used in this project (D2K). He has also created two models of user preferences and successfully implemented them with an interactive genetic algorithm on test functions. Meghna Babbar, the fourth research assistant supported by the project, has created an interactive genetic algorithm code and initial user interface in D2K. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has collected and analyzed data from the phytoremediation systems at the 317/319 site. She has found good correlations between concentrations in the ground water and in branches of the trees, which indicates excellent promise for using the trees as cost-effective long-term monitoring of the contaminants.

  20. Clinical relevance of radiologic examination of the skeleton and bone density measurements in osteoporosis of old age

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, W.; Seidl, G.; Linkesch, W.; Kotscher, E.; Kovarik, J.; Willvonseder, R.; Kovarik, J.; Willvonseder, R.; Dorda, W.

    1981-10-01

    For the diagnosis of primary osteoporosis, various semiquantitative radiologic methods were compared in 149 unselected patients, aged over 50 years. Crush fracture syndrome (CFS), lumbar spine index (LSI), and Singh Index (SI) were assessed by three radiologists and after reevaluation, the intra- and interobserver errors were calculated. The reliability of the subjective grading was improved by joint and repeated reading of the radiographs. Additionally, the peripheral trabecular bone content was measured by photon absorption densitometry (PAD). To test the value of the various semiquantitative methods. LSI, Si, and PAD have been compared with sex-matching before and after separation into age in decades in CFS-positive and CFS-negative patients. In an attempt to differentiate osteoporotics and non-osteoporotics by CFS, our results indicate that CFS-positive and CFS-negative males cannot be separated by LSI, Si, and PAD, whereas in females these methods can discriminate irrespective of the age in decades. However, in age related groups, only SI can discriminate significantly between CFS-positive and CFS-negative females. Correlation of the semiquantitative methods, regardless of the diagnosis of a CFS, revealed a significant correlation-between SI and PAD, but no correlation between LSI and SI, and LSI and PAD, respectively.

  1. A measure of scale-dependent asymmetry in turbulent boundary layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guala, Michele; Singh, Arvind

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of scale-dependent, streamwise velocity increments is investigated in turbulent boundary layer flows at laboratory and atmospheric Reynolds number, using the SAFL wind tunnel (Singh et al. Phys. of Fluids 2014) and the SLTEST data (Metzger et al. Phil. Trans Royal Soc. A 2007). The third order moments of velocity increments, or asymmetry index As(a,z), is computed for varying wall distance z and scale separation a, where it was observed to leave a robust, distinct signature in the form of a hump, independent of Reynolds number and located across the inertial subrange. The hump is observed for z + <5000, with a tendency to increase in amplitude, and shift towards smaller timescales, as the wall is approached. Comparing the two datasets, the hump vertical location, obeying to inner wall scaling, is regarded to as a genuine feature of the canonical turbulent boundary layer. The magnitude cumulant analysis of the scale-dependent velocity increments indicates that intermittency is also enhanced in the same flow region. The combination of asymmetry and intermittency is inferred to point at non-local energy transfer across a range of scales and may thus be used to quantify interactions between structural types in boundary layer flows.

  2. Common genetic influences on negative emotionality and a general psychopathology factor in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Lahey, Benjamin B; van Hulle, Carol; Waldman, Irwin; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Previous research using confirmatory factor analysis to model psychopathology comorbidity has supported the hypothesis of a broad general factor (i.e., a "bifactor"; Holzinger & Swineford, 1937) of psychopathology in children, adolescents, and adults, with more specific higher order internalizing and externalizing factors reflecting additional shared variance in symptoms (Lahey et al., 2012; Lahey, van Hulle, Singh, Waldman, & Rathouz, 2011). The psychological nature of this general factor has not been explored, however. The current study tested a prediction, derived from the spectrum hypothesis of personality and psychopathology, that variance in a general psychopathology bifactor overlaps substantially-at both phenotypic and genetic levels-with the dispositional trait of negative emotionality. Data on psychopathology symptoms and dispositional traits were collected from both parents and youth in a representative sample of 1,569 twin pairs (ages 9-17 years) from Tennessee. Predictions based on the spectrum hypothesis were supported, with variance in negative emotionality and the general factor overlapping substantially at both phenotypic and etiologic levels. Furthermore, stronger correlations were found between negative emotionality and the general psychopathology factor than among other dispositions and other psychopathology factors. PMID:24364617

  3. Identification of a new species of Cercospora causing leaf spot disease in Capsicum assamicum in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2013-11-01

    Northeastern India is one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, hot and humid climatic conditions of the region favor growth and development of foliar fungal phytopathogens such as cercosporoid fungi. The genus Cercospora is one of the largest genera of hyphomycetes. Species of Cercospora are known to cause leaf spot disease in several cultivated and non-cultivated plants leading to considerable losses. In this study, we describe a new species of Cercospora which was isolated from the leaves of Naga chilli (Capsicum assamicum Purkayastha & Singh) grown in northeastern India. Comparison of the detailed morphological characteristics along with the DNA sequences for four gene regions, namely actin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor-1α of this isolate, was made with those of some previously reported Cercospora species infecting Capsicum and other similar species of Cercospora from other hosts. The results suggested that our isolate represents an undescribed taxon and warrants the establishment of a new species, Cercospora tezpurensis sp. nov. PMID:23994144

  4. Relationship between the structure of taxol and other taxanes on induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, C A; Berman, J W; Swindell, C S; Horwitz, S B

    1994-11-15

    Taxol is an antitumor drug with cytotoxic properties that correlate with its microtubule-stabilizing activities. It has been reported that taxol parallels lipopolysaccharide in its effects on the induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression in macrophages (C. Bogdan and A. Ding, J. Leukocyte Biol., 52: 119-121, 1992; C. L. Manthey, M. E. Brandes, P. Y. Perera, and S. Vogel, J. Immunol., 149: 2459-2465, 1992; J. M. Carboni, C. Singh, and M. A. Tepper, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr., 15: 95-101, 1993). Structure-activity studies using taxol and related taxanes have been done to determine the relationship between the effects of taxol on TNF-alpha gene expression and its cytotoxic and microtubule-stabilizing activities. Using Northern blot analysis, it was found that changes in the structure of taxol that did not alter cytotoxicity did prevent the induction of TNF-alpha gene expression. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that the effects of taxol on TNF-alpha gene expression are distinct from its known cytotoxic properties. PMID:7954398

  5. Mice transgenic for a soluble form of murine CTLA-4 show enhanced expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and defective antibody production in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ronchese, F; Hausmann, B; Hubele, S; Lane, P

    1994-03-01

    CD4+ T cell responses were analyzed in transgenic mice expressing a soluble form of murine CTLA-4, mCTLA4-H gamma 1, which blocks the interaction of the T cell activation molecules CD28 and CTLA-4 with their costimulatory ligands. Consistent with previous reports (Linsley, P. S., P. M. Wallace, J. Johnson, M. G. Gibson, J. L. Greene, J. A. Ledbetter, C. Singh, and M. A. Tepper. 1992. Science (Wash. DC). 257:792), T cell-dependent antibody production was profoundly inhibited in mCTLA4-H gamma 1 transgenic mice immunized with a protein antigen. Surprisingly, however, transgenic mice could generate quantitatively and qualitatively normal primary T cell responses, as measured by limiting dilution assays and lymphokine production. In addition, in vivo expansion of antigen-specific T cells after secondary or tertiary immunization was enhanced in mCTLA4-H gamma 1 transgenics as compared with normal mice. Although unable to deliver cognate help to B cells in vivo, T cells from mCTLA4-H gamma 1 transgenic mice were not anergic as they could help B cells to produce specific antibodies when adoptively transferred into nude hosts. Taken together, these data suggest that the engagement of CD28 and/or CTLA-4 may not be required for the induction of T cell responses, as is currently understood, but rather for the expression of T cell effector function such as the delivery of T cell help to B cells. PMID:8113677

  6. Manufacturing of Wearable Sensors for Human Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Azar

    2015-03-01

    Continuous monitoring of physiological and biological parameters is expected to improve performance and medical outcomes by assessing overall health status and alerting for life-saving interventions. Continuous monitoring of these parameters requires wearable devices with an appropriate form factor (lightweight, comfortable, low energy consuming and even single-use) to avoid disrupting daily activities thus ensuring operation relevance and user acceptance. Many previous efforts to implement remote and wearable sensors have suffered from high cost and poor performance, as well as low clinical and end-use acceptance. New manufacturing and system level design approaches are needed to make the performance and clinical benefits of these sensors possible while satisfying challenging economic, regulatory, clinical, and user-acceptance criteria. In this talk we will review several recent design and manufacturing efforts aimed at designing and building prototype wearable sensors. We will discuss unique opportunities and challenges provided by additive manufacturing, including 3D printing, to drive innovation through new designs, faster prototyping and manufacturing, distributed networks, and new ecosystems. We will also show alternative hybrid self-assembly based integration techniques for low cost large scale manufacturing of single use wearable devices. Coauthors: Prabhjot Singh and Jeffrey Ashe.

  7. Scanning Magnetoresistance Microscopy Studies of Small Magnetic and Electrical Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Gang

    2004-03-01

    Many physical objects generate microscopic magnetic-field images near their surfaces. Such images reveal important signatures of inherent electrical and magnetic processes within the objects. For example, the image of a magnetic thin film discloses its internal magnetic domain structure. Electrical currents inside an semiconductor chip generate surface magnetic field images, which not only contain information about the electrical current distribution, but also the frequencies with which various components on a chip operates. A type II superconductor also creates an image of threading magnetic flux lines, whose structure and dynamics are fundamental properties. We have developed a sensitive and high-resolution magnetic microscope that is capable of non-invasively imaging, characterizing, and investigating spatial magnetic field patterns. At the heart of the microscope is a miniaturized magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) or giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor, capable to work at high speed, under ambient conditions, and over a wide bandwidth. This type of MR microscopy (MRM) offers many advantages over the magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and others. It measures the absolute local magnetic field, and its sensor does not generate invasive field as a magnetic tip would. The MRM can also measure dynamic magnetic images in a time varying external field. We will present results obtained from a wide range of structures using MRM, including small magnetic structures and state-of-the-art integrated circuits. This work supported by NSF is a collaboration with B. Schrag, X.Y. Liu, and G. Singh.

  8. Seven tenths incorrect: heterogeneity and change in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners.

    PubMed

    Freese, Jeremy; Meland, Sheri

    2002-05-01

    Drawing on an article by Singh (1993), many discussions of the evolutionary psychology of heterosexual male preferences have reported a remarkable consistency in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners over time. We reexamine the measurement data on these American beauty icons and show that these reports are false in several ways. First, the variation in waist-to-hip ratios among these women is greater than reported. Second, the center of the distribution of waist-to-hip ratios is not 0.70, but less than this. Third, the average waist-to-hip ratio within both samples has changed over time in a manner that is statistically significant and can be regarded as mutually consistent. Taken together, the findings undermine some of the evidence given for the repeated suggestion that there is something special--evolutionarily hard-wired or otherwise--about a specific female waist-to-hip ratio of 0.70 as a preference of American heterosexual males. PMID:12476245

  9. Higher derivative massive spin-3 models in D =2 +1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmazi, D.; Mendonça, E. L.

    2016-07-01

    We find new higher derivative models describing a parity doublet of massive spin-3 modes in D =2 +1 dimensions. One of them is of fourth order in derivatives while the other one is of sixth order. They are complete, in the sense that they contain the auxiliary scalar field required to remove spurious degrees of freedom. Both of them are obtained through the master action technique starting with the usual (second-order) spin-3 Singh-Hagen model, which guarantees that they are ghost free. The fourth- and sixth-order terms are both invariant under (transverse) Weyl transformations, quite similarly to the fourth-order K -term of the "new massive gravity." The sixth-order term slightly differs from the product of the Schouten by the Einstein tensor, both of third order in derivatives. It is also possible to write down the fourth-order term as a product of a Schouten-like by an Einstein-like tensor (both of second order in derivatives) in close analogy with the K -term.

  10. On a Continuum Limit for Loop Quantum Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose Antonio

    2008-03-06

    The use of non-regular representations of the Heisenberg-Weyl commutation relations has proved to be useful for studying conceptual and technical issues in quantum gravity. Of particular relevance is the study of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC), symmetry reduced theory that is related to Loop Quantum Gravity, and that is based on a non-regular, polymeric representation. Recently, a soluble model was used by Ashtekar, Corichi and Singh to study the relation between Loop Quantum Cosmology and the standard Wheeler-DeWitt theory and, in particular, the passage to the limit in which the auxiliary parameter (interpreted as ''quantum geometry discreetness'') is sent to zero in hope to get rid of this 'regulator' that dictates the LQC dynamics at each 'scale'. In this note we outline the first steps toward reformulating this question within the program developed by the authors for studying the continuum limit of polymeric theories, which was successfully applied to simple systems such as a Simple Harmonic Oscillator.

  11. Universal conductivity in a two-dimensional superfluid-to-insulator quantum critical system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Liu, Longxiang; Deng, Youjin; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay

    2014-01-24

    We compute the universal conductivity of the (2+1)-dimensional XY universality class, which is realized for a superfluid-to-Mott insulator quantum phase transition at constant density. Based on large-scale Monte Carlo simulations of the classical (2+1)-dimensional J-current model and the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, we can precisely determine the conductivity on the quantum critical plateau, σ(∞) = 0.359(4)σQ with σQ the conductivity quantum. The universal conductivity curve is the standard example with the lowest number of components where the bottoms-up AdS/CFT correspondence from string theory can be tested and made to use [R. C. Myers, S. Sachdev, and A. Singh, Phys. Rev. D 83, 066017 (2011)]. For the first time, the shape of the σ(iω(n)) - σ(∞) function in the Matsubara representation is accurate enough for a conclusive comparison and establishes the particlelike nature of charge transport. We find that the holographic gauge-gravity duality theory for transport properties can be made compatible with the data if temperature of the horizon of the black brane is different from the temperature of the conformal field theory. The requirements for measuring the universal conductivity in a cold gas experiment are also determined by our calculation. PMID:24484123

  12. Embedding loop quantum cosmology without piecewise linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    An important goal is to understand better the relation between full loop quantum gravity (LQG) and the simplified, reduced theory known as loop quantum cosmology (LQC), directly at the quantum level. Such a firmer understanding would increase confidence in the reduced theory as a tool for formulating predictions of the full theory, as well as permitting lessons from the reduced theory to guide further development in the full theory. This paper constructs an embedding of the usual state space of LQC into that of standard LQG, that is, LQG based on piecewise analytic paths. The embedding is well defined even prior to solving the diffeomorphism constraint, at no point is a graph fixed and at no point is the piecewise linear category used. This motivates for the first time a definition of operators in LQC corresponding to holonomies along non-piecewise linear paths, without changing the usual kinematics of LQC in any way. The new embedding intertwines all operators corresponding to such holonomies, and all elements in its image satisfy an operator equation which classically implies homogeneity and isotropy. The construction is made possible by a recent result proven by Fleischhack. Communicated by P Singh

  13. Where have all the flowers gone: deforestation in the Third World

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The papers in this issue (and in its companion issue) describe tropical forest destruction and analyze implications at several levels. The contributions are representative of the major regions of the tropical moist forests (TMFs) - Amazonia, Africa, and Indo-Malaysia - and reveal a process whose ramifications will affect all parts and components of the biosphere. The authors and titles of the 13 paprs are: Norman Myers, Deforestation in the Tropics: Who Gains, Who Loses; William M. Denevan, Swiddens and Cattle Versus Forest: The Imminent Demise of the Amazon Rain Forest Reexamined; Stephen G. Bunker, Impact of Deforestation on Peasant Communities in the Medio Amazonas of Brazil; Susanna B. Hecht, Deforestation in the Amazon Basin: Magnitude, Dynamics and Soil-Resource Effects; K. Twum-Barima, Forests of Ghana - A Diminishing Asset; J. Leroy Deval (English abstract), Man and Development in the Forests of Gabon; J. Leroy Deval, L'Homme et Le Developpement de La Foret du Gabon Dans Le Passe; Faustin Legault (English Translation), Reforestation in the Republic of Gabon; Faustin Legault, Le Reboisement en Republique Gabonaise; Peter S. Ashton, Forest Conditions in the Tropics of Asia and the Far East; Gurmit Singh K.S., Destroying Malaysian Forests; Kuswata Kartawinata, Environmental Consequences of Tree Removal from the Forest in Indonesia; and Robert Goodland, Indonesia's Environmental Progress in Economic Development.

  14. Cestodes (Caryophyllidea) of the stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) from Asia.

    PubMed

    Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Levron, Céline; Kar, Pradip Kumar

    2011-10-01

    The stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) has been reported to harbor as many as 19 species of caryophyllidean tapeworms (Cestoda) of 11 genera in tropical Asia (Indomalayan zoogeographical region). However, a critical review of the species composition has shown that only 1 species, Lucknowia fossilisi Gupta, 1961 (Lytocestidae), is a specific parasite of H. fossilis. Three other species, Djombangia penetrans Bovien, 1926 (syn., Djombangia caballeroi Sahay and Sahay, 1977 ), Pseudocaryophyllaeus ritai Gupta and Singh, 1983 (syn. Pseudocaryophyllaeus lucknowensis Gupta and Sinha, 1984 ), and Pseudocaryophyllaeus tenuicollis (Bovien, 1926) Ash, Scholz, Oros and Kar, 2011 (syn. P. mackiewiczi Gupta and Parmar, 1982 ), were found only once. Lucknowia fossilisi is redescribed on the basis of new material collected in West Bengal and voucher specimens from Maharashtra, India. A total of 9 species of Capingentoides, Lucknowia, Lytocestus, Pseudoadenoscolex, Pseudocaryophyllaeus, Pseudoheteroinverta, and Sukhapatae are newly synonymized with L. fossilisi and previous synonymies of 9 other species, proposed by Hafeezulah (1993), are confirmed. Generic diagnosis of Lucknowia Gupta, 1961 is amended. In addition, 1 species of Pseudobatrachus and 2 species of the monotypic genera Pseudoneckinverta and Sudhaena are invalidated as nomina nuda. PMID:21561334

  15. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  16. Genetic Circuit Architectures Underlying Cell Fate Choices for Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinner, Aaron

    2009-03-01

    Antigen stimulated B cells follow an unusual developmental trajectory that transiently passes through a germinal center state, which promotes receptor affinity maturation and immunoglobulin class switching, before terminally differentiating into antibody secreting plasma cells. It was found that graded expression of the transcription factor IRF-4 regulates cell fate, but the relationship between antigen receptor signaling, the network of interactions with IRF-4, and cell fate was not known. This talk describes models that link ligand-receptor avidity with cell fate. The models have been validated experimentally by directly varying the levels and kinetics of IRF-4 accumulation. Furthermore, signaling through the antigen receptor is demonstrated to control the expression of IRF-4 and in turn the frequency of B cells that undergo class switching before differentiating into plasma cells. These findings provide an explanation for experiments that measure B cell numbers in transgenic mice. The architecture of our regulatory circuit provides a general mechanism for quantitative variations in a signal to be translated into a binary cell-fate choice involving transient expression of one of the two developmental fates. In collaboration with Aryeh Warmflash, Ying Li, Roger Sciammas, and Harinder Singh, The University of Chicago.

  17. Determination of the drying and rehydration kinetics of freeze dried kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergün, Kadriye; Çalışkan, Gülşah; Dirim, Safiye Nur

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drying and rehydration kinetics of freeze dried kiwi slices. Well-known thin layer drying models (Lewis, Page, Modified Page I, Henderson and Pabis, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Midilli, Modified Midilli, Two-term, Two-term Exponential, Modified Two-term Exponential, and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental data. A nonlinear regression analysis was used to evaluate the parameters of the selected models using statistical software SPSS 16.0. For the freeze drying process of the kiwi slices, the highest R2 value (0.997), and the lowest RMSE (0.018) as well as the χ2 (0.0004) values were obtained from the Two-term Exponential model. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the freeze dried kiwi slices was calculated with the Fick's diffusion model as 7.302 × 10-10 m2/s. The rehydration behavior was determined using distilled water at different solid-liquid ratios at room temperature (18 ± 1 °C) using Peleg's model. The kinetics of the total soluble solid loss was also determined.

  18. Clausius-Clapeyron Scaling of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) in Cloud-Resolving Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, J.; Romps, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work by Singh and O'Gorman has produced a theory for convective available potential energy (CAPE) in radiative-convective equilibrium. In this model, the atmosphere deviates from a moist adiabat—and, therefore, has positive CAPE—because entrainment causes evaporative cooling in cloud updrafts, thereby steepening their lapse rate. This has led to the proposal that CAPE increases with global warming because the strength of evaporative cooling scales according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. However, CAPE could also change due to changes in cloud buoyancy and changes in the entrainment rate, both of which could vary with global warming. To test the relative importance of changes in CAPE due to CC scaling of evaporative cooling, changes in cloud buoyancy, and changes in the entrainment rate, we subject a cloud-resolving model to a suite of natural (and unnatural) forcings. We find that CAPE changes are primarily driven by changes in the strength of evaporative cooling; the effect of changes in the entrainment rate and cloud buoyancy are comparatively small. This builds support for CC scaling of CAPE.

  19. The Effect of Nickel on the Strength of Hcp-Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M. M.; Gleason, A. E.; Mao, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrostatic nuclear resonance inelastic x-ray scattering coupled with non-hydrostatic radial x-ray diffraction measurements can be used to determine the shear strength of Fe-bearing materials at core pressures. Using the Singh et al. formalism (2006), the bulk shear strength (t) of a material is related to its shear modulus(G) and to the average differential strain () over all measured lattice planes (hkl) by t = 6G. We followed an existing framework (Gleason & Mao, 2013) and extend the strength determinations to investigate the effect of nickel on the strength of iron at high pressure. We collected radial X-ray diffraction data on Fe90Ni10 and Fe80Ni20 using a panoramic diamond anvil cell with an X-ray transparent gasket to 100 GPa. This data was combined with existing NRIXS data (Lin 2003) to calculate the strength of these compounds. From this we extrapolated the strength of these iron-nickel alloys to deep earth pressures to give a new constraint on the strength of the inner core. Gaining a better understanding of the strength of iron and its alloys at high pressures can shed light on the strength of the inner core and provide insight into the deformation processes operating in the most remote region of our planet.

  20. Rectification of the chordal axis transform and a new criterion for shape decomposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier work we proposed the chordal axis transform (CAT) as a more useful alternative to the medial axis transform (MAT) for obtaining skeletons of discrete shapes. Since then, the CAT has benefited various applications in 2D and 3D shape analysis. In this paper, we revisit the CAT to address its deficiencies that are an artifact of the underlying constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT). We introduce a valuation on the internal edges of a discrete shape's CDT based on a concept of approximate co-circularity. This valuation provides a basis for suppression of the role of certain edges in the construction of the CAT skeleton. The result is a rectified CAT skeleton that has smoother branches as well as branch points of varying degrees, unlike the original CAT skeleton whose branches exhibit oscillations in tapered sections of shapes and allows only degree 3 branch points. Additionally, the valuation leads to a new criterion for parsing shapes into visually salient parts that closely resemble the empirical decompositions of shapes by human subjects as recorded in experiments by M. Singh, G. Seyranian, and D. Hoffinan.

  1. Mitochondria in health and disease - 3rd annual conference of society for mitochondrial research and medicine - 19-20 December 2013 - Bengaluru, India.

    PubMed

    Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    The primary role of mitochondria was long considered to be production of cellular energy. However, as the understanding of mitochondria in disease is ever expanding, so is their additional function for a healthy organism. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to a range of pathologies, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, premature aging, diabetes and muscular diseases. Mitochondrial diseases can be hard to diagnose and treat and, therefore, interdisciplinary research and communication are important. The Third Annual Conference of Society for Mitochondrial Research and Medicine - India (SMRM) was titled "Mitochondria in Health and Disease". The conference was organized by Gayathri N, K Thangaraj, and KK Singh and was held at the National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore, India, from the 19th to 20th of December 2013. The meeting featured internationally renowned speakers within the field of mitochondrial research and medicine with the goal of bridging the gap between basic and clinical researchers. This review summarizes key outcomes of the conference. PMID:25446394

  2. An in situ method for observing wax crystallization under pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Steer, Tyrone N.; Stetzer, Mackenzie R.; Kautsky, Sacha P.; Merz, Hugh; Idziak, Stefan H. J.; Sirota, Eric B.

    2003-03-01

    As the phenomenon of wax deposition in crude oil pipelines is of great relevance to the petroleum industry, there has been considerable work on both real and model oil pipeline systems in an effort to gain insight into the deposition process itself. In an effort to develop a truly in situ means of characterizing the formation and evolution of the wax gel layers deposited in model pipeline systems, we have performed x-ray diffraction measurements of wax crystallization in wax-oil mixtures under flow. We conducted a time dependent investigation of the nucleation and growth of wax crystals and the evolution of the resulting wax gel deposit in mixtures of paraffin wax and dodecane under pipe flow through a standard x-ray quartz capillary of diameter 1mm. Our results were compared with those of larger scale, pressure drop experiments[1]. 1. Singh, P., et al., Formation and Aging of Incipient Thin Film Wax-Oil Gels. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal, 2000. 46(5): p. 1059-1074.

  3. Variability of Atmospheric Properties during 2000 -2009 over Major Cities in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ritu; Singh, Rachita

    An elevated amount of greenhouse gases, total ozone column and significant changes in me-teorological parameters were found to be associated with forest fires in Canada (Singh and Chaturvedi, 2008 COSPAR). In the present paper, we have carried out detailed analysis of multi sensor data for the period 2000 -2009 over major Canadian cities (Vancouver, Calgary, Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa, Windsor, St. Johns, Fort McMurray, Yellowknife) and have stud-ied variability of atmospheric properties (aerosol optical depth, angstrom coefficient, carbon monoxide, ozone) using MODIS, AIRS and OMI AURA. A low optical depth (less than 0.3) is observed over most of the cities, higher aerosols optical depth more than 0.3 is found over Windsor and Toronto, that may be influenced by the nearby US cities. During summer months, due to forest fires, the aerosols optical depth and elevated greenhouse gases are observed over the cities close to forests in British Columbia. We have carried out HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis to study the influence of air mass and its effect on the atmospheric parameters. The low and high variability of atmospheric properties during 2000 -2009 will be discussed in view of the dust transport over Canada, anthropogenic activities and cold air mass from the northern sides.

  4. Rapid estimation of fault parameters for tsunami warning along the Mexican subduction zone based on real-time GPS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Melgar, D.; Cruz Atienza, V. M.; Iglesias, A.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.

    2013-12-01

    A reliable and robust tsunami early warning is now possible thanks to the availability of real-time GPS data. With few assumptions regarding the characteristics of the geometry of the subduction interface (dip, width of the seismogenic zone, and maximum depth of the seismically-coupled interface), we can estimate the length, L, and the width, W, of the rupture, as well as its downdip extension, C (Singh et al., 2008; 2012). These are estimated from the amplitude of the observed horizontal displacement along the coast and its fall off with distance, as well as the polarity of the vertical displacement. Based on Okada's (1992) model, we compute the slip D on the fault, to finally obtain the seismic moment, Mo. Pérez-Campos et al. (2013) showed the feasibility of such tsunami early warning for the Mexican subduction zone. Mo could be obtained in ~2 min after origin time from a dense distribution of real-time high-rate GPS stations along the coast. However, the current GPS network is sparse. Despite this, a robust estimate of magnitude Mw can be obtained. For this work, we perform sensitivity tests for Mw and position of the fault with respect to the trench.

  5. Trends in Maternal Mortality Ratio in a Tertiary Referral Hospital and the Effects of Various Maternity Schemes on It

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harpreet; Kaur, Sharanjit; Singh, Sukhwinderjit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the trend in maternal mortality ratio in a tertiary care centre and the effect of various maternity schemes on it. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of all maternal deaths occurring in the Guru Gobind Singh Medical College & Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India was done from Jan 2010 to Dec 2012. Every maternal death was scrutinized from various aspects like direct cause of death, age, locality, antenatal care and gestational age. Results: The total number of deliveries has risen from 957 in 2010 to 1063 in 2012 at the same time the maternal mortality ratio has increased from 835.94 in 2010 to 2054.55 per one live birth in 2012. Haemorrhage (24.12%) and sepsis (18.9%) were the most common causes of death followed closely by pregnancy induced hypertension including eclampsia (15.5%). Anemia (12.06%) contributed to the most common indirect cause of death. Conclusion: Implementation of the various maternity schemes has had no significant impact on the profile of dying mothers. There is a need to stress the importance of good antenatal care in reducing Maternal Mortality Ratio. PMID:26175763

  6. Optimization and kinetic studies on treatment of textile dye wastewater using Pleurotus floridanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathian, S.; Radha, G.; Shanmugapriya, V.; Rajasimman, M.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried using Pleurotus floridanus in a batch reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters like pH, temperature, agitation speed and dye wastewater concentration for the decolorization of textile dye wastewater. The optimum conditions for the maximum decolorization was: pH 6.6, temperature 28.8 °C, agitation speed 183 rpm and dye wastewater concentration 1:2. From the results it was found that, the linear effect of agitation speed and initial textile dye wastewater concentration were more significant than other factors for the textile dye wastewater treatment. At these optimized conditions, the maximum decolorization and COD reduction was found to be 71.2 and 80.5 %, respectively. Kinetics of textile dye degradation process was studied by various models like first order, diffusional and Singh model. From the results it was found that the degradation follows first order model with R 2 value of 0.9550.

  7. Bis[(1S)-1 4-azanediyl-1-(9-deazaadenin-9-yl)-1 4-dideoxy-5-methylsulfanyl-D-ribitol] tetrakis(hydrochloride) monohydrate: structure DFT energy and ligand docking results of a potent methylthioadenosine phosphorylase inhibitor found in different

    SciTech Connect

    G Gainsford; G Evans; K Johnston; M Seth

    2011-12-31

    The title compound, abbreviated as 5'ThiomethylImmA, is a potent inhibitor of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase [Singh et al. (2004). Biochemistry, 43, 9-18]. The synchrotron study reported here shows that the hydrochloride salt crystallizes with two independent, nearly superimposable, dications as a monohydrate with formula 2C{sub 12}H{sub 19}N{sub 5}O{sub 2}S{sup 2+}{center_dot}4Cl{sup -}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O. Hydrogen bonding utilizing the H atoms of the dication is found to favor certain molecular conformations in the salt, which are significantly different from those found as bound in the enzyme. Ligand docking studies starting from either of these dications or related neutral structures successfully place the conformationally revised structures in the enzyme active site but only under particular hydrogen-bonding and molecular flexibility criteria. Density functional theory calculations verify the energy similarity of the indendent cations and confirm the significant energy cost of the required conformation change to the enzyme bound form. The results suggest the using crystallographically determined free ligand coordinates as starting parameters for modelling may have serious limitations.

  8. Evaluating the Thermal Damage Resistance of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Lamuel; Feldman, Ari; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Lehman, John; Singh, Gurpreet; National Institute of Standards and Technology Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene are known to exhibit some exceptional thermal (K ~ 2000 to 4400 W.m-1K-1 at 300K) and optical properties. Here, we demonstrate preparation and testing of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chemically modified graphene-composite spray coatings for use on thermal detectors for high-power lasers. The synthesized nanocomposite material was tested by preparing spray coatings on aluminum test coupons used as a representation of the thermal detector's surface. These coatings were then exposed to increasing laser powers and extended exposure times to quantify their damage threshold and optical absorbance. The graphene/carbon nanotube (prepared at varying mass% of graphene in CNTs) coatings demonstrated significantly higher damage threshold values at 2.5 kW laser power (10.6 μm wavelength) than carbon paint or MWCNTs alone. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of irradiated specimens showed that the composite coating endured high laser-power densities (up to 2 kW.cm-2) without significant visual damage. This research is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation (Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems Division), under grant no. 1335862 to G. Singh.

  9. First-principles search for potential high temperature superconductors in the Mg-B-A (A=alkaline metal) system with high boron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepulskyy, Roman; Mazin, Igor; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Possible superconductivity at 50K was recently reported [1] in the Mg-B-A (A=Cs, Rb, Ba) system. Although attempts to reproduce this finding have been unsuccessful so far [2], if a stable or metastable phase could be found by a first principle search similar to that in Ref. 3, this would have lent credibility to the experimental finding [1] and outline possible further directions. The results of Ref. 1 suggest that (a) the superconducting phase is not similar to MgB2 (B site has cubic or similarly high symmetry) and (b) boron content is higher than in MgB2. We report first-principles study of the thermodynamics of alkali and alkaline earth doping in the boron- rich part of the Mg-B phase diagram (MgBn with n>2), searching for a phase that could explain the results of Ref. [1]. [1] A.V. Palnichenko et al., JETP Letters 86, 272 (2007). [2] R K Singh et al http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.4001v1. [3] S. Curtarolo et al, Calphad 29, 163 (2005).

  10. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  11. Biodynamic Performance of Hyaluronic Acid versus Synovial fluid of the Knee for Osteoarthritic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Corvelli, Michael; Che, Bernadette; Saeui, Christopher; Singh, Anirudha; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural biomaterial present in healthy joints but depleted in osteoarthritis (OA), has been employed clinically to provide symptomatic relief of joint pain. Joint movement combined with a reduced joint lubrication in osteoarthritic knees can result in increased wear and tear, chondrocyte apoptosis, and inflammation, leading to cascading cartilage deterioration. Therefore, development of an appropriate cartilage model and evaluation for its friction properties with potential lubricants in different conditions is necessary, which can closely resemble a mechanically induced OA cartilage. Additionally, the comparison of different models with and without endogenous lubricating surface zone proteins, such as PRG4 promotes a well-rounded understanding of cartilage lubrication. In this study, we present our findings on the lubricating effects of HA on different articular cartilage model surfaces in comparison to synovial fluid, a physiological lubricating biomaterial. The mechanical testings data demonstrated that HA reduced average static and kinetic friction coefficient values of the cartilage samples by 75% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, HA mimicked the friction characteristics of freshly harvested natural synovial fluid throughout all tested and modeled OA conditions with no statistically significant difference. These characteristics led us to exclusively identify HA as an effective boundary layer lubricant in the technology that we develop to treat OA [Singh et al. 2104]. PMID:25858258

  12. Getting involved in research.

    PubMed

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead. PMID:21361237

  13. Society Matters: The Executive Council of the Astronomical Society of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    The Executive Council of the Astronomical Society of India is elected every three years. The members of the Executive Council for the current triennium (1997 - 2000) are : President : Dr. Ram Sagar, Uttar Pradesh State Observatory Vice President : Dr. Gopal Krishna, National Centre for Radio Astrophysics Immediate Past President : Dr. K. Kasturirangan, ISRO Headquarters Secretary : Dr. Dipankar Bhattacharya, Raman Research Institute Treasurer : Dr. G.C. Kilambi, Department of Astronomy Osmania University Joint Secretary : Dr. G.M. Ballabh, Department of Astronomy Osmania University Editor of the Bulletin : Dr. Vinod Krishan, Indian Institute of Astrophysics Councillors : Dr. Ashok Ambastha, Udaipur Solar Observatory Shri Piyush Pandey, M.P. Birla Planetarium Society Matters : Dr. A.V. Raveendran, Indian Institute of Astrophysics Dr. Somak Raychaudury, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics The dates of the 20th ASI Meeting have now been fixed. The meeting will take place at the D.D.U. Gorakhpur University from 15th to 18th November, 2000. The first circular will be mailed shortly to the members and will also be posted on the Society's web page. Further information can be had from Prof. Maheshwar Misra, Head, Department of Physics, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur - 273009. The Scientific Organising Committee will be chaired by Prof. K. P. Singh, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai - 400 005

  14. The global financial crisis and the Great Recession of 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Rajiv G

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a re-examination of the global financial crisis that began in and was accompanied by the most severe recession since the Great Depression. It builds on our earlier paper (Dore and Singh, 2009) and expands its scope. It is divided into parts. The first part deals with the ideological backdrop in which this crisis occurred, namely the belief in the rationality and stability of all markets including the capital markets, called the 'efficient market hypothesis.' The second part is a survey of the role of income distribution and its relations to aggregate spending and the growing role played by credit in the circular flow of income. The third part examines some features of the business cycle expansion phase of to . The fourth part is a brief report on a nonlinear Vector Error Correction model spanning the period to and how this expansion came to an end. The fifth part is a brief comparison of the Great Recession with the Great Depression. Finally in the sixth part, the international impact of the Great Recession is considered briefly, followed by some conclusions. PMID:20587304

  15. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  16. Moffatt-drift-driven large-scale dynamo due to fluctuations with non-zero correlation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nishant K.

    2016-07-01

    We present a theory of large-scale dynamo action in a turbulent flow that has stochastic, zero-mean fluctuations of the $\\alpha$ parameter. Particularly interesting is the possibility of the growth of the mean magnetic field due to Moffatt drift, which is expected to be finite in a statistically anisotropic turbulence. We extend the Kraichnan-Moffatt model to explore effects of finite memory of $\\alpha$ fluctuations, in a spirit similar to that of Sridhar & Singh (2014), hereafter SS14. Using the first-order smoothing approximation, we derive a linear integro-differential equation governing the dynamics of the large-scale magnetic field, which is non-perturbative in the $\\alpha$-correlation time $\\tau_{\\alpha}$. We recover earlier results in the exactly solvable white-noise (WN) limit where the Moffatt drift does not contribute to the dynamo growth/decay. To study finite memory effects, we reduce the integro-differential equation to a partial differential equation by assuming that the $\\tau_{\\alpha}$ be small but nonzero and the large-scale magnetic field is slowly varying. We derive the dispersion relation and provide explicit expression for the growth rate as a function of four independent parameters. When $\\tau_{\\alpha}\

  17. Investigation on the forced response of a radial turbine under aerodynamic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chaochen; Huang, Zhi; Qi, Mingxu

    2016-04-01

    Rotor blades in a radial turbine with nozzle guide vanes typically experience harmonic aerodynamic excitations due to the rotor stator interaction. Dynamic stresses induced by the harmonic excitations can result in high cycle fatigue (HCF) of the blades. A reliable prediction method for forced response issue is essential to avoid the HCF problem. In this work, the forced response mechanisms were investigated based on a fluid structure interaction (FSI) method. Aerodynamic excitations were obtained by three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with phase shifted periodic boundary conditions. The first two harmonic pressures were determined as the primary components of the excitation and applied to finite element (FE) model to conduct the computational structural dynamics (CSD) simulation. The computed results from the harmonic forced response analysis show good agreement with the predictions of Singh's advanced frequency evaluation (SAFE) diagram. Moreover, the mode superposition method used in FE simulation offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of mode response levels and resonant strength.

  18. [The verge and the abyss: tiotropium (Spiriva) in COPD].

    PubMed

    Segel, Michael J; Ben-Dov, Issahar

    2011-01-01

    Tiotropium, a Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, has many beneficial effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Among them are: a bronchodilator effect which is additive to that of beta-adrenergic agonists, that persists long-term without tolerance; reduction of dyspnea; improved exercise tolerance; enhanced response to rehabilitation; improved quality of life; and reduced frequency of exacerbations and hospital admissions. Therefore, tiotropium is widely used, and has been added to the Health Basket by the Israel Ministry of Health. In March 2008, the manufacturer informed the US Food and Drug Administration (FDAI that ongoing safety monitoring had identified a possible increased risk of stroke in patients who take this medicine. In September 2008, Singh and colleagues published a meta-analysis suggesting an increased risk of cardiovascular events in COPD patients treated with tiotropium, although there was no difference in overall mortality. A month later, the UPLIFT investigators published a 4 year placebo-controlled trial of tiotropium involving 5993 patients, in which there were slightly less cardiovascular events in the treatment group, and a trend to reduced overall mortality. The authors review the benefits and safety data, and conclude that while the benefits of tiotropium in COPD are clear, the evidence of an adverse effect on cardiovascular mortality is not sufficiently convincing. Hence, the balance of evidence supports continued use of tiotropium, especially in severe COPD. PMID:21449160

  19. Dependence of magnetic field and electronic transport of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-Electron Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Alvar; Singh, Simranjeet; Haque, Firoze; Del Barco, Enrique; Nguyen, Tu; Christou, George

    2012-02-01

    Dependence of magnetic field and electronic transport of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-Electron Transistor A. Rodriguez, S. Singh, F. Haque and E. del Barco Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816 USA T. Nguyen and G. Christou Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 USA Abstract We have performed single-electron transport measurements on a series of Mn-based low-nuclearity single-molecule magnets (SMM) observing Coulomb blockade. SMMs with well isolated and low ground spin states, i.e. S = 9/2 (Mn4) and S = 6 (Mn3) were chosen for these studies, such that the ground spin multiplet does not mix with levels of other excited spin states for the magnetic fields (H = 0-8 T) employed in the experiments. Different functionalization groups were employed to change the mechanical, geometrical and transport characteristics of the molecules when deposited from liquid solution on the transistors. Electromigration-broken three-terminal single-electron transistors were used. Results obtained at temperatures down to 240 mK and in the presence of high magnetic fields will be shown.

  20. Nonlinear instability and intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in solar chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Hillier, Andrew; Isobe, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-10-01

    The recent observations of Singh et al. (2012, ApJ, 759, 33) have shown multiple plasma ejections and the intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere, highlighting the need for fast reconnection to occur in highly collisional plasma. However, the physical process through which fast magnetic reconnection occurs in partially ionized plasma, like the solar chromosphere, is still poorly understood. It has been shown that for sufficiently high magnetic Reynolds numbers, Sweet-Parker current sheets can become unstable leading to tearing mode instability and plasmoid formation, but when dealing with a partially ionized plasma the strength of coupling between the ions and neutrals plays a fundamental role in determining the dynamics of the system. We propose that as the reconnecting current sheet thins and the tearing instability develops, plasmoid formation passes through strongly, intermediately, and weakly coupled (or decoupled) regimes, with the time scale for the tearing mode instability depending on the frictional coupling between ions and neutrals. We present calculations for the relevant time scales for fractal tearing in all three regimes. We show that as a result of the tearing mode instability and the subsequent non-linear instability due to the plasmoid-dominated reconnection, the Sweet-Parker current sheet tends to have a fractal-like structure, and when the chromospheric magnetic field is sufficiently strong the tearing instability can reach down to kinetic scales, which are hypothesized to be necessary for fast reconnection.

  1. Group theoretical Laws and Geometrical Phase for Paraxial Self-focusing and Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantu, Subbarao; Uma, R.

    1998-11-01

    Group theoretical laws are formulated for the dynamics of paraxial self-focusing and soliton dynamics. The close similarity in the dynamical formulation of the theory of paraxial self-focusing of cylindrical laser beams of circular as well as elliptical cross-sections and paraxial solitons is exploited to state the group theoretical laws for the dynamics which in their limited form are known as ABCD laws in optics using our recent formulation of one of these phenomena^1. The dynamics of the laser beam is in terms of its evolution in the direction propagation while the soliton dynamics is along the actual time axis. (Conceiving soliton dynamics similar to a planar beam in the x-t plane, it can be analyzed using the paraxial approximation.) The group governing the dynamics is shown to be the Lorentz group, which gets reduced to the rotation group in the absorption-less case. Geometrical phase is evaluated for all these beams and solitons using our recent formulation of the geometric phase in projective space^2. 1. D. Subbarao, R. Uma and H. Singh, Phys. Plasmas, 5, Aug. (1998). 2. D.Subbarao Opt. Lett. 20, 2162 (1995) The authors acknowledge the financial support of CSIR(India) under the project 03(0815)/97/EMR-II for this work.

  2. Triplet proximity effect in superconducting heterostructures with a half-metallic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S.; Buzdin, A.

    2015-11-01

    We present the Usadel theory describing the superconducting proximity effect in heterostructures with a half-metallic layer. It is shown that the full spin polarization inside the half-metals gives rise to an additional component of the Green's function which results in the giant triplet spin-valve effect in superconductor (S)-ferromagnet (F)-half-metal (HM) trilayers and provides a natural explanation for the φ0-junction formation in the S/F/HM/F/S systems. In addition, we consider the exactly solvable model of the S/F/HM trilayers of atomic thickness and demonstrate that it reproduces the main features of the spin-valve effect found within the Usadel approach. Our results are shown to be in qualitative agreement with the recent experimental data on the spin-valve effect in MoGe /Ni /Cu /CrO2 hybrids [Singh et al., Phys. Rev. X 5, 021019 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.021019].

  3. Magnetism and transport properties of layered rare-earth cobaltates Ln0.3CoO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knížek, K.; Novák, P.; Jirák, Z.; Hejtmánek, J.; Maryško, M.; Buršík, J.

    2015-05-01

    The ab-initio (GGA+U) electronic structure calculations of layered cobaltates Ln0.3CoO2 (Ln = La, Pr, Nd) prepared by ionic exchange from Na0.90CoO2 precursors have been performed. The data are used for numerical modeling of Seebeck coefficient within Boltzmann transport theory using BoltzTraP program [G. K. H. Madsen and D. J. Singh, Comput. Phys. Commun. 175, 67 (2006)], as well as for determination of the crystal field split levels of rare-earth ions using a method based on a transformation of Bloch states into the basis of Wannier functions [P. Novák et al., Phys. Rev. B 87, 205139 (2013)]. An overall agreement with observed magnetism and transport properties is obtained. In particular, the high p-type thermopower is well reproduced in a broad temperature range, but instead of theoretical linear decrease down to the lowest temperatures, the real systems exhibit an anomalous change of Seebeck sign, which might be related to the change of bare metallic carriers into the polaronic ones.

  4. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: a review.

    PubMed

    Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

  5. Effortless Effort in Bone Regeneration: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

  6. High-wavenumber solar f-mode strengthening prior to active region formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nishant; Raichur, Harsha; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-05-01

    We report a systematic strengthening of the local solar surface mode, i.e. the f-mode, 1-2 days prior to the emergence of an active region (AR) in the same (corotating) location while no indication can yet be seen in the magnetograms. Our study is motivated by earlier numerical findings of Singh et al. (2014) which showed that, in the presence of a nonuniform magnetic field that is concentrated a few scale heights below the surface, the f-mode fans out in the diagnostic kΩ diagram at high wavenumbers. Here we explore this possibility using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and show for four ARs 11130, 11158, 11768, and 12051, that at large latitudinal wavenumbers (corresponding to horizontal scales of around 3000 km), the f-mode displays strengthening about two days prior to AR formation and thus provides a new precursor for AR formation. The idea that the f-mode is perturbed days before any visible magnetic activity occurs on the surface can be important in constraining dynamo models aimed at understanding the global magnetic activity of the Sun.

  7. Biodynamic performance of hyaluronic acid versus synovial fluid of the knee in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Corvelli, Michael; Che, Bernadette; Saeui, Christopher; Singh, Anirudha; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural biomaterial present in healthy joints but depleted in osteoarthritis (OA), has been employed clinically to provide symptomatic relief of joint pain. Joint movement combined with a reduced joint lubrication in osteoarthritic knees can result in increased wear and tear, chondrocyte apoptosis, and inflammation, leading to cascading cartilage deterioration. Therefore, development of an appropriate cartilage model that can be evaluated for its friction properties with potential lubricants in different conditions is necessary, which can closely resemble a mechanically induced OA cartilage. Additionally, a comparison of different models with and without endogenous lubricating surface zone proteins, such as PRG4 promotes a well-rounded understanding of cartilage lubrication. In this study, we present our findings on the lubricating effects of HA on different articular cartilage model surfaces in comparison to synovial fluid, a physiological lubricating biomaterial. The mechanical testings data demonstrated that HA reduced average static and kinetic friction coefficient values of the cartilage samples by 75% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, HA mimicked the friction characteristics of freshly harvested natural synovial fluid throughout all tested and modeled OA conditions with no statistically significant difference. These characteristics led us to exclusively identify HA as an effective boundary layer lubricant in the technology that we develop to treat OA (Singh et al., 2014). PMID:25858258

  8. A novel dehydration technique for carrot slices implementing ultrasound and vacuum drying methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A novel drying technique using a combination of ultrasound and vacuum dehydration was developed to shorten the drying time and improve the quality of carrot slices. Carrot slices were dried with ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying and vacuum drying at 65 °C and 75 °C. The drying rate was significantly influenced by the drying techniques and temperatures. Compared with vacuum drying, USV drying resulted in a 41-53% decrease in the drying time. The drying time for the USV and vacuum drying techniques at 75 °C was determined to be 140 and 340 min for carrot slices, respectively. The rehydration potential, nutritional value (retention of β-carotene and ascorbic acid), color, and textural properties of USV-dried carrot slices are predominately better compared to vacuum-dried carrot slices. Moreover, lower energy consumption was used in the USV technique. The drying data (time versus moisture ratio) were successfully fitted to Wang and Singh model. PMID:26703199

  9. Data on importance of hematopoietic cell derived Lipocalin 2 against gut inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Piu; Singh, Vishal; Xiao, Xia; Yeoh, Beng San; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-09-01

    The data herein is related to the research article entitled "Microbiota-inducible innate immune siderophore binding protein Lipocalin 2 is critical for intestinal homeostasis" (Singh et al., 2016) [1]. In the present article, we monitored dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis development upon Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) neutralization, and examined the survival of Lcn2 deficient (Lcn2KO) mice and their WT littermates upon DSS challenge. To dissect the relative contribution of immune and non-immune cells-derived Lcn2 in mediating protection against gut inflammation, we generated respective bone marrow chimera and evaluated their susceptibility to IL-10 receptor neutralization-induced chronic colitis. Neutralization of Lcn2 in WT mice resulted in exacerbated DSS-induced colitis. Notably, mice lacking Lcn2 exhibited 100% mortality whereas only 20% mortality was observed in WT mice upon DSS challenge. Further, data from bone marrow chimera showed that immune cell-derived Lcn2 is the major contributor in conferring protection against colitis. PMID:27500193

  10. Sobre a atividade pós-periélica do cometa de órbita parabólica Yanaka (1988r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    Greenberg, Singh & de Almeida (ApJ, 414: L45-48, 1993) mostraram que a deficiência nas abundâncias observadas de C2 e CN no Cometa Yanaka (1988r) pode ser explicada em termos das propriedades dos seus componentes refratários orgânicos, além do fato que trata-se de um cometa dinamicamente novo, observado através de abertura de fenda pequena projetada muito próximo do núcleo. Neste trabalho, complementamos o estudo sobre a atividade deste cometa de órbita parabólica, através da determinação da lei de potência que exprime sua taxa de produção de H2O (o principal indicador de atividade) na fase pós-periélica, determinamos o raio nuclear efetivo mínimo com sua fração de área ativa e analisamos a emissão de partículas de poeira observadas no contínuo em 625,0 nm.

  11. The influence of cold rolling on the precipitation of delta phase in Inconel 718 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.C.; Xiao, F.R.; Yao, M.; Chen, Z.L.; Jiang, Z.Q.; Wang, S.G.

    1997-07-01

    The precipitation of intermetallic phases in Inconel 718 has been extensively studied. It has been found that the major intermetallic phases that precipitate in the austenite matrix are the metastable {gamma}{double_prime} (DO{sub 22} structure) and {gamma}{prime} (L1{sub 2} structure) phases and the equilibrium {delta} (DOa structure) phase. The {delta} phase can form during processing or during services. The precipitation of {delta} phase during aging has been studied in the solution treated Inconel 718. However, there are only a few studies on the precipitation of {delta} phase in cold rolled Inconel 718. R.P. Singh et al. found that more of the {delta} phase precipitated in the 50% cold rolled material compared to the 30% cold rolled material at lower temperatures, but they did not give information on the precipitation of {delta} phase in cold rolled Inconel 718 at higher temperature. The {delta} phase has a big influence on mechanical properties in Inconel 718. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the volume fraction of {delta} phase. Usually, the volume fraction of {delta} phase was measured by quantitative metallographic techniques and quantitative chemistry phase analysis. In the present work, the volume fraction of {delta} phase in cold rolled Inconel 718 at 910 C for different time is measured by X-ray diffraction techniques, and the influence of cold rolling on the morphology and the volume fraction of {delta} phase is investigated.

  12. Unification of Bell, Leggett-Garg and Kochen-Specker inequalities: Hybrid spatio-temporal inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddhartha; Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.; Home, Dipankar

    2013-12-01

    The Bell-type (spatial), Kochen-Specker (contextuality) or Leggett-Garg (temporal) inequalities are based on classically plausible but otherwise quite distinct assumptions. For any of these inequalities, satisfaction is equivalent to a joint probability distribution for all observables in the experiment. This implies a joint distribution for all pairs of observables, and is indifferent to whether or not they commute in the theory. This indifference underpins a unification of the above inequalities into a general framework of correlation inequalities. When the physical scenario is such that the correlated pairs are all compatible, the resulting correlation is nonsignaling, which may be local or multi-particle, corresponding to contextuality or Bell-type inequalities. If the pairs are incompatible, the resulting correlation corresponds to Leggett-Garg (LG) inequalities. That quantum mechanics (QM) violates all these inequalities suggests a close connection between the local, spatial and temporal properties of the theory. As a concrete manifestation of the unification, we extend the method due to Roy and Singh (J. Phys. A, 11 (1978) L167) to derive and study a new class of hybrid spatio-temporal inequalities, where the correlated pairs in the experiment are both compatible or incompatible. The implications for cryptography and monogamy inequalities of the unification are briefly touched upon.

  13. Generalized SIMD algorithm for efficient EM-PIC simulations on modern CPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren; Silva, Luis

    2012-10-01

    There are several relevant plasma physics scenarios where highly nonlinear and kinetic processes dominate. Further understanding of these scenarios is generally explored through relativistic particle-in-cell codes such as OSIRIS [1], but this algorithm is computationally intensive, and efficient use high end parallel HPC systems, exploring all levels of parallelism available, is required. In particular, most modern CPUs include a single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) vector unit that can significantly speed up the calculations. In this work we present a generalized PIC-SIMD algorithm that is shown to work efficiently with different CPU (AMD, Intel, IBM) and vector unit types (2-8 way, single/double). Details on the algorithm will be given, including the vectorization strategy and memory access. We will also present performance results for the various hardware variants analyzed, focusing on floating point efficiency. Finally, we will discuss the applicability of this type of algorithm for EM-PIC simulations on GPGPU architectures [2]. [4pt] [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342, (2002)[0pt] [2] V. K. Decyk, T. V. Singh; Comput. Phys. Commun. 182, 641-648 (2011)

  14. A tale of two diesels.

    PubMed

    Arey, Janet

    2004-06-01

    Two different samples of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have been used by toxicologists interested primarily in cancer/genotoxicity or noncancer--such as pulmonary inflammation and asthma exacerbation--health end points. These are, respectively, a standard reference material, SRM 2975, from a heavy-duty diesel engine, and a sample collected by researchers at the Japanese National Institute for Environmental Studies from an automobile diesel engine. In this issue of Environmental Health Perspectives companion papers appear, by David DeMarini and co-workers and by Pramila Singh and co-workers, characterizing these samples and contrasting their Salmonella mutagenicity and pulmonary toxicity in mice. This commentary is a plea from an atmospheric chemist for more cooperation among toxicologists, analytical chemists, atmospheric chemists, and automotive and combustion engineers to provide a comprehensive assessment of health risks to humans exposed to contemporary diesel emissions and for greater quantities and more diverse types of DEP and ambient samples (i.e., SRMs) that can be shared and exhaustively characterized. This needs to be a continuing process as diesel engines, fuels, and exhaust components evolve in response to control regulations. PMID:15175165

  15. Environmental Applications of Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Arturo A.

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently used in many applications including agriculture (Gruère, 2012; Khot et al. 2012; Lopez-Moreno et al. 2010; Peralta-Videa et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2012), aerogels (Bigall et al. 2009), aerospace (Baur and Silverman, 2007), automotive (Coelho et al. 2012; Presting and König, 2003; Salonitis et al. 2010), catalysts (Zhou et al. 2011), coatings, paints and pigments (Dhoke et al. 2009; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011; Khanna, 2008), composites (Borchardt, 2003; Khanna and Bakshi, 2009; Petrov and Georgiev, 2012; Sahoo et al. 2010), construction (Lee et al. 2010), cosmetics (Musee, 2011; Sabitha et al. 2012; Singh and Nanda, 2012), electronics and optics (Alda et al. 2005; Avasthi et al. 2007; Song et al. 2012; Subramanian and Takhee, 2012), energy (Serrano et al. 2009), environmental remediation (Dionysiou 2004; Khin et al. 2012), filtration and purification (Dhakras, 2011; Savage and Diallo, 2005), food products (Blasco and Picó, 2011; Weiss et al. 2006), medical (Boisseau and Loubaton, 2011; Farokhzad and Langer, 2006), packaging (Silvestre et al. 2011), paper and board (Kharisov and Kharissova, 2010), plastics, security (Marín and Merkoçi, 2012), sensors (Ding et al. 2010; Duncan et al. 2012; Su et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2012), and textiles (Qian and Hinestroza, 2004; Wong et al. 2006), and research is underway on many new applications...

  16. Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students

    PubMed Central

    Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. Objective: The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. Conclusion: The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. PMID:25013838

  17. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  18. ARPES studies of the electronic structure of Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Donghui

    2009-03-01

    The recent discovery of superconductivity in Fe-based layered compounds has created renewed interest in high temperature superconductivity. With a superconducting transition temperature as high as 55 K, this discovery provides a new direction to understand the essential ingredients for achieving a high superconducting transition temperature. In this talk, I will present our recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on LaOFeP and (Ba,K)Fe2As2 systems, with special emphasis on the basic electronic structure of the parent compounds. For LaOFeP, quantitative agreement can be found between our ARPES data and the LDA band structure calculations, suggesting that a weak coupling approach based on an itinerant ground state may be more appropriate for understanding this new superconducting compound [1]. On the other hand, the picture for (Ba,K)Fe2As2 system is more complicated. I will discuss two important issues in these FeAs compounds: 1) the unexpected Fermi surface topology in both undoped and doped compounds; 2) the peculiar signature of the SDW transition in ARPES spectra for the parent compound. [4pt] [1] D. H. Lu, M. Yi, S.-K. Mo, A. S. Erickson, J. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, D. J. Singh, Z. Hussain, T. H. Geballe, I. R. Fisher & Z.-X. Shen, Nature 455, 81 (2008).

  19. Mathematical modeling of drying kinetics of untreated and pretreated cocoyam slices.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, T J; Tunde-Akintunde, T Y; Adeyanju, J A

    2015-05-01

    The effect of pretreatment and drying temperature on the drying kinetics and quality of cocoyam was investigated in this study. The best model to predict the drying kinetics was also determined. Cocoyam slices were pretreated by water blanching (WB) and soaking in sodium metabisulphite (SM) and dried in a hot air oven at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 °C while untreated samples were sun dried. Seventhin layer drying models (Exponential, Generalized Exponential, Page, Logarithmic, Parabolic, Wang and Singh and Two-term) were fitted to the experimental data and selection was done basedon model with highest correlationcoefficient (R(2)), and lowest reduced chi-square (χ (2)), sum square error (SSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) respectively. The Logarithmic and Parabolic model was found to best describe the oven and sun drying of cocoyam respectively. The vitamin C and beta-carotene value of the dried cocoyam slices, which varied from 0.0038 to 0.0075 and 4.1 to 5.888 mg/100 g respectivelygenerally decreased with an increase in drying temperature. PMID:25892770

  20. Raman scattering investigation of VOCs in interaction with ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facq, Sébastien; Oancea, Adriana; Focsa, Cristian; Chazallon, Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    formed. These results are finally compared with those obtained by co-deposition trapping process. [1] K. Liou, "Influence of Cirrus Clouds on Weather and Climate Processes: A Global Perspective," Monthly Weather Review, vol. 114, Juin. 1986, pp. 1167-1199. [2] A. Heymsfield and R. Sabin, "Cirrus crystal nucleation by homogeneous freezing of solution droplets," Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 46, 1989, pp. 2252-2264. [3] J.P.D. Abbatt, "Interactions of Atmospheric Trace Gases with Ice Surfaces: Adsorption and Reaction," Chemical Reviews, vol. 103, Déc. 2003, pp. 4783-4800. [4] H. Singh, Y. Chen, A. Staudt, D. Jacob, D. Blake, B. Heikes, et J. Snow, "Evidence from the Pacific troposphere for large global sources of oxygenated organic compounds," Nature, vol. 410, Avr. 2001, pp. 1078-1081. [5] H.B. Singh, M. Kanakidou, P.J. Crutzen, and D.J. Jacob, "High concentrations and photochemical fate of oxygenated hydrocarbons in the global troposphere," Nature, vol. 378, Nov. 1995, pp. 50-54.

  1. Characterization of CO2 leakage into the freshwater body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Shao, Habing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2013-04-01

    Current research into Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is dominated by improving the CO2 storage capacity. However, potential leakage of CO2 can cause environmental problems, particularly if freshwater resources are nearby. In this regards, it is important to understand the chemistry of CO2 and the water system. CO2 leakage across the fluid interface (CO2 and water) is controlled by the difference in the partial pressure of CO2 in the storage and in the freshwater body. Once the CO2 is in solution, it equilibrates with the bicarbonate and carbonate ions. According to Millero (1994)such a system can be characterized by two parameters out of the four: total alkalinity (TA), total carbonate (TCO2), fugacity of CO2(fCO2) and pH. In the present modeling study, we are interested in the (i) CO2 leakage into a freshwater body (while injecting CO2 for storage) through an inclined fracture and (ii) characterization of the system by measuring fugacity of CO2 and pH. According to work presented by Singh et al. (2012), about 31% of injected CO2 leaks into the freshwater body. Solubility of CO2 in water follows Henry's law, while the Henry constant, K0 is calculated by an empirical relation developed by Murray and Riley (1971), which is a function of salinity and temperature. According to our results, pH and fugacity both appear to be a linear function of temperature. To simulate the discussed problem, a corresponding numerical module has been developed for multi-component fluid flow coupled with heat and mass transport processes. Governing equations and Volume Translated Peng-Robinson equations of state are implemented within the object-oriented finite element code OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012; www.opengeosys.org). Primary variables are pressure, temperature and salinity which are obtained by solving the governing equations in a monolithic way The governing equations are discretized spatially within the context of a Galerkin approach, whereas the temporal

  2. Geochemical proxies for weathering and provenance of Late Quaternary alluvial core-sediments from NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit; Amir, Mohd; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv

    2014-05-01

    The Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains are formed by sediment deposition in the foreland basin as a result of upliftment and subsequent erosion of the Himalaya. Earlier study (Sinha et al., 2013) has shown the subsurface existence of buried channel bodies beneath the Ghaggar plains in NW Indo-Gangetic plains. The mapped sand bodies follow trace of a paleochannel that begins at the mountain front near the exit of river Sutlej and extends to the northern margin of the Thar desert, suggesting existence of a large Himalayan-sourced river (Singh et al., 2011) in the past. The buried sand bodies hold potential records of erosion history over the Himalaya that could be used to assess climate-controlled erosion over the Himalaya. Geochemical variations in the sediments from two (~45m long) cores drilled below the trace of the paleochannel (upstream) near Sirhind, Punjab and two cores (GS-10 & 11) from downstream near Kalibangan, Rajasthan, are used in this study to understand the erosional pattern over the Himalaya during Late Quaternary. Down-core variations in chemical index of alteration (CIA=51-79) along with K2O/Na2O and Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O) ratios are consistent with the trends of SW summer monsoonal fluctuations during the Glacial-Interglacial periods indicating climate controlled weathering at the source; higher values during Interglacial and lower during Glacial periods with maximum value during the Holocene. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of drill-cores sediments, 87Sr/86Sr (0.7314-0.7946), ɛNd (-23.2 to -14) are within the range of silicate rocks from the Higher and Lesser Himalaya. Significant down-core variations in 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd are observed that reflect the mixing of varying proportions of the Higher and Lesser Himalayan sediments, the two dominant sources to the core sites. Sediments deposited during MIS-2 and MIS-4, cold and dry Glacial periods, show high 87Sr/86Sr and low ɛNd suggesting an enhanced contribution from the Lesser Himalayan rocks that are

  3. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Singh, Tejinder

    2014-03-01

    painstaking task of proofreading and copyediting the accepted papers. We also thank the SOC, and the Workshop Chairs for their help in putting together an excellent scientific programme, the LOC for the wonderful organization, and the referees of papers for their help in improving the quality of the papers. Finally, we would like to thank all the authors who have made the publication of these proceedings possible, through their contribution. B S Sathyaprakash and Tejinder P Singh Scientific Organizing Committee Pijushpani Bhattacharjee (SINP, India) J Richard Bond (CITA, Canada) Manuela Campanelli (RIT, USA) Debajyoti Choudhury (Delhi University, India) Richard Ellis (Caltech, USA) Gary Gibbons (DAMTP, UK) Pankaj Joshi (TIFR, India) Romesh Kaul (IMSc, India) Subhabrata Majumdar (TIFR, India) Don Marolf (UCSB, USA) Ramesh Narayan (CfA, Harvard University, USA) Lyman Page (Princeton University, USA) Misao Sasaki (YITP, Japan) B S Sathyaprakash (Cardiff University, UK) Ashoke Sen (HRI, India) Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, India) [Chair] P S Sreekumar (ISRO, India) Alexei Starobinsky (Landau Institute, Russia) Sumati Surya (RRI, India) C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, India) Spenta Wadia (TIFR, India) Local Organzing Committee Ghanashyam Date A Gopakumar Subhabrata Majumdar D Narasimha T P Singh (Chair) Supporting Staff V Chellathurai [Scientific Programmes Coordinator] Ashok Deshpande [Accounts Officer] Margaret D'Souza [Secretary] Shobha Jagtap [Secretary] Nishikant Kadam [Secretary] Vijay Kadam [Assistant] A list of participants is available in the PDF

  4. Mathematical and numerical analysis of non-planer static mode-II crack in a two-layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, S.; Yamashita, T.

    2009-12-01

    A crack in an infinite homogeneous medium is widely assumed as a model for earthquake fault. It is, however, well known that the earth's crust is heterogeneous and its structure is approximated well by a layered medium. Hence, such structure should be taken into account to model earthquake fault reasonably. We mathematically analyze the behavior of a 2-D static mode-II non-planar crack in a two-layered elastic medium in order to understand the effect of layer boundary on earthquake faulting. Although Rani and Singh (1993) and Rivalta et al.(2002) studied similar problems, focuses of their studies were quite narrow probably because of inherent mathematical difficulty. Actually the former assumed a planar crack with uniform slip and the latter assumed a planar crack perpendicular to the layer boundary. While a serious difficulty of the analysis of mode-II crack lies in the derivation of stress distribution due to point source as a kernel function, we first overcome the difficulty by writing its expression in a sequence of complex functions in the real (not the Fourier) domain. A very important characteristic in the sequence is that it has recursive property, which makes possible to derive the kernel function explicitly and to integrate it by parts; the integration by parts is required before the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is applied. Our kernel function is much easier to treat than the expression given by Rani and Singh (1993). This enables us to analyze arbitrarily oriented non-planar crack in a two-layered medium. Next, we calculate the spatial distribution of stress due to crack that does not intersect the layer boundary using the above derived kernel function. We find in the calculation that the existence of layer boundary amplifies or reduces the stress at the crack tip when the crack is located close to the boundary; the stress is amplified when the crack exists in the layer with lower rigidity. Our method of analysis can easily be applied to the

  5. The compression study of MgO up to 3Mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, T.; Nishitani, N.; Ohtani, E.; Hirao, N.

    2011-12-01

    Periclase (MgO) is a most fundamental oxide in the terrestrial planets. It is also widely used as a pressure standard material for the high pressure experiment. Moreover, recently Super Earths which has a few times of Earth's mass were found in the extrasolar system. Theoretical study implied that MgSiO3 decompose to MgO and SiO2 in such huge planet's interior (Umemoto et al. 2006). Thus, the compression behavior of MgO at multi-megabar pressure is important to understand the Super Earth's interior. Here we report the compression study of MgO up to 3Mbar. Periclase powder (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.) and platinum black (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.) were used as the starting material. We used a symmetric-type diamond anvil cell for high pressure generation. The experimental pressure was determined by the Vinet equation of state of platinum as reported by Matsui et al. (2009). The sample was annealed by a double-sided laser-heating method using a fiber laser at the BL10XU beamline, Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron facility, in order to minimize the deviatoric stress in the sample. Experimental pressures were measured after laser annealing. A monochromatic incident X-ray beam with a wavelength of 0.41297(7) Å and 0.41298(8) Å at BL10XU was collimated to a diameter less than 10 μm (Ohishi et al., 2008). X-ray diffraction spectra were collected on an imaging plate (IP) with an exposure time of 5 min. The two-dimensional X-ray diffraction image was integrated as a function of 2θ to give a conventional one-dimensional X-ray diffraction pattern. The diffraction of cerium oxide (CeO2) was used to determine the wavelength and the distance between the sample and the IP. Periclase was successfully compressed up to 308 GPa. We estimated the uniaxial stress of platinum at 308 GPa. The uniaxial stress t is described as t = -3M1/(M0αS) (Singh and Takemura, 2001). Here, M0 and M1 are the intercept and slope of the gamma plot, respectively. The coefficient α is

  6. Repeating and not so Repeating Large Earthquakes in the Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Singh, S.; Iglesias, A.; Perez-Campos, X.

    2013-12-01

    The rupture area and recurrence interval of large earthquakes in the mexican subduction zone are relatively small and almost the entire length of the zone has experienced a large (Mw≥7.0) earthquake in the last 100 years (Singh et al., 1981). Several segments have experienced multiple large earthquakes in this time period. However, as the rupture areas of events prior to 1973 are only approximately known, the recurrence periods are uncertain. Large earthquakes occurred in the Ometepec, Guerrero, segment in 1937, 1950, 1982 and 2012 (Singh et al., 1981). In 1982, two earthquakes (Ms 6.9 and Ms 7.0) occurred about 4 hours apart, one apparently downdip from the other (Astiz & Kanamori, 1984; Beroza et al. 1984). The 2012 earthquake on the other hand had a magnitude of Mw 7.5 (globalcmt.org), breaking approximately the same area as the 1982 doublet, but with a total scalar moment about three times larger than the 1982 doublet combined. It therefore seems that 'repeat earthquakes' in the Ometepec segment are not necessarily very similar one to another. The Central Oaxaca segment broke in large earthquakes in 1928 (Mw7.7) and 1978 (Mw7.7) . Seismograms for the two events, recorded at the Wiechert seismograph in Uppsala, show remarkable similarity, suggesting that in this area, large earthquakes can repeat. The extent to which the near-trench part of the fault plane participates in the ruptures is not well understood. In the Ometepec segment, the updip portion of the plate interface broke during the 25 Feb 1996 earthquake (Mw7.1), which was a slow earthquake and produced anomalously low PGAs (Iglesias et al., 2003). Historical records indicate that a great tsunamigenic earthquake, M~8.6, occurred in the Oaxaca region in 1787, breaking the Central Oaxaca segment together with several adjacent segments (Suarez & Albini 2009). Whether the updip portion of the fault broke in this event remains speculative, although plausible based on the large tsunami. Evidence from the

  7. Development of a 3D Potential Field Forward Modelling System in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, P.

    2012-12-01

    The collection of potential field data has long been a standard part of geophysical exploration. Specifically, airborne magnetic data is collected routinely in any brown-fields area, because of the low cost and fast acquisition rate compared to other geophysical techniques. However, the interpretation of such data can be a daunting task, especially when 3D models are becoming more necessary. The current trend in modelling software is to follow either the modelling of individual profiles, which are then "joined" up into 3D sections, or to model in a full 3D using polygonal based models (Singh and Guptasarma, 2001). Unfortunately, both techniques have disadvantages. When modelling in 2.5D the impact of other profiles is not truly available on your current profile being modelled, and vice versa. The problem is not present in 3D, but 3D polygonal models, while being easy to construct the initial model, are not as easy to make fast changes to. In some cases, the entire model must be recreated from scratch. The ability to easily change a model is the very basis of forward modelling. With this is mind, the objective of the project was to: 1) Develop software which was truly modelling in 3D 2) Create a system which would allow the rapid changing of the 3D model, without the need to recreate the model. The solution was to adopt a voxel based approach, rather than a polygonal approach. The solution for a cube (Blakely 1996) was used to calculate potential field for each voxel. The voxels are then summed over the entire volume. The language used was python, because of its huge capacity for scientific development. It enables full 3D visualisation as well as complex mathematical routines. Some properties worth noting are: 1) Although 200 rows by 200 columns by 200 layers would imply 8 million calculations, in reality, since the calculation for adjacent voxels produces the same result, only 200 calculations are necessary. 2) Changes to susceptibility and density do not affect

  8. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Wind and Cloud Measurements on Venus from an Orbiting or Floating/Flying Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra; Limaye, Sanjay; Emmitt, George; Kavaya, Michael; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

    an orbiting or floating/flying platform. This presentation will describe the concept, simulation and technology development plan for wind and cloud measurements on Venus. References [1] M.J. Kavaya, U.N. Singh, G.J. Koch, B.C. Trieu, M. Petros, and P.J. Petzar, "Development of a Compact, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver and Plans for Flights on NASA's DC-8 and WB-57 Aircraft," Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Toulouse, France, June 2009. [2] G.J. Koch, J.Y. Beyon, B.W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, F. Amzajerdian, M.J. Kavaya, and U.N. Singh, "High-Energy 2-micron Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements," Optical Engineering 46(11), 116201-14 (2007). [3] J.Y. Beyon and G.J. Koch, "Novel Nonlinear Adaptive Doppler Shift Estimation Technique for the Coherent Doppler Validation Lidar," Optical Engineering 46(1), 0160021-9 (2007).

  9. SU-E-I-43: Pediatric CT Dose and Image Quality Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G; Singh, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To design an approach to optimize radiation dose and image quality for pediatric CT imaging, and to evaluate expected performance. Methods: A methodology was designed to quantify relative image quality as a function of CT image acquisition parameters. Image contrast and image noise were used to indicate expected conspicuity of objects, and a wide-cone system was used to minimize scan time for motion avoidance. A decision framework was designed to select acquisition parameters as a weighted combination of image quality and dose. Phantom tests were used to acquire images at multiple techniques to demonstrate expected contrast, noise and dose. Anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts were imaged on a 160mm CT system with tube voltage capabilities as low as 70kVp. Previously acquired clinical images were used in conjunction with simulation tools to emulate images at different tube voltages and currents to assess human observer preferences. Results: Examination of image contrast, noise, dose and tube/generator capabilities indicates a clinical task and object-size dependent optimization. Phantom experiments confirm that system modeling can be used to achieve the desired image quality and noise performance. Observer studies indicate that clinical utilization of this optimization requires a modified approach to achieve the desired performance. Conclusion: This work indicates the potential to optimize radiation dose and image quality for pediatric CT imaging. In addition, the methodology can be used in an automated parameter selection feature that can suggest techniques given a limited number of user inputs. G Stevens and R Singh are employees of GE Healthcare.

  10. Low cost and manufacturable complete microTAS for detecting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sauer-Budge, Alexis F; Mirer, Paul; Chatterjee, Anirban; Klapperich, Catherine M; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated lab-on-a-chip and associated instrument for the detection of bacteria from liquid samples. The system conducts bacterial lysis, nucleic acid isolation and concentration, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and end-point fluorescent detection. To enable truly low-cost manufacture of the single-use disposable chip, we designed the plastic chip in a planar format without any active components to be amenable to injection molding and utilized a novel porous polymer monolith (PPM) embedded with silica that has been shown to lyse bacteria and isolate the nucleic acids from clinical samples (M. D. Kulinski, M. Mahalanabis, S. Gillers, J. Y. Zhang, S. Singh and C. M. Klapperich, Biomed. Microdevices, 2009, 11, 671-678).(1) The chip is made of Zeonex(R), a thermoplastic with a high melting temperature to allow PCR, good UV transmissibility for UV-curing of the PPM, and low auto-fluorescence for fluorescence detection of the amplicon. We have built a prototype instrument to automate control of the fluids, temperature cycling, and optical detection with the capability of accommodating various chip designs. To enable fluid control without including valves or pumps on the chip, we utilized a remote valve switching technique. To allow fluid flow rate changes on the valveless chip, we incorporated speed changing fluid reservoirs. The PCR thermal cycling was achieved with a ceramic heater and air cooling, while end-point fluorescence detection was accomplished with an optical spectrometer; all integrated in the instrument. The chip seamlessly and automatically is mated to the instrument through an interface block that presses against the chip. The interface block aligns and ensures good contact of the chip to the temperature controlled region and the optics. The integrated functionality of the chip was demonstrated using Bacillus subtilis as a model bacterial target. A Taqman assay was employed on-chip to detect the isolated bacterial DNA

  11. On the pre-perihelion temporal activity of comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the favorable apparition of 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A.; Serrano, G.; Sanzovo, G.; Trevisan Sanzovo, D.

    2014-07-01

    The short-period (5.5 years) comet 9P/Tempel 1 was revisited by NASA's Stardust-NExT probe in 2011 February 15, in a flyby at a distance of only about 181 km. This is the first time a comet is visited twice by two different probes (the first visit in 2005 July 4, by NASA's Deep Impact probe). Tempel 1 is not a bright or very active comet. The brightest apparent magnitude in 25 appearances, since the discovery (1867), has been m=9.5, well below the limit of visibility to the naked eye. Here, we study the temporal activity, based on 495 apparent visual magnitude estimates (ICQ), obtained during the very favorable apparition of 2005 (the comet passed at 0.71 au from the Earth in 2005 May 3) by the Semi-Empirical Method of Visual Magnitudes (SEMVM, de Almeida, Singh&Huebner, 1997). We determine a model dependent activity at the time immediately before the Deep Impact (4 July 2005 at 5:52 UTC) in fairly good agreement with Schleicher et al. (2006), Feaga et al. (2007) and Gicquel et al. (2012) from the Spitzer spacecraft observations, and a day later, at the time of the perihelion passage (5 July 2005 at 5:31 UTC), also in good agreement with Biver et al. (2007) and Farnham et al. (2010), most likely powered by water-ice sublimation. Our results are consistent, for an active area of 10% and a minimum nuclear radius of 2.5 km , with the radio OH observations in 18-cm (Howell et al., 2007; Biver et al., 2007), and the H_2O observations by satellites SWAN (Mäkinen et al., 2007; Bensch et al., 2007) and Odin (Biver et al., 2007), in the pre-perihelion phase.

  12. Identification of hydrological model parameters for flood forecasting using data depth measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauße, T.; Cullmann, J.

    2011-03-01

    The development of methods for estimating the parameters of hydrological models considering uncertainties has been of high interest in hydrological research over the last years. Besides the very popular Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods which estimate the uncertainty of model parameters in the settings of a Bayesian framework, the development of depth based sampling methods, also entitled robust parameter estimation (ROPE), have attracted an increasing research interest. These methods understand the estimation of model parameters as a geometric search of a set of robust performing parameter vectors by application of the concept of data depth. Recent studies showed that the parameter vectors estimated by depth based sampling perform more robust in validation. One major advantage of this kind of approach over the MCMC methods is that the formulation of a likelihood function within a Bayesian uncertainty framework gets obsolete and arbitrary purpose-oriented performance criteria defined by the user can be integrated without any further complications. In this paper we present an advanced ROPE method entitled the Advanced Robust Parameter Estimation by Monte Carlo algorithm (AROPEMC). The AROPEMC algorithm is a modified version of the original robust parameter estimation algorithm ROPEMC developed by Bárdossy and Singh (2008). AROPEMC performs by merging iterative Monte Carlo simulations, identifying well performing parameter vectors, the sampling of robust parameter vectors according to the principle of data depth and the application of a well-founded stopping criterion applied in supervised machine learning. The principals of the algorithm are illustrated by means of the Rosenbrock's and Rastrigin's function, two well known performance benchmarks for optimisation algorithms. Two case studies demonstrate the advantage of AROPEMC compared to state of the art global optimisation algorithms. A distributed process-oriented hydrological model is calibrated and

  13. Attenuation in western Nevada: Preliminary results from earthquake and explosion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Anderson, J. G.; Patton, H. J.

    1989-02-01

    We present preliminary results from a study of the attenuation of regional seismic waves at frequencies between 1 and 15 Hz and distances up to 250 km in Western Nevada. Following the methods of Anderson and Hough (1984) and Hough et al. (1988), we parameterize the asymptote of the high frequency acceleration spectrum by a two-parameter model. We relate the model parameters to a two-layer model for Qi and Qd, the frequency-independent and the frequency dependent components of the quality factor. We comparing our results to previously published Q studies in the Basin and Range and find that our estimate of total Q, Qt, in the shallow crust is consistent with shear wave Q at close distances as determined by Chavez and Priestley (1985). For depths greater than 5 km, we obtain a Qt which is consistent with previous estimates of coda Q (Singh and Herrmann, 1983) and LgQ (Chavez and Priestley, 1986), suggesting that both coda Q and LgQ are insensitive to near-surface contributions to attenuation. In addition to our attenuation results, we compare the high frequency content of explosions with that of earthquakes. Our results from S waves are similar to results for Pg waves by Chael et al. (1987), and Chael (1988), who find that the Pg wave spectra from explosions are depleted in high frequency energy with respect to earthquake spectra. Taylor et al. (1988) look at spectral energy at 1-2 Hz compared to energy at 6-8 Hz for earthquakes and explosions and find, especially for Lg waves, relative depletion of the higher frequencies for explosion sources. This result is also consistent with the results from this study.

  14. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-05-01

    Transportation mobility in India has increased significantly in the past decades. From 1970 to 2000, motorized mobility (passenger-km) has risen by 888%, compared with an 88% population growth (Singh,2006). This contributed to many energy and environmental issues, and an energy strategy incorporates efficiency improvement and other measures needs to be designed. Unfortunately, existing energy data do not provide information on driving forces behind energy use and sometime show large inconsistencies. Many previous studies address only a single transportation mode such as passenger road travel; did not include comprehensive data collection or analysis has yet been done, or lack detail on energy demand by each mode and fuel mix. The current study will fill a considerable gap in current efforts, develop a data base on all transport modes including passenger air and water, and freight in order to facilitate the development of energy scenarios and assess significance of technology potential in a global climate change model. An extensive literature review and data collection has been done to establish the database with breakdown of mobility, intensity, distance, and fuel mix of all transportation modes. Energy consumption was estimated and compared with aggregated transport consumption reported in IEA India transportation energy data. Different scenarios were estimated based on different assumptions on freight road mobility. Based on the bottom-up analysis, we estimated that the energy consumption from 1990 to 2000 increased at an annual growth rate of 7% for the mid-range road freight growth case and 12% for the high road freight growth case corresponding to the scenarios in mobility, while the IEA data only shows a 1.7% growth rate in those years.

  15. Triplet correlation functions in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhabal, Debdas; Singh, Murari; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2014-11-01

    Triplet correlations have been shown to play a crucial role in the transformation of simple liquids to anomalous tetrahedral fluids [M. Singh, D. Dhabal, A. H. Nguyen, V. Molinero, and C. Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 147801 (2014)]. Here we examine triplet correlation functions for water, arguably the most important tetrahedral liquid, under ambient conditions, using configurational ensembles derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) datasets fitted to experimental scattering data. Four different RMC data sets with widely varying hydrogen-bond topologies fitted to neutron and x-ray scattering data are considered [K. T. Wikfeldt, M. Leetmaa, M. P. Ljungberg, A. Nilsson, and L. G. M. Pettersson, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 6246 (2009)]. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for two rigid-body effective pair potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) and the monatomic water (mW) model. Triplet correlation functions are compared with other structural measures for tetrahedrality, such as the O-O-O angular distribution function and the local tetrahedral order distributions. In contrast to the pair correlation functions, which are identical for all the RMC ensembles, the O-O-O triplet correlation function can discriminate between ensembles with different degrees of tetrahedral network formation with the maximally symmetric, tetrahedral SYM dataset displaying distinct signatures of tetrahedrality similar to those obtained from atomistic simulations of the SPC/E model. Triplet correlations from the RMC datasets conform closely to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, while those from MD simulations show deviations within the first two neighbour shells. The possibilities for experimental estimation of triplet correlations of water and other tetrahedral liquids are discussed.

  16. Half-metallic superconducting triplet spin valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halterman, Klaus; Alidoust, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically study a finite-size S F1N F2 spin valve, where a normal metal (N ) insert separates a thin standard ferromagnet (F1) and a thick half-metallic ferromagnet (F2). For sufficiently thin superconductor (S ) widths close to the coherence length ξ0, we find that changes to the relative magnetization orientations in the ferromagnets can result in substantial variations in the transition temperature Tc, consistent with experimental results [Singh et al., Phys. Rev. X 5, 021019 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.021019]. Our results demonstrate that, in good agreement with the experiment, the variations are largest in the case where F2 is in a half-metallic phase and thus supports only one spin direction. To pinpoint the origins of this strong spin-valve effect, both the equal-spin f1 and opposite-spin f0 triplet correlations are calculated using a self-consistent microscopic technique. We find that when the magnetization in F1 is tilted slightly out of plane, the f1 component can be the dominant triplet component in the superconductor. The coupling between the two ferromagnets is discussed in terms of the underlying spin currents present in the system. We go further and show that the zero-energy peaks of the local density of states probed on the S side of the valve can be another signature of the presence of superconducting triplet correlations. Our findings reveal that for sufficiently thin S layers, the zero-energy peak at the S side can be larger than its counterpart in the F2 side.

  17. Behavioral Differences Among Four Co-occurring Species of Container Mosquito Larvae: Effects of Depth and Resource Environments

    PubMed Central

    SKIFF, J. J.; YEE, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito larvae often exhibit different behaviors depending on the aspects of the aquatic environment, including the presence of different physical factors and detrital food sources. Regardless of these physical differences, different genera also devote different amounts of time to different behaviors. To determine if differences existed among four focal mosquito species (Aedes albopictus (Singh), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), Culex coronator Dyar & Knab), we recorded behaviors under different food environments (animal detritus, leaf detritus, and inoculum + inert material) and depths (shallow and deep). Based on past work, we predicted that larval mosquitoes in the genus Culex would spend more time filtering or resting at the surface of containers, whereas Aedes mosquitoes would spend more time browsing on surfaces. Behaviors were recorded for 30 min and were used to generate instantaneous scan census of behavior (thrashing, browsing, and resting or filtering) and locations (top, middle, bottom, wall, and detritus) of each larva every minute. There were significant differences in behaviors among the three detritus types and the four species (Culex generally different than Aedes), as well as a significant interaction between depth and detritus type. Consistent with predictions, Culex species spent more time filtering or resting, whereas Aedes larvae spent more time browsing on detritus. However, all four species changed their behavior similarly among the different environments, and Cx. coronator exhibited some similar behaviors as the two Aedes species. These behavioral differences may aid in explaining performance differences between different species and outcomes of interspecific encounters, which in turn can affect adult emergence and patterns of disease. PMID:24724286

  18. Conformational preferences of a few enkephalin unsaturated analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagona, G.; Ciuffo, G. M.; Ghio, C.

    1994-07-01

    The conformational behavior of enkephalin analogs containing α-β unsaturated residues was studied employing a recent modification (G. Alagona, C. Ghio and C. Pratesi, J. Comput. Chem., 12 (1991) 934) of an existing force field for nucleic acids and proteins (S.J. Weiner, P.A. Kollman, D.A. Case, U. Chandra Singh, C. Ghio, G. Alagona, S. Profeta, Jr., and P. Weiner, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106 (1984) 765) with molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of the structures obtained, the rationale proposed for the morphine-like activity of enkephalins (i.e. the presence of β-turn of type II', considered important for the binding to opiate receptors) was checked and confirmed on the basis of topological features associated with a compact positioning of the aromatic side chains, tyrosine and phenylalanine or dehydrophenylalanine. The molecular electrostatic potential in the plane perpendicular to the α-β double bond may account only in part for the enhanced potency often observed in unsaturated compounds, and attributed to the intrinsic reactivity of the double bond toward nucleophilic sites on the opiate receptor or to a stronger binding to receptors. In the presence of the solvent, described as a continuous dielectric medium, most of the least stable conformations in vacuo are greatly stabilized, thus becoming even more favored than the gas-phase minimum-energy structures. Interestingly enough, the solvent stabilization is noticeable not only for the extended conformers, as expected, but also for several β-turn structures of type II'.

  19. Origin of Meyer-Neldel type compensation behavior in organic semiconductors at large carrier concentrations: Disorder versus thermodynamic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishchuk, I. I.; Kadashchuk, A.; Mityashin, A.; Gavrilyuk, M. M.; Köhler, A.; Bässler, H.; Genoe, J.; Sitter, H.; Sariciftci, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have extended an effective medium approximation theory [Fishchuk, Kadashchuk, Genoe, Ullah, Sitter, Singh, Sariciftci, and Bässler, Phys. Rev. B 81, 045202 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.045202] to investigate how polaron formation affects the Meyer-Neldel (MN) compensation behavior observed for temperature-dependent charge-carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors at large carrier concentrations, as realized in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We show that the compensation behavior in organic semiconductor thin films can be consistently described for both nonpolaronic and polaronic hopping transport in the framework of the disorder formalism using either Miller-Abrahams or polaron Marcus rates, respectively, provided that the polaron binding energy is small compared to the width of the density of states (DOS) distribution in the system. We argue that alternative models based on thermodynamic reasoning, like the multiexcitation entropy (MEE) model, which assumes charge transport dominated by polarons with multiphonon processes and ignores the energy disorder, are inherently not applicable to describe adequately the charge-carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors. We have suggested and realized a test experiment based on measurements of the compensation behavior for the temperature-dependent conductivity and mobility in OFET devices to check the applicability of these models. We point out that the MN behavior observed in thin-film OFETs has nothing to do with the genuine MN rule predicted by the MEE approach, but rather it is an apparent effect arising as a consequence of the functional dependence of the partial filling of the DOS in a disordered system with hopping transport. This fact is fully supported by experimental results. The apparent MN energy was found to depend also on the shape of the DOS distribution and polaron binding energy.

  20. Evaluation of simulated photochemical partitioning of oxidized nitrogen in the upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, B. H.; Pinder, R. W.; Crooks, J.; Cohen, R. C.; Hutzell, W. T.; Sarwar, G.; Goliff, W. S.; Stockwell, W. R.; Fahr, A.; Mathur, R.; Carlton, A. G.; Vizuete, W.

    2011-01-01

    Regional and global chemical transport models underpredict NOx (NO + NO2) in the upper troposphere where it is a precursor to the greenhouse gas ozone. The NOx bias has been shown in model evaluations using aircraft data (Singh et al., 2007) and total column NO2 (molecules cm-2) from satellite observations (Napelenok et al., 2008). The causes of NOx underpredictions have yet to be fully understood due to the interconnected nature of simulated emission, transport, and chemistry processes. Recent observation-based studies, in the upper troposphere, identify chemical rate coefficients as a potential source of error (Olson et al., 2006; Ren et al., 2008). Since typical chemistry evaluation techniques are not available for upper tropospheric conditions, this study develops an evaluation platform from in situ observations, stochastic convection, and deterministic chemistry. We derive a stochastic convection model and optimize it using two simulated datasets of time since convection, one based on meteorology, and the other on chemistry. The chemistry surrogate for time since convection is calculated using seven different chemical mechanisms, all of which predict shorter time since convection than our meteorological analysis. We evaluate chemical simulations by inter-comparison and by pairing results with observations based on NOx:HNO3, a photochemical aging indicator. Inter-comparison reveals individual chemical mechanism biases and recommended updates. Evaluation against observations shows that all chemical mechanisms overpredict NOx removal relative to long-lived methanol and carbon monoxide. All chemical mechanisms underpredict observed NOx by at least 30%, and further evaluation is necessary to refine simulation sensitivities to initial conditions and chemical rate uncertainties.

  1. Evaluation of simulated photochemical partitioning of oxidized nitrogen in the upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, B. H.; Pinder, R. W.; Crooks, J.; Cohen, R. C.; Hutzell, W. T.; Sarwar, G.; Goliff, W. S.; Stockwell, W. R.; Fahr, A.; Mathur, R.; Carlton, A. G.; Vizuete, W.

    2010-08-01

    Regional and global chemical transport models underpredict NOx (NO+NO2) in the upper troposphere where it is a precursor to the greenhouse gas ozone. The NOx bias been shown in model evaluations using aircraft data (Singh et al., 2007) and total column NO2 (molecules cm-2) from satellite observations (Napelenok et al., 2008). The causes of NOx underpredictions have yet to be fully understood due to the interconnected nature of simulated emission, transport, and chemistry processes. Recent observation-based studies suggest that, in the upper troposphere, simulated chemistry overpredicts hydrogen radicals (OH• and HO2•) and would convert NOx to HNO3 too quickly (Olson et al., 2006; Bertram et al., 2007; Ren et al., 2008). Since typical chemistry evaluation techniques are not available for upper tropospheric conditions, this study develops an evaluation platform from in situ observations, stochastic convection, and deterministic chemistry. We derive a stochastic convection model and optimize it using two simulated datasets of time since convection, one based on meteorology and the other on chemistry. The chemistry surrogate for time since convection is calculated using seven different chemical mechanisms, all of which predict shorter time since convection than our meteorological analysis. We evaluate chemical simulations by inter-comparison and by pairing results with observations based on NOx:HNO3, a photochemical aging indicator. Inter-comparison reveals individual chemical mechanism biases and recommended updates. Evaluation against observations shows that all chemical mechanisms overpredict NOx removal relative to long-lived methanol and carbon monoxide. All chemical mechanisms underpredict observed NOx by at least 30%, and further evaluation is necessary to refine simulation sensitivities to initial conditions and chemical rate uncertainties.

  2. Protein Expression in Insect and Mammalian Cells Using Baculoviruses in Wave Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kadwell, Sue H; Overton, Laurie K

    2016-01-01

    Many types of disposable bioreactors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells are now available. They differ in design, capacity, and sensor options, with many selections available for either rocking platform, orbitally shaken, pneumatically mixed, or stirred-tank bioreactors lined with an integral disposable bag (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). WAVE Bioreactors™ were among the first disposable systems to be developed (Singh, Cytotechnology 30:149-158, 1999). Since their commercialization in 1999, Wave Bioreactors have become routinely used in many laboratories due to their ease of operation, limited utility requirements, and protein expression levels comparability to traditional stirred-tank bioreactors. Wave Bioreactors are designed to use a presterilized Cellbag™, which is attached to a rocking platform and inflated with filtered air provided by the bioreactor unit. The Cellbag can be filled with medium and cells and maintained at a set temperature. The rocking motion, which is adjusted through angle and rock speed settings, provides mixing of oxygen (and CO2, which is used to control pH in mammalian cell cultures) from the headspace created in the inflated Cellbag with the cell culture medium and cells. This rocking motion can be adjusted to prevent cell shear damage. Dissolved oxygen and pH can be monitored during scale-up, and samples can be easily removed to monitor other parameters. Insect and mammalian cells grow very well in Wave Bioreactors (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). Combining Wave Bioreactor cell growth capabilities with recombinant baculoviruses engineered for insect or mammalian cell expression has proven to be a powerful tool for rapid production of a wide range of proteins. PMID:26820862

  3. Measurement of DNA damage after exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Malyapa, R S; Ahern, E W; Straube, W L; Moros, E G; Pickard, W F; Roti Roti, J L

    1997-12-01

    Recent reports suggest that exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation causes DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells of rat brain irradiated in vivo (Lai and Singh, Bioelectromagnetics 16, 207-210, 1995; Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 69, 513-521, 1996). Therefore, we endeavored to determine if exposure of cultured mammalian cells in vitro to 2450 MHz radiation causes DNA damage. The alkaline comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis), which is reportedly the most sensitive method to assay DNA damage in individual cells, was used to measure DNA damage after in vitro 2450 MHz irradiation. Exponentially growing U87MG and C3H 10T1/2 cells were exposed to 2450 MHz continuous-wave (CW) radiation in specially designed radial transmission lines (RTLs) that provided relatively uniform microwave exposure. Specific absorption rates (SARs) were calculated to be 0.7 and 1.9 W/kg. Temperatures in the RTLs were measured in real time and were maintained at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Every experiment included sham exposure(s) in an RTL. Cells were irradiated for 2 h, 2 h followed by a 4-h incubation at 37 degrees C in an incubator, 4 h and 24 h. After these treatments samples were subjected to the alkaline comet assay as described by Olive et al. (Exp. Cell Res. 198, 259-267, 1992). Images of comets were digitized and analyzed using a PC-based image analysis system, and the "normalized comet moment" and "comet length" were determined. No significant differences were observed between the test group and the controls after exposure to 2450 MHz CW irradiation. Thus 2450 MHz irradiation does not appear to cause DNA damage in cultured mammalian cells under these exposure conditions as measured by this assay. PMID:9399707

  4. Interferon-inducible factor 16 is a novel modulator of glucocorticoid action

    PubMed Central

    Berry, A.; Matthews, L.; Jangani, M.; Plumb, J.; Farrow, S.; Buchan, N.; Wilson, P. A.; Singh, D.; Ray, D. W.; Donn, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we used cDNA expression profiling to identify genes associated with glucocorticoid (Gc) sensitivity. We now identify which of these directly influence Gc action. Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPRII), and regulator of G-protein signaling 14 (RGS14) increased Gc transactivation, whereas sialyltransferase 4B (SIAT4B) had a negative effect. Amyloid β (A4) precursor-protein binding, family B, member 1 (APBB1/Fe65) and neural cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9) were without effect. Only IFI16 potentiated Gc repression of NF-κB. In addition, IFI16 affected basal expression, and Gc induction of endogenous target genes. IFI16 did not affect glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, ligand-dependent repression of GR expression, or the ligand-dependent induction of GR phosphorylation on Ser-211 or Ser-203. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed an interaction, suggesting that IFI16 modulation of GR function is mediated by protein crosstalk. Transfection analysis with GR mutants showed that the ligand-binding domain of GR binds IFI16 and is the target domain for IFI16 regulation. Analysis of human lung sections identified colocalization of GR and IFI16, suggesting a physiologically relevant interaction. We demonstrate that IFI16 is a novel modulator of GR function and show the importance of analyzing variation in Gc sensitivity in humans, using appropriate technology, to drive discovery.—Berry, A., Matthews, L. Jangani, M., Plumb, J., Farrow, S., Buchan, N., Wilson, P. A., Singh, D., Ray, D., W., Donn, R. P. Interferon-inducible factor 16 is a novel modulator of glucocorticoid action. PMID:20086048

  5. Effect of Marginal Sealant on Shear Bond Strength of Glass Ionomer Cement: Used as A Luting Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Badgujar, Mayura; Gaikwad, Bhushan; Bhanushali, Shilpa; Nalawade, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Moisture sensitivity and dissolution has been a known drawback of glass ionomer cement (GIC). When used as a luting agent for cementation of casted indirect restoration, the exposed cement at the margins is often a primary factor for marginal leakage and consequent failure of the restoration. The following in vitro study was planned to evaluate the effect of a marginal sealant on GIC used as luting agent. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy extracted premolars were selected and prepared to receive metal-ceramic prosthesis. The prepared restorations were cemented using GIC and were divided randomly into two groups. The specimens in Group A were directly immersed in artificial saliva solution without any protection at the margins, while the exposed cement for Group B specimens was protected using a marginal sealant before immersing it in the artificial saliva solution. The specimens were tested after 24 h using a crown pull test on the universal testing machine to measure the shear bond strength of the cement. Result: The specimens in Group B showed statistically significant difference from the specimens in Group A with the mean shear bond strength of 6.60 Mpa and 5.32 respectively. Conclusion: Protection of GIC exposed at the margins of indirect cast restorations with a marginal sealant can significantly increase the longevity of the prosthesis by reducing the marginal leakage and perlocation of fluids. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Badgujar M, Gaikwad B, Bhanushali S, Nalawade S. Effect of marginal sealant on shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement: Used as a luting agent. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):65-9 PMID:25083035

  6. Scaffold of Asymmetric Organic Compounds - Magnetite Plaquettes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Martinez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth shows preference towards the set of organics with particular spatial configurations, this 'selectivity' is a crucial criterion for life. With only rare exceptions, life prefers the left- (L-) form over the right- (D-) form of amino acids, resulting in an L-enantiomeric excess (L-ee). Recent studies have shown Lee for alpha-methyl amino acids in some chondrites. Since these amino acids have limited terrestrial occurrence, the origin of their stereoselectivity is nonbiological, and it seems appropriate to conclude that chiral asymmetry, the molecular characteristic that is common to all terrestrial life form, has an abiotic origin. A possible abiotic mechanism that can produce chiral asymmetry in meteoritic amino acids is their formation with the presence of asymmetric catalysts, as mineral crystallization can produce spatially asymmetric structures. Magnetite is shown to be an effective catalyst for the formation of amino acids that are commonly found in chondrites. Magnetite 'plaquettes' (or 'platelets'), first described by Jedwab, show an interesting morphology of barrel-shaped stacks of magnetite disks with an apparent dislocation-induced spiral growth that seem to be connected at the center. A recent study by Singh et al. has shown that magnetites can self-assemble into helical superstructures. Such molecular asymmetry could be inherited by adsorbed organic molecules. In order to understand the distribution of 'spiral' magnetites in different meteorite classes, as well as to investigate their apparent spiral configurations and possible correlation to molecular asymmetry, we observed polished sections of carbonaceous chondrites (CC) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. The sections were also studied by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in order to reconstruct the crystal orientation along the stack of magnetite disks.

  7. Human-associated fungi in deep subseafloor sediment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulfer, V. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; D'Hondt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have reported fungi in marine sediment samples from depths as great as 1740 meters below seafloor (mbsf) (Rédou et al., 2014). Such studies have utilized a variety of techniques to identify fungi, including cultivation of isolates, amplicon sequencing, and metagenomics. Six recent studies of marine sediment collectively identify nearly 100 fungal taxa at the genus and species levels (Damare et al., 2006; Lai et al., 2007; Edgcomb et al., 2010; Singh et al., 2010; Orsi et al., 2013; Rédou et al., 2014). Known marine taxa are rarely identified by these studies. For individual studies with more than two taxa, between 16% and 57% of the fungal taxa are human microflora or associated with human environments (e.g., human skin or indoor air). For example, three of the six studies identified Malassezia species that are common skin inhabitants of humans and dogs. Although human-associated taxa have been identified in both shallow and deep sediment, they pose a particularly acute problem for deep subseafloor samples, where claims of a eukaryotic deep biosphere are most striking; depending on the study, 25% to 38% of species identified in sediment taken at depths greater than 40 meters are human-associated. Only one to three species have been reported from each of the four samples taken at depths greater than one km (eight species total; Rédou et al., 2014). Of these eight species, three are human-associated. This ubiquity of human-associated microflora is very problematic for interpretations of an indigenous deep subseafloor fungal community; either human-associated taxa comprise a large fraction of marine sedimentary fungi, or sample and analytical contamination is so widespread that the extent and ubiquity of a deep subseafloor fungal community remains uncertain. This highlights the need for stringent quality control measures throughout coring, sampling, and recovery of marine sediment, and when cultivating, extracting, and/or sequencing fungi from

  8. Mw Systematic Study of Alkaloids: the Distorted Tropane of Scopoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Basterretxea, Francisco J.; Fernandez, Jose A.; Castano, Fernando; Lesarri, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Tropane alkaloids have diverse pharmacological uses and are well-known for their neurostimulant activity. Previous structure-activity-relationship established correlations between bioactivity and several aspects of ligand conformation and stereochemistry, including delicate intramolecular effects like nitrogen inversion^{a}. We have initiated a series of structural studies on tropane alkaloids^{b}, aimed to discerning their intrinsic stereochemical properties using rotational spectroscopy in supersonic jets^{c}. Here we extend these studies to the epoxytropanes, initially motivated to interrogate the influence of the epoxy group on nitrogen inversion and ring conformation. The rotational spectrum evidences a single structure in the gas phase, providing a first description of the (three ring) structurally-distorted tropane in scopoline. The determined rotational parameters of scopoline reveal the structural consequences of the intramolecular cyclation of scopine, which breaks the original epoxy group and creates a new ether bridge and a 7β-hydroxytropane configuration. The hydroxyl group further stabilizes the molecule by an O-H \\cdots N intramolecular hydrogen bond, which, in turn, forces the N-methyl group to the less stable axial form^{b}. The experimental work was supported by ab initio and DFT calculations. ^{a} i) S.Singh, Chem. Rev. 100, 925 (2000); ii) A. Krunic, D. Pan, W.J. Dunn III, S.V.S. Miariappan, Bioorg. & Med. Chem. 17, 811 (2009). ^{b} E.J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, J.-U. Grabow, J.A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 6076 (2010). ^{c} E.J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, J.-U. Grabow, J.A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 12486 (2010).

  9. Molecular identification of a new myxozoan, Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. (Myxosporea) infecting scales of Labeo rohita Hamilton in Harike Wetland, Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni; Joshi, Jyoti

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a new species Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. infecting scales of Labeo rohita, an Indian major carp from Harike Wetland in Punjab, India has been described on the basis of spore morphology and amplification of a part of 18S rDNA gene. The pseudocysts of M. dermiscalis n. sp. are milky white with irregular outline, 0.5-3.6 mm in diameter embedded within the dermal scale in the form of a cavity. The spores 5.84-7.98 × 3.98-5.98 μm in size, having two equal polar capsules 3.98-5.98 × 1.85-3.85 μm in size. The most differentiating feature from closely related species, Myxobolus saugati (Kaur and Singh, 2011) is the presence of two parietal folds at the posterior - lateral margins of the shell valves. The present species is regarded as host, organ and tissue specific in nature. The partial sequence of SSU gene of M. dermiscalis n. sp. clustered with other Myxobolus species infecting cyprinids available in the GenBank. Blast search revealed 98% homogeneity with Myxobolus sp (KM401439) infecting scales of L. rohita in Myanmar (unpubl. data). The present myxobolid parasite has been recorded to cause serious, highly symptomatic disease of the scales, causing their loosening from the skin of L. rohita. It rendered the host fish unsightly giving it cloudy appearance with white patches and mucoid body surface. Scale pseudocyst Index (SPI) has been provided to record the intensity of infection. PMID:27330981

  10. Theoretical assessment on mixing properties of liquid Tl-Na alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, I. S.; Khadka, R.; Koirala, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Adhikari, D.

    2016-06-01

    Thermodynamic and structural properties of mixing of molten Tl-Na alloys at 673 K have been investigated using quasi-chemical model. To understand the mixing behaviour in more detail, emphasis is placed on the role of interaction energy term, and viscosity and surface tension of the alloys have also been analysed under statistical considerations. Our study shows negative deviation from the Raoultian behaviour in the properties of Tl-Na alloy thereby indicating hetero-coordination in the Tl-Na melt at 673 K in the full range of concentration. Theoretically, computed thermodynamic data at 673 K agree very well with the corresponding experimental data. The viscosities of the alloys computed from Kaptay equation show small negative deviation and those computed from Singh and Sommer's formulation show small positive deviation from ideal values while the Budai-Benko-Kaptay equation predicts noticeable negative deviation in Na-rich end and positive deviation in Tl-rich end of the composition. The calculations of surface tension reveal that results obtained from layered structure approach and compound formation model are in good agreement in the Na-rich side and in reasonable agreement in Tl-rich side of the composition, while those computed from Butler equation show noticeable deviations in the intermediate compositions. Both the viscosity and surface tension of liquid Tl-Na alloys increase with addition of Tl-component, viscosity having approximately linear variation with concentration. The study shows that there is non-linear variation in surface composition with bulk concentration and for most of the compositions the surface of the alloy is enriched with Na-atoms which segregate to the surface.

  11. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    PubMed

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453 × 10(-9) to 2.3871 × 10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices. PMID:24425966

  12. Hypoxic preconditioning with cobalt attenuates hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative damage in rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dhananjay; Saxena, Saurabh; Jayamurthy, Purushotman; Sairam, Mustoori; Singh, Mrinalini; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Bansal, Anju; Ilavazaghan, Govindaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Shukla, Dhananjay, Saurabh Saxena, Purushotman Jayamurthy, Mustoori Sairam, Mrinalini, Singh, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Anju Bansal, and Govindaswamy Ilavazaghan. High Alt. Med. Biol. 10:57-69, 2009.-Hypoxic preco759nditioning (HPC) provides robust protection against injury from subsequent prolonged hypobaric hypoxia, which is a characteristic of high altitude and is known to induce oxidative injury in lung by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing the effectiveness of the antioxidant defense system. We hypothesize that HPC with cobalt might protect the lung from subsequent hypobaric hypoxia-induced lung injury. HPC with cobalt can be achieved by oral feeding of CoCl(2) (12.5 mg kg(-1)) in rats for 7 days. Nonpreconditioned rats responded to hypobaric hypoxia (7619 m) by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. They also showed a marked increase in lipid peroxidation, heat-shock proteins (HSP32, HSP70), metallothionins (MT), levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, MCP-1), and SOD, GPx, and GST enzyme activity. In contrast, rats preconditioned with cobalt were far less impaired by severe hypobaric hypoxia, as observed by decreased ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokine release and an inceased GSH/GSSG ratio. Increased expression of antioxidative proeins Nrf-1, HSP-32, and MT was also observed in cobalt- preconditioned animals. A marked increase in the protein expression and DNA binding activity of hypoxia-inducible transcriptional factor (HIF-1alpha) and its regulated genes, such as erythropoietin (EPO) and glucose transporter-1 (glut-1), was observed after HPC with cobalt. We conclude that HPC with cobalt enhances antioxidant status in the lung and protects from subsequent hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19278353

  13. A simple approximation of moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of an extended stochastic theta-logistic model with non-integer powers.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Bandyopadhyay, Subhadip; Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic versions of the logistic and extended logistic growth models are applied successfully to explain many real-life population dynamics and share a central body of literature in stochastic modeling of ecological systems. To understand the randomness in the population dynamics of the underlying processes completely, it is important to have a clear idea about the quasi-equilibrium distribution and its moments. Bartlett et al. (1960) took a pioneering attempt for estimating the moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the stochastic logistic model. Matis and Kiffe (1996) obtain a set of more accurate and elegant approximations for the mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the same model using cumulant truncation method. The method is extended for stochastic power law logistic family by the same and several other authors (Nasell, 2003; Singh and Hespanha, 2007). Cumulant truncation and some alternative methods e.g. saddle point approximation, derivative matching approach can be applied if the powers involved in the extended logistic set up are integers, although plenty of evidence is available for non-integer powers in many practical situations (Sibly et al., 2005). In this paper, we develop a set of new approximations for mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution under more general family of growth curves, which is applicable for both integer and non-integer powers. The deterministic counterpart of this family of models captures both monotonic and non-monotonic behavior of the per capita growth rate, of which theta-logistic is a special case. The approximations accurately estimate the first three order moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution. The proposed method is illustrated with simulated data and real data from global population dynamics database. PMID:26561778

  14. Biological responses of agricultural soils to fly-ash amendment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Sharma, Bhavisha; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sengupta, Chandan; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi

    2014-01-01

    The volume of solid waste produced in the world is increasing annually, and disposing of such wastes is a growing problem. Fly ash (FA) is a form of solid waste that is derived from the combustion of coal. Research has shown that fly ash may be disposed of by using it to amend agricultural soils. This review addresses the feasibility of amending agricultural field soils with fly ash for the purpose of improvings oil health and enhancing the production of agricultural crops. The current annual production of major coal combustion residues (CCRs) is estimated to be -600 million worldwide, of which about 500 million t (70-80%) is FA (Ahmaruzzaman 2010). More than 112 million t of FA is generated annually in India alone, and projections show that the production (including both FA and bottom ash) may exceed 170 million t per annum by 2015 (Pandey et al. 2009; Pandey and Singh 20 I 0). Managing this industrial by-product is a big challenge, because more is produced each year, and disposal poses a growing environmental problem.Studies on FA clearly shows that its application as an amendment to agricultural soils can significantly improve soil quality, and produce higher soil fertility. What FA application method is best and what level of application is appropriate for any one soil depends on the following factors: type of soil treated, crop grown, the prevailing agro climatic condition and the character of the FA used. Although utilizing FA in agricultural soils may help address solid waste disposal problems and may enhance agricultural production, its use has potential adverse effects also. In particular, using it in agriculture may enhance amounts of radionuclides and heavy metals that reach soils, and may therefore increase organism exposures in some instances. PMID:24984834

  15. The influence of electron-phonon coupling and spin fluctuations on the superconductivity of the Ti-V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, Md.; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Pandey, Sudhir K.; Chattopadhyay, Maulindu Kumar; Roy, Sindhunil Barman

    2014-06-01

    We report a study of the normal and superconducting state properties of the Ti x V1- x alloys for x = 0.4, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 with the help of dc magnetization, electrical resistivity and heat capacity measurements along with the electronic structure calculation. The superconducting transition temperature T c of these alloys is higher than that of elemental Ti and is also higher than elemental V for x ≤ 0.7. The roles of electron density of states, electron-phonon coupling and spin fluctuations in the normal and superconducting state properties of these alloys have been investigated in detail. The experimentally observed value of T c is found to be considerably lower than that estimated on the basis of electron density of states and electron-phonon coupling in the x = 0.4, 0.6 and 0.7 alloys. There is some evidence as well for the preformed Cooper pair in all these Ti-V alloys in the temperature regime well above T c . Similar to x = 0.6 [Md. Matin, L.S. Sharath Chandra, R.K. Meena, M.K. Chattopadhyay, A.K. Sinha, M.N. Singh, S.B. Roy, Physica B 436, 20 (2014)], the normal state properties of the x = 0.4 alloy showed the signature of the presence of spin fluctuations. The difference between the experimentally observed T c and that estimated by considering electron density of states and electron-phonon coupling in the x = 0.4, 0.6 and 0.7 alloys is attributed to the possible influence of these spin fluctuations. We show that the non-monotonous variation of T c as a function of x in the Ti x V1- x alloys is due to the combined effects of the electron-phonon coupling and the spin fluctuations.

  16. Impact of treatment of gastrointestinal nemathelminths on body weight of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepesh; Vatsya, Stuti; Kumar, Rajeev Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal nemathelminths affect productive as well as reproductive performance of a wide range of ruminants. To assess the impact of anthelmintic treatment on gain in body weight (b. wt.) of sheep and goat, a study was conducted using two different flocks of sheep and goats each maintained in semi intensive system. Infected animals in both the flocks were divided into three groups each. Group I and II in each flock were treated with levamisole (@7.5 mg/kg b. wt. subcutaneously) and fenbendazole (@5 mg/kg b. wt. orally), respectively. Animals of group III were kept as untreated control. Individual b. wt. and faecal egg count were recorded up to 42nd day post treatment. Results showed 100 % reduction in faecal egg count of sheep on day 7 after treatment with levamisole and on day 10 after treatment with fenbendazole. In goats, the reduction in faecal egg count was 82.60 % after treatment with levamisole and 78.87 % after treatment with fenbendazole on day 14 post treatment. The study also revealed mean increase of 29.57 and 22.67 % in b. wt. of sheep treated with levamisole and fenbendazole respectively 42nd day post treatment whereas mean b. wt. of infected untreated control groups decreased by 7.14 %. Similarly, there was an increase of 10.71 and 14.47 % in mean b. wt. of goats 42nd day post treatment with levamisole and fenbendazole, respectively whereas mean b. wt. of untreated control group decreased by 15.38 %. More weight gain was recorded in sheep as compare to goats after treatment as compared to the untreated control group, which may be due to some drug resistance in goat and required clarification by further studies in these ecological zones of Udham Singh Nagar. PMID:27605787

  17. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Erosion in the Bhutanese Himalaya. What can we Learn by Combining Several Proxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutand, I.; Bookhagen, B.; Bernet, M.; Grujic, D.; Garzanti, E.; Ghalley, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Surface erosion in the Himalaya is mostly controlled by rainfall during the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) season. While the ISM is a complex atmospheric phenomenon, rainfall in the Himalaya is controlled by orographic barriers with a 10-fold south to north gradient. The Kingdom of Bhutan in the eastern Himalaya is characterized by different distributions of topographic barriers that result in varying rainfall patterns. Furthermore, the Shillong Plateau ~250 km to the south of the Himalayan front imposes a significant moisture barrier for rainfall reaching eastern Bhutan. In order to investigate the different spatial distribution of erosion, we have undertaken an extensive study of 16 modern river sands collected during autumn 2004 in sandbars of the main streams. We adopted a multi chronometer approach involving cosmogenic nuclides dating, detrital apatite and zircon fission track analyzes combined with petrographic and mineralogical data in order to: 1) assess the fidelity of the detrital signal by directly comparing detrital apatite and zircon fission-track grain age distributions from a river sample collected at the outlet of a spatially restricted test catchment (Singhe Dzong valley, NE Bhutan) to modern bedrock cooling ages obtained across this catchment, 2) examine downstream development of detrital cooling ages with the changing contributing areas along the Kuri- and Koma Chhu, Mo- Po- and Puna Tsang Chhu and Thimphu- Paro- and Wang Chhu river systems (eastern, central and western Bhutan, respectively), 3) quantify the spatial distribution of erosion in the different catchments drained by these major rivers using multiple geochronometers and methods characteristic for surface processes acting at different timescales. Ultimately, our large dataset will be appropriate to test different existing models predicting the distribution, in modern landscapes, of bedrock cooling and cosmogenic nuclides ages from modern sands.

  18. Exploring the sociotechnical intersection of patient safety and electronic health record implementation

    PubMed Central

    Meeks, Derek W; Takian, Amirhossein; Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep; Barber, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Objective The intersection of electronic health records (EHR) and patient safety is complex. To examine the applicability of two previously developed conceptual models comprehensively to understand safety implications of EHR implementation in the English National Health Service (NHS). Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of interview data from a 30-month longitudinal, prospective, case study-based evaluation of EHR implementation in 12 NHS hospitals. We used a framework analysis approach to apply conceptual models developed by Sittig and Singh to understand better EHR implementation and use: an eight-dimension sociotechnical model and a three-phase patient safety model (safe technology, safe use of technology, and use of technology to improve safety). Results The intersection of patient safety and EHR implementation and use was characterized by risks involving technology (hardware and software, clinical content, and human–computer interfaces), the interaction of technology with non-technological factors, and improper or unsafe use of technology. Our data support that patient safety improvement activities as well as patient safety hazards change as an organization evolves from concerns about safe EHR functionality, ensuring safe and appropriate EHR use, to using the EHR itself to provide ongoing surveillance and monitoring of patient safety. Discussion We demonstrate the face validity of two models for understanding the sociotechnical aspects of safe EHR implementation and the complex interactions of technology within a healthcare system evolving from paper to integrated EHR. Conclusions Using sociotechnical models, including those presented in this paper, may be beneficial to help stakeholders understand, synthesize, and anticipate risks at the intersection of patient safety and health information technology. PMID:24052536

  19. Hydrogen-bond acidity of OH groups in various molecular environments (phenols, alcohols, steroid derivatives, and amino acids structures): experimental measurements and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Graton, Jérôme; Besseau, François; Brossard, Anne-Marie; Charpentier, Eloïse; Deroche, Arnaud; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2013-12-12

    The hydrogen-bond (H-bond) donating strengths of a series of 36 hydroxylic H-bond donors (HBDs) with N-methylpyrrolidinone have been measured in CCl4 solution by FTIR spectrometry. These data allow the definition of a H-bond acidity scale named pKAHY covering almost three pK units, corresponding to 16 kJ mol(-1). These results are supplemented by equilibrium constants determined in CH2Cl2 for one-third of the data set to study compounds showing a poor solubility in CCl4. A systematic comparison of these experimental results with theoretical data computed in the gas phase using DFT (density functional theory) calculations has also been carried out. Quantum electrostatic parameters appear to accurately describe the H-bond acidity of the hydroxyl group, whereas partial atomic charges according to the Merz-Singh-Kollman and CHelpG schemes are not suitable for this purpose. A substantial decrease of the H-bond acidity of the OH group is pointed out when the hydroxyl moiety is involved in intramolecular H-bond interactions. In such situations, the interactions are further characterized through AIM and NBO analyses, which respectively allow localizing the corresponding bond critical point and the quantification of a significant charge transfer from the available lone pair to the σ*OH antibonding orbital. Eventually, the H-bond ability of the hydroxyl groups of steroid derivatives and of lateral chains of amino acids are evaluated on the basis of experimental and/or theoretical data. PMID:24274054

  20. Determination of differential stress in the D-DIA using cubic BN anvils and 2-D monochromatic diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Wang, Y.; Rivers, M. L.; Durham, W. B.; Mei, S.

    2003-04-01

    We have adopted X-ray transparent cubic boron nitride (cBN) anvils in a modified deformation DIA (D-DIA) to conduct monochromatic diffraction using a 2-D CCD detector (SMART1500). This setup allows us to obtain real-time diffraction data with complete Debye rings that are essential for accurate determination of lattice strains in the deformed sample. Experiments have been conducted on MgO to 6.3 GPa and 1273 K in the D-DIA. Samples were deformed continuously up to 30 percent axial shortening, with various strain rates between 0.001 and 0.00001 per second, under fixed confining pressure. Pressure, temperature, sample length, and monochromatic diffraction patterns were recorded repeatedly during the constant-strain rate deformation process. A monochromatic beam with a wavelength of 0.248 Angstrom (50 keV) was used for diffraction. We have developed a software package to analyze the 2-D diffraction data. After spatial and flat-field corrections, each 2-D diffraction pattern is converted into a multiple of 1-D patterns, according to a given azimuth angle range (typically binned at 1 degree intervals). The 1-D patterns are then fitted to yield information on the azimuth dependence for each lattice spacing. Lattice strain is then computed based on the well-known theory (A.K. Singh, J. Appl. Phys., 73, 4278, 1993) to convert to differential stress. This approach allows us to examine lattice strain as a function of pressure, temperature, and total plastic strain systematically. With the known pressure and temperature dependence of the elastic constants for MgO, differential stress can be evaluated throughout deformation. Details of the methodology and analysis will be presented and sources of experimental uncertainties will be discussed.

  1. Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Promotes Bacterial Biofilm Development via Ferrous Iron Acquisition▿†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Wilks, Jessica C.; Danhorn, Thomas; Ramos, Itzel; Croal, Laura; Newman, Dianne K.

    2011-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which render it more resistant to antimicrobial agents. Levels of iron in excess of what is required for planktonic growth have been shown to promote biofilm formation, and therapies that interfere with ferric iron [Fe(III)] uptake combined with antibiotics may help treat P. aeruginosa infections. However, use of these therapies presumes that iron is in the Fe(III) state in the context of infection. Here we report the ability of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), a common phenazine made by all phenazine-producing pseudomonads, to help P. aeruginosa alleviate Fe(III) limitation by reducing Fe(III) to ferrous iron [Fe(II)]. In the presence of PCA, a P. aeruginosa mutant lacking the ability to produce the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin can still develop into a biofilm. As has been previously reported (P. K. Singh, M. R. Parsek, E. P. Greenberg, and M. J. Welsh, Nature 417:552-555, 2002), biofilm formation by the wild type is blocked by subinhibitory concentrations of the Fe(III)-binding innate-immunity protein conalbumin, but here we show that this blockage can be rescued by PCA. FeoB, an Fe(II) uptake protein, is required for PCA to enable this rescue. Unlike PCA, the phenazine pyocyanin (PYO) can facilitate biofilm formation via an iron-independent pathway. While siderophore-mediated Fe(III) uptake is undoubtedly important at early stages of infection, these results suggest that at later stages of infection, PCA present in infected tissues may shift the redox equilibrium between Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby making iron more bioavailable. PMID:21602354

  2. Report of the IAU Working Group on Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2015-08-01

    The Working Group on Solar Eclipses coordinates scientists and information in the study of the Sun and the heliosphere at solar eclipses. Our Website at http://eclipses.info has a wide variety of information, including links to maps and other websites dealing with solar eclipses, as well as information on how to observe the partial-phases of solar eclipses safely and why it is interesting for not only scientists but also for the public to observe eclipses and to see how we work to uncover the mysteries of the sun's upper atmosphere. In the last triennium, there were total eclipses in Australia and the Pacific in 2012; in an arc across Africa from Gabon to Uganda and Kenya in 2013; and in the Arctic, including Svalbard and the Faeroes plus many airplanes aloft, in 2015. In the coming triennium, there will be total solar eclipses in Indonesia and the Pacific in 2016 and then, on 21 August 2017, a total solar eclipse that will sweep across the Continental United States from northwest to southeast. Mapping websites, all linked to http://eclipses.info, include Fred Espenak's http://EclipseWise.com; Michael Zeiler's http://GreatAmericanEclipse.com and http://eclipse-maps.com; Xavier Jubier's http://xjubier.free.fr; and (with weather and cloudiness analysis) Jay Anderson's http://eclipser.ca. Members of the Working Group, chaired by Jay Pasachoff (U.S.), include Iraida Kim (Russia), Kiroki Kurokawa (Japan), Jagdev Singh (India), Vojtech Rusin (Slovakia), Zhongquan Qu (China), Fred Espenak (U.S.), Jay Anderson (Canada), Glenn Schneider (U.S.), Michael Gill (U.K.), Xavier Jubier (France), Michael Zeiler (U.S.), and Bill Kramer (U.S.).

  3. Incremental shuttle walk test: Reference values and predictive equation for healthy Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Bela; Shah, Monal; Andhare, Nilesh; Mullerpatan, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physical inactivity in Indians is leading to an increase in noncommunicable disorders at an early age in life. Early identification and quantification of the lack of physical activity using simple and reliable exercise testing is the need of the hour. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an externally paced walk test widely used for the evaluation of exercise capacity. Currently the normative values available for clinical reference are generated from Western populations. Hence, the study was conducted to find normative values for the ISWT in healthy Indian adults (17-75 years). Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 862 subjects was recruited after ethical approval was obtained. All subjects were divided into groups as per age and gender. For age, the grouping was as follows: Group 1: Young adulthood (17-40 years), group 2: Middle adulthood (40-65 years), and group 3: Old adulthood (>65 years). The ISWT was performed as per standard protocol by Sally Singh. Results: The average distance walked were 709.2m,556.4m and 441.3m in females and 807.9 m, 639.6 m and 478.2 m in males in the three respective age groups. Stepwise regression analysis revealed age and gender as key variables correlating with incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD). The derived predictive equations for males and females may be given as follows: 740.351 - (5.676 × age) + (99.007 × gender). Conclusion: Reference values were generated for healthy Indian adults. Physiological response to the ISWT was shown to be affected by gender and increasing age. Easily measurable variables explained 68% of the variance seen in the test, making the reference equation a relevant part of the evaluation of the ISWT. PMID:26933305

  4. Understanding the Composition and Distribution of Megafauna at Diffuse Flow Sites in the East Lau Basin Back-Arc Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podowski, L.; Fisher, C.; Luther, G.; Kim, S.; Waite, T.; Moore, T.; Zelnio, K.; Zook, B.; Telesnicki, G.; Hsu, H.; Paschal, A.; Hourdez, S.; Desbruyères, D.

    2005-12-01

    Ridge 2000 research at the Lau Basin Integrated Studies Site spans a range of scales, from hundreds of kilometers to fractions of a centimeter. Here we report on an interdisciplinary study of the relations between megafaunal distribution and diffuse flow chemistry, conducted in an area of about 30 m2. This work was enabled by, and interpretation will be nested within, the results from the three cruises that preceded our field effort. In June 2005, the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Jason II collected a series of geo-referenced, high-resolution images using the Insite Scorpio digital still camera at the ABE vent site (176°11'29''W, 20°45'47''S) in the East Lau Basin back-arc spreading center. Twenty pictures were mosaicked together at sea, using a MatLab program (courtesy of Tim Shank, Dana Yoerger, Hanu Singh, and Vicki Ferrini of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) to create one seamless image of the biological community covering an area of approximately 30 m2. The mosaic was used to guide electrochemical and temperature scans during a subsequent dive to provide data on the concentrations of reactive sulfur species and oxygen, temperature, and pH at 60 different locations within the community. To allow quantification of the biomass within the imaged community and obtain data on smaller and/or cryptic fauna, five area-specific quantitative-samples of representative animal aggregations were collected from within the same area and analyzed. Separate layers for each dataset (imagery, chemistry, temperature, community composition, and biomass) are being created with GIS to visualize and analyze trends in each individual layer, such as the co-occurrence of different megafaunal species and changes in chemical speciation. Overlays and statistical analyses of these layers in GIS are used to elucidate correlations between datasets that will contribute to our ultimate goal of understanding the distribution patterns of the megafauna in this spatially and temporally

  5. US - India Partnership in Science and Technology, Environment and Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Satish V

    2010-10-06

    Today, the US – India strategic partnership is rooted in shared values and is broad in nature and scope, with our two countries working together on global and energy security, climate change and clean environment, life sciences and public health, economic prosperity and trade, and education. A key outcome of this partnership has been the signing of the historic Indo-US Civil Nuclear Deal. Science and technology (S&T) have always been important elements of this partnership, and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Indian S&T Minister Kapil Sibal signed an agreement on S&T Cooperation between the two countries in October 2005. In March 2006, recognizing the expanding role of S&T, President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh formed a Bi-National S&T Commission and established a Joint S&T Endowment Fund focused on innovation, entrepreneurship and commercialization. In July 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna signed the Endowment Agreement with a total equivalent funding of $30M (equal contribution from US and India). While these steps take our engagement to new heights, US-India collaboration in S&T is not new and has been ongoing for several decades, principally through agencies like NSF, NIH, EPA, DOE, NASA, NOAA, the PL480 US-India Fund, and the Indian Diaspora. However, acting as a damper, especially during the cold war days, this engagement has been plagued by sanctions and the resulting tensions and mistrust which continue to linger on even today. In this context, several ongoing activities in energy, space, climate change and education will be highlighted. Also, with the S&T and the Civil Nuclear Agreements and climate change as examples, the interplay of science, policy and politics will be discussed.

  6. Report on errors in pretransfusion testing from a tertiary care center: A step toward transfusion safety

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Meena; Meenia, Renu; Akhter, Naveen; Sawhney, Vijay; Irm, Yasmeen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Errors in the process of pretransfusion testing for blood transfusion can occur at any stage from collection of the sample to administration of the blood component. The present study was conducted to analyze the errors that threaten patients’ transfusion safety and actual harm/serious adverse events that occurred to the patients due to these errors. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was conducted in the Department Of Transfusion Medicine, Shri Maharaja Gulab Singh Hospital, Government Medical College, Jammu, India from January 2014 to December 2014 for a period of 1 year. Errors were defined as any deviation from established policies and standard operating procedures. A near-miss event was defined as those errors, which did not reach the patient. Location and time of occurrence of the events/errors were also noted. Results: A total of 32,672 requisitions for the transfusion of blood and blood components were received for typing and cross-matching. Out of these, 26,683 products were issued to the various clinical departments. A total of 2,229 errors were detected over a period of 1 year. Near-miss events constituted 53% of the errors and actual harmful events due to errors occurred in 0.26% of the patients. Sample labeling errors were 2.4%, inappropriate request for blood components 2%, and information on requisition forms not matching with that on the sample 1.5% of all the requisitions received were the most frequent errors in clinical services. In transfusion services, the most common event was accepting sample in error with the frequency of 0.5% of all requisitions. ABO incompatible hemolytic reactions were the most frequent harmful event with the frequency of 2.2/10,000 transfusions. Conclusion: Sample labeling, inappropriate request, and sample received in error were the most frequent high-risk errors. PMID:27011670

  7. Deep Conservation of Genes Required for Both Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans Sleep Includes a Role for Dopaminergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Komudi; Ju, Jennifer Y.; Walsh, Melissa B.; DiIorio, Michael A.; Hart, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cross-species conservation of sleep-like behaviors predicts the presence of conserved molecular mechanisms underlying sleep. However, limited experimental evidence of conservation exists. Here, this prediction is tested directly. Measurements and Results: During lethargus, Caenorhabditis elegans spontaneously sleep in short bouts that are interspersed with bouts of spontaneous locomotion. We identified 26 genes required for Drosophila melanogaster sleep. Twenty orthologous C. elegans genes were selected based on similarity. Their effect on C. elegans sleep and arousal during the last larval lethargus was assessed. The 20 most similar genes altered both the quantity of sleep and arousal thresholds. In 18 cases, the direction of change was concordant with Drosophila studies published previously. Additionally, we delineated a conserved genetic pathway by which dopamine regulates sleep and arousal. In C. elegans neurons, G-alpha S, adenylyl cyclase, and protein kinase A act downstream of D1 dopamine receptors to regulate these behaviors. Finally, a quantitative analysis of genes examined herein revealed that C. elegans arousal thresholds were directly correlated with amount of sleep during lethargus. However, bout duration varies little and was not correlated with arousal thresholds. Conclusions: The comprehensive analysis presented here suggests that conserved genes and pathways are required for sleep in invertebrates and, likely, across the entire animal kingdom. The genetic pathway delineated in this study implicates G-alpha S and previously known genes downstream of dopamine signaling in sleep. Quantitative analysis of various components of quiescence suggests that interdependent or identical cellular and molecular mechanisms are likely to regulate both arousal and sleep entry. Citation: Singh K, Ju JY, Walsh MB, Dilorio MA, Hart AC. Deep conservation of genes required for both Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans sleep includes a role for

  8. On the orthogonalised reverse path method for nonlinear system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, P.; Sims, N. D.; Worden, K.

    2012-09-01

    The problem of obtaining the underlying linear dynamic compliance matrix in the presence of nonlinearities in a general multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system can be solved using the conditioned reverse path (CRP) method introduced by Richards and Singh (1998 Journal of Sound and Vibration, 213(4): pp. 673-708). The CRP method also provides a means of identifying the coefficients of any nonlinear terms which can be specified a priori in the candidate equations of motion. Although the CRP has proved extremely useful in the context of nonlinear system identification, it has a number of small issues associated with it. One of these issues is the fact that the nonlinear coefficients are actually returned in the form of spectra which need to be averaged over frequency in order to generate parameter estimates. The parameter spectra are typically polluted by artefacts from the identification of the underlying linear system which manifest themselves at the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies. A further problem is associated with the fact that the parameter estimates are extracted in a recursive fashion which leads to an accumulation of errors. The first minor objective of this paper is to suggest ways to alleviate these problems without major modification to the algorithm. The results are demonstrated on numerically-simulated responses from MDOF systems. In the second part of the paper, a more radical suggestion is made, to replace the conditioned spectral analysis (which is the basis of the CRP method) with an alternative time domain decorrelation method. The suggested approach - the orthogonalised reverse path (ORP) method - is illustrated here using data from simulated single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and MDOF systems.

  9. Perceived social position and health: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    PubMed

    Garbarski, Dana

    2010-03-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status and health has employed a psychosocial concept called perceived social position as a predictor of health. Perceived social position is likely the "cognitive averaging" (Singh-Manoux, Marmot, & Adler, 2005) of socioeconomic characteristics over time and, like other socioeconomic factors, is subject to interplay with health over the life course. Based on the hypothesis that health can also affect perceived social position, in this paper we used structural equation modeling to examine whether perceived social position and three different health outcomes were reciprocally related in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal cohort study of older adults in the United States. The relationship between perceived social position and health differed across health outcomes-self-reported health, the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms-as well as across operationalization of perceived social position-compared to the population of the United States, compared to one's community, and a latent variable of which the two items are indicators. We found that perceived social position affected self-reported health when operationalized as latent and US perceived social position, yet there was a reciprocal relationship between self-reported health and community perceived social position. There was a reciprocal relationship between perceived social position and the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms affected perceived social position for all operationalization of perceived social position. The findings suggest that the causal relationship hypothesized in prior studies--that perceived social position affects health--does not necessarily hold in empirical models of reciprocal relationships. Future research should interrogate the relationship between perceived social position and health rather than assume the direction of causality in their relationship. PMID:20006415

  10. Commentary: Utility of the O-Arm in spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More studies report the intraoperative benefits vs. risks of utilizing the O-Arm in performing pedicle screw insertion in spinal surgery. Methods/Results: Several studies document the utility of CT-guided O-arm placement of pedicle/lateral mass screws. Singh et al. documented the efficacy of CT guided-O Arm placement of pedicle screws and lateral mass screws in the upper cervical spine.[4] Specifically, 10 patients with unstable hangman's fractures (ages 17-80) required 52 screws; C2 pedicle screws (20), C3 lateral mass screws (20), C4 lateral mass screws (12) and one C2 pedicle screw. Of these only 5% were misplaced, and none had new neuorlogical deficits. Kim et al. demonstrated the safety/efficacy of the CT/O-arm in minimally invasive spine surgery (MIS) (posterior percutaneous spinal fusions).[1] Of 290 pedicle screws, 280 (96.6%) were acceptably placed. Kotani et al. compared the placement of 222 pedicle screws (29 patients operated upon with CT-based navigation) vs. 416 screws (32 having surgery using O-arm-based navigation); postoperative CT studies confirmed the accuracy of screw placement, and no significant differences in the frequency of grade 2-3 perforations between the two groups. Nelson et al. analyzed the radiation exposure delivered to the operating room staff utilizing C-arm fluoroscopy (C-arm), portable X-ray (XR) radiography, and portable cone-beam computed tomography (O-arm); the surgeon and assistant were exposed to higher levels of scatter radiation from the C-arm, with a 7.7-fold increase in radiation exposure on the tube vs. detector sides.[3] Conclusion: There are several pros and a few cons (radiation dosage) for the use of the O-arm in spine surgery. PMID:25593769

  11. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid promotes bacterial biofilm development via ferrous iron acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Wilks, Jessica C; Danhorn, Thomas; Ramos, Itzel; Croal, Laura; Newman, Dianne K

    2011-07-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which render it more resistant to antimicrobial agents. Levels of iron in excess of what is required for planktonic growth have been shown to promote biofilm formation, and therapies that interfere with ferric iron [Fe(III)] uptake combined with antibiotics may help treat P. aeruginosa infections. However, use of these therapies presumes that iron is in the Fe(III) state in the context of infection. Here we report the ability of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), a common phenazine made by all phenazine-producing pseudomonads, to help P. aeruginosa alleviate Fe(III) limitation by reducing Fe(III) to ferrous iron [Fe(II)]. In the presence of PCA, a P. aeruginosa mutant lacking the ability to produce the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin can still develop into a biofilm. As has been previously reported (P. K. Singh, M. R. Parsek, E. P. Greenberg, and M. J. Welsh, Nature 417:552-555, 2002), biofilm formation by the wild type is blocked by subinhibitory concentrations of the Fe(III)-binding innate-immunity protein conalbumin, but here we show that this blockage can be rescued by PCA. FeoB, an Fe(II) uptake protein, is required for PCA to enable this rescue. Unlike PCA, the phenazine pyocyanin (PYO) can facilitate biofilm formation via an iron-independent pathway. While siderophore-mediated Fe(III) uptake is undoubtedly important at early stages of infection, these results suggest that at later stages of infection, PCA present in infected tissues may shift the redox equilibrium between Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby making iron more bioavailable. PMID:21602354

  12. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants. PMID:22959315

  13. On the relationship between gas and dust in 15 comets: an application to Comet 103P/Hartley 2 target of the NASA EPOXI mission of opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; Sanzovo, D. Trevisan; de Almeida, A. A.

    After the success of Deep Impact mission to hit the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with an impactor, the concerns are turned now to the possible reutilization of this dormant flyby spacecraft in the study of another comet, for only about 10% of the cost of the original mission. Comet 103P/Hartley 2 on UT 2010 October 11 is the most attractive target in terms of available fuel at rendezvous and arrival time at the comet. In addition, the comet has a low inclination so that major orbital plane changes in the spacecraft trajectory are unnecessary. In an effort to provide information concerning the planning of this new NASA EPOXI space mission of opportunity, we use in this work, visual magnitudes measurements available from International Comet Quarterly (ICQ) to obtain, applying the Semi-Empirical Method of Visual Magnitudes - SEMVM (de Almeida, Singh, & Huebner 1997), the water production rates (in molecules/s) related to its perihelion passage of 1997. When associated to the water vaporization theory of Delsemme (1982), these rates allowed the acquisition of the minimum dimension for the effective nuclear radius of the comet. The water production rates were then converted into gas production rates (in g/s) so that, with the help of the strong correlation between gas and dust found for 12 periodic comets and 3 non-period comets (Trevisan Sanzovo 2006), we obtained the dust loss rates (in g/s), its behavior with the heliocentric distance and the dust-to-gas ratios in this physically attractive rendezvous target-comet to Deep Impact spacecraft at a closest approach of 700 km.

  14. Determination of the 3He+α→7Be asymptotic normalization coefficients, the nuclear vertex constants, and their application for the extrapolation of the 3He(α,γ)7Be astrophysical S factors to the solar energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tursunmahatov, Q. I.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2012-04-01

    A new analysis of the modern astrophysical S factors for the direct-capture 3He(α,γ)7Be reaction, precisely measured in recent works [B.S. Nara Singh , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.262503 93, 262503 (2004); D. Bemmerer , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.122502 97, 122502 (2006);F. Confortola , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.75.065803 75, 065803 (2007), Gy. Gyürky , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.75.035805 75, 035805 (2007), T. A. D. Brown , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.76.055801 76, 055801 (2007), and A. Di Leva, , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.232502 102, 232502 (2009)], has been carried out within the modified two-body potential approach. New estimates are obtained for the “indirectly determined” values of the asymptotic normalization constants and the respective nuclear vertex constants for 3He+α→7Be(g.s.) and 3He+α→7Be(0.429 MeV) as well as the astrophysical S factors S34(E) at E≤90 keV, including E=0. The values of asymptotic normalization constants have been used to obtain the values of the ratio of the α-particle spectroscopic factors for the mirror (7Li7Be) pair.

  15. Boson peak in supercooled liquids: Time domain observations and mode coupling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cang, Hu; Li, Jie; Andersen, Hans C.; Fayer, M. D.

    2005-08-01

    Optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments are presented for the supercooled liquid acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin - ASP). The ASP data and previously published OHD-OKE data on supercooled dibutylphthalate (DBP) display highly damped oscillations with a periods of ˜2ps as the temperature is reduced to and below the mode coupling theory (MCT) temperature TC. The oscillations become more pronounced below TC. The oscillations can be interpreted as the time domain signature of the boson peak. Recently a schematic MCT model, the Sjögren model, was used to describe the OHD-OKE data for a number of supercooled liquids by Götze and Sperl [W. Götze and M. Sperl, Phys. Rev. E 92, 105701 (2004)], but the short-time and low-temperature behaviors were not addressed. Franosch et al. [T. Franosch, W. Gotze, M. R. Mayr, and A. P. Singh, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3183 (1997)] found that the Sjögren model could describe the boson peak observed by depolarized light-scattering (DLS) experiments on glycerol. The OHD-OKE experiment measures a susceptibility that is a time domain equivalent of the spectrum measured in DLS. Here we present a detailed analysis of the ASP and DBP data over a broad range of times and temperatures using the Sjögren model. The MCT schematic model is able to describe the data very well at all temperatures and relevant time scales. The trajectory of MCT parameters that fit the high-temperature data (no short-time oscillations) when continued below TC results in calculations that reproduce the oscillations seen in the data. The results indicate that increasing translational-rotational coupling is responsible for the appearance of the boson peak as the temperature approaches and drops below TC.

  16. Effect of a novel synthesized sulfonamido-based gallate-SZNTC on chondrocytes metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Li, Mu-Yan; Lin, Xiao; Lin, Cui-Wu; Liu, Bu-Ming; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jin-Min

    2014-09-25

    The ideal therapeutic agent for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) should have not only potent anti-inflammatory effect but also favorable biological properties to restore cartilage function. Gallic acid (GA) and its derivatives are anti-inflammatory agents reported to have an effect on OA (Singh et al., 2003) [1]. However, GA has much weaker antioxidant effects and inferior bioactivity compared with its derivatives. We modified GA with the introduction of sulfonamide to synthesize a novel sulfonamido-based gallate named sodium salt of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-[4-(thiazol-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-benzamide (SZNTC) and analyzed its chondro-protective and pharmacological effects. Comparison of SZNTC with GA and sulfathiazole sodium (ST-Na) was also performed. Results showed that SZNTC could effectively inhibit the Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated induction of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 and could induce the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), which demonstrated ability to reduce the progression of OA. SZNTC can also exert chondro-protective effects by promoting cell proliferation and maintaining the phenotype of articular chondrocytes, as evidenced by improved cell growth, enhanced synthesis of cartilage specific markers such as aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9. Expression of the collagen I gene was effectively down-regulated, revealing the inhibition of chondrocytes dedifferentiation by SZNTC. Hypertrophy that may lead to chondrocyte ossification was also undetectable in SZNTC groups. The recommended dose of SZNTC ranges from 3.91μg/ml to 15.64μg/ml, among which the most profound response was observed with 7.82μg/ml. In contrast, its source products of GA and ST-Na have a weak effect in the bioactivity of chondrocytes, which indicated the significance of this modification. This study revealed SZNTC as a promising novel agent in the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions. PMID:25130855

  17. Influence of the presence of ethanol on the homogeneous freezing of ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facq, S.; Focsa, C.; Ziskind, M.; Chazallon, B.

    2012-04-01

    Homogeneous ice nucleation plays an important role in the formation of cirrus clouds with subsequent effects on the global radiative budget. It has been recently demonstrated that water uptake of aerosols, heterogeneous chemical reactions in aerosol particles, as well as ice nucleation and ice crystal growth can be significantly impeded or even completely inhibited in organic-enriched aqueous solutions at upper tropospheric temperatures with implications for cirrus cloud formation and upper tropospheric relative humidity [1]. However, the presence of oxygenated volatile organic compounds such as alcohols, ketones and carboxylic acids in the upper troposphere is also well established [2]. These soluble species are likely scavenged by supercooled droplets contained in polluted air masses. When ice particles are then forming, soluble species contained in those particles that freeze may be retained in the bulk of these new ice crystals until they evaporate in the upper troposphere [3]. In this study, we perform laboratory work to examine and characterize the influence of the presence of a VOC, ethanol, on the homogeneous freezing of ice particles. Supercooled micro-droplets (in the micrometer size range) produced in emulsion are characterized by optical microscopy and micro-Raman analysis. It is found that the first solid that nucleates during the cooling of micro-droplets of ethanol aqueous solutions of concentrations (0 to 2.62 mol %) is ice whereas it is an ethanol hydrate for concentrations in the range (5.30 to 20 mol %). These experimental results imply some deviation from the behaviour of homogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions predicted by the water-activity-based nucleation theory. [1] Zobrist et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5221 (2008) [2] Singh et al. Nature, 410, 1078 (2001) [3] Kerbrat et al. J. Phys. Chem., 111, 925 (2007)

  18. Clinico-bacteriological profile of primary pyodermas in Kashmir: a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Y J; Hassan, I; Bashir, S; Farhana, A; Maroof, P

    2016-03-01

    Pyodermas are a common group of infectious dermatological conditions on which few studies have been conducted. This study aimed to characterise the clinical and bacteriological profile of pyodermas, and to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in primary pyodermas in a dermatology outpatient department in Kashmir. Methods We conducted a hospital based cross-sectional study in the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy of Shri Maharaja Hari Singh Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Patients presenting with primary pyodermas were included in the study. A detailed history and complete physical and cutaneous examination was carried out along with microbiological testing to find aetiological microorganisms and their respectiveantimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, including that for methicillin resistance, was carried out by standard methods as outlined in the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results In total, 110 patients were included; the age of the study population ranged from 3 to 65 years (mean age 28 years); 62% were male. Poor personal hygiene was noted in 76 (69%). Furunculosis (56; 51%) was the most common clinical presentation. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 89 (81%) of cases, and MRSA formed 54/89 (61%) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. All MRSA strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA was high in this sample of communityacquired primary pyodermas. It is therefore important to monitor the changing trends in bacterial infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and to formulate a definite antibiotic policy which may be helpful in decreasing the incidence of MRSA infection. PMID:27092362

  19. The C1q Family of Proteins: Insights into the Emerging Non-Traditional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Hosszu, Kinga K.; Valentino, Alisa; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage-modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders – including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia, and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh et al. (2011) showing that pregnant C1q−/− mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q−/− mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al. (2009) which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1) and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand, enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNF-α-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the tumor necrosis factor family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral “cytokine-like” activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions. PMID:22536204

  20. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of laboratory flames and an industrial flare.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwar Devesh; Gangadharan, Preeti; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Li, Xianchang; Richmond, Peyton

    2014-11-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology for simulating the combustion process has been validated with experimental results. Three different types of experimental setups were used to validate the CFD model. These setups include an industrial-scale flare setups and two lab-scale flames. The CFD study also involved three different fuels: C3H6/CH/Air/N2, C2H4/O2/Ar and CH4/Air. In the first setup, flare efficiency data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) 2010 field tests were used to validate the CFD model. In the second setup, a McKenna burner with flat flames was simulated. Temperature and mass fractions of important species were compared with the experimental data. Finally, results of an experimental study done at Sandia National Laboratories to generate a lifted jet flame were used for the purpose of validation. The reduced 50 species mechanism, LU 1.1, the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model, and the EDC turbulence-chemistry interaction model were usedfor this work. Flare efficiency, axial profiles of temperature, and mass fractions of various intermediate species obtained in the simulation were compared with experimental data and a good agreement between the profiles was clearly observed. In particular the simulation match with the TCEQ 2010 flare tests has been significantly improved (within 5% of the data) compared to the results reported by Singh et al. in 2012. Validation of the speciated flat flame data supports the view that flares can be a primary source offormaldehyde emission. PMID:25509554

  1. Variability in Proline-Accumulating Ability of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars Induced by Vapor Pressure Deficit 1

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Bodapati P.; Aspinall, Donald; Paleg, Leslie G.

    1992-01-01

    This work was undertaken in an effort to reconcile the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Excelsior and Proctor, reported by Singh et al. (1972) and Hanson et al. (1976). It deals with the effects of different vapor pressure deficits (VPD) during growth and subsequent drought stress on several barley cultivars. A higher VPD (1.2 kilopascals) during Clipper seedling growth resulted in higher solute-accumulating ability, seemingly independently of leaf water potential, than a lower VPD (0.12 kilopascals). The higher VPD during stress also resulted in higher solute contents, and this response may be more closely related to leaf water potential. When the responses of Excelsior and Proctor were examined in detail, it was found that the relative proline-accumulating ability of the two cultivars was dependent upon the VPD under which they were grown. At low VPD, Proctor accumulated significantly more proline than did Excelsior; whereas at higher VPD, Excelsior accumulated more proline than did Proctor. The crossover occurred at a VPD of about 0.72 kilopascals. This reversal of cultivar response was enhanced by multiplying seed under the two VPD extremes. Glycinebetaine accumulation did not demonstrate the crossover effect, although the concentration of this compound in all cultivars also depended on the VPD prevailing during growth and/or stress. Solute levels, in general, were more closely related to the decrease in relative water content than to a decrease in leaf water potential. It is concluded that the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of Excelsior and Proctor could be explained by these findings. PMID:16668700

  2. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chaulagain, Chakra P; Pilichowska, Monika; Brinckerhoff, Laurence; Tabba, Maher; Erban, John K

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), characterized by deposition of intra-alveolar PAS positive protein and lipid rich material, is a rare cause of progressive respiratory failure first described by Rosen et al. in 1958. The intra-alveolar lipoproteinaceous material was subsequently proven to have been derived from pulmonary surfactant in 1980 by Singh et al. Levinson et al. also reported in 1958 the case of 19-year-old female with panmyelosis afflicted with a diffuse pulmonary disease characterized by filling of the alveoli with amorphous material described as "intra-alveolar coagulum". This is probably the first reported case of PAP in relation to hematologic malignancy. Much progress has been made on PAP first described by Rosen which is currently classified as idiopathic or primary or autoimmune PAP. Idiopathic PAP occurs as a result of auto-antibodies directed against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) impeding the surfactant clearing function of alveolar macrophages leading to progressive respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage and GM-CSF therapy has improved outcomes in patients with idiopathic PAP. Despite major advancement in the management of hematologic malignancy and its complications, little is known about the type of PAP first described by Levinson and now known as secondary PAP; a term also used when PAP occurs due to other causes such as occupational dusts. In this article we review and analyze the limited literature available in secondary PAP due to hematologic malignancies and present a case of PAP associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia successfully treated with bendamustine and rituximab. PMID:25300566

  3. Geometric figure–ground cues override standard depth from accretion-deletion

    PubMed Central

    Tanrıkulu, Ömer Dağlar; Froyen, Vicky; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Accretion-deletion is widely considered a decisive cue to surface depth ordering, with the accreting or deleting surface interpreted as behind an adjoining surface. However, Froyen, Feldman, and Singh (2013) have shown that when accretion-deletion occurs on both sides of a contour, accreting-deleting regions can also be perceived as in front and as self-occluding due to rotation in three dimensions. In this study we ask whether geometric figure–ground cues can override the traditional “depth from accretion-deletion” interpretation even when accretion-deletion takes place only on one side of a contour. We used two tasks: a relative-depth task (front/back), and a motion-classification task (translation/rotation). We conducted two experiments, in which texture in only one set of alternating regions was moving; the other set was static. Contrary to the traditional interpretation of accretion-deletion, the moving convex and symmetric regions were perceived as figural and rotating in three dimensions in roughly half of the trials. In the second experiment, giving different motion directions to the moving regions (thereby weakening motion-based grouping) further weakened the traditional accretion-deletion interpretation. Our results show that the standard “depth from accretion-deletion” interpretation is overridden by static geometric cues to figure–ground. Overall, the results demonstrate a rich interaction between accretion-deletion, figure–ground, and structure from motion that is not captured by existing models of depth from motion. PMID:26982528

  4. Identification of Acetylene on Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; McCord, T. B.; Rodriguez, S.; Combe, J. P.; Cornet, T.; Le Mouelic, S.; Maltagliati, L.; Chevrier, V.; Clark, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    Titan's atmosphere is opaque in the near infrared due to gaseous absorptions, mainly by methane, and scattering by aerosols, except in a few "transparency windows" (e.g., Sotin et al., 2005). Thus, the composition of Titan surface remains difficult to access from space and is still poorly constrained, limited to ethane in the polar lakes (Brown et al., 2008) and a few possible organic molecules on the surface (Clark et al., 2010). Photochemical models suggest that most of the organic compounds formed in the atmosphere are heavy enough to condense and build up at the surface in liquid and solid states over geological timescale (Cordier et al., 2009, 2011). Acetylene (C2H2) is one of the most abundant organic molecules in the atmosphere and thus thought to present on the surface as well. Here we report direct evidence of solid C2H2 on Titan's surface using Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) data. By comparing VIMS observations and laboratory measurements of solid and liquid C2H2, we identify a specific absorption at 1.55 µm that is widespread over Titan but is particularly strong in the brightest terrains. This surface variability suggests that C2H2 is mobilized by surface processes, such as surface weathering, topography, and dissolution/evaporation. The detection of C2H2 on the surface of Titan opens new paths to understand and constrain Titan's surface activity. Since C2H2 is highly soluble in Titan liquids (Singh et al. 2015), it can easily dissolve in methane/ethane and may play an important role in carving of fluvial channels and existence of karstic lakes at higher latitudes on Titan. These processes imply the existence of a dynamic surface with a continued history of erosion and deposition of C2H2 on Titan.

  5. Design of an undulator white beam profiler and test results on the Advanced Photon Source beamline (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Deming; Ramanathan, Mohan; Singh, Om; Decker, Glenn

    2002-03-01

    At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), each insertion device (ID) beamline front end has two x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) to monitor the x-ray beam position for both the vertical and horizontal directions. The XBPMs measure photoelectrons generated by the chemical vapor deposited-diamond-based sensory blades and deduce the beam position by comparison of the relative signals from the blades [D. Shu, B. Rodricks, J. Barraza, T. Sanchez, and T. M. Kuzay, Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 319, 56 (1992)]. Performance challenges for an undulator XBPM during operation are contamination of the signal from the neighboring bending-magnet sources and the sensitivity of the XBPM to the ID gap variations. Problems are exacerbated because users change the ID gap during their operations, and hence the percentage level of the contamination in the front-end XBPM signals varies. The smart XBPM system partially solved these problems [D. Shu, H. Ding, J. Barraza, T. M. Kuzay, and M. Ramanathan, J. Synchrotron Radia. 5, 632 (1998)], but it is still very difficult to eliminate the contamination of the signal from the storage ring orbit-corrector magnets. A method was proposed by G. Decker and O. Singh [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 112801 (1999)] that provides a solution to the long-standing problem of stray radiation-induced signals on photoemission-based XBPMs located on the ID beamline front end. The method involves the introduction of a chicane into the accelerator lattice that directs unwanted x rays away from the photosensitive XBPM blades. This technique has been implemented at the APS. In this paper, we present the design of an undulator white beam profiler that provides experimental confirmation of this technique.

  6. Integrated framework for the flux calculation of neutral species inside trenches and holes during plasma etching

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkoris, George; Boudouvis, Andreas G.; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2006-11-15

    An integrated framework for the neutral flux calculation inside trenches and holes during plasma etching is described, and a comparison between the two types of structure in a number of applications is presented. First, a detailed and functional set of equations for the neutral and ion flux calculations inside long trenches and holes with cylindrical symmetry is explicitly formulated. This set is based on early works [T. S. Cale and G. B. Raupp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1242 (1990); V. K. Singh et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 1091 (1992)], and includes new equations for the case of holes with cylindrical symmetry. Second, a method for the solution of the respective numerical task, i.e., one or a set of linear or nonlinear integral equations, is described. This method includes a coupling algorithm with a surface chemistry model and resolves the singularity problem of the integral equations. Third, the fluxes inside trenches and holes are compared. The flux from reemission is the major portion of the local flux at the bottom of both types of structure. The framework is applied in SiO{sub 2} etching by fluorocarbon plasmas to predict the increased intensity of reactive ion etching lag in SiO{sub 2} holes compared to trenches. It is also applied in deep Si etching: By calculating the flux of F atoms at the bottom of very high aspect ratio (up to 150) Si trenches and holes during the gas chopping process, the aspect ratio at which the flux of F atoms is eliminated and etching practically stops is estimated.

  7. Characterisation of volatiles in dried white varieties figs (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Mujić, Ibrahim; Bavcon Kralj, Mojca; Jokić, Stela; Jug, Tjaša; Subarić, Drago; Vidović, Senka; Zivković, Jelena; Jarni, Kristjan

    2014-09-01

    The aromatic profile of volatiles in dried figs varieties Bružetka Bijela and Zimnica were characterised by headspace solid-phase (HS-SPME) procedure with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). The volatile compounds were distributed by distinct chemical classes, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, terpenic compounds, and other compounds. The figs were dried in a pilot plant cabinet dryer. Prior to drying process, figs were pre-treated by sulphur dioxide, immersed in solution of citric acid and ascorbic acid, respectively. Several mathematical thin-layer drying models, available in the literature, were fitted to experimental data of figs, implementing non-linear regression analysis techniques. The results showed that pre-treatments of figs decrease significantly the drying time. The best thin-layer drying model in terms of fitting performance was Wang and Singh model. The major volatile compound in dried figs was benzaldehyde. After benzaldehyde, the most abundant aldehyde in dried figs was hexanal. The comparison among dried figs showed the highest abundance of aldehydes, in general, in non-treated (control) dried figs compared to pre-treated samples. Furthermore, ascorbic acid was the most efficient in preserving esters and alcohols in case of Bružetka Bijela, whereas in case of Zimnica, sulphur dioxide was in advance compared to ascorbic acid. Ethyl acetate was the most abundant ester found in dried figs. Among other compounds, 2-butanone,3-hydroxy was the most abundant identified volatiles. Linalool, as the only identified terpen, was in case of both dried fig varieties, preserved by immersion into ascorbic acid. The immersion into citric acid has not been so successful in volatiles conservation. PMID:25190838

  8. Intrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxy: NGC 1052 using modified prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Singh, Arun; Chakraborty, D. K.

    Determination of intrinsic shapes of the individual elliptical galaxies using photometry is an important problem because the number of galaxies with good photometry is many more than those with good kinematics. We determine the intrinsic shapes of the light distribution of elliptical galaxies by combining the profiles of photometric data from the literature with triaxial models. We use ensembles of models so that the shape estimates are largely model independent. We follow the methodology as described in Statler (1994) which is modified to suit our requirements. We find that short to long axial ratios at very small radii and at very large radii, and the absolute value of the triaxiality difference are the best constrained shape parameters. Using a flat prior, the shapes of elliptical galaxies are reported by Chakraborty et al (2008) and Singh & Chakraborty (2009). The flat prior of 20 galaxies are superimposed over EAC-Ph other to obtain the distribution. This distribution is regarded as a prior (a modified prior) and shapes of 20 galaxies are again recalculated by using such modified prior. We determine the intrinsic shapes of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 using modified prior should be more reliable. These results are compared with the previous estimates which are determined by using flat prior. The plot shows the intrinsic shapes of the NGC 1052 as a function of (q0,q∞) for two dimensional shapes and (q0,q∞, |Td|) for three dimensional shapes, where q0 and q∞(=q) are the short to long axial ratios at small and at large radii and |Td| is the absolute values of the triaxiality difference, defined as |Td|= |T∞ - T0|. The probability is shown in the dark gray region: darker is the region higher is the probability. We find that the galaxy NGC 1052 is flatter inside and flatter outside.

  9. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Kapil, Umesh; Nambiar, Vanisha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Khenduja, Preetika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). Objective: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. Methodology: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child, AG and PM was conducted. Spot urine and salt samples were collected from children, AGs and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected from neonates for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 13.2% (USN), 15.9% (N), and 16.8% (PG). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 150 μg/l (USN), 125 μg/l (N), and 115 μg/l (PG). In AGs, TGR was 6.8% (USN), 8.2% (N) and 5.6% (PG). Median UIC level was 250 μg/l (USN), 200 μg/l (N), and 183 μg/l (PG). In PMs, TGR was 16.1% (USN), 20.2% (N), and 24.9% (PG). Median UIC level was 124 μg/l (USN), 117.5 μg/l (N) and 110 μg/l (PG), respectively. In Neonates, TSH levels of >5 mIU/L were found in 55.3 (USN), 76.4 (N) and 72.8 (PG) percent of neonates. Conclusion: UIC level in PMs and TSH levels among neonates indicate the prevalence of ID in three districts surveyed. PMID:27042411

  10. Triplet correlation functions in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Dhabal, Debdas; Chakravarty, Charusita; Singh, Murari; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor

    2014-11-07

    Triplet correlations have been shown to play a crucial role in the transformation of simple liquids to anomalous tetrahedral fluids [M. Singh, D. Dhabal, A. H. Nguyen, V. Molinero, and C. Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 147801 (2014)]. Here we examine triplet correlation functions for water, arguably the most important tetrahedral liquid, under ambient conditions, using configurational ensembles derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) datasets fitted to experimental scattering data. Four different RMC data sets with widely varying hydrogen-bond topologies fitted to neutron and x-ray scattering data are considered [K. T. Wikfeldt, M. Leetmaa, M. P. Ljungberg, A. Nilsson, and L. G. M. Pettersson, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 6246 (2009)]. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for two rigid-body effective pair potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) and the monatomic water (mW) model. Triplet correlation functions are compared with other structural measures for tetrahedrality, such as the O–O–O angular distribution function and the local tetrahedral order distributions. In contrast to the pair correlation functions, which are identical for all the RMC ensembles, the O–O–O triplet correlation function can discriminate between ensembles with different degrees of tetrahedral network formation with the maximally symmetric, tetrahedral SYM dataset displaying distinct signatures of tetrahedrality similar to those obtained from atomistic simulations of the SPC/E model. Triplet correlations from the RMC datasets conform closely to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, while those from MD simulations show deviations within the first two neighbour shells. The possibilities for experimental estimation of triplet correlations of water and other tetrahedral liquids are discussed.

  11. The effects of drying on physical properties of bilimbi slices (Averrhoa bilimbi l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Nursabrina, M.; Suhairah, A. Zai

    2015-05-01

    Physical appearance analyses of fruits are used to maintain food quality throughout and at the end of processing. However, control variables have to be designed to obtained the desired food quality. In the present study, the effects of pretreatment and drying air temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C on the drying kinetics of belimbi slices were investigated using a hot-air dryer. In order to investigate and select the appropriate drying model, seven experiment based mathematical drying models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE and RMSE), a Logarithmic model was found to be the best model to describe the drying behaviour of belimbi slices at 40°C for control; The Page/modified Page model was the best model to describe drying behaviour at 40°C, 60°C pre-treatment and 50°C for the control and the Wang and Singh model fitted well for 50°C pre-treatment and 60°C for the control. Comparison between experiment based mathematical modelling with a single phase mathematical model shows that close agreement was produced. The qualities of belimbi slices in terms of colour, texture and shrinkage with different air temperature and pre-treatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lighter colour but greater product shrinkage, whilst pre-treatment can reduce product shrinkage and drying time and can also give good texture properties. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important to improve mass and heat transfer as well as the product characteristics such as colour, shrinkage and texture.

  12. Ancient Black Hole Speeds Through Sun's Galactic Neighborhood, Devouring Companion Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    1118+480 orbits the Galaxy's center in a path similar to those of the globular clusters, moving at 145 kilometers per second (90 miles per second) relative to the Earth. How did it get into such an orbit? "There are two possibilities: either it formed in the Galaxy's plane and was somehow kicked out of the plane or it formed in a globular cluster and was kicked out of the cluster," said Vivek Dhawan, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. A massive star ends its life by exploding as a supernova, leaving either a neutron star or a black hole as a remnant. Some neutron stars show rapid motion, thought to result from a sideways "kick" during the supernova explosion. "This black hole has much more mass -- about seven times the mass of our Sun -- than any neutron star," said Dhawan. "To accelerate it to its present speed would require a kick from the supernova that we consider improbable," Dhawan added. "We think it's more likely that it was gravitationally ejected from the globular cluster," Dhawan said. Simulations of the gravitational interactions in globular clusters have shown that the black holes resulting from the collapse of the most massive stars should eventually be ejected from the cluster. "The star that preceded this black hole probably formed in a globular cluster even before our Galaxy's disk was formed," Mirabel said. "What we're doing here is the astronomical equivalent of archaeology, seeing traces of the intense burst of star formation that took place during an early stage of our Galaxy's development." The black hole has consumed so much of its companion star that the inner layers of the smaller star -- only about one-third the mass of the Sun -- now are exposed. The scientists believe the black hole captured the companion before being ejected from the globular cluster, as if it were grabbing a snack for the road. The Very Long Baseline Array "Because this microquasar happene

  13. PREFACE: Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    measurement. Advances in such technologies are bringing with them new opportunities in surface and buried interface science. In the not too distant future, we will publish a special issue or a book detailing such progress. Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques contents Lateral uniformity in chemical composition along a buried reaction front in polymers using off-specular reflectivity Kristopher A Lavery, Vivek M Prabhu, Sushil Satija and Wen-li Wu Orientation dependence of Pd growth on Au electrode surfaces M Takahasi, K Tamura, J Mizuki, T Kondo and K Uosaki A grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering analysis on capped Ge nanodots in layer structures Hiroshi Okuda, Masayuki Kato, Keiji Kuno, Shojiro Ochiai, Noritaka Usami, Kazuo Nakajima and Osami Sakata High resolution grazing-incidence in-plane x-ray diffraction for measuring the strain of a Si thin layer Kazuhiko Omote X-ray analysis of mesoporous silica thin films templated by Brij58 surfactant S Fall, M Kulij and A Gibaud Review of the applications of x-ray refraction and the x-ray waveguide phenomenon to estimation of film structures Kouichi Hayashi Epitaxial growth of largely mismatched crystals on H-terminated Si(111) surfaces Hidehito Asaoka Novel TiO2/ZnO multilayer mirrors at 'water-window' wavelengths fabricated by atomic layer epitaxy H Kumagai, Y Tanaka, M Murata, Y Masuda and T Shinagawa Depth-selective structural analysis of thin films using total-external-reflection x-ray diffraction Tomoaki Kawamura and Hiroo Omi Structures of Yb nanoparticle thin films grown by deposition in He and N2 gas atmospheres: AFM and x-ray reflectivity studies Martin Jerab and Kenji Sakurai Ga and As composition profiles in InP/GaInAs/InP heterostructures—x-ray CTR scattering and cross-sectional STM measurements Yoshikazu Takeda, Masao Tabuchi and Arao Nakamura Polarized neutron reflectivity study of a thermally treated MnIr/CoFe exchange bias system Naoki

  14. Imaging Lithospheric Structure beneath the Indian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S.; Montagner, J. P.; Mangalampally, R. K.; Stutzmann, E.; Burgos, G.; Kumar, P.; Davuluri, S.

    2015-12-01

    The lithospheric structure and thickness to the LAB are the most debated issues, especially beneath continents. In this context, the structure and thickness of the Indian lithosphere has been controversial. Paleomagnetic data reveals that the Indian continent moved northwards at exceptionally high speeds (18-20 cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5 cm/year after its collision with Asia ≈40 Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (≈100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from 65 Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, recent results of P and S wave travel time tomography of India suggest that the lithospheric roots are not uniformly thick on a regional scale. Although high velocity roots typical of Precambrian shields are preserved beneath a few cratons of the Indian shield, they seem to have suffered attrition, in the plume ravaged regions like the NDVP and the Southern SGT (Singh et al., 2014). We assembled a new massive surface wave database towards obtaining 3D isotropic and anisotropic models for the Indian sub-continent, using surface waves. This necessitated processing of data from more than 500 seismic broadband stations across India and surrounding regions. Surface waves group and phase dispersion measurements are performed in a broad frequency range (16-250s). Our phase velocity anomaly maps recover most of the known geological structures. The cratons are associated with high velocity (4-6%) anomalies till 200 sec, with the WDC being faster than the EDC. Slow velocities in NW India and very high velocity anomalies (6-8%) beneath the central part of the Indo-Gangetic plains are possibly associated with the subducting Indian lithosphere. The LAB depths inferred from

  15. Shamanism as a healing paradigm for complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Money, M

    2001-08-01

    Any healing process--whether recovery from infection, physical trauma, or psychological distress--must entail the stimulation and direction of the body's own restorative functions. In former times these functions were called the vis mediatrix naturae. Arguably best articulated within traditional Chinese medicine (e.g. Reid 1993), many complementary therapies have identified this principle. The immune system is implicated in the operation of these healing processes, and immune system functions are modulated by both internal and external variables. External variables include the nature of the infection or trauma. Internal variables include the meaning of the illness to the patient or the patient's imagery surrounding the illness. It follows that any modulation of internal variables that increases immune function will therefore be highly beneficial in the healing process. Sometimes such modulation happens spontaneously, when it may be referred to as the placebo effect, or a good bedside manner, or spontaneous remission. Sometimes such modulation may be brought about intentionally either by the patient or by a therapist or healer. One body of technique for such modulation is shamanism, which pays particular attention to bridging the internal world of the patient to the external world where the problem originates. Shamanic practice is specifically focused on this healing task, and has its own toolkit of techniques for the modification of consciousness, the manipulation of imagery and meaning, and the generation of a healing milieu and therapeutic images from its mythic content. Early concerns about the mental health of shamanic practitioners are now thoroughly resolved (e.g. Stephen & Suryani 2000). Indeed, the relevance of shamanism to positive mental health is currently being explored (e.g. Money 1994, Singh 1999). Its relevance to social work (Voss et al. 1999) and to the near death experience (Green 1998) are also subjects of academic inquiry. The shamanic corpus

  16. THE USE OF NARRATIVES IN SCIENCE COMMUNICATION: An example of the use of comic strips (narratives) in communicating scientific information about sustainable development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete, Aquiles

    2015-04-01

    It is quite reasonable to claim that narratives can include, explain and recreate science and that this means of science communication is generally popular. This idea seems to be supported by the fact that many contemporary authors who include science as a theme in their work receive a good reception among the public (at least in Britain). Novels like Fermat's Last Theorem by Simon Singh, Longitude by Dava Sobel and Neuromancer by William Gibson stayed on the best seller lists for weeks. Plays like Copenhagen by Michael Frayn, Arcadia by Tom Stoppard, Oxigen by Carl Djerassi and Ronald Hoffmann, Diary of a steak by Deborah Levy as well as Blue heart by Caryl Churchill enjoyed complete sell-outs in London and other cities in Britain. The explanation for this popularity seems to be that narratives are amusing, attractive, and interesting. Therefore, we can maintain that they are popular. But are they also a long-lasting way of transmitting knowledge? Do people remember scientific information conveyed by this means better than they remember the traditional formats like paradigmatic textbooks? These are questions that need to be addressed. To understand how narratives organize, represent and convey information, it is an important task to evaluate the advantages that this media offers for the communication of science. Narratives include several characteristics that make them memorable, understandable, enjoyable and a good way to present and communicate knowledge. Some of these attributes are achieved through narrative structures, including literary devices. In this research I discuss how the general public is familiar with the narrative structure of a story, how schemas for these narrative structures allow identification, induce emotions and promote understanding - important elements for the learning and memory process. I also look at how individually the narrative resources (or literary devices), in addition to their aesthetic value, can also work as mnemonic

  17. Modeling And Economics Of Extreme Subduction Earthquakes: Two Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Emerson, D.; Perea, N.; Moulinec, C.

    2008-05-01

    The destructive effects of large magnitude, thrust subduction superficial (TSS) earthquakes on Mexico City (MC) and Guadalajara (G) has been shown in the recent centuries. For example, the 7/04/1845 and the 19/09/1985, two TSS earthquakes occurred on the coast of the state of Guerrero and Michoacan, with Ms 7+ and 8.1. The economical losses for the later were of about 7 billion US dollars. Also, the largest Ms 8.2, instrumentally observed TSS earthquake in Mexico, occurred in the Colima-Jalisco region the 3/06/1932, and the 9/10/1995 another similar, Ms 7.4 event occurred in the same region, the later produced economical losses of hundreds of thousands US dollars.The frequency of occurrence of large TSS earthquakes in Mexico is poorly known, but it might vary from decades to centuries [1]. Therefore there is a lack of strong ground motions records for extreme TSS earthquakes in Mexico, which as mentioned above, recently had an important economical impact on MC and potentially could have it in G. In this work we obtained samples of broadband synthetics [2,3] expected in MC and G, associated to extreme (plausible) magnitude Mw 8.5, TSS scenario earthquakes, with epicenters in the so-called Guerrero gap and in the Colima-Jalisco zone, respectively. The economical impacts of the proposed extreme TSS earthquake scenarios for MC and G were considered as follows: For MC by using a risk acceptability criteria, the probabilities of exceedance of the maximum seismic responses of their construction stock under the assumed scenarios, and the estimated economical losses observed for the 19/09/1985 earthquake; and for G, by estimating the expected economical losses, based on the seismic vulnerability assessment of their construction stock under the extreme seismic scenario considered. ----------------------- [1] Nishenko S.P. and Singh SK, BSSA 77, 6, 1987 [2] Cabrera E., Chavez M., Madariaga R., Mai M, Frisenda M., Perea N., AGU, Fall Meeting, 2005 [3] Chavez M., Olsen K

  18. Regional Precipitation Forecast with Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profile Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technology in hyperspectral sensors such as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS; Aumann et al. 2003) on NASA's polar orbiting Aqua satellite retrieve higher vertical resolution thermodynamic profiles than their predecessors due to increased spectral resolution. Although these capabilities do not replace the robust vertical resolution provided by radiosondes, they can serve as a complement to radiosondes in both space and time. These retrieved soundings can have a significant impact on weather forecasts if properly assimilated into prediction models. Several recent studies have evaluated the performance of specific operational weather forecast models when AIRS data are included in the assimilation process. LeMarshall et al. (2006) concluded that AIRS radiances significantly improved 500 hPa anomaly correlations in medium-range forecasts of the Global Forecast System (GFS) model. McCarty et al. (2009) demonstrated similar forecast improvement in 0-48 hour forecasts in an offline version of the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model when AIRS radiances were assimilated at the regional scale. Reale et al. (2008) showed improvements to Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa height anomaly correlations in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) global system with the inclusion of partly cloudy AIRS temperature profiles. Singh et al. (2008) assimilated AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional modeling system for a study of a heavy rainfall event during the summer monsoon season in Mumbai, India. This paper describes an approach to assimilate AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var; Barker et al. 2004). Section 2 describes the AIRS instrument and how the quality indicators are used to intelligently select the highest-quality data for assimilation

  19. Airborne Measurements of NO, NO2, and NO(y) as Related to NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandholm, Scott

    1997-01-01

    The Tropospheric Trace Gas and Airborne Measurements Group's (TTGAMG) efforts on NASA GTE (Global Tropospheric Experiment) PEM (Pacific Exploratory Mission) West A & B field campaign primarily involved the acquisition of NO, NO2 and NO(y) measurements, as well as the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the data base obtained during the PEM West field campaign. These investigations focused on the distribution of trace gases, sources and sinks of ozone, ozone producing precursors with a heavy emphasize on ozone's photochemical state, and the partitioning of the molecules within the NO(y) family over the north western Pacific Ocean. The two components of PEM West were focused on observing air masses as they reached the Asian Continent (PEM West A) or as the air mass departed the Asian Continent (PEM West B). NO(x) concentrations play a pivotal role in controlling the photochemical lifetime of ozone in these environments, and understanding the NO(x) species partitioning is paramount. The transport of NO(x) into the regions, in the form of longer lived NO(y) family members, was examined in relation to the comparison of natural occurring sources of NO(x) (i.e., lightning and stratosphere/troposphere exchange) to those produced as a result of anthropogenic activity (i.e., biomass burning and aircraft emissions). The TTGAMG's measurements of NOx and NO(y), in conjunction with other investigators' measurements of PAN (H. B. Singh's group) and HNO3 (R. W. Talbot's group), have been used to assess the total reactive odd nitrogen levels over the study regions, the partitioning of the reactive odd nitrogen species in their various forms, and the usefulness of the NO, measurement and its measurement technique. The TTGAMG's primary PEM West objectives were the characterization of the factors controlling the distribution and fate of reactive odd nitrogen compounds over the western Pacific Ocean and an analysis of the concentration of various trace gases in the troposphere as

  20. Study of Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling Using Whistler Data (P51)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, L.

    2006-11-01

    singh_shubha@yahoo.co.in singhshubhadhu@gmail.com The VLF waves observed at the ground stations are used for probing the ionosphere/magnetosphere parameters. The probing principle depends on the analysis of dispersion produced in the whistler mode waves during their propagation from the source to the observation point. Dispersion depends on the distribution of plasma particles and ambient magnetic field along the path of propagation. Specifically, we derive the information about the equatorial electron density, total electron content in a flux tube, equatorial east-west electric field, transport of electron flux from one region to the other, electron temperature etc. The transport of flux and electric fields are essentially involved in the study of coupling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In the present paper, we shall report the analysis of whistler data recorded at Varanasi and Jammu. The analysis shows that the analyzed whistlers from both the stations belong to mid-high latitudes contrary to the belief that they were low latitude phenomena. Further, there is no correspondence between the dispersion and derived L-value for the path of propagation. This leads to the requirement of detailed study of VLF wave propagation in the inhomogeneous ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The electron density and the total electron content in a flux tube derived from whistler measurements at Varanasi and Jammu are approximately one order of magnitude smaller than the previously reported data from the whistler measurements at mid- high latitudes. However, their variation with L-value has the same nature. The time development of the content of flux is evaluated which could easily explain the reported flux transport during the study of coupling of ionosphere to the magnetosphere. We have also evaluated electric field, which compares well with the previously reported value. These results clearly indicate that the VLF wave propagation at low latitude and their diagnostic

  1. Structure and Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Target from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,V.; Shi, W.; Almo, S.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; Tyler, P.; Painter, G.; Lenz, D.; Mee, S.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (MTAN) catalyzes the hydrolytic deadenylation of its substrates to form adenine and 5-methylthioribose or S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH). MTAN is not found in mammals but is involved in bacterial quorum sensing. MTAN gene disruption affects the growth and pathogenicity of bacteria, making it a target for antibiotic design. Kinetic isotope effects and computational studies have established a dissociative S{sub N}1 transition state for Escherichia coli MTAN, and transition state analogues resembling the transition state are powerful inhibitors of the enzyme [Singh, V., Lee, J. L., Nunez, S., Howell, P. L., and Schramm, V. L. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 11647-11659]. The sequence of MTAN from S. pneumoniae is 40% identical to that of E. coli MTAN, but S. pneumoniae MTAN exhibits remarkably distinct kinetic and inhibitory properties. 5'-Methylthio-Immucillin-A (MT-ImmA) is a transition state analogue resembling an early S{sub N}1 transition state. It is a weak inhibitor of S. pneumoniae MTAN with a K{sub i} of 1.0 {mu}M. The X-ray structure of S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT-ImmA indicates a dimer with the methylthio group in a flexible hydrophobic pocket. Replacing the methyl group with phenyl (PhT-ImmA), tolyl (p-TolT-ImmA), or ethyl (EtT-ImmA) groups increases the affinity to give K{sub i} values of 335, 60, and 40 nM, respectively. DADMe-Immucillins are geometric and electrostatic mimics of a fully dissociated transition state and bind more tightly than Immucillins. MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A inhibits with a K{sub i} value of 24 nM, and replacing the 5'-methyl group with p-Cl-phenyl (p-Cl-PhT-DADMe-ImmA) gave a K{sub i}* value of 0.36 nM. The inhibitory potential of DADMe-Immucillins relative to the Immucillins supports a fully dissociated transition state structure for S. pneumoniae MTAN. Comparison of active site contacts in the X-ray crystal structures of E. coli and S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT

  2. Assessment of Universal Healthcare Coverage in a District of North India: A Rapid Cross-Sectional Survey Using Tablet Computers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarundeep; Roy, Pritam; Jamir, Limalemla; Gupta, Saurav; Kaur, Navpreet; Jain, D. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective A rapid survey was carried out in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar District of Punjab state in India to ascertain health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket health expenditures. Methods Using multistage cluster sampling design, 1,008 households (28 clusters x 36 households in each cluster) were selected proportionately from urban and rural areas. Households were selected through a house-to-house survey during April and May 2014 whose members had (a) experienced illness in the past 30 days, (b) had illness lasting longer than 30 days, (c) were hospitalized in the past 365 days, or (d) had women who were currently pregnant or experienced childbirth in the past two years. In these selected households, trained investigators, using a tablet computer-based structured questionnaire, enquired about the socio-demographics, nature of illness, source of healthcare, and healthcare and household expenditure. The data was transmitted daily to a central server using wireless communication network. Mean healthcare expenditures were computed for various health conditions. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure was defined as more than 10% of the total annual household expenditure on healthcare. Chi square test for trend was used to compare catastrophic expenditures on hospitalization between households classified into expenditure quartiles. Results The mean monthly household expenditure was 15,029 Indian Rupees (USD 188.2). Nearly 14.2% of the household expenditure was on healthcare. Fever, respiratory tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases were the common acute illnesses, while heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases were the more common chronic diseases. Hospitalizations were mainly due to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal problems, and accidents. Only 17%, 18%, 20% and 31% of the healthcare for acute illnesses, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations and childbirth was sought in the government health facilities. Average expenditure in government health

  3. Shear Deformation of Wadsleyite in the Rotational Drickamer Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustoft, J. W.; Kawazoe, T.; Karato, S.; Ando, J.; Jing, Z.; Otsuka, K.; Amulele, G.; Du, Z.

    2009-12-01

    We have performed shear deformation experiments on samples of polycrystalline wadsleyite at 13-18 GPa and 1300-1800 K in the rotational Drickamer apparatus. Our goal is to collect quantitative data on the rheological properties of wadsleyite at transition zone conditions. Our experiments build on and extend the results of Nishihara et al. (2008) and Kawazoe et al. (2009) on deformation of olivine and wadsleyite. Our previous studies showed strong evidence for dynamic recrystallization and the resultant operation of some grain-size sensitive mechanisms of deformation. In order to investigate the role of grain-size sensitive creep in wadsleyite, we prepared fine-grained wadsleyite samples. The starting material, San Carlos olivine, was the same as in the previous studies, but had a smaller initial grain size (<2 μm). Wadsleyite was synthesized from this fine-grained olivine in a Kawai-type multianvil; the initial average grain size of the wadsleyite was approximately 1 μm. The initial water content of the undeformed wadsleyite was determined to be dry (<50 ppm H/Si). Deformation experiments were conducted at the X17B2 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source, using white x-rays to collect energy-dispersive diffraction patterns at a fixed 2θ of 6.7° over ten azimuth angles. X-ray diffraction spectra were collected in 300-900 s exposures over the course of each experiment. In situ determinations of strain were made from radiographs of the sample using a Mo foil inserted into the sample assembly as a strain marker. Uniaxial and shear stresses were determined from the observed d-spacing of multiple wadsleyite lattice planes as a function of azimuth angle, utilizing the theory of Singh (1993). Samples of wadsleyite were deformed at three different constant anvil rotation rates, corresponding to strain rates of approximately 10-4 - 10-5 s-1, in an effort to determine the stress exponent. Experiments were also conducted at three different constant furnace power

  4. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 168

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2010-07-15

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass A=168 (Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt) have been evaluated and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation supersedes the previous publication (V.S. Shirley, Nuclear Data Sheets 71, 261 (1994) (literature cutoff date July 1993)) and subsequent ENSDF file revisions for Tb and Dy (C. Baglin, literature cutoff date of 15 June 1999) and Hf (B. Singh, literature cutoff date of 30 April 2001), and includes literature available by 15 June 2010. Since the above evaluations, the first excited states in {sup 168}Pt have been identified (1998Ki20, 2009Go16) and {alpha} decay from {sup 172}Hg has been observed (2009Sa27, 2004Ke06, 1999Se14). New levels in {sup 168}Dy have been excited using the {sup 170}Er({sup 82}Se,{sup 84}Kr{gamma}) reaction (2010So03). (HI,xn{gamma}) studies have significantly expanded our knowledge of level structure in {sup 168}Lu (1999Ka17, 2002Ha33), {sup 168}Ta (2008QiZZ), {sup 168}Yb (1995Fi01), {sup 168}Tm (2007CaZW), {sup 168}Hf (2009Ya21), {sup 168}Os (2001Jo11, 2009Od02) and, for {sup 168}Tm, important information has come also from (d,2n{gamma}) and ({alpha},n{gamma}) reactions (1995Si20). Revised decay schemes are available following new studies of {sup 168}Hf {epsilon} decay (6.7 min) (1997Ba26), {sup 168}Lu {epsilon} decay (1999Ba65), {sup 168}Ta {epsilon} decay (2007Mc08) and {sup 172}Au {alpha} decay (2009Ha42). Significant new information for {sup 168}Er is available from (p,t) (2006Bu09), (d,p) and (t,d) (1996Ma50), ({gamma},{gamma}') (1996Ma18), (136Xe, X{gamma}) (2010Dr02), ({sup 238}U,{sup 238}U{sup '{gamma}}) (2003Wu07) and (n,n{sup '{gamma}}) (1998Be20, 1998Be62) reactions, and the availability of {gamma}{gamma} coin data (1994Ju02, 1996Gi09) for the (n,{gamma}) E=thermal reaction has resulted in some significant level scheme revisions.

  5. Influences of Forest Tree Species and Early Spring Temperature on Surface-Atmosphere Transfers of Water and Carbon in the Northeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, J. L.; Kuzeja, P.; Mulcahy, T.; Singh, S.

    2008-12-01

    Influences of Forest Tree Species and Early Spring Temperature on Surface-Atmosphere Transfers of Water and Carbon in the Northeastern U.S. Julian Hadley, Paul Kuzeja, Safina Singh and Thomas Mulcahy Transfers of water vapor from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere affect regional hydrology, weather and climate over short time scales, and forest-atmosphere CO2 exchange affects global climate over long timescales. To better understand these effects for forests dominated by two very different tree species, we measured forest-atmosphere water vapor and CO2 transfers by the eddy flux technique to at two sites in central Massachusetts USA for three years. Average annual evapotranspiration (ET) for a young deciduous forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L., the most abundant tree species in the area), was about 430 mm or 25 percent greater than for a coniferous forest dominated by 100 to 230 year old eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.). The difference in ET was most pronounced in July and August when the deciduous forest lost about 50 percent more water by ET in the average year (192 mm for oak forest versus 130 mm for hemlock). These data indicate that if deciduous trees with similar physiology to red oak replace hemlocks, summertime ET will increase while summer streamflow, soil water content and the extent of year- round wetlands will decrease. Increased summertime ET should also lead to slightly higher regional atmospheric humidity and precipitation. Hemlock-to-deciduous forest conversion has occurred from North Carolina to southern New England and is continuing northward as a lethal insect pest, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) continues to kill hemlocks. Average annual carbon storage for the old hemlock forest in our study was about 3.3 Mg C/ha, nearly equal to the average for the deciduous forest, 3.5 Mg C/ha. This calls into question ecological theory that predicts large declines in the rate of carbon uptake for old forests, and

  6. Seismotectonic Analysis for the KZN region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-04-01

    model element will be explored in further detail for this research. Preliminary investigations into a seismotectonic investigation for the province have been undertaken by Singh et al. (2011). Under the framework of this research the following tasks are planned for the KZN coastal region: i) Development of a historical earthquake catalogue ii) Development of a GeoDatabase for Seismotectonic Zonation iii) Development of a Seismotectonic Model and iv) Development of an Earthquake Recurrence Model. The author will present progress made to date towards this research.

  7. Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells, like other pluripotent stem cells, can be killed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes despite low expression of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules

    PubMed Central

    Dressel, Ralf; Guan, Kaomei; Nolte, Jessica; Elsner, Leslie; Monecke, Sebastian; Nayernia, Karim; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Engel, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    activated CTLs are present. Our results show that the adaptive immune system has in principle the capacity to kill pluripotent and teratoma forming stem cells. This finding might help to develop new strategies to increase the safety of future transplantations of in vitro differentiated cells by exploiting a selective immune response against contaminating undifferentiated cells. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Bhagirath Singh, Etienne Joly and Lutz Walter. PMID:19715575

  8. The Eemian climate simulated by two models of different complexities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova, Irina; Yin, Qiuzhen; Berger, Andre; Singh, Umesh; Karami, Pasha

    2013-04-01

    Australia. Tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature (SST) annual cycle, modeled by CCSM3, suggests a minor shift towards an El Nino. However, the SST variability in our LOVECLIM simulations is particularly small due to the overestimated thermocline's depth. The simulated large-scale climate change during the Eemian compares reasonably well with proxy data, giving credit to both models and climate reconstructions. Acknowledgments This work and I. Nikolova, U. K. Singh and M. P. Karami are supported by the European Research Council Advanced Grant EMIS (No 227348 of the Program 'Ideas'). Q. Z. Yin is supported by the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research (F. R. S. -FNRS). N. Herold is thanked for the simulations with CCSM3. Access to computer facilities was made easier through sponsorship from S. A. Electrabel, Belgium. Keywords: CCSM3, LOVECLIM, MIS-5, surface temperature, monsoon, vegetation, ENSO

  9. Effect of texture on rheological properties: the case of ɛ-Fe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, S.; Gruson, M.; Tomé, C. N.; Nishiyama, N.; Wang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Lattice preferred orientations (LPO) are known to affect the physical properties of materials. However, in most high pressure deformation experiments, LPO are ignored when interpreting the measured stress-strain curves. In addition, stress measurements in those experiments are complicated by the effect of plastic deformation on the measured lattice strains(1). Here, we present a new interpretation of the results obtained on hcp-iron at up to 19 GPa and 600 K in the deformation-DIA(2). In those experiments, five independent stress-strain curves were obtained on axial shortening with a ductile behavior of the sample for all. Stress were studied using results of monochromatic X-ray diffraction and the elastic theory of lattice strains(3). However, measured stresses were inconsistent with a change of behavior after 4% axial strain, particularly for strains measured on the 0002 line. We use elasto-plastic self consistent modeling(1) to show that this change of behavior is due to the evolution of LPO in the sample. With compression, 10-10 planes in hcp-iron align parallel to the compression direction and this affects the rheological behavior of the sample, which can not be summarized in a simple average law. We will also discuss the implication of those results for the extraction of polycrystalline rheological properties for materials with non-random lattice preferred orientations and how this could affect our understanding of the Earth deep interior. 1- S. Merkel, C.N. Tomé, H.-R Wenk, A modeling analysis of the influence of plasticity on high pressure deformation of hcp-Co, Phys. Rev. B, 79, 064110 (2009) 2- N. Nishiyama, Y. Wang, M. L. Rivers, S. R. Sutton, D. Cookson, Rheology of e-iron up to 19 GPa and 600 K in the D-DIA, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L23304 (2007) 3- A. K. Singh, C. Balasingh, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley, J. Shu, Analysis of lattice strains measured under non-hydrostatic pressure, J. Appl. Phys., 83, 7567-7575 (1998)

  10. Fault barriers favor activation of backthrusts near segment ends of megathrust ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Fukuyama, E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that backthrusts may become active during or after megathrust ruptures in subduction zones, such as in Chile and Sumatra areas (Melnick et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2011). Previous studies on relevant mechanisms mainly focused on the interaction between forethrusts and the megathrust. Here we aim to investigate through dynamic rupture simulations how backthrusts may be activated by megathrust ruptures in subduction zone environment. Assuming a single backthrust branch, our preliminary results show that the activation of backthrust is difficult if the megathrust rupture can easily pass through the fault junction, owing to a quickly established stress shadow zone in the wake of the megathrust rupture front. In contrast, if the megathrust rupture is arrested or delayed around the junction, a resultant backward stress lobe of the type discussed by Xu and Ben-Zion (2013) can load the backthrust over a considerable amount of time and facilitates rupture activation along the backthrust. A number of candidates can serve to arrest or delay megathrust ruptures, such as the velocity-strengthening frictional behavior and off-fault weak materials in the shallow portion of subduction zones, fault bend or ramp, and subducted seamount. Moreover, these features are also found capable of generating backthrusts during the long-term quasi-static process, which provide pre-existing weakness to be reactivated by later dynamic ruptures. Our results agree, from a different point of view, with the study based on the critical taper theory (Cubas et al., 2013) that an increase of friction towards the trench favors the activation of backthrusts near the up-dip limit of megathrust ruptures. The results highlight the role of fault geometric or strength heterogeneities in controlling the strain partitioning on and off the main fault plane. Accordingly, activated backthrusts may be treated as markers that reflect the limits of seismogenic zones, and thus may be used

  11. CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal excitability.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Chun J; Scala, Federico; Nenov, Miroslav N; Wildburger, Norelle C; Elferink, Hannah; Singh, Aditya K; Chesson, Charles B; Buzhdygan, Tetyana; Sohail, Maveen; Shavkunov, Alexander S; Panova, Neli I; Nilsson, Carol L; Rudra, Jai S; Lichti, Cheryl F; Laezza, Fernanda

    2016-06-01

    Recent data shows that fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) binds to and controls the function of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel with phenotypic outcomes on neuronal excitability. Mutations in the FGF14 gene in humans have been associated with brain disorders that are partially recapitulated in Fgf14(-/-) mice. Thus, signaling pathways that modulate the FGF14:Nav channel interaction may be important therapeutic targets. Bioluminescence-based screening of small molecule modulators of the FGF14:Nav1.6 complex identified 4,5,6,7 -: tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), a potent casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor, as a strong suppressor of FGF14:Nav1.6 interaction. Inhibition of CK2 through TBB reduces the interaction of FGF14 with Nav1.6 and Nav1.2 channels. Mass spectrometry confirmed direct phosphorylation of FGF14 by CK2 at S228 and S230, and mutation to alanine at these sites modified FGF14 modulation of Nav1.6-mediated currents. In 1 d in vitro hippocampal neurons, TBB induced a reduction in FGF14 expression, a decrease in transient Na(+) current amplitude, and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of Nav channel steady-state inactivation. In mature neurons, TBB reduces the axodendritic polarity of FGF14. In cornu ammonis area 1 hippocampal slices from wild-type mice, TBB impairs neuronal excitability by increasing action potential threshold and lowering firing frequency. Importantly, these changes in excitability are recapitulated in Fgf14(-/-) mice, and deletion of Fgf14 occludes TBB-dependent phenotypes observed in wild-type mice. These results suggest that a CK2-FGF14 axis may regulate Nav channels and neuronal excitability.-Hsu, W.-C. J., Scala, F., Nenov, M. N., Wildburger, N. C., Elferink, H., Singh, A. K., Chesson, C. B., Buzhdygan, T., Sohail, M., Shavkunov, A. S., Panova, N. I., Nilsson, C. L., Rudra, J. S., Lichti, C. F., Laezza, F. CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal

  12. Analysis of magnitude and duration of floods and droughts in the context of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshetu Debele, Sisay; Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Strupczewski, Witold

    2016-04-01

    Research and scientific information are key elements of any decision-making process. There is also a strong need for tools to describe and compare in a concise way the regime of hydrological extreme events in the context of presumed climate change. To meet these demands, two complementary methods for estimating high and low-flow frequency characteristics are proposed. Both methods deal with duration and magnitude of extreme events. The first one "flow-duration-frequency" (known as QdF) has already been applied successfully to low-flow analysis, flood flows and rainfall intensity. The second one called "duration-flow-frequency" (DqF) was proposed by Strupczewski et al. in 2010 to flood frequency analysis. The two methods differ in the treatment of flow and duration. In the QdF method the duration (d-consecutive days) is a chosen fixed value and the frequency analysis concerns the annual or seasonal series of mean value of flows exceeded (in the case of floods) or non-exceeded (in the case of droughts) within d-day period. In the second method, DqF, the flows are treated as fixed thresholds and the duration of flows exceeding (floods) and non-exceeding (droughts) these thresholds are a subject of frequency analysis. The comparison of characteristics of floods and droughts in reference period and under future climate conditions for catchments studied within the CHIHE project is presented and a simple way to show the results to non-professionals and decision-makers is proposed. The work was undertaken within the project "Climate Change Impacts on Hydrological Extremes (CHIHE)", which is supported by the Norway-Poland Grants Program administered by the Norwegian Research Council. The observed time series were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland. Strupczewski, W. G., Kochanek, K., Markiewicz, I., Bogdanowicz, E., Weglarczyk, S., & Singh V. P. (2010). On the Tails of Distributions of Annual Peak Flow. Hydrology Research, 42, 171

  13. Technial Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Chairpersons Dr Dinesh Sathyamoorthy, Science & Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE), Ministry of Defence, Malaysia Associate Professor Sr Dr Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Ahmad Fikri Abdullah, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Farrah Melissa Muharram, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Members Professor Dr Li Jing, Beijing Normal University, China Professor Dr Iyyanki Muralikrishna, Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI), India Professor Dr Alias Abdul Rahman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Ismat Mohamed El Hassan, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Professor Dr George Miliaresis, Open University of Cyprus, Cyprus Professor Dr Christine Pohl, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Mahender Kotha, Goa University, India Associate Professor Dr Paolo Gamba, University of Pavia, Italy Associate Professor Dr Behara Seshadri Daya Sagar, Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), India Associate Professor Sr Ranjit Singh, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Abdul Nasir Matori, Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP), Malaysia Associate Dr Lucian Dragut, West University of Timişoara, Romania Associate Professor Dr Saied Pirasteh, Islamic Azad University, Iran Associate Professor Dr Peter Yuen, Cranfield University, United Kingdom Associate Professor Dr Lim Hwee San, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Wayan Suparta, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Tuong Thuy Vu, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Maged Mahmoud Marghany, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Rami Al-Ruzouq, University of Sharjah, UAE Associate Professor Dr Biswajeet Pradhan, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia

  14. Cosmic ray research in India: 1912-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonwar, Suresh C.

    2013-02-01

    The progress of research in cosmic rays in India over the last 100 years is reviewed, starting with the pioneering work of Debendra Mohan Bose and Homi Bhabha. Experimental research in cosmic rays in India received a big push with the establishment of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research by Homi Bhabha in Bombay in 1945, the Physical Research Laboratory by Vikram Sarabhai in Ahemedabad in 1947 and the setting up of a cosmic ray research group by Piara Singh Gill at the Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh in 1949. Studies on high energy interactions by B.V. Sreekantan and colleagues and on muons and neutrinos deep underground in KGF mines by M.G.K. Menon and coworkers were the highlights of the research work in India in 1950's and 60's. In 1970's and 80's, important advances were made in India in several areas, for example, search for proton decay in KGF mines by M.G.K. Menon et al, search for TeV cosmic gamma-ray sources at Ooty and Pachmari by P.V. Ramanamurthy and colleagues, search for PeV cosmic gamma ray sources by S.C. Tonwar et al at Ooty and by M.V.S. Rao and coworkers at KGF. In 1990's, Sreekantan and Tonwar initiated the GRAPES-3 project at Ooty to determine the composition of cosmic ray flux around the 'knee' in the primary energy spectrum at PeV energies using a large muon detector and a compact air shower array. Another major effort to search for TeV gamma-ray sources was initiated by H. Razdan and C.L. Bhat, initially at Gulmarg in Kashmir in the 1980's, leading to successful observations with a stereoscopic imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope at Mount Abu in early 2000. In recent years the Pachmari group and the Mount Abu group have joined together to install a sophisticated system of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors at Hanle in the Ladakh region at an altitude of 4200 m to continue studies on VHE sources of cosmic gammarays.

  15. Periodic Peritoneal Dialysis in End Stage Renal Disease: Is it Still Relevant? A Single Center Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, K; Prasad, D; Malhotra, V; Agrawal, D; Beniwal, P; Mathur, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: High cost of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in India has made renal replacement therapy out of reach of many patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Repeated puncture PD although inferior to HD biochemically, is easily and freely available across Rajasthan, India, and is simple to perform, and does not require sophisticated machines, thus making it an attractive option for dialysis for ESRD. Aim: To analyze the outcomes of periodic PD in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis support. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study analyzing the data of patients who underwent PD between August 2010 and January 2013 in Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, India was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time period between first and second session of PD. Detailed demographic and clinical data during the study period were collected along with PD related complications. The main outcome studied was technique survival 1 year post initiation of PD. Results: 234 patients received an initial session of PD, of which 174 had a good response and were included in the study. 19 patients received the second PD within 7 days of first (Group 1), 45 patients within 8–14 days (Group 2) and 110 patients within 15–21 days (Group 3). The overall 1 year technique survival was 68.4% (91/133), with a rate of 50% (5/10), 56.8% (21/37), and 75.6% (65/86) for Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. The time duration between first and second PD proved to be reliable indicator of the subsequent response, with a technique survival rate significantly lower in Group 1 patients compared to Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.04). Median dialysis free days were 11, 16 and 21 days in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Peritonitis rate observed was 2.1% (49/2261) during the study period. Conclusion: Periodic PD is a simple, safe and cheap procedure, which can be considered as used as a palliative measure in

  16. Comparative Effects of Vigorous-Intensity and Low-Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Cycle Training and Detraining on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daeyeol; Singh, Harshvardhan; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Young, Kaelin; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2016-05-01

    Kim, D, Singh, H, Loenneke, JP, Thiebaud, RS, Fahs, CA, Rossow, LM, Young, K, Seo, D-i, Bemben, DA, and Bemben, MG. Comparative effects of vigorous-intensity and low-intensity blood flow restricted cycle training and detraining on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1453-1461, 2016-Traditional high-intensity aerobic training has been shown to improve muscle protein synthesis and aerobic capacity; however, recent research indicates that low-intensity aerobic training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may have similar effects. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of vigorous-intensity (VI) cycling vs. low-intensity cycling with BFR (LI-BFR) on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity after training and subsequent detraining. Thirty-one physically active subjects were assigned to one of 3 groups: VI (n = 10, 60-70% heart rate reserve [HRR]), LI-BFR (n = 11, 30% HRR with BFR at 160-180 mm Hg), and no exercise control (n = 10, no exercise). Subjects in VI and LI-BFR cycled 3 times per week for 6 weeks (total 18 sessions). Body composition, muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity were measured pre, post, and after 3 weeks of detraining. A group × time interaction (p = 0.019) effect for both knee flexion and leg lean mass was found. For both VI and LI-BFR groups, knee flexion strength was significantly increased between pre and post (p = 0.024, p = 0.01) and between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.039, p = 0.003), respectively. For the LI-BFR group, leg lean mass was significantly increased between pre and 3 week-post (p = 0.024) and between post and 3 week-post (p = 0.013). However, there were no significant differences between groups for any variables. The LI-BFR elicits an increase in the knee flexion muscle strength over time similar to the VI. An increase in the leg lean mass over time was seen in the LI-BFR, but not in VI and CON. PMID:26439780

  17. Sedimentary Facies and their possible significance in Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction: Example of Baraila Tal, Central Ganga Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Pavani; Sinha, Rajiv; Tandon, Sampat Kumar

    2016-04-01

    and clay facies are subdivided into 21 sub-facies. One of the trenches has been studied for its clay mineralogy, TOC and grain size distribution, using XRD, Rock Eval pyrolysis and the wet sieving method, respectively. High resolution chronology will be based on AMS C-14 dates. These data will then be assessed for their utility as proxy-indicators of past climate. Reference: Sharma S., Joachimski M., Sharma M., Tobschall H.J., Singh I.B., Sharma C., Chauhan M.S., Morgenroth G., 2004. Lateglacial and Holocene environmental changes in Ganga plain, Northern India. Quaternary Science Review, 23: 145-159

  18. The Comet Assay and its applications in the field of ecotoxicology: a mature tool that continues to expand its perspectives.

    PubMed

    de Lapuente, Joaquín; Lourenço, Joana; Mendo, Sónia A; Borràs, Miquel; Martins, Marta G; Costa, Pedro M; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Since Singh and colleagues, in 1988, launched to the scientific community the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) protocol, or Comet Assay, its uses and applications has been increasing. The thematic areas of its current employment in the evaluation of genetic toxicity are vast, either in vitro or in vivo, both in the laboratory and in the environment, terrestrial or aquatic. It has been applied to a wide range of experimental models: bacteria, fungi, cells culture, arthropods, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and humans. This document is intended to be a comprehensive review of what has been published to date on the field of ecotoxicology, aiming at the following main aspects: (i) to show the most relevant experimental models used as bioindicators both in the laboratory and in the field. Fishes are clearly the most adopted group, reflecting their popularity as bioindicator models, as well as a primary concern over the aquatic environment health. Amphibians are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changes, mainly due to an early aquatic-dependent development stage and a highly permeable skin. Moreover, in the terrestrial approach, earthworms, plants or mammalians are excellent organisms to be used as experimental models for genotoxic evaluation of pollutants, complex mix of pollutants and chemicals, in both laboratory and natural environment. (ii) To review the development and modifications of the protocols used and the cell types (or tissues) used. The most recent developments concern the adoption of the enzyme linked assay (digestion with lesion-specific repair endonucleases) and prediction of the ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage, which is becoming a widespread approach, albeit challenging. For practical/technical reasons, blood is the most common choice but tissues/cells like gills, sperm cells, early larval stages, coelomocytes, liver or kidney have been also used. (iii) To highlight correlations with other biomarkers

  19. Patterns of volcanism and tectonism at a slow-spreading segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Lucky Strike, 37N): preliminary results from near-bottom geological and geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartin, J.; Soule, S.; Bezos, A.; Cannat, M.; Fornari, D. J.; Ballu, V.; Humphris, S.

    2006-12-01

    Patterns of volcanism and tectonism and the mechanisms that influence them are not well understood at slow- spreading plate boundaries. Is magma supply persistent or episodic? Is tectonic strain symmetric or asymmetric? Are volcanism and tectonism distributed across the rift valley or localized along narrow bands of crust? Systematic, segment-scale observations, measurements, and sampling are needed to address these questions. During a recent cruise (GRAVILUCK, Aug. 2006) we conducted near-bottom surveys across the axial valley of the Lucky Strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (37°N) to determine where active volcanic and tectonic processes are occurring within the rift valley and their relationship with a recently recognized mid-crustal magma body at the segment center beneath Lucky Strike volcano [Singh et al., 2006]. Using a deep-towed digital imaging system (WHOI TowCam) and a submersible (Nautile) we collected still and video imagery, high-resolution bathymetry, magnetic data, and rock samples along 11 across-axis and 3 along-axis profiles covering ~80 km. Preliminary interpretation of the seafloor imagery shows that the majority of the most recent volcanic activity is in the form of jumbled sheet flows that are concentrated within a discontinuous narrow graben along the axis of the rift valley that bisects Lucky Strike volcano. In rare cases we observe young (i.e., less sedimented and unfaulted) pillow ridges up to 3 km from the axis of the rift valley. Recent volcanic activity appears to be more prevalent south of the volcano, and cuts across distinct geologic terrains characterized by extensive sheet flows near the segment center and axial volcanic ridges to the north and south of Lucky Strike Volcano. We will present a preliminary interpretation of the distribution and relative ages of volcanic deposits and fault characteristics across the rift valley, lava compositions, and magnetic intensities. We compare these observations with existing sidescan

  20. Release of prostaglandins from the isolated frog ventricle and associated changes in endogenous cyclic nucleotide levels.

    PubMed Central

    Flitney, F W; Singh, J

    1980-01-01

    reached: thus, 8-bromo-3'5'-cyclic GMP accelerates the decline in contractility and depresses the steady-state level, whereas dibutyryl 3'5'-cyclic AMP delays the development of hypodynamic depression, and elevates the final twitch tension. The effects of both 3'5' cyclic nucleotide derivatives are dose-dependent. 7. The possible involvement of prostaglandins and 3'5'-cyclic nucleotides as causal agents in the mechanism of hypodynamic depression is discussed. The biochemical basis for the implied antangonistic effects of 3'5'-cyclic AMP and 3'5'-cyclic GMP in regulating ventricular contractility is considered in the following paper (Flitney & Singh, 1980). PMID:6255139

  1. Trajectories of Sleep Complaints From Early Midlife to Old Age: Longitudinal Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Ferrie, Jane E.; Akbaraly, Tasnime; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Shipley, Martin J.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Dauvilliers, Yves; Kivimaki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate trajectories of sleep lost over worry as a function of age, using longitudinal modeling, and compare these trajectories with those for insomnia symptoms. Design and Setting: Data from two prospective, occupational cohorts (the Whitehall II and Finnish Public Sector studies) comprising 84,384 observations from four to eight repeat measurements in 1985-2010. Participants: There were 16,408 men and women age 34-79 yr. Measurements and Results: Age-related trajectories of sleep lost over worry and insomnia symptoms (sleep initiation or maintenance problems, nonrefreshing sleep) were estimated using repeated-measures log-binomial regression analysis and generalized estimating equations. These analyses were adjusted for year of birth and time of measurement to minimize confounding by cohort or period effects. The prevalence ratio for insomnia symptoms was higher in older age groups compared with participants age 34-45 yr. In contrast, the age-related trajectory of sleep lost over worry included two phases: a period of high prevalence of sleep complaints at age 34-60 yr followed by a declining trajectory at older ages. Compared with participants age 34-45 yr, prevalence ratios for sleep lost over worry were 0.63 (0.49-0.80) and 0.59 (0.41-0.84) in the Whitehall II study participants ages 61-65 and 71-79 years. Corresponding figures were 0.62 (0.52-0.75) and 0.46 (0.32-0.66) in the Finnish Public Sector study. Conclusion: This study shows a general age-related decrease in sleep lost over worry between late midlife and old age, a pattern strikingly different from the age-related increase in insomnia symptoms. Citation: Salo P; Vahtera J; Ferrie JE; Akbaraly T; Goldberg M; Zins M; Pentti J; Virtanen M; Shipley MJ; Singh-Manoux A; Dauvilliers Y; Kivimaki M. Trajectories of sleep complaints from early midlife to old age: longitudinal modeling study. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1559-1568. PMID:23115405

  2. Structure and Variability of Mediterranean Outflow Water Flow Recorded in Contourite Sedimentation in the Gulf of Cadiz and west of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. D.; Ducassou, E.; Covelli, V.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Stow, D. A.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    to retain some characteristics of the flow events which formed them. The grain size patterns and other bed characteristics suggest that these silty and sandy contourites provide important information about the both the short-term and long-term history of MOW events. Exp 339 Scientists: Acton, G., Bahr, A., Balestra, B., Flores, J-A., Furota, S., Grunert, P., Hodell, D., Jimenez-Espejo, F., Kim, J. K., Krissek, L., Kuroda, J., Li, B., Llave, E., Lofi, J., Lourens, L., Miller, M., Nanayama, F., Nishida, N., Pereira, H., Richter, C., Roque, C., Sanchez Goñi, M., Sierro, F.J., Singh, A., Sloss, C., Takashimizu, Y., Tzanova, A., Voelker, A., Williams, T., Xuan, C.

  3. Upper Mantle Shear Wave Anisotropy for Stations in Mexico and its Relationship to Subduction at the Middle America Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Benthem, S. A.; Valenzuela, R. W.

    2007-05-01

    We have calculated the splitting parameters that describe upper mantle shear wave anisotropy under stations in continental Mexico located over the subducting Cocos Plate. SKS and SKKS arrivals recorded on both the radial and transverse horizontal components were used. The splitting parameters which quantify anisotropy are the delay time (δt) and the fast polarization direction (φ). The anisotropy is calculated using the approach by Silver and Chan [1991]. A time segment containing the SKS arrival is selected from both horizontal components. The space of possible solutions is then searched in one-degree intervals with φ ranging between 0 and 180°. Specifically, the coordinate axes are rotated every 1 degree increment and the autocorrelation and crosscorrelation between the components is calculated. For each value of φ, the solution space is also searched in 0.05 s increments. Next the eigenvalues corresponding to each δt and φ combination are calculated. In the presence of noise, the desired solution will be given by the matrix which is most nearly singular. In order to check our results, we apply a correction in the amount of the measured δt and φ to the original records and then rotate them to make sure that the anisotropy disappears. The shapes and the difference in the arrival times of the fast and slow waves are compared to make sure that the result is robust. As a further check, the polarization of the particle motion for the radial and transverse components before and after correction is plotted. The records used were taken from Mexico's Servicio Sismológico Nacional broadband network [Singh et al., 1997]. The orientation of the fast polarization direction, φ, can be explained by the absolute motion of the North American plate for some of the stations. Most of the stations, however, require a different explanation for the orientation of φ. For example, the orientation of φ for stations Platanillo (PLIG), Yautepec (YAIG), and Popocatépetl (PPIG

  4. Laser Spectroscopic Study of CaH in the B^2σ^+ and D^2σ^+ States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Uchida, Kanako; Kobayashi, Kaori; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Moriwaki, Yoshiki

    2015-06-01

    Calcium hydride is one of the abundant molecules in the stellar environment, and is considered as a probe of stellar analysis. Ab initio calculations have shown that the electronic excited states of CaH have complex potential curves. It is suggested that the B^2σ^+ state has an interesting double minimum potential due to the avoided crossing. Such a potential leads to drastic change of the rotational constants when the vibrational energy level goes across the potential barrier. Spectroscopic studies on CaH began in the 1920's, and many studies have been carried out since then. Bell et al. extensively assigned the D^2σ^+-X^2σ^+ bands in the UV region. Bernath's group has observed transitions in the IR and visible regions and identified their upper states as the A^2σ^+, B^2σ^+ and E^2σ^+ states. We have carried out a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) study in the UV region between 360 and 430 nm. We have produced CaH by using laser ablation of a calcium target in a hydrogen gas environment, then molecules have been excited by a second harmonic pulse of dye laser and the fluorescence from molecules have been detected through a monochromator. Detection of the D^2σ^+-X^2σ^+ bands already identified by Bell et al. indicates the production of CaH. In addition, many other bands have been also found and a few bands have been assigned by using the combination differences, the lower state of these bands have been confirmed to the vibrational ground state of X^2σ^+ state. We have tentatively assigned these bands as the B^2σ^+ -X^2σ^+ transition. We will discuss the assignment of these bands, together with the rotational constants comparing with those calculated from the ab initio potential. B. Barbuy, R. P. Schiavon, J. Gregorio-Hetem, P. D. Singh C. Batalha , Astron. Astrophys. Sippl. Ser. 101, 409 (1993). P. F. Weck and P. C .Stabcil, J. Chem. Phys. {118}, 9997 (2003). R. S. Mulliken, Phys. Rev. {25}, 509 (1925). G. D. Bell, M, Herman, J. W. C. Johns, and E. R

  5. Add-on fluvoxamine treatment for schizophrenia: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Hirota, Tomoya; Iwata, Nakao

    2013-12-01

    We performed an updated meta-analysis of fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics based on two previous meta-analyses (Sepehry et al., in J Clin Psychiatry 68:604-610, 2007 and Singh et al., in Br J Psychiatry J Mental Sci 197:174-179, 2010). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library database, and PsycINFO up to January 2013. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials comparing fluvoxamine add-on therapy with placebo. The risk ratio (RR), 95 % confidence intervals (CI), and standardized mean difference (SMD) were calculated. Seven studies (total n = 272) were identified. These included two clozapine studies, one olanzapine study, one second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) monotherapy study, and three first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) monotherapy studies. There were significant effect of fluvoxamine add-on therapy on overall (SMD = -0.46, CI = -0.75 to -0.16, p = 0.003, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180) and negative symptoms (SMD = -0.44, CI = -0.74 to -0.14, p = 0.004, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180). However, fluvoxamine add-on therapy showed no significant effects on positive symptoms, depressive symptoms, and discontinuations from any cause or adverse events. Fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with SGAs improved overall (p = 0.02) but not negative symptoms (p = 0.31). On the other hand, fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with FGAs improved both overall (p = 0.04) and negative symptoms (p = 0.004) compared with control groups. Our results suggest that fluvoxamine add-on therapy is more beneficial on the psychopathology (especially negative symptoms) than controls in patients with schizophrenia who are primarily treated with FGAs. Given that a small number of studies were included in this meta-analysis, the results should be treated with caution. PMID:23605347

  6. Elastin sequences trigger transient proinflammatory responses by human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Almine, Jessica F.; Wise, Steven G.; Hiob, Matti; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Tiwari, Krishna Kumar; Vali, Shireen; Abbasi, Taher; Weiss, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    of elastin as a result of dermal damage leads to rapid chemokine up-regulation by fibroblasts that is quenched when exposed elastin is removed by MMP-12.—Almine, J. F., Wise, S. G., Hiob, M., Kumar Singh, N. K., Tiwari, K. K., Vali, S., Abbasi, T., and Weiss, A. S. Elastin sequences trigger transient proinflammatory responses by human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:23671273

  7. Genotoxicity studies on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and adipate and toxicity studies on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in the rat and marmoset.

    PubMed

    Jäckh, R; Rhodes, C; Grasso, P; Carter, J T

    1984-02-01

    These studies have provided evidence that DEHP and DEHA do not bind covalently to DNA and do not therefore possess the characteristics of a genotoxic agent (Lutz, 1982). This suggests that the tumours induced in the rodent liver may result from some non-genotoxic mechanism and supports the view that the weakly positive dominant lethal test seen on administration of DEHP by the ip (but not the oral) route (Singh et al. 1974) is unlikely to have resulted from a direct effect on the genome of the sperm cells. Although the mechanism responsible for the induction of tumours by high doses of DEHP in rodents is not clear, it would appear both from these studies and from work on hypolipidaemic agents, that peroxisomal proliferation and the induction of enzymes associated with this organelle are in some way implicated (Cohen & Grasso, 1981). Other studies have shown that changes of this type are produced by doses of hypolipidaemic agents that induce liver cancer in rodents (Cohen & Grasso, 1981) and our investigations have indicated that they were also prominent at dose levels of DEHP similar to those that induced liver cancer in the NCI study (National Toxicology Program, 1982). No cancer induction would be expected to occur in the absence of these changes. In our dose-response study in rats it was shown that at the lowest dose (50 mg/kg body weight/day, approximately equivalent to a dietary level of 1000 ppm) several effects seen with higher doses were not apparent and others differed only slightly from normal control values. This is particularly relevant to assessments of the risk posed by DEHP and DEHA present as contaminants in foods, since human exposure via the food chain has been estimated by Shiota, Chou & Nishimura (1980) as 30 micrograms/kg body weight/day, several orders of magnitude less than the lowest exposure level used in these experiments. In addition, our studies indicate that none of the changes found in the rat were observed in the marmoset, suggesting

  8. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwon, Kim; Li, Lu; Taehyun, Nam; Jouhyeon, Ahn

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) and its preconference, Advances in Functional Materials 2009 (AFM 2009), were successfully held in the Republic of Korea from 15-18 June 2009 and in the People's Republic of China from 8-12 June 2009, respectively. The two conferences attracted over 300 oral and poster presentations from over 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, India, Israel, Korea, The Netherlands, Thailand, the UK and the USA. In the two conferences, eight keynote lectures were delivered by S Miyazaki, S A Akbar, D J Singh, C Suryanarayana, M~Greenblatt, H Zhang, T Sato and J Ding. This topical issue of Physica Scripta contains papers presented at the ISFM 2009 and AFM 2009. Keyan Li from Dalian University, People's Republic of China, presents some empirical formulae to estimate the elastic moduli of rocksalt-, zincblende- and chalcopyrite-structured crystals, on the basis of electronegativities of bonded atoms in the crystallographic frame. Min-Jung Kim from Hanyang University, Korea, reports on the preparation and characterization of carboxyl functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles for oligonucleotide immobilization. F Yan from the National University of Singapore studies the fabrication of Bi(Fe0.5Sc0.5)O3-PbTiO3 (BSF-PT) thin films by pulsed laser deposition, and the enhanced magnetic moment with respect to BiFeO3-PbTiO3. Dong-Gil Lee from Pusan National University, Korea, reports on the sterilization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli using nanofiber TiO2 films prepared by the electrostatic spray method. Sang-Eun Park from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology reports on the study of encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a silica thin layer with a reversible capacity of about 363 mAhg-1. Other researchers report on many other exiting achievements in the fields of ferromagnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, thermoelectric materials, shape memory materials, fuel-cell and

  9. The Comet Assay and its applications in the field of ecotoxicology: a mature tool that continues to expand its perspectives

    PubMed Central

    de Lapuente, Joaquín; Lourenço, Joana; Mendo, Sónia A.; Borràs, Miquel; Martins, Marta G.; Costa, Pedro M.; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Since Singh and colleagues, in 1988, launched to the scientific community the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) protocol, or Comet Assay, its uses and applications has been increasing. The thematic areas of its current employment in the evaluation of genetic toxicity are vast, either in vitro or in vivo, both in the laboratory and in the environment, terrestrial or aquatic. It has been applied to a wide range of experimental models: bacteria, fungi, cells culture, arthropods, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and humans. This document is intended to be a comprehensive review of what has been published to date on the field of ecotoxicology, aiming at the following main aspects: (i) to show the most relevant experimental models used as bioindicators both in the laboratory and in the field. Fishes are clearly the most adopted group, reflecting their popularity as bioindicator models, as well as a primary concern over the aquatic environment health. Amphibians are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changes, mainly due to an early aquatic-dependent development stage and a highly permeable skin. Moreover, in the terrestrial approach, earthworms, plants or mammalians are excellent organisms to be used as experimental models for genotoxic evaluation of pollutants, complex mix of pollutants and chemicals, in both laboratory and natural environment. (ii) To review the development and modifications of the protocols used and the cell types (or tissues) used. The most recent developments concern the adoption of the enzyme linked assay (digestion with lesion-specific repair endonucleases) and prediction of the ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage, which is becoming a widespread approach, albeit challenging. For practical/technical reasons, blood is the most common choice but tissues/cells like gills, sperm cells, early larval stages, coelomocytes, liver or kidney have been also used. (iii) To highlight correlations with other biomarkers

  10. Robust multi-objective calibration strategies - possibilities for improving flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauße, T.; Cullmann, J.; Saile, P.; Schmitz, G. H.

    2012-10-01

    Process-oriented rainfall-runoff models are designed to approximate the complex hydrologic processes within a specific catchment and in particular to simulate the discharge at the catchment outlet. Most of these models exhibit a high degree of complexity and require the determination of various parameters by calibration. Recently, automatic calibration methods became popular in order to identify parameter vectors with high corresponding model performance. The model performance is often assessed by a purpose-oriented objective function. Practical experience suggests that in many situations one single objective function cannot adequately describe the model's ability to represent any aspect of the catchment's behaviour. This is regardless of whether the objective is aggregated of several criteria that measure different (possibly opposite) aspects of the system behaviour. One strategy to circumvent this problem is to define multiple objective functions and to apply a multi-objective optimisation algorithm to identify the set of Pareto optimal or non-dominated solutions. Nonetheless, there is a major disadvantage of automatic calibration procedures that understand the problem of model calibration just as the solution of an optimisation problem: due to the complex-shaped response surface, the estimated solution of the optimisation problem can result in different near-optimum parameter vectors that can lead to a very different performance on the validation data. Bárdossy and Singh (2008) studied this problem for single-objective calibration problems using the example of hydrological models and proposed a geometrical sampling approach called Robust Parameter Estimation (ROPE). This approach applies the concept of data depth in order to overcome the shortcomings of automatic calibration procedures and find a set of robust parameter vectors. Recent studies confirmed the effectivity of this method. However, all ROPE approaches published so far just identify robust model

  11. Fracture mechanics of human cortical bone: The relationship of geometry, microstructure and composition with the fracture of the tibia, femoral shaft and the femoral neck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeni, Yener Nail

    influence of bone quality, i.e., mineralization, water content, osteon size, area and number, microdamage and crystallinity differed between different locations, age groups and fracture mode. Fracture toughness was also significantly correlated with clinical parameters such as cortical index and Singh index, significance level being dependent upon bone location, fracture mode and age. Several mechanistic models to predict how bone microstructure influences bone fracture toughness were proposed based on experimental results and available literature.

  12. Impact of spatial resolution of the precipitation data on hydrological Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M.; Bardossy, A.; Sudheer, K.

    2013-05-01

    Flooding is a devastating problem for many countries all over the world. Real time forecasting is a necessary non-structural measure to fight against the damage. Adequate quantitative forecasting of the flood is necessary to provide enough precaution for the affected population. Time lead in the forecast is also a matter of concern considering its significance in the preparedness. The time-lead of forecast depends on the computational time along with the various other issues. The computation time depends on the whether the model is data intensive or process intensive. Considering the use of spatially distributed models in the forecast, the main dynamic data involved in the rainfall runoff models are the precipitation measurement. The data intensity of that depends on the spatial and temporal resolution of the precipitation data. The spatial resolution of the precipitation has the significance in the spatially distributed hydrological models. Neither should the resolution be so less that the quantitative prediction is disturbed nor too much to affect the time lead considerably. Finer spatial resolution of precipitation data may not even yield better forecast (A.Bardossy and T.Das, 2008). So the current study focuses on the impact of spatial and temporal resolution of the hydrological forecast. The spatially distributed model of HBV and HYMOD is being used for the analysis. Spatial resolutions from 1, 4, 9 and 25 square kilometers and a temporal resolution of daily to hourly time-series is also being analysed for their respective effects on prediction. The data from rain gauges are interpolated using the External Drift Kriging Method (EDK). The calibrations of the models are carried out using the Robust Parameter Estimation (ROPE) algorithm (S.K Singh and A. Bardossy, 2010). The framework is illustrated on the Upper Neckar catchment with 13 sub-catchments located in South West Germany. Preliminary results are encouraging. The optimum spatial resolution can be

  13. An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C. Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S.; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H. Ross; Smith, Kirk R.; Balmes, John R.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age. Methods: We fit an integrated exposure–response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Results: The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI. Conclusions: We developed a fine particulate mass–based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available. Citation: Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR

  14. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shrikant; Trikamji, Bhavesh; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Parampreet; Nair, Rajasekharan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C.) during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation's first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835), Calcutta (1835) and Mumbai (1848). Prior to India's independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI). Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN). Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930's. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951) include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991). The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in the amount of

  15. Crystal chemical aspects of superconductivity in BaFe2As2 and related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johrendt, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    BaFe2As2 is the parent compound of the 122-type iron arsenides.^1 Superconductivity can be induced by several kinds of doping^2-4 or by pressure.^5 It is widely accepted that superconductivity in iron arsenides is unconventional and a number of experiments agree with the s±-scenario.^6 The latter relies on Fermi surface nesting which depends on both the electron count and the lattice. However, the coincidence of doping and pressure effects on the structure of BaFe2As2 supports the role of the structure.^7 Another open issue is the co-existence of superconductivity and AF magnetic ordering. Our ^57Fe-M"ossbauer experiments with underdoped Ba0.8K0.2Fe2As2 (Tc = 24 K) revealed full magnetic splitting, which indicates such a co-existence.^8 Compounds like Sr2VO3FeAs (Tc = 37-45 K) are promising candidates for higher Tc, but their crystal chemistry is not yet understood. In non-superconducting Sr2CrO3FeAs, we have detected a non-stoichiometry of the Fe-site (Fe0.93(1)Cr0.07(1)) and C-type AF ordering of the Cr^3+-layers.^9 The Cr-doping of the FeAs layer is probably detrimental to superconductivity in Sr2CrO3FeAs, but a similar non-stoichiometry may play a vital role in Sr2VO3FeAs.-^1 M. Rotter, M. Tegel, I. Schellenberg, et al., Phys. Rev. B 78, 020503 (2008).^2 M. Rotter, M. Tegel, and D. Johrendt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 107006 (2008).^3 S. Jiang, C. Wang, Z. Ren, et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21, 382203 (2009).^4 A. S. Sefat, R. Jin, M. A. McGuire, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 117004 (2008).^5 P. L. Alireza, Y. T. C. Ko, J. Gillett, et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21, 012208 (2009).^6 I. Mazin, D. J. Singh, M. D. Johannes, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 057003 (2008).^7 M. Rotter, M. Pangerl, M. Tegel, et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 7949 (2008).^8 M. Rotter, M. Tegel, I. Schellenberg, et al., New J. Phys. 11, 025014 (2009).^9 M. Tegel, Y. Su, F. Hummel, et al., arXiv0911.0450.

  16. Climate change effects on Glacier recession in Himalayas using Multitemporal SAR data and Automatic Weather Station observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Singh, S. K.; Venkataraman, G.

    2009-04-01

    Hahadur, The Himalayas: A Third Polar Region, Snow and Glacier Hydrology (Proceedings of the Kathmandu Symposium, November 1992). IAHSPubl.no. 218,1993. 2.A. Paul, Mayewski and Peter, Jeschke A., Himalayan and Trans-Himalayan Glacier Fluctuations Since AD 1812, Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 267-287 1979) 3.Tazio Strozzi, Adrian Luckman, Tavi Murray, Urs Wegmüller, and Charles L. Werner, IEEE Transaction on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 40, NO. 11, November 2002 4.Vijay Kumar, Y.S.Rao, Gulab Singh G.Venkataraman, Snehmani , "Spaceborne InSAR technique for study of Himalayan glaciers using ENVISAT ASAR and ERS data", Proc. IGARSS 2008, July 6-11, 2008 Bostan, USA,2008.

  17. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  18. The geographical conditions of intensity of salty waters intrusions to coastal lakes on Polish Southern Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, R.

    2009-04-01

    geographical conditions, especially on hydrographical and hydrological ones, which determine their variability and distribution. The objects of research have been chosen to be the two largest coastal lakes in the Polish section of the southern Baltic shore, i.e. Łebsko and Gardno. References: Ataie-Ashtiani, B., Volkerand, R.E., Lockington, D.A. (1999) Tidal effects on sea water intrusion in unconfined aquifers, Journal of Hydrology, 216 (1-2), 17-31. Cieśliński R., Drwal J. (2005) Quasi - estuary processes and consequences for human activity, South Baltic, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 62, 477 - 485. De Louw, P., Oude Essink, G. (2001) Salinisation of the northern coastel area of the netherlands due to land subsidence and sea level rise. In: Vijay P. Singh (eds), Coastal Environment and Water Quality (ed. by Y. Jun Xu & V. P. Singh), 424 - 434. Water Resources Publications. Demirel, Z. (2004) The history and evaluation of saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer in Mersin, Turkey, Journal of Environmental Management, 70 (3), 275-282. Drwal, J., Cieśliński, R. (2007) Coastal lakes and marine intrusions on the southern Baltic coast, Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, XXXVI (2), 61 - 75. Grassi, S., Netti, R. (2000) Sea water intrusion and mercury pollution of some coastal aquifers in the province of Grosseto (Southern Tuscany — Italy), Journal of Hydrology, 237 (3-4), 198-211. Hsing-Juh, L., Xiao-Xun, D., Kwang-Tsao, S., Huei-Meei, S., Wen-Tseng, L., Hwey-Lian, H., Lee-Shing, F., Jia-Jang, H. (2006) Trophic structure and functioning in a eutrophic and poorly flushed lagoon in southwestern Taiwan, Marine environmental research, 62 (1), 61-82. Ishitobi, Y., Kamiya, H., Yokoyama, K., Kumagai, M., Okuda, S. (1999) Physical Conditions of Saline Water Intrusion into a Coastal Lagoon, Lake Shinji, Japanese Journal of Limnology, 4, 439-452. Uncles, R. J. , Stephens, J. A., Smith, R. E. (2002) The dependence of estuarine turbidity on tidal intrusion length

  19. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  20. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  1. Extreme Subduction Earthquake Scenarios and their Economical Consequences for Mexico City and Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Perea, N.

    2007-05-01

    to date seismotectonic, seismological, geophysical, and geotechnical information for the mentioned subduction zones and for MC and G. The economical impacts of the proposed extreme TSS earthquake scenarios for MC and G are fully discussed. We acknowledge the support of DGSCA, UNAM, for using its supercomputer facilities. ----------------------- [1] Nishenko S.P. and Singh SK, BSSA 77, 6, 1987 [2] Chavez M. and Ramirez R., 12th World Conf. Earthq. Eng., 2000 [3] Cabrera E., Chavez M., Madariaga R., Mai M, Frisenda M., Perea N., AGU, Fall Meeting, 2005 [4] Chavez M., Olsen K.B., Cabrera E., 13th World Conf. Earthq. Eng., 2004

  2. Axial Belt Provenance: modern river sands from the core of collision orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, A.; Vezzoli, G.; Paparella, P.; Padoan, M.; Andò, S.; Malusà, M.; Garzanti, E.

    2009-04-01

    tectonostratigraphic level of source rocks are reflected by: a) increasing rank of metamorphic rock fragments (as indicated by progressive development of schistosity and growth of micas and other index minerals; MI index of Garzanti and Vezzoli, 2003); b) increasing feldspars; c) increasing heavy-mineral concentration (HMC index); d) increasing hornblende, changing progressively in color from blue/green to green/brown (HCI index); e) successive appearance of chloritoid, staurolite, kyanite, fibrolitic and prismatic sillimanite (MMI index; Garzanti and Andò, 2007). Dickinson W.R. 1985. Interpreting provenance relations from detrital modes of sandstones. In: Zuffa G.G. (ed.), Reidel, NATO ASI Series 148: 333-361. Dickinson W.R. and C.A. Suczek. 1979. Plate tectonics and sandstone composition. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull. 63: 2164-2172. Garzanti E. and S. Andò. 2007, Plate tectonics and heavy-mineral suites of modern sands. In: Mange M. and D. Wright (eds.), Elsevier, Developments in Sedimentology Series 58: 741-763. Garzanti E. and G. Vezzoli. 2003. A classification of metamorphic grains in sands based on their composition and grade. J. Sedimentary Res. 73: 830-837. Garzanti E., C. Doglioni, G. Vezzoli and S. Andò. 2007. Orogenic Belts and Orogenic Sediment Provenances. J. Geology 115: 315-334. Garzanti E., G. Vezzoli, S. Andó, C. France-Lanord, S.K. Singh and G. Foster. 2004. Sediment composition and focused erosion in collision orogens: the Brahmaputra case. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 220: 157-174. Najman Y. 2006. The detrital record of orogenesis: a review of approaches and techniques used in the Himalayan sedimentary basins. Earth Sci. Rev. 74: 1-72.

  3. Continuous flow PCB radiolysis with real time assessment by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Aaron Ruhter; Rene' Rodriguez; Richard Brey

    2006-05-01

    Recently, the treatment of environmentally recalcitrant pollutants such as PCBs has been studied using a number of so-called, “advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs).” As a group, the AOTs are ultimate treatment technologies that seek to mineralize the hazardous compounds to be treated (Cooper et al., 2004). One of the most versatile of the AOTs is radiolysis, usually practiced using machine-generated sources of radiation (Cooper et al., 2004, Mincher and Cooper, 2003). The radiolytic decomposition of PCBs has been reviewed (Curry and Mincher, 1999). While earlier experiments have been performed in alkaline isopropanol (Singh et al., 1985, Mucka et al., 1997), recent literature has begun to examine the radiolysis of PCBs in more “real-world” solvents, such as transformer oil (Arbon and Mincher, 1996, Mincher et al., 2000, Chaychian et al., 1999). These experiments have generally been performed in batch fashion, with small volumes of PCB-contaminated solvents placed in front of a gamma-ray source or the bremmstrahlung or e-beam of an accelerator for predetermined periods of time, to give a desired absorbed dose. These samples were then retrieved to analyze the post-irradiation PCB concentration. We report here what we believe is the first example of the radiolysis of PCBs in a process, continuous flow stream, as opposed to typical batch irradiations. The PCB-containing transformer oil was recirculated through an irradiation cell located in the path of an e-beam. Multiple passes through the cell allowed for the delivery of any desired radiation dose. This system required the development of an on-line analytical system that could provide PCB concentration values in real time. In the current experiment, a pulsed plasma electron capture detector (PDECD) was used in conjunction with a new sample preparation scheme. The new sampling scheme bypasses the need for removal or powering down of the radiation source, which would be undesirable during process PCB

  4. Ergonomic implementation and work station design for quilt manufacturing unit

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, Deepa; Kwatra, Seema; Sharma, Suneeta; Kaur, Nirmal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Awkward, extreme and repetitive postures have been associated with work related musculoskeletal disorders and injury to the lowerback of workers engaged in quilting manufacturing unit. Basically quilt are made manually by hand stitch and embroidery on the quilts which was done in squatting posture on the floor. Mending, stain removal, washing and packaging were some other associated work performed on wooden table. their work demands to maintain a continuous squatting posture which leads to various injuries related to low back and to calf muscles. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken in Tarai Agroclimatic Zone of Udham Singh Nagar District of Uttarakhand State with the objective to study the physical and physiological parameters as well as the work station layout of the respondent engaged on quilt manufacturing unit. A total of 30 subjects were selected to study the drudgery involved in quilt making enterprise and to make the provision of technology option to reduce the drudgery as well as musculoskeletal disorders, thus enhancing the productivity and comfortability. Results: Findings of the investigation show that majority of workers (93.33 per cent) were female and very few (6.66 per cent) were the male with the mean age of 24.53±6.43. The body mass index and aerobic capacity (lit/min) values were found as 21.40±4.13 and 26.02±6.44 respectively. Forty per cent of the respondents were having the physical fitness index of high average whereas 33.33 per cent of the respondents had low average physical fitness. All the assessed activities involved to make the quilt included a number of the steps which were executed using two types of work station i.e squatting posture on floor and standing posture using wooden table. A comparative study of physiological parameters was also done in the existing conditions as well as in improved conditions by introducing low height chair and wooden spreader to hold the load of quilt while working, to

  5. Contribution of wastes and biochar amendment to the sorption capacity of heavy metals by a minesoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.

    2013-04-01

    (A) sorbed element is preferably Pb and Cu is the least sorbed (P <0.05). References Asensio, V.; Vega, F.A.; Singh, B.R.; Covelo, E.F. 2013. Science of the Total Environment. 443:446-453. Pérez-de-Mora, A.; Madrid, F.; Cabrera, F.; Madejón, E. 2007. Geoderma. 139: 1-10 Vega, F.A.; Covelo, E.F.; Andrade, M.L. 2009. J. Hazard. Mater. 169: 36-45. Vega, F.A.; Covelo, E.F.; Andrade, M.L. 2008. J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 327: 275-286.

  6. The hidden life of pyrite: how low can it go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Alan; Barrie, Craig; Salter, Michael

    2010-05-01

    preserve internal lattice ‘distortion' or ‘bending' indicating plastic deformation mechanisms operated. Many pyrite grains in the ore deposits also contain low-angle (~2°) sub-grain boundaries or ‘dislocation walls', indicating that both dislocation glide and creep deformation mechanisms have operated within the pyrite grains. These results indicate that plastic deformation of pyrite, under geological strain-rates, can go down to as low as ~200 °C suggesting the brittle-ductile transition in pyrite occurs at temperatures potentially as low as ~200 °C; much lower than the generally accepted temperature of ~425 °C. Many pyrite grains in sulphide ore deposits preserve internal chemical zonation of trace elements (e.g. Large et al. 2009). The potential relationship between plastic deformation and trace element distribution in pyrite will be discussed. Barrie, C. D., Boyle, A. P. & Salter, M., 2009. How low can you go? - Extending downwards the limits of plastic deformation in pyrite. Mineralogical Magazine, 73(6), 895-913. Freitag, K., Boyle, A. P., Nelson, E., Hitzman, M., Churchill, J. & Lopez-Pedrosa, M., 2004. The use of electron backscatter diffraction and orientation contrast imaging as tools for sulphide textural studies: example from the Greens Creek deposit (Alaska). Mineralium Deposita, 39, 103-113. Large, R. R., Danyushevsky, L., Hollit, C., Maslennikov, V., Meffre, S., Gilbert, S., Bull, S., Scott, R., Emsbo, P., Thomas, H., Singh, B. & Foster, J., 2009. Gold and Trace Element Zonation in Pyrite Using a Laser Imaging Technique: Implications for the Timing of Gold in Orogenic and Carlin-Style Sediment-Hosted Deposits. Economic Geology, 104(5), 635-668.

  7. Comparing a simple methodology to evaluate hydrodynamic parameters with rainfall simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi; Iovino, Massimo; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    and, reasonably, it can better be represented by the high runs than the low runs (Alagna et al., 2015). Obviously, this methodology is also simpler than an approach involving soil characterization both before and after natural or simulated rainfall since it needs less equipment and field work. On the other hand, rainfall simulation experiments are more realistic and accurate, but also more sophisticated and costly (Cerdà, 1997). Rainfall simulation is often used to measure the infiltration process (e.g., Bhardwaj and Singh, 1992; Cerdà, 1999, 1997, 1996; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007; Iserloh et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2011; Tricker, 1979), and it has become an important method for assessing the subjects of soil erosion and soil hydrological processes (Iserloh et al., 2013). Its application allows a quick, specific and reproducible assessment of the meaning and impact of several factors, such as slope, soil type (infiltration, permeability), soil moisture, splash effect of raindrops (aggregate stability), surface structure, vegetation cover and vegetation structure (Bowyer-Bower and Burt, 1989). The objectives of this investigation are: (i) to compare infiltration rates measured by applying water at a relatively large distance from the soil surface with those obtained by rainfall simulation experiments and (ii) to verify if the Ks values determined with the BEST procedure are in line with the occurrence of runoff measured with a more robust methodology. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Alagna, V., Bagarello, V., Di Prima, S., Giordano, G., Iovino, M., 2015. Testing infiltration run effects on the estimated hydrodynamic parameters of a sandy-loam soil. Submitted to Geoderma. Bagarello, V., Castellini, M., Di Prima, S., Iovino, M., 2014. Soil hydraulic properties determined by infiltration experiments and

  8. Committee for International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan Bin

    2012-09-01

    Scientific Advisory Committee: 1) Prof. Dr. Ahmad Kamal Ariffin (UKM) 2) Prof. Dr. Hj. Rosli Abu Bakar (UMP) 3) Prof. Dr. Hanafi Ismail (USM) 4) Prof. Ir. Dr. Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor (MoHE) 5) Prof. Dr. Zahari Taha (UMP) 6) Prof. Dr. Masjuki Haji Hassan 7) Prof. Ir. Dr. Ramesh Singh (UNITEN) 8) Prof. Dr. Razali Ayob (UTEM) 9) Prof. Dr. Wan Khairuddin (UTM) 10) Prof. Dr. Sulaiman Hj. Hasan (UTHM) 11) Prof. Dr. Zuraidah Mohd. Zain (UniMAP) 12) Prof. Dr. Horizon Gitano (USM) 13) Prof. Dr. K.V Sharma (UMP) 14) Prof. Dr. Shahrani Anuar (UMP) 15) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abd Rashid Abd. Aziz (UTP) 16) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aidy Ali (UPM) 17) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Saidur Rahman (UM) 18) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Md Abdul Maleque (UIA) Organizing Committee Chairman: Prof. Dr. Hj. Rosli Abu Bakar Co-Chair: Prof. Dr. Zahari Taha Co-Chair: Prof. Ir. Dr. Jailani Salihon Secretary: Dr. Rizalman Mamat Committee on Keynote Speaker 1) Kumaran Kadirgama (Chair) 2) Prof. Dr. K.V. Sharma 3) Haji Amirruddin Abdul Kadir 4) Miminorazeansuhaila Loman 5) Mohd Akramin Mohd Romlay Technical Committee (Peer Review & Proceedings) 1) Dr. Abdul Adam Abdullah (Chair) 2) Dr. Ahmad Razlan Yusoff 3) Mohd Yusof Taib 4) Dr. Md. Mustafizur Rahman 5) Dr. Hjh. Yusnita Rahayu 6) Dr. Gigih Priyandoko 7) Dr. Agung Sudrajad 8) Muhammad Hatifi Mansor 9) Mohd Fadzil Abdul Rahim Technical Committee (Panels & Session Chairs) 1) Dr. Mahadzir Ishak (Chair) 2) Prof. Dr. Shahrani Anuar 3) Dr. Maisara Mohyeldin Gasim Mohamed 4) Muhammad Ammar Nik Mu'tasim 5) Ahmad Basirul Subha bin Alias Technical Committee (Journal Publication) 1) Dr. Ahmad Razlan bin Yusoff (Chair) 2) Mohd Yusof Taib 3) Dr. Mahadzir Ishak 4) Dr. Abdul Adam Abdullah 5) Hj. Amirruddin Abdul Kadir 6) Hadi Abdul Salaam Bureau of Publicity & Website 1) Dr. Muhamad Arifpin Mansor (Chair) 2) Amir Abdul Razak 3) Idris Mat Sahat 4) Prof. Dr. Hj. Rosli Abu Bakar 5) Muhamad Zuhairi Sulaiman 6) Dr. Sugeng Ariyono 7) Asnul Hadi Ahmad 8) Mohd Tarmizy Che Kar 9) Mohd Padzly Radzi Bureau of

  9. An experimental case study to estimate Pre-harvest Wheat Acreage/Production in Hilly and Plain region of Uttarakhand state: Challenges and solutions of problems by using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, D.; Kimothi, M. M.; Bhagya, N.; Ram, R. D.; Patel, N. K.; Dhaundiya, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Wheat is an economically important Rabi crop for the state, which is grown on around 26 % of total available agriculture area in the state. There is a variation in productivity of wheat crop in hilly and tarai region. The agricultural productivity is less in hilly region in comparison of tarai region due to terrace cultivation, traditional system of agriculture, small land holdings, variation in physiography, top soil erosion, lack of proper irrigation system etc. Pre-harvest acreage/yield/production estimation of major crops is being done with the help of conventional crop cutting method, which is biased, inaccurate and time consuming. Remote Sensing data with multi-temporal and multi-spectral capabilities has shown new dimension in crop discrimination analysis and acreage/yield/production estimation in recent years. In view of this, Uttarakhand Space Applications Centre (USAC), Dehradun with the collaboration of Space Applications Centre (SAC), ISRO, Ahmedabad and Uttarakhand State Agriculture Department, have developed different techniques for the discrimination of crops and estimation of pre-harvest wheat acreage/yield/production. In the 1st phase, five districts (Dehradun, Almora, Udham Singh Nagar, Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar) with distinct physiography i.e. hilly and plain regions, have been selected for testing and verification of techniques using IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellites), LISS-III, LISS-IV satellite data of Rabi season for the year 2008-09 and whole 13 districts of the Uttarakhand state from 2009-14 along with ground data were used for detailed analysis. Five methods have been developed i.e. NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index), Supervised classification, Spatial modeling, Masking out method and Programming on visual basics methods using multitemporal satellite data of Rabi season along with the collateral and ground data. These methods were used for wheat discriminations and preharvest acreage estimations and subsequently results

  10. An evaluation of the uncertainties in biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, A.; Garcia Menendez, F.; Hu, Y.; Odman, M.

    2012-12-01

    burned in Northern California causing unprecedented damage. NASA Aircraft commissioned for the ARCTAS campaign at the time flew over the fires and collected data detailing composition of gases and aerosols in the fire plumes (Singh et al., 2012). We model the fires using a newly developed system consisting of a plume rise and dispersion model specifically designed for wild-land fire plumes (Daysmoke; Achtemeier et al., 2011) coupled with a regional-scale chemistry-transport model (CMAQ). Wind fields generated by a weather prediction model (WRF) are adjusted locally to match the aircraft measurements of wind speed and direction. The fires are simulated using both ground-based and satellite-based estimates of emissions. Predicted concentrations of gases and aerosols are compared to corresponding aircraft measurements. Satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth are also used in evaluating model predictions. The new modeling system along with the wind adjustments reduces several of the uncertainties inherent to regional-scale modeling of plume transport. This allows for a more reliable analysis of the uncertainties related to emissions. Uncertainties in the magnitudes and timings of emissions, and in plume injection heights with respect to boundary layer heights are investigated. Uncertainties associated with ground-based and satellite-based emissions estimation methods are compared to each other.

  11. Global Lithospheric Apparent Susceptibility Distribution Converted from Geomagnetic Models by CHAMP and Swarm Satellite Magnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jinsong; Chen, Chao; Xiong, Xiong; Li, Yongdong; Liang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    magnetic measurements and obtained global lithospheric apparent susceptibility distribution models. Finally, we compared these deduced models with previous results in the literature and some other geophysical, geodetic and geologic datum. Both tests and applications suggest, indeed, that the improved AS85 method can be adopted as a fast and effective interpretation tool of global induced large-scale magnetic anomaly field models in form of spherical harmonics. Arkani-Hamed, J. & Srangway, D.W., 1985. Lateral variations of apparent magnetic susceptibility of lithosphere deduced from Magsat data, J. Geophys. Res., 90(B3), 2655-2664. Gubbins, D., Ivers, D., Masterton, S.M. & Winch, D.E., 2011. Analysis of lithospheric magnetization in vector spherical harmonics, Geophys. J. Int., 187(1), 99-117. Hemant, K. & Maus, S., 2005. Geological modeling of the new CHAMP magnetic anomaly maps using a geographical information system technique, J. Geophys. Res., 110, B12103, doi: 10.1029/2005JB003837. Masterton, S.M., Gubbins, D., Müller, R.D. & Singh, K.H., 2013. Forward modeling of oceanic lithospheric magnetization, Geophys. J. Int., 192(3), 951-962. Nolte, H.J. & Siebert, M., 1987. An analytical approach to the magnetic field of the Earth's crust, J. Geophys., 61, 69-76. This study is supported by State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth's Dynamics (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) (SKLGED2015-5-5-EZ), Natural Science Fund of Hubei Province (2015CFB361), International Cooperation Project in Science and Technology of China (2010DFA24580), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M572217 and 2014T70753), Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory (Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan) (SMIL-2015-06) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41574070, 41104048 and 41504065).

  12. Micronuclei in Cord Blood Lymphocytes and Associations with Biomarkers of Exposure to Carcinogens and Hormonally Active Factors, Gene Polymorphisms, and Gene Expression: The NewGeneris Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Agramunt, Silvia; Anna, Lívia; Besselink, Harrie; Botsivali, Maria; Brady, Nigel J.; Ceppi, Marcello; Chatzi, Leda; Chen, Bowang; Decordier, Ilse; Farmer, Peter B.; Fleming, Sarah; Fontana, Vincenzo; Försti, Asta; Fthenou, Eleni; Gallo, Fabio; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Gmuender, Hans; Godschalk, Roger W.; Granum, Berit; Hardie, Laura J.; Hemminki, Kari; Hochstenbach, Kevin; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kovács, Katalin; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Løvik, Martinus; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Pedersen, Marie; Rydberg, Per; Schoket, Bernadette; Segerbäck, Dan; Singh, Rajinder; Sunyer, Jordi; Törnqvist, Margareta; van Loveren, Henk; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Vande Loock, Kim; von Stedingk, Hans; Wright, John; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; van Delft, Joost H.M.

    2013-01-01

    frequency. Polymorphisms in EPHX1/2 and CYP2E1 were associated with MNBN. Conclusion: We measured in utero exposure to selected environmental carcinogens and circulating hormonally acting factors and detected associations with MN frequency in newborns circulating T lymphocytes. The results highlight mechanisms that may contribute to carcinogen-induced leukemia and require further research. Citation: Merlo DF, Agramunt S, Anna L, Besselink H, Botsivali M, Brady NJ, Ceppi M, Chatzi L, Chen B, Decordier I, Farmer PB, Fleming S, Fontana V, Försti A, Fthenou E, Gallo F, Georgiadis P, Gmuender H, Godschalk RW, Granum B, Hardie LJ, Hemminki K, Hochstenbach K, Knudsen LE, Kogevinas M, Kovács K, Kyrtopoulos SA, Løvik M, Nielsen JK, Nygaard UC, Pedersen M, Rydberg P, Schoket B, Segerbäck D, Singh R, Sunyer J, Törnqvist M, van Loveren H, van Schooten FJ, Vande Loock K, von Stedingk H, Wright J, Kleinjans JC, Kirsch-Volders M, van Delft JHM, NewGeneris Consortium. 2014. Micronuclei in cord blood lymphocytes and associations with biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens and hormonally active factors, gene polymorphisms, and gene expression: The NewGeneris Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 122:193–200; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206324 PMID:24252472

  13. Ion Chemistry and Dust Aerosols in the Martian Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheel, Varun; Haider, Syed A.

    2012-07-01

    estimate to the future mission of Mars who propose to measure ion and electron composition of Mars through mobility spectrometry and also serve as a diagnostic tool for future design of electrical payloads. References: Haider, S.A., Varun Sheel, V. Singh, W. C. Maguire, and G. J. Molina-Cuberos, Model calculation of production rates, ion and electron densities in the evening troposphere of Mars at latitudes 67°N and 62°S: Seasonal variability, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A08320, doi:10.1029/2007JA012980 (2008). Haider, S. A., Varun Sheel, M. D. Smith, W.C. Maguire, and G. J. Molina-Cuberos, Effect of dust storms on the D region of the Martian ionosphere: Atmospheric electricity, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, A12336, doi:10.1029/2010JA016125 (2010).

  14. Extent of slow slip events in the Guerrero seismic gap (Mexico): observations from space-borne SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathier, E.; Bacques, G.; Doin, M.; Cavalié, O.; Radiguet, M.; Lasserre, C.; Cotte, N.; Walpersdorf, A.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1998, four slow slip events (SSEs) have been recorded by geodesy in the Guerrero state of Mexico. They occurred on the subduction interface where the Coco plate subducts at about 6 cm/year beneath the North-America plate. SSEs spatially overlap the seismic gap of Guerrero which is a 100km-long portion of the Mexican subduction zone where no significant earthquakes have occurred since 1911. This duration contrasts with the average recurrence time of 30-60 years for large subduction earthquakes observed along the Mexican subduction zone (Nishenko and Singh, 1987a). To the west, the gap is limited by the slip distribution of the 1979 (M=7.6) and the 1985 (M=8.1) earthquakes, and to the east by the 1957 (M=7.8) and 1962 Acapulco events (M=7 and 7.1). An important issue is to know whether SSEs penetrate into the seismogenic zone and whether they are restricted to the seismic gap or have a larger extent. Radiguet et al, (2012) studied three SSEs that occurred in 2002, 2006 and 2009-2010, based on continuous GPS data. They show that SSEs have variable lateral extents, with significant slip within the 100km-long seismic gap, but also occurring on a wider area with a 250 km lateral extension when considering slip downdip the seismogenic zone (estimated to end at about 25km depth according to Suarez et al, 1990). Within the gap, results from Radiguet et al. suggest also that SSE can propagate shallower than the 25 km limit and that, west of the gap, the aseismic slip overlaps the 1979 and the 1985 earthquakes coseismic slip distribution. However, the GPS network design used in their analysis is mainly composed of two perpendicular profiles: a profile along the coast and a profile perpendicular to the coast from Acapulco to Mexico. Away from these profiles the resolution of the SSE location decreases rapidly, which limits the analysis of SSE extents. Here, we used space-borne SAR interferometry (InSAR) to overcome this limitation. Despite atmospheric and decorrelation

  15. Formation MicroScanner (FMS) data and orbital cycle records: preliminary interpretation from the Asian Monsoon IODP Expedition 346

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanna, Lofi; Grizel, Jimenez Soto; Ryuji, Tada; Murray Richard, W.; Alvarez Zarikian Carlos, A.; Martin, Ziegler

    2015-04-01

    contain higher frequency, smaller scale interbedded layers. The transition between resistive and conductive intervals is marked by an intermediate level of medium conductivity in the FMS images, possibly indicating relative changes in productivity conditions. The FMS images have been interpreted in term of FMS facies (low, medium, high conductivity) and their thickness measured along a 100-m long interval since the late Miocene. Vertical changes in thickness of FMS facies are plotted vs. depth, and we propose an attempt of orbital tuning based on the Site U1425 preliminary age model. In the future, the FMS data will be compared to other proxies measured on cores, and physical and chemical properties of sediments such as color reflectance or XRF data. This research project is undertaken as part of IODP Expedition 346. IODP Expedition 346 Scientists: W.T. Anderson, M.-A. Bassetti, B.J. Brace, S.C. Clemens, G.R. Dickens, A.G. Dunlea, S.J. Gallagher, L.Giosan, M.H. da Costa Gurgel, A.C.G. Henderson, A.E. Holbourn, K. Ikehara, T. Irino, T. Itaki, A. Karasuda, C.W. Kinsley, Y. Kubota, G.S. Lee, K.E. Lee, C.I.C.D. Lopes, M. Saavedra Pellitero, L.C. Peterson, T. Sagawa, R.K. Singh, S. Sugisaki, S. Toucanne, S. Wan, C. Xuan, H. Zheng, C.H. Lee

  16. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils from a copper mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Daniel; Lago, Manoel; Vega, Flora; Andrade, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    -8%, Mn and Ni: <3% Pb and Zn: 1.5% and Cr <0.01%). Therefore, most of heavy metal contents are strongly retained in low accessible soil fractions. Still, the high Cu content together with high soil acidity and low organic matter contents and endanger the environmental quality of the surroundings due to the possibility of leaching and run-off waters. Acknowledgments This research was supported by Project CGL2010-16765 (MICINN-FEDER). F.A. Vega and D. Arenas-Lago acknowledge the Ministry of Science and Innovation and the University of Vigo for the Ramón y Cajal and FPI-MICINN, respectively. References Asensio, V., Vega, F.A., Singh, B.R., Covelo, E.F. 2013. Science of The Total Environment. 443. 446-453. Mulligan, C.N., Yong, R.N., Gibbs, B.F. 2001. Engineering Geology. 60. 193-207. Shuman, L. M. 1979. Soil Science. 127, 10-17. Shuman, L.M. 1985. Soil Science. 140 11-22.

  17. Accretion-powered Compact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2003-12-01

    Preface; The workshop logo; A short history of the CV workshop F. A. Córdova; Part I. Observations: 1. Low mass x-ray binaries A. P. Cowley, P. C. Schmidtke, D. Crampton, J. B. Hutchings, C. A. Haswell, E. L. Robinson, K. D. Horne, H. M. Johnston, S. R. Kulkarni, S. Kitamoto, X. Han, R. M. Hjellming, R. M. Wagner, S. L. Morris, P. Hertz, A. N. Parmar, L. Stella, P. Giommi, P. J. Callanan, T. Naylor, P. A. Charles, C. D. Bailyn, J. N. Imamura, T. Steiman-Cameron, J. Kristian, J. Middleditch, L. Angelini and J. P. Noris; 2. Nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables R. S. Polidan, C. W. Mauche, R. A. Wade, R. H. Kaitchuck, E. M. Schlegel, P. A. Hantzios, R. C. Smith, J. H. Wood, F. Hessman, A. Fiedler, D. H. P. Jones, J. Casares, P. A. Charles, J. van Paradijs, E. Harlaftis, T. Naylor, G. Sonneborn, B. J. M. Hassall, K. Horne, C. A. la Dous, A. W. Shafter, N. A. Hawkins, D. A. H. Buckley, D. J. Sullivan, F. V. Hessman, V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, J. Singh, S. Seetha, F. Giovannelli, A. Bianchini, E. M. Sion, D. J. Mullan, H. L. Shipman, G. Machin, P. J. Callanan, S. B. Howell, P. Szkody, E. M. Schlegel and R. F. Webbink; 3. Magnetic cataclysmic variables C. Hellier, K. O. Mason, C. W. Mauche, G. S. Miller, J. C. Raymond, F. K. Lamb, J. Patterson, A. J. Norton, M. G. Watson, A. R. King, I. M. McHardy, H. Lehto, J. P. Osborne, E. L. Robinson, A. W. Shafter, S. Balachandran, S. R. Rosen, J. Krautter, W. Buchholz, D. A. H. Buckley, I. R. Tuoly, D. Crampton, B. Warner, R. M. Prestage, B. N. Ashoka, M. Mouchet, J. M. Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M. Hameury, P. Szkody, P. Garnavich, S. Howell, T. Kii, M. Cropper, K. Mason, J. Bailey, D. T. Wickramasinghe, L. Ferrario, K. Beuermann, A. D. Schwope, H.-C. Thomas, S. Jordan, J. Schachter, A. V. Filippenko, S. M. Kahn, F. B. S. Paerels, K. Mukai, M. L. Edgar, S. Larsson, R. F. Jameson, A. R. King, A. Silber, R. Remillard, H. Bradt, M. Ishida, T. Ohashi and G. D. Schmidt; Part II. Accretion Theory: 4. Nonmagnetic W. Kley, F. Geyer, H. Herold, H

  18. Flood frequency estimation by hydrological continuous simulation and classical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Camici, S.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Tarpanelli, A.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, the effects of flood damages have motivated the development of new complex methodologies for the simulation of the hydrologic/hydraulic behaviour of river systems, fundamental to direct the territorial planning as well as for the floodplain management and risk analysis. The valuation of the flood-prone areas can be carried out through various procedures that are usually based on the estimation of the peak discharge for an assigned probability of exceedence. In the case of ungauged or scarcely gauged catchments this is not straightforward, as the limited availability of historical peak flow data induces a relevant uncertainty in the flood frequency analysis. A possible solution to overcome this problem is the application of hydrological simulation studies in order to generate long synthetic discharge time series. For this purpose, recently, new methodologies based on the stochastic generation of rainfall and temperature data have been proposed. The inferred information can be used as input for a continuous hydrological model to generate a synthetic time series of peak river flow and, hence, the flood frequency distribution at a given site. In this study stochastic rainfall data have been generated via the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP) model characterized by a flexible structure in which the model parameters broadly relate to underlying physical features observed in rainfall fields and it is capable of preserving statistical properties of a rainfall time series over a range of time scales. The peak river flow time series have been generated through a continuous hydrological model aimed at flood prediction and developed for the purpose (hereinafter named MISDc) (Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T., Singh, V.P., 2008. A continuous rainfall-runoff model as tool for the critical hydrological scenario assessment in natural channels. In: M. Taniguchi, W.C. Burnett, Y. Fukushima, M. Haigh, Y. Umezawa (Eds), From headwater to the ocean

  19. Secondary Waste Form Down Selection Data Package – Ceramicrete

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-08-31

    As part of high-level waste pretreatment and immobilized low activity waste processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility. Currently, four waste forms are being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. These waste forms are Cast Stone, Ceramicrete, DuraLith, and Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer. The preferred alternative will be down selected from these four waste forms. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing data packages to support the down selection process. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. The information included will be based on information available in the open literature and from data obtained from testing currently underway. This data package is for the Ceramicrete waste form. Ceramicrete is a relatively new engineering material developed at Argonne National Laboratory to treat radioactive and hazardous waste streams (e.g., Wagh 2004; Wagh et al. 1999a, 2003; Singh et al. 2000). This cement-like waste form can be used to treat solids, liquids, and sludges by chemical immobilization, microencapsulation, and/or macroencapsulation. The Ceramicrete technology is based on chemical reaction between phosphate anions and metal cations to form a strong, dense, durable, low porosity matrix that immobilizes hazardous and radioactive contaminants as insoluble phosphates and microencapsulates insoluble radioactive components and other constituents that do not form phosphates. Ceramicrete is a type of phosphate-bonded ceramic, which are also known as chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. The Ceramicrete

  20. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  1. The effect of weathering in the Buyukmelen River basin on the geochemistry of suspended and bed sediments and the hyrogeochemical characteristics of river water, Duzce, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlivan, Rustem

    2010-07-01

    , and to quality class 2 based on Mn concentration in summer period. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) indices observed in the suspended and bed sediments (average of 55) suggest that their source area underwent moderate degrees of chemical weathering processes. According to Upper Continental Crust (UCC) values, the suspended sediment was rich in elements such as Fe 2O 3, CaO, MgO, MnO, TiO 2, P 2O 5, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Pb. The element concentrations of the suspended sediments were related to size fractionation, mainly of clay content. The mentioned enrichment was contributed by agglomerate, basalt, volcanic sandstone and graywacke from rocks in the study area. Source of ions such as Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Ti and Hg and major in the Buyukmelen River is interaction with rocks such as the agglomerate, basalt, andesite, volcanic sandstone and graywacke. As suggested by Singh et al. (2005), before weathering of some rocks in the Buyukmelen River basin, it was determined that they were graywacke and literanite based on the geochemistry of the suspended and bed sediments.

  2. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Position Paper for the Use of Telemedicine for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaspal; Badr, M. Safwan; Diebert, Wendy; Epstein, Lawrence; Hwang, Dennis; Karres, Valerie; Khosla, Seema; Mims, K. Nicole; Shamim-Uzzaman, Afifa; Kirsch, Douglas; Heald, Jonathan L.; McCann, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    providers, and other members of the healthcare team aim to improve the value of healthcare delivery in a coordinated fashion.Appropriate technical standards should be upheld throughout the telemedicine care delivery process, at both the originating and distant sites, and specifically meet the standards set forth by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).Methods that aim to improve the utility of telemedicine exist and should be explored, including the utilization of patient presenters, local resources and providers, adjunct testing, and add-on technologies.Quality Assurance processes should be in place for telemedicine care delivery models that aim to capture process measures, patient outcomes, and patient/provider experiences with the model(s) employed.Time for data management, quality processes, and other aspects of care delivery related to telemedicine encounters should be recognized in value-based care delivery models.The use of telemedicine services and its equipment should adhere to strict professional and ethical standards so as not to violate the intent of the telemedicine interaction while aiming to improve overall patient access, quality, and/or value of care.When billing for telemedicine services, it is recommended that patients, providers, and others rendering services understand payor reimbursements, and that there be financial transparency throughout the process.Telemedicine utilization for sleep medicine is likely to rapidly expand, as are broader telehealth applications in general; further research into the impact and outcomes of these are needed. This document serves as a resource by defining issues and terminology and explaining recommendations. However, it is not intended to supersede regulatory or credentialing recommendations and guidelines. It is intended to support and be consistent with professional and ethical standards of the profession. Citation: Singh J, Badr MS, Diebert W, Epstein L, Hwang D, Karres V, Khosla S, Mims KN

  3. Monazite in Mafic Dykes from the Bastar Craton, India: Implications for LREE Depletion in Martian Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, C. D.; French, J. E.; Chacko, T.; Heaman, L. M.; Borg, L. E.

    2004-05-01

    multiple generations of mafic dyke swarms, and the emplacement age of one major swarm of tholeiite dykes has now been well established at ~1.9 Ga (French et al. 2004). In searching for minerals suitable for chemical and isotopic dating, a number of late-crystallizing accessory phases were found in these dykes including zircon, baddeleyite, zirconolite, allanite, and monazite. We interpret the monazite to be a primary magmatic phase on the basis of its euhedral morphology, and its occurrence as an inclusion in undoubtedly magmatic clinopyroxene. Furthermore, its Th-U-Pb chemical age is within error of emplacement ages determined for this dyke swarm, indicating that the monazite is not xenocrystic in origin. LREE-oxide concentrations in the monazite are up to 65 wt%, corresponding to ~105 to 106X CI for La-Nd and ~104X CI for Sm-Gd. Nd is fractionated from Sm by a factor of 2; La/Sm~11 and La/Gd~55. As these enrichments are crystal-chemical in nature (cf. whole-rock REE ~100X CI; La/Sm~2; Srivastava and Singh 2003), the monazite from the Bastar dykes represents a phase capable of fractionating LREE from M-HREE in mafic systems. Recognizing that studies of the stability of monazite in mafic systems at mantle pressures are required to test this hypothesis, we speculate that accessory monazite represents a possible candidate for the fractionation of LREE from M-HREE in the martian basalts.

  4. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  5. Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tice, R R; Agurell, E; Anderson, D; Burlinson, B; Hartmann, A; Kobayashi, H; Miyamae, Y; Rojas, E; Ryu, J C; Sasaki, Y F

    2000-01-01

    Atthe International Workshop on Genotoxicity Test Procedures (IWGTP) held in Washington, DC, March 25-26, 1999, an expert panel met to develop guidelines for the use of the single-cell gel (SCG)/Comet assay in genetic toxicology. The expert panel reached a consensus that the optimal version of the Comet assay for identifying agents with genotoxic activity was the alkaline (pH > 13) version of the assay developed by Singh et al. [1988]. The pH > 13 version is capable of detecting DNA single-strand breaks (SSB), alkali-labile sites (ALS), DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and SSB associated with incomplete excision repair sites. Relative to other genotoxicity tests, the advantages of the SCG assay include its demonstrated sensitivity for detecting low levels of DNA damage, the requirement for small numbers of cells per sample, its flexibility, its low costs, its ease of application, and the short time needed to complete a study. The expert panel decided that no single version of the alkaline (pH > 13) Comet assay was clearly superior. However, critical technical steps within the assay were discussed and guidelines developed for preparing slides with agarose gels, lysing cells to liberate DNA, exposing the liberated DNA to alkali to produce single-stranded DNA and to express ALS as SSB, electrophoresing the DNA using pH > 13 alkaline conditions, alkali neutralization, DNA staining, comet visualization, and data collection. Based on the current state of knowledge, the expert panel developed guidelines for conducting in vitro or in vivo Comet assays. The goal of the expert panel was to identify minimal standards for obtaining reproducible and reliable Comet data deemed suitable for regulatory submission. The expert panel used the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicological studies as guides during the development of the corresponding in vitro and in vivo SCG assay guidelines. Guideline

  6. BOOK REVIEW: The Legacy of Albert Einstein: A Collection of Essays in Celebration of the Year of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-10-01

    During the 'World Year of Physics' much has been written on the epoch-making 1905 papers of Albert Einstein and his later great contributions to physics. Why another book on the enormous impact of Einstein's work on 20th-century physics? The short answer is that the present collection of 13 relatively short essays on the legacy of Einstein by outstanding scientists is very pleasant to read and should be of interest to physicists of all branches. Beside looking back, most articles present later and topical developments, whose initiation began with the work of Einstein. During the year 2005, the growing recognition among physicists, historians, and philosophers of Einstein's revolutionary role in quantum theory was often emphasized. It is truly astonishing that most active physicists were largely unaware of this before. Fortunately, the article 'Einstein and the quantum' by V Singh puts the subject in perspective and describes all the main steps, beginning with the truly revolutionary 1905 paper on the light-quantum hypothesis and ending with Einstein's extension of the particle-wave duality to atoms and other particles in 1924 1925. The only point which, in my opinion, is not sufficiently emphasized in the discussion of the 1916 1917 papers on absorption and emission of radiation is the part on the momentum transfer in each elementary process. Einstein's result that there is a directed recoil hν/c—also for spontaneous emission—in complete contrast to classical theory, was particularly important to him. I enjoyed reading the articles on Brownian motion (S Majumdar), Bose Einstein condensation (N Kumar) and strongly correlated electrons (T Ramakrishnan), which are all written for non-experts. Connected with Einstein's most lasting work—general relativity—there are two articles on cosmology. The one by J Narlikar gives a brief historical account of the development that was initiated by the 1917 paper of Einstein. S Sarkar's essay emphasizes the remarkable

  7. Multiannual tropical tropospheric ozone columns and the case of the 2015 el Niño event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventidou, Elpida; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Weber, Mark; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric ozone is well known for protecting the surface from harmful ultraviolet solar radiation whereas ozone in the troposphere plays a more complex role. In the lower troposphere ozone can be extremely harmful for human health as it can oxidize biological tissues and causes respiratory problems. Several studies have shown that the tropospheric ozone burden (300±30Tg (IPCC, 2007)) increases by 1-7% per decade in the tropics (Beig and Singh, 2007; Cooper et al., 2014) which makes the need to monitor it on a global scale crucial. Remote sensing from satellites has been proven to be very useful in providing consistent information of tropospheric ozone concentrations over large areas. Tropical tropospheric ozone columns can be retrieved with the Convective Cloud Differential (CCD) technique (Ziemke et al. 1998) using retrieved total ozone columns and cloud parameters from space-borne observations. We have developed a CCD-IUP algorithm which was applied to GOME/ ERS-2 (1995-2003), SCIAMACHY/ Envisat (2002-2012), and GOME-2/ MetOpA (2007-2012) weighting function DOAS (Coldewey-Egbers et al., 2005, Weber et al., 2005) total ozone data. A unique long-term record of monthly averaged tropical tropospheric ozone columns (20°S - 20°N) was created starting in 1996. This dataset has been extensively validated by comparisons with SHADOZ (Thompson et al., 2003) ozonesonde data and limb-nadir Matching (Ebojie et al. 2014) tropospheric ozone data. The comparison shows good agreement with respect to range, inter-annual variation, and variance. Biases where found to be within 5DU and the RMS errors less than 10 DU. This 17-years dataset has been harmonized into one consistent time series, taking into account the three instruments' difference in ground pixel size. The harmonised dataset is used to determine tropical tropospheric ozone trends and climatological values. The 2015 el Niño event has been characterised as one of the top three strongest el Niños since 1950. El Ni

  8. A prototype of radar-drone system for measuring the surface flow velocity at river sites and discharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moramarco, Tommaso; Alimenti, Federico; Zucco, Graziano; Barbetta, Silvia; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Mezzanotte, Paolo; Rosselli, Luca; Orecchini, Giulia; Virili, Marco; Valigi, Paolo; Ciarfuglia, Thomas; Pagnottelli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    , altimeter, camera) and artificial intelligence. Finally it has more than 0.3 kg payload that can be used for further instruments. With respect to the conventional approach, that uses radar sensors on fixed locations, the system prototype composed of drone and Doppler radar is more flexible and would allow carrying out velocity measurements obtaining the whole transverse surface velocity profile during high flow and for inaccessible river sites as well. This information represents the boundary condition of the entropy model (Moramarco et al. 2004) able to turn the surface velocity in discharge, known the geometry of the river site. Nowadays the prototype is being implemented and the Doppler radar sensor is tested in a static way, i.e. the flow velocity accuracy is determined in real-case situations by comparing the sensor output with that of conventional instruments. The first flying test is planned shortly in some river sites of Tiber River in central Italy and based on the surface velocity survey the capability of the radar-drone prototype will be tested and the benefit in discharge assessment by using the entropy model will be verified. Alimenti, F., Placentino, F., Battistini, A., Tasselli, G., Bernardini, W., Mezzanotte, P., Rascio, D., Palazzari, V., Leone, S., Scarponi, A., Porzi, N., Comez, M. and Roselli, L. (2007). "A Low-Cost 24GHz Doppler Radar Sensor for Traffic Monitoring Implemented in Standard Discrete-Component Technology". Proceedings of the 2007 European Radar Conference (EuRAD 2007), pp. 162-165, Munich, Germany, 10-12 October 2007 Chiu, C. L. (1987). "Entropy and probability concepts in hydraulics". J. Hydr. Engrg., ASCE, 113(5), 583-600. Moramarco, T., Saltalippi, C., Singh, V.P.(2004). "Estimation of mean velocity in natural channels based on Chiu's velocity distribution equation", Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 9 (1), pp. 42-50

  9. Prospects for electric-dipole-moment measurements in radon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    and make measurements on the short-lived species (T1 / 2 ~ 25 m) featuring high-efficiency collection and spin-exchange polarization of noble-gas isotopes. Nuclear-structure issues include determining the octupole collectivity as well as the spacing of opposite parity levels. Experiments are underway at ISOLDE, NSCL and ISAC to study the nuclear structure of isotopes in this mass region. I will report on progress and comment on how we learn about the basic physical parameters of CP violation from EDM measurements. T. Chupp (spokesman), C. Svensson (spokesman), S. Degenkolb, R. Dunlop, P. Fierlinger, A. Garnsworthy, F. Gong, P. Garret, G. Hackman, M. Hayden, M. Pearson, R. Picker, E. Rand, J. Singh, N. Sachdeva.

  10. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Yung, Y. L.; Chavez, F. P.

    1996-01-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  11. Field measurement of infiltration rate using an oscillating nozzle rainfall simulator in the cold semiarid grassland of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Tanaka, Yukiya; Asano, Maki

    2010-05-01

    infiltration rate under certain rainfall intensity experimental condition, and the maximum spatially averaged infiltration rate for the whole plot attained can be observed when the entire plot is contributing surface runoff (Dunne et al., 1991). We used the mathematical relationships between rainfall intensity and infiltration rate represented by using hyperbolic tangent curve (Tanaka and Tokioka, 2007) to estimate the maximum spatially averaged infiltration rate for the observed steady state infiltration rates. The relationships between surface cover and the calculated maximum spatially averaged infiltration rate for the Mongolian grassland were compared to those in various other regions. The relationships between the surface vegetation cover and the infiltration rate showed approximate correspondence to the different grassy hillslopes. The high consistency in these relationships suggested rather common effects of surface cover on the infiltration rate throughout grass-covered hillslopes in semiarid environments. References: Dunne, T., Zhang, W., Aubry, B.F., 1991. Effects of rainfall, vegetation, and microtopography on infiltration and runoff. Water Resources Research, 27(9), 2271-2285. Hawkins, R.H., 1982. Interpretation of source-area variability in rainfall-runoff relationships. In Rainfall-Runoff Relationships edited by Singh V.P., pp.303-324. Water Resources Publications, Fort Collins, Colorado. Murai, H., Iwasaki, Y., 1975. Studies on function of water and soil conservation based on forest land (1) -Influence of difference in forest condition upon water run-off, infiltration and soil erosion-. Bull. Gov. For. Exp. Sta., 274, 23-84 (in Japanese with English abstract). Tanaka, S., Tokioka, T., 2007. The 62th Annual Proceeding of Japanese Society of Civil Engineers (CD-ROM), 2-003, pp.5-6 (in Japanese).

  12. Anisotropie magnetique du La2NiMnO6 multiferroique par magnetometrie statique et spectroscopie de resonance ferromagnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, Dany

    In this research, magnetic properties of thin films composed of both double- (La2NiMnO6 or LNMOo) and simple-perovskites (LaNi0.5Mn0.5O3 ou LNMOd) are studied. This mixt phase (LNMOm) possesses two magnetic transitions; one for each phase present. It has previously been shown that this phase possesses a higher Curie temperature than LNMOo, approaching room temperature. This property makes room temperature ferromagnetic resonance measurements possible. Angular FMR measurement has already been achieved, but the magnetic anisotropy resulting isn’t completely understood. The goal of this study is to increase our understanding of this anisotropy to get new informations on the structure of the samples. To achieve this goal, thin films of LNMOm have been deposited by PLD on three different substrates; LSAT(001), LSAT(011) and LSAT(111). LSAT has been chosen for his insulating properties limiting the losses in the microwave cavities used for FMR measurements and for his very smooth surface. One sample of LNMOm on LAO(001) was also fabricated by Mangala Singh from the laboratoire des matériaux quantiques during a summer internship of the author. Some of the results obtained on this sample were used in this work. The samples were first characterized using static magnetometry. All samples possess two magnetic transitions, one at low temperature corresponding to the disordered phase and one at high temperature corresponding to the ordered phase. The temperature of these transitions were obtained with precision using the inflection point method. The high temperature transition was then confirmed using magnetocaloric effect, which gave the exact same values. The transition temperature of the ordered phase of all samples was between 268 and 271 K, while the transition of the disordered phase was between 60 and 110 K. A third transition at really low temperature was observed on some samples. The volume and volumic fraction of the ordered and disordered phases were approximated

  13. Observations from Space: Marine Ecosystem and Environment Response to Typhoon/ Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Danling; Yi, Sui

    Isoguchi, 2005. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula. JGR-Bio-geo. VOL. 111, G01010, doi:10.1029/2005JG000050, 2006. Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, Hai Doan-Nhu, W Takahashi , 2004. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) off the coast of southeastern Vietnam. J. of Geophysical Research (Ocean).Vol 109, doi:10.1029/2003JC002045; Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, TV Dien. MA Lee, 2004. Offshore phytoplankton biomass increase and its oceanographic causes in the South China Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 268: 31-41; Tang, DanLing, H ZHAO, B. Satyanarayana, GM ZHENG, RP. SINGH, JH LV, 2009, Enhancement of Chlorophyll-a in the Northeastern Indian Ocean after the 2004 South Asian Tsunami, Int. J. Remote Sensing doi10.1080/01431160802603778 , Vol.30 (17):4553-4565; Zhao, H., DanLing Tang, and Y. Wang, 2008, Comparison of phyto-plankton blooms triggered by two typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds in the South China SeaMar Ecol Prog Ser, 365, 57-65; Zheng, GM. and DanLing Tang ,2007Off-shore and nearshore chlorophyll increases induced by typhoon winds and subsequent terrestrial rainwater runoff, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 333, 61-72; H Zhao, DanLing TANG, DX Wang, 2009, Phytoplankton blooms near the Pearl River Estuary induced by Typhoon Nuri, Journal of Geophysical Research -Oceans. 114, C12027; YQ Chen, DanLing Tang, 2010, Cold eddies and eddy-shape phytoplankton blooms induced by tropical cyclone Linfa in the South China Sea. In preparation; XX Yang, DanLing Tang, 2010, Sea Surface Temperature Decreasing in the Northern South China Sea Induced by Typhoon. In preparation.

  14. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  15. A Minimum Fuel Based Estimator for Maneuver and Natrual Dynamics Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubey, D.; Scheeres, D.

    2013-09-01

    The vast and growing population of objects in Earth orbit (active and defunct spacecraft, orbital debris, etc.) offers many unique challenges when it comes to tracking these objects and associating the resulting observations. Complicating these challenges are the inaccurate natural dynamical models of these objects, the active maneuvers of spacecraft that deviate them from their ballistic trajectories, and the fact that spacecraft are tracked and operated by separate agencies. Maneuver detection and reconstruction algorithms can help with each of these issues by estimating mismodeled and unmodeled dynamics through indirect observation of spacecraft. It also helps to verify the associations made by an object correlation algorithm or aid in making those associations, which is essential when tracking objects in orbit. The algorithm developed in this study applies an Optimal Control Problem (OCP) Distance Metric approach to the problems of Maneuver Reconstruction and Dynamics Estimation. This was first developed by Holzinger, Scheeres, and Alfriend (2011), with a subsequent study by Singh, Horwood, and Poore (2012). This method estimates the minimum fuel control policy rather than the state as a typical Kalman Filter would. This difference ensures that the states are connected through a given dynamical model and allows for automatic covariance manipulation, which can help to prevent filter saturation. Using a string of measurements (either verified or hypothesized to correlate with one another), the algorithm outputs a corresponding string of adjoint and state estimates with associated noise. Post-processing techniques are implemented, which when applied to the adjoint estimates can remove noise and expose unmodeled maneuvers and mismodeled natural dynamics. Specifically, the estimated controls are used to determine spacecraft dependent accelerations (atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure) using an adapted form of the Optimal Control based natural dynamics

  16. Topside ionosphere plasma bubbles, seen in He+ density: longitudinal dependence and thermosphere meridional wind influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, L.

    2009-04-01

    + density depletion statistics, averaged for solstices and equinoxes, were compared with the model velocity variations of the thermosphere meridional wind, taken from (Maruyama, 1996). It was revealed that the meridional wind influence shows itself as modulation effect. The modulation has seasonal dependence and the best correlation in equinoxes (R=0.87). The best amplitude correlation was found for the longitudes of 270°-360° (Brasilia, Atlantic regions), where the declination angle of the magnetic meridional wind component is near 20°. It was concluded that the topside plasma bubbles, seen as He+ density depletions, are strong enough affected by thermosphere meridional wind. REFERENCE Maryama, T. and N. Matuura, Global distribution of occurrence probability of spread echoes based on ISS-b observation, RRL, vol.27, N 124, 201-216, 1980. Maryama, T. and N. Matuura, Longitudinal variability of annual changes in activity of equatorial spread F and plasma bubbles, J. Geophys. Res., 89(A12), 10,903-10,912, 1984. Maruyama, T., Modeling study of equatorial ionospheric height and spread F occurrence, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 101, A3, pp. 5157-5163, 1996. McClure, J. P., Singh S., Bamgboye D.K., Johnson F.S., Hyosub Kil. Occurrence of equatorial F region irregularities: Evidence for tropospheric seeding, J. Geophys. Res., 103(A12), 29,119-29,135, 1998. Sidorova, L.N., He+ density topside modeling based on ISS-b satellite data, Adv. Space Res., vol. 33, pp. 850-854, 2004. Sidorova, L.N., Plasma bubble phenomenon in the topside ionosphere, Adv. Space Res., Special issue (COSPAR), doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2007.03.067, 2007.

  17. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    collider and neutrino factory - summary of working group 2 / J. Galambos, R. Garoby and S. Geer -- Prospects for a very high power CW SRF linac / R. A. Rimmer -- Indian accelerator program for ADS applications / V. C. Sahni and P. Singh -- Ion accelerator activities at VECC (particularly, operating at low temperature) / R. K. Bhandari -- Chinese efforts in high intensity proton accelerators / S. Fu, J. Wang and S. Fang -- ADSR activity in the UK / R. J. Barlow -- ADS development in Japan / K. Kikuchi -- Project-X, SRF, and very large power stations / C. M. Ankenbrandt, R. P. Johnson and M. Popovic -- Power production and ADS / R. Raja -- Experimental neutron source facility based on accelerator driven system / Y. Gohar -- Transmutation mission / W. S. Yang -- Safety performance and issues / J. E. Cahalan -- Spallation target design for accelerator-driven systems / Y. Gohar -- Design considerations for accelerator transmutation of waste system / W. S. Yang -- Japan ADS program / T. Sasa -- Overview of members states' and IAEA activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) / A. Stanculescu -- Linac for ADS applications - accelerator technologies / R. W. Garnett and R. L. Sheffield -- SRF linacs and accelerator driven sub-critical systems - summary working groups 3 & 4 / J. Delayen -- Production of Actinium-225 via high energy proton induced spallation of Thorium-232 / J. Harvey ... [et al.] -- Search for the electric dipole moment of Radium-225 / R. J. Holt, Z.-T. Lu and R. Mueller -- SRF linac and material science and medicine - summary of working group 5 / J. Nolen, E. Pitcher and H. Kirk.

  18. Measuring communication competence and effectiveness of ASHAs (accredited social health activist) in their leadership role at rural settings of Uttar Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Archana; Srivastava, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to find out accredited social health activists' (ASHA) communication competence and effectiveness while working as leaders with groups in the rural setting. ASHA, as the "first point of contact" for pregnant women in rural areas, plays a significant role in building awareness and disseminating key information at critical times (e.g. antenatal and post-natal period), promotes healthy maternal and newborn care practices and facilitates identification and referral of maternal and newborn complications. ASHA plays critical role of a leader in bridging the gap between health system and community. In the entire process, effective communication competency is the key to her effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopts seven items from the farmers communication (FACOM) scale of communication measures developed by Udai Pareek and Y.P Singh. Preliminary editing of the items was done keeping certain points in mind such as the items should not be judgemental, should be acts of behaviour, should be observable and should be simple. This scale was adopted for the study, as it was designed to measure farmers' communication competence and suited the context. The evaluation criteria included the seven essential elements of communication identified in the FACOM scale. Findings - Results from the study identified a need to sensitise ASHAs on the critical role of effective communication and need for investing more in building her capacity for health communication. The trainings being imparted to ASHAs have to be strengthened in terms of communication skills. They should focus upon developing all three variables of communication skills equally and integrating them to get desired results. Research limitations/implications - The study was conducted in one state while the programme is running across the country. The sample size was small. Practical implications - The learning of the study will help in developing a better understanding of the

  19. Plasma wave turbulence due to the wake of an ionospheric sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, K.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Katoh, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In the ionosphere, a rarefied plasma region called "plasma wake" is formed behind a sounding rocket. Based on a one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell simulation, it was suggested that electron distribution functions in the plasma wake behind spacecraft are different from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function [Singh et al., 1987]. Thus, plasma waves are expected to be generated in the wake of a sounding rocket. Some studies reported plasma waves around the wake of artificial satellites [Keller et al., 1997] and solar system bodies such as Moon [Nakagawa et al., 2003]. Yamamoto (2000) is the first study that focused on plasma waves induced by sounding rockets on the basis of the results of several rocket experiments. He compared the observed wave frequency with the electron number density in the wake and indicated plasma waves could be generated inside the rocket wake. In order to investigate the properties of the waves in more detail (e.g. spin-phase dependence, generation mechanism, etc.), we are now analyzing the data of electron number density and electric fields of plasma waves in mid-latitude ionosphere by an impedance probe and a plasma wave receiver, which were installed on the sounding rocket S-520-26. In the analysis, we have found plasma waves in a frequency range of 1.3-2.4 MHz (hereinafter called Group-A) as well as those in a frequency range between 0.02 MHz to about 0.6 fce (Group-B), and those in a frequency range from about 0.5 fce to 0.9 fce (Group-C), where fce is the electron cyclotron frequency deduced from the IGRF model. The Group-A emissions are similar to the waves observed in previous studies [Yamamoto, 2000]. Comparison with the data of the impedance probe has suggested the Group-A waves are short-wavelength electrostatic waves including upper-hybrid resonance (UHR) mode waves and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ESCH) waves. On the other hand, the Group-B and Group-C waves are whistler mode waves. Besides, the analysis with the

  20. PREFACE: The Sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Ghanashyam; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-01

    (Chennai), RRI (Bangalore), SINP (Kolkata) and IUCAA. The conference banquet was sponsored by Hewlett-Packard and the reception dinner was sponsored by the Bank of Baroda. We thank them all. It is a pleasure to thank Professor Naresh Dadhich, Director, IUCAA, members of the IAGRG council, members of the SOC and members of the LOC for their pivotal role in the organization of the conference, and the speakers, the participants, and the IUCAA staff for their efforts which made the sixth ICGC a very successful meeting. Ghanashyam Date Institute for Mathematical Science, Chennai Tarun Souradeep Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Pune Scientific Organizing Committee Ghanashyam Date (Chairman, SOC, IMSc, India) Abhay Ashtekar (Pennsylvania State Univ., US) Bhuvnesh Jain (Univ. of Pennsylvania, US) Carlo Rovelli (CPT, Marseille, France) Clifford M. Will (Washington Univ., US) Gabriela Gonza'lez (Lousiana State Univ., US) Hideo Kodama (Kyoto Univ. Japan) John Ellis (CERN, Switzerland) Luc Blanchet (IAP, France) Madhavan Varadarajan (RRI, India) Masaru Shibata (Univ. of Tokyo, Japan) Narayan Banerjee (Jadavpur Univ. India) Parthasarathi Mitra (SINP, India) Rajesh Gopakumar (HRI, India) Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA, India) Somnath Bharadwaj (IITKGP, India) Subhendra Mohanty (PRL, India) Subir Sarkar (Univ. of Oxford, UK) Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, India) T. P. Singh (TIFR, India) Local Organizing Committee Tarun Souradeep (Chairman, LOC) Biswajit Pandey Gaurang Mahajan Manjiri Mahabal Maulik Parikh Minu Joy Moumita Aich Niranjan Abhyankar Nirupama Bawdekar Ratna Rao Saugata Chatterjee Savita Dalvi Sharanya Sur Snehlata Shankar Subharthi Ray Sudhanshu Barway Tuhin Ghosh Plenary Speakers and Talks The Plenary Talks are available at http://meghnad.iucaa.ernet.in/~icgc07/ Gary Hinshaw Status of WMAP Data Andrew Jaffe The Future of CMB Studies Subir Sarkar Cosmology beyond the Standard Model HongSheng Zhao Dark Matter and Dark Energy: Puzzles and an Alternative Solution

  1. PREFACE: International Symposium on Vacuum Science & Technology and its Application for Accelerators (IVS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, V. S.; Pal, Gautam

    2012-11-01

    )VECC A K RayBARC/IndiaT K Saha BARC R Reid IUVSTA/UKVikrant SanglikarEdwards India Amit Roy IUAC/IndiaD SarkarVECC Milan SanyalSINP/IndiaY C SaxenaIPR V K SaraswantDRDO/IndiaS K ShuklaRRCAT E SchamilogluUNM/USAGurnam SinghRRCAT R K SinhaBARC/IndiaP SinghBARC P StrubinCERN/SwitzerlandA K SinhaIUC-DAEF T OkanoVSJ/JapanS K ThakurVECC Local Organizing Committee Dr R K BhandariShri Subimal Saha ChairmanCo-chairman Scientific ProgrammeReception & Registration 1. Dr V S Pandit, Convener1. Shri C Mallik, Convener 2. Dr K C Mittal2. Shri P Y Nabhiraj 3. Shri S K Gupta3. Shri Manas Dutta 4. Shri Gautam Pal4. Kum Ranjini Menon 5. Dr Arup Bandyopadhyay5. Shri Malay Kanti Dey 6. Shri Anjan Duttagupta6. Shri Samit Bandyopadhyay 7. Shri Chinmay Nandi7. Miss. Swantana Kumari 8. Shri Anindya Roy8. Smt Sudeshna Seth 9. Shri R C Yadav9. Shri Anirban De Transport & AccommodationPublication 1. Shri N V S V Prasad, Convener1. Shri Subimal Saha, Convener 2. Shri S K Thakur2. Dr V S Pandit 3. Shri Sumantra Bhattacharyya3. Shri C D Dutta 4. Shri Debjit Gupta4. Dr Tapas Bandyopadhyay 5. Shri S R Gupta5. Dr Vaishali Naik 6. Shri Jayanta Sur6. Shri Anirban De 7. Shri Sujit SahaCatering Auditorium 1. Dr Arup Bandyopadhyay, Convener 1. Shri Gautam Pal, Convener2. Shri Asis Polley 2. Shri Tamal Bhattacharyya3. Shri S. Chattopadhayay 3. Shri Tanmay Das4. Shri Debjit Gupta 4. Smt. Seema Bhattacharyya, SINP5. Shri Tanmay Das 5. Shri Susanta Chakroborti, SINP6. Shri R L Singh 6. Shri S C JenaFinance Exhibition/Souvenir1. Shri S Sambath, Convener 1. Shri R. Dey, Convener2. Dr Surajit Pal 2. Smt Seema Bhattacharyya, SINP3. Shri Asis Dey 3. Shri S K Thakur4. Shri V K Khare 4. Shri N DuttaCultural 5. Shri S K Pati1. Dr Alok Chakrabarti, Convener 6. Shri Yashwant Kumar2. Dr Vaishali Naik Website3. Shri Dirtha Sanyal 1. Shri Tapas Samanta, Convener4. Shri Suman Guha 2. Dr Surajit Pal 3. Shri Gaurav Saxena Indian Vacuum Society The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 900 members

  2. Comparing a simple methodology to evaluate hydrodynamic parameters with rainfall simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi; Iovino, Massimo; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    and, reasonably, it can better be represented by the high runs than the low runs (Alagna et al., 2015). Obviously, this methodology is also simpler than an approach involving soil characterization both before and after natural or simulated rainfall since it needs less equipment and field work. On the other hand, rainfall simulation experiments are more realistic and accurate, but also more sophisticated and costly (Cerdà, 1997). Rainfall simulation is often used to measure the infiltration process (e.g., Bhardwaj and Singh, 1992; Cerdà, 1999, 1997, 1996; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007; Iserloh et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2011; Tricker, 1979), and it has become an important method for assessing the subjects of soil erosion and soil hydrological processes (Iserloh et al., 2013). Its application allows a quick, specific and reproducible assessment of the meaning and impact of several factors, such as slope, soil type (infiltration, permeability), soil moisture, splash effect of raindrops (aggregate stability), surface structure, vegetation cover and vegetation structure (Bowyer-Bower and Burt, 1989). The objectives of this investigation are: (i) to compare infiltration rates measured by applying water at a relatively large distance from the soil surface with those obtained by rainfall simulation experiments and (ii) to verify if the Ks values determined with the BEST procedure are in line with the occurrence of runoff measured with a more robust methodology. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Alagna, V., Bagarello, V., Di Prima, S., Giordano, G., Iovino, M., 2015. Testing infiltration run effects on the estimated hydrodynamic parameters of a sandy-loam soil. Submitted to Geoderma. Bagarello, V., Castellini, M., Di Prima, S., Iovino, M., 2014. Soil hydraulic properties determined by infiltration experiments and

  3. Applications of molecular analysis for the study of early land plant evolution during the upper Silurian - Lower Devonian: borehole M.G.1, Ghadamis Basin, southern Tunisia, North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, M. F.; Vecoli, M.; Riboulleau, A.; Versteegh, G.

    2009-04-01

    in the palynofacies of all sampling levels. REFERENCES [1]Spina, A., Vecoli, M., 2008. Palynostratigraphy and miospore biodiversity dynamics across the Silurian-Devonian boundary in North Africa (Ghadamis Basin, southern Tunisia). Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-09147. [2]Grice, K., Backhouse, J., Alexander, R., Marshall, N., Logan, G., 2005. Correlating terrestrial signatures from biomarker distributions, 13C, and palynology in fluvio-deltaic deposits from NW Australia (Triassic - Jurassic). Organic Geochemistry 36, 1347 - 1358. [3]Ellis, L., Singh, R., Alexander, R., Kagi, R., 1996. Formation of isohexyl alkylaromatic hydrocarbons from aromatization-rearrangement of terpenoids in the sedimentary environment: A new class of biomarker. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta. Vol. 60, No. 23. 4747 - 4763. [4]Van Aarssen, B., Alexander, R., Kagi, R., 2000. Higher plant biomarkers reflect palaeovegetation changes during Jurassic times. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta. Vol. 64, No. 8. 1417 - 1424. [5]Wen, Z., Ruiyong, W., Radke, M., Qingyu, W., Guoying, S., Zhili, L., 2000. Retene in pyrolysates of algal and bacterial organic matter. Organic Geochemistry 31, 757 - 762.

  4. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  5. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  6. Closure of Tethys and early stages of Himalayan evolution: constraints from the detrital record, Ladakh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenks, D.; Najman, Y.; Godin, L.; Parrish, R.; Horstwood, M.; Green, O.; Bown, P.; Garzanti, E.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    detrital zircons allows discrimination between Asian provenance (dominated by Mesozoic grains from the Trans-Himalayan arc) and Indian provenance (characterized by Precambrian grains and an absence of Mesozoic grains). Our data from the Kong and Chulung La Formations shows a primary provenance from the Asian plate (arc derived), with dominant grain populations between 55-70 Ma and 90-100 Ma, and a subordinate population of Precambrian grains suggesting an origin on either the Indian (High or Tethyan Himalaya) or Asian (Lhasa Block) plate. Thus collision is constrained by arrival of Asian detritus on the Indian plate during SBZ9-10, 53-50.5 Ma. Our results and identification of first arrival of Asian material on the Indian plate at 53-50.5 Ma 1) conflicts with the recent view that the commonly quoted 50 Ma collision was between the Indian plate and a small intra-oceanic arc [4] rather than Asia and 2) correlates with data from analogous sediments along strike in Southern Tibet [12,13], eastern Himalaya, implying collision was synchronous along a large portion of the Himalayas. In addition, our new ages from the Trans-Himalayan arc contribute to the existing database which shows a very low proportion of grains dated between 80-90 Ma. This has been interpreted by previous workers as an expression of a reduction in magmatic activity around this time, due to a period of "flat subduction" of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab followed by slab roll back and a more vigorous period of magmatism [14]. [1] Jaeger, J. J., Courtillot, V., and Tapponnier, P., 1989, Geology, 17 (4), 316-319. [2] Leech, M. L., Singh, S., Jain, A. K., Klemperer, S. L., Manickavasagam, R. M., 2005, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 234, 83-97. [3] Klootwijk, C. T., Gee, J. S., Peirce, J. W., Smith, G. M., and McFadden, P. L., 1992, Geology, 20 (5), 395-398. [4] Aitchison, J. C., Ali, J. R., and Davis, A. M., 2007,Journal of Geophysical Research, 112 B05423, doi:10.1029/2006JB004706,. [5] Searle, M., Corfield

  7. PREFACE: Progress in the ITER Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.

    2007-06-01

    Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, Italy and European Fusion Development Agreement—Close Support Unit) N. Sauthoff (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, USA) Y. Saxena (Institute for Plasma Research, India) Y. Shimomura (ITER Organization) R. Singh (Institute for Plasma Research, India) S. Takamura (Nagoya University, Japan) K. Toi (National Institute for Fusion Studies, Japan) M. Wakatani (Kyoto University, Japan (deceased)) H. Zohm (Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany)

  8. Use of CD40L immunoconjugates to overcome the defective immune response to vaccines for infections and cancer in the aged.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu Cheng; Thoman, Marilyn; Linton, Phyllis-Jean; Deisseroth, Albert

    2009-12-01

    :147-164, 1998; Ben-Yehuda and Weksler In: Cancer Investigation 10:525-531, 1992]. One of the more interesting examples of the functional defects in the cells of the adaptive immune response is a reduced level of expression in the surface cytoadhesion and activation receptor molecules on CD4 helper T cells undergoing activation during vaccination. Upon infection or vaccination, CD40L is typically increased on the surface of CD4 helper T cells during activation, and this increased expression is absolutely essential to the CD40L promotion of expansion of antigen-specific B cells and CD 8 effector T cells in response to infection or vaccination [Singh et al. In: Protein Sci 7:1124-1135, 1998; Grewal and Flavell In: Immunol Res 16: 59-70, 1997; Kornbluth In: J Hematother Stem Cell Res 11:787-801, 2002; Garcia de Vinuesa et al. In: Eur J Immunol 29:3216-3224, 1999]. In aged human beings and mice, the reduced levels of expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) in activated CD4 helper T cells is dramatically reduced [Eaton et al. In: J Exp Med 200:1613-1622, 2004; Dong et al. In: J Gen Virol 84:1623-1628, 2003]. To circumvent the reduction in CD40L expression and the subsequent reduction in immune response in the elderly, we have developed a chimeric vaccine comprised of the CD40L linked to the target antigen, in a replication incompetent adenoviral vector and in booster protein. This review will discuss the implementation the potential use of this approach for the vaccination of the older populations for cancer and infection. PMID:19444444

  9. The SAWO (Small And Well Organized) avatar teaches the importance of the aggregates on the soil system and how to determine their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A. 1996. Soil aggregate stability in three mediterranean environments. Soil Technology, 9, 129-133. Cerdà, A. 1998. Soil aggregate stability under different Mediterranean vegetation types. Catena, 32, 73-86. Cerdà, A. 2000. Aggregate stability against water forces under different climates on agriculture land and scrubland in southern Bolivia. Soil and Tillage Research, 36, 1- 8. Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V. (2012, April). Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 14, p. 3772). García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28(4): 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Gelaw, A. M., Singh, B. R., Lal, R. 2015. Organic carbon and nitrogen associated with soil aggregates and particle sizes under different land uses in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development.DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2261 Hallett, P., Ogden, M., Karim, K., Schmidt, S., Yoshida, S. (2014, May). Beneath aggregate stability-quantifying thermodynamic properties that drive soil structure dynamics. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16, p. 10792). Jordán, A., Zavala, L. M., Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A. L., Alanís, N. (2011). Effect of fire severity on water repellency and aggregate stability on Mexican volcanic soils. Catena, 84(3), 136-147. Jordan, M., Garcia-Orenes, F., Mataix-Solera, J., Garcia-Sanchez, E. (2012, April). Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate

  10. The Assessment of Susceptibility on Drainage in an Aquifer on the Basis of Pumping Tests in a Lignite Mine / Ocena Podatności Ośrodka Wodonośnego Na Odwodnienie Na Podstawie Próbnych Pompowań W Kopalni Węgla Brunatnego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Krzysztof; Kaznowska-Opala, Karolina; Pawlecka, Katarzyna; Różkowski, Kazimierz; Klich, Jerzy

    2015-03-01

    Drainage of the rock mass is a key component affecting the safety of mining operations and is associated with the removal of the overburden, dumping and excavation of useful minerals. The primary method of drainage in lignite coal mines are bored wells. The efficiency of drainage of rock mass depends on their accurate positioning and quality of workmanship. The paper presents the current state of knowledge concerning the distribution of the components of drawdown (1) in pumping well (Walton, 1955; Bruin & Hudson, 1961; Kruseman & de Ridder, 1991; Avci, 1992; Atkinson, 1994; Helweg, 1994; Kawecki, 1995; Singh, 2002; Dufresne, 2011) and their dependence on the hydrogeological parameters of the drained aquifer (Fig. 2). The results of pumping tests conducted in drainage wells operating in lignite mines are also presented. The subject of analysis was the geohydraulic resistance coefficient B, describing the resistance of the aquifer under laminar flow. This coefficient also takes the hydrogeological parameters into account which determines the dynamics and range of influence of drainage (12, 13). The value of the parameter and its spatial variability can be used for planning, designing and evaluating the effectiveness of wells drainage In view of the results of the pumping tests, classification of aquifer susceptibility to drainage was proposed, which can be used to support decision-making in the scope of expansion of the drainage system, the necessary timing and dynamics of pumping water. The classification is preliminary and is the starting point for the development of methods to rationalize functioning costs of the drainage systems. Zadaniem studni odwadniających jest obniżenie zwierciadła wody podziemnej możliwie w jak najkrótszym czasie. W zależności od przeznaczenia studni oraz wymagań technicznych ich czas "życia" jest zróżnicowany. Studnie zlokalizowane w obrębie wyrobiska, tj. studnie nadkładowe i podłożowe (pomocnicze

  11. ISMB Conference Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Teresa, Gaasterand; Martin, Vingron

    2011-07-01

    the EasyChair submission and reviewing system; Mona Singh and Joel S. Bader for sharing their experience from last year; the team at Oxford University Press for typesetting the papers; Conference Chairs Burkhard Rost, Michal Linial, Peter Schuster and Kurt Zatloukal, as well as the ISMB/ECCB 2011 Steering Committee, for their valuable input; and Steven Leard for helping us oversee the process.

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  14. EDITORIAL: Power is nothing without control Power is nothing without control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-04-01

    review, synthesis of these materials is now a refined art allowing considerable control over the parameters. The mechanisms behind the growth using different techniques is also understood, making the alchemy of creating these prized nanostructures into an advanced science. With these new nanomaterials researchers in nanoscale science and technology now have the power to create devices with performance attributes previously unimagined, and the advancing fine art of controlled synthesis allows these devices to be made on demand. References [1] Kroto H W, Heath J R, O'Brien S C, Curl R F and Smalley R E Nature 318 162-3 [2] Iijima S 1991 Nature B 354 56-8 [3] Journet C, Picher M and Jourdain V 2012 Nanotechnology 23 296-304 [4] Singh N, Zhang T and Lee P S 2009 Nanotechnology 20 195605 [5] Qiu J, Li X, He W, Park S-J, Kim H-K, Hwang Y-H, Lee J-H and Kim Y-D 2009 Nanotechnology 20 155603 [6]Dmitriev S, Lilach Y, Button B, Moskovits M and Kolmakov A 2007 Nanotechnology 18 055707 [7] Hao H L and Shen W Z 2008 Nanotechnology 19 055601 [8] Rocha A R, Martins T B, Fazzio A and da Silva A J R 2010 Nanotechnology 21 345202

  15. Nanotechnological selection.

    PubMed

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-18

    channel. The aim of achieving selectivity encompasses a huge range of fields in nanotechnology research, from sensing and medicine to nanoelectronics and self-assembly. As our understanding of how nanosystems behave deepens, so too does the hunger to improve our capabilities, allowing greater precision and control in manipulating these systems. Selectivity is far from trivial when shrinking to systems of nanoscale dimensions, but the range of opportunities it brings just keeps on growing. References [1] Gong X, Li J, Guo C, Xu K and Hui Y 2012 Molecular switch for tuning ions across nanopores by an external electric field Nanotechnology 24 025502 [2] Brannon-Peppas L and Blanchette J O 2004 Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 56 1649-59 [3] Lukianova-Hleb E Y, Hanna E Y, Hafner J H and Lapotko D O 2010 Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics Nanotechnology 21 085102 [4] Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V and Deshusses M A 2008 Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors Nanotechnology 19 332001 [5] Mangu R, Rajaputra S and Singh V P 2011 MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors Nanotechnology 22 215502 [6]Meller A, Nivon L, Brandin E, Golovchenko J and Branton D 2000 Rapid nanopore discrimination between single polynucleotide molecules Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 97 1079-84 [7] Asghar W, Ilyas A, Deshmukh R R, Sumitsawan S, Timmons R B and Iqbal S M 2011 Pulsed plasma polymerization for controlling shrinkage and surface composition of nanopores Nanotechnology 22 285304. PMID:23242125

  16. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    tailor a random substrate potential for colloids [20] or to bind colloids optically [21]. External magnetic fields are typically used to create dipolar repulsions of colloids pending at an air-water interface. This provides an avenue to two-dimensional systems, where the freezing transition [22] and various transport phenomena through channels are the focus of recent research [23, 24]. Confinement typically leads to interfaces. The classical problem of the Tolman length for a fluid-fluid interface is reviewed in detail in [25]. In fact, colloid-polymer mixtures constitute ideal model systems for liquid-gas interfaces in various geometries [26] and are also suitable for measuring the Tolman length experimentally. Crystalline phases in confinement [27] and crystal-fluid interfaces [28] are even more complex due to the inhomogeneity of the solid phase. Also in the confined fluid phase, there are still open issues in slit-pore geometry. These include how to scale the interparticle distance [29] and how to measure hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles [30]. Other external fields which can be applied to colloids are gravity [31] and temperature [32]. An important field of recently emerging research is active colloidal particles (so-called microswimmers) which possess fascinating nonequilibrium properties; for recent reviews see [33-35]. Two examples are also included in this issue: an active deformable particle [36] moving in gravity and the collective turbulent swarming behaviour of dense self-propelled colloidal rod suspensions [37]. References [1]Löwen H 2001 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13 R415 [2]Löwen H and Likos C N (ed) 2004 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16 (special issue) [3]Löwen H 1976 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20 404201 [4]Guu D, Dhont J K G, Vliegenthart G A and Lettinga M P 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464101 [5]Gupta S, Kundu S, Stellbrink J, Willner L, Allgaier J and Richter D 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464102 [6]Singh S P, Fedosov D A

  17. The SAWO (Small And Well Organized) avatar teaches the importance of the aggregates on the soil system and how to determine their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A. 1996. Soil aggregate stability in three mediterranean environments. Soil Technology, 9, 129-133. Cerdà, A. 1998. Soil aggregate stability under different Mediterranean vegetation types. Catena, 32, 73-86. Cerdà, A. 2000. Aggregate stability against water forces under different climates on agriculture land and scrubland in southern Bolivia. Soil and Tillage Research, 36, 1- 8. Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V. (2012, April). Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 14, p. 3772). García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28(4): 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Gelaw, A. M., Singh, B. R., Lal, R. 2015. Organic carbon and nitrogen associated with soil aggregates and particle sizes under different land uses in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development.DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2261 Hallett, P., Ogden, M., Karim, K., Schmidt, S., Yoshida, S. (2014, May). Beneath aggregate stability-quantifying thermodynamic properties that drive soil structure dynamics. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16, p. 10792). Jordán, A., Zavala, L. M., Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A. L., Alanís, N. (2011). Effect of fire severity on water repellency and aggregate stability on Mexican volcanic soils. Catena, 84(3), 136-147. Jordan, M., Garcia-Orenes, F., Mataix-Solera, J., Garcia-Sanchez, E. (2012, April). Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate

  18. PREFACE: Rheology and Elasticity Studies at Ultra-High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haozhe; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2006-06-01

    mm3) of materials can be deformed at pressure and temperature. Unfortunately these experiments do not currently extend to pressures of the lower mantle, which comprises most of the volume of the Earth. Thus deformation mechanisms of minerals such as perovskite (in the lower mantle), post-perovskite (in the anisotropic D" zone) and epsilon-iron (in the inner core) remain enigmatic. Here developments in the DAC offer new opportunities. At present, this is a novel, and in many ways still very primitive, method to deform minerals at high pressure, confined to room temperature and moderate strains. No doubt this will change in the near future as new technologies become implemented, for example laser heating, remote pressure control, especially fine control of strain rate during compression, decompression and cycling procedures for DAC radial diffraction studies. The first paper, by Bassett, gives a perspective on the significance of stress in DAC experiments. An issue once considered by many a nuisance has become a gold mine when it comes to unravelling material properties at very high pressures. At high pressures many silicates and oxides become ductile, even at room temperature, and ductile deformation results in development of preferred orientation that can be used to infer deformation mechanisms as illustrated in the reviews by Wenk et al and Merkel. Mao et al investigate the strength of solidified argon and find it increases greatly and exceeds 2.7~GPa with applied pressure at 55 GPa. Singh et al investigate the dependence of strength on grain size by studying nanocrystalline gold, while Yoneda and Kubo use axial diffraction geometry to determine both mean pressure and deviatoric stress of gold. Miyagi et al illustrate the Rietveld method for quantitative texture analysis of CaSiO3 perovskite. Speziale et al map strain gradients in the DAC by investigating texture variations in copper to 25 GPa. Naturally, efficient and accurate image processing is a requirement for

  19. [Tuberculosis in Asia].

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    1. Philippines: The development, expansion and maintenance of pilot area activities: Cristina B. Giango (Technical Division, Cebu Provincial Health Office, the Philippines) In 1994, the Department of Health developed the new NTP policies based on WHO recommendations and started a pilot project in Cebu Province in collaboration with the Japan International Cooperation Agency. To test its feasibility and effectiveness, the new NTP policies were pre-tested in one city and one Rural Health Unit. The test showed a high rate of three sputum collection (90%), high positive rate (10%), and high cure rate (80%). Before the new guidelines were introduced, the new policy was briefed, a baseline survey of the facility was conducted, equipment was provided, and intensive training was given. Recording/Reporting forms and procedures were also developed to ensure accurate reporting. Supervision, an important activity to ensure effective performance, was institutionalized. Laboratory services were strengthened, and a quality-control system was introduced in 1995 to ensure the quality of the laboratory services. With the implementation of DOTS strategy, barangay health workers were trained as treatment partners. In partnership with the private sector, the TB Diagnostic Committee was organized to deliberate and assess sputum negative but X-ray positive cases. The implementation of the new NTP guidelines in Cebe Province has reached a satisfactory level, the cure rate and positive rate have increased, and laboratory services have improved. Because of its successful implementation, the new NTP guidelines are now being used nationwide. 2. Nepal: The DOTS Strategy in the area with hard geographic situation: Dirgh Singh Bam (National Tuberculosis Center, Nepal) Three groups of factors characterize the population of Nepal: 1) Socio-cultural factors, e.g. migration, poverty, language; 2) Environmental factors, e.g. geography and climate; and 3) Political factors, prisoners and refugee

  20. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    , Pittsburgh P. Chandra, PiscatawayN. Mathur, CambridgeJ.C. Gomez-Sal, Santander S-W. Cheong, RutgersK. Miyake, OsakaV. Tripathi, Mumbai P. Coleman, PiscatawayA Navrotsky, DavisA. Vasiliev, Moscow M. Vojta, Cologne Local Committee S. E. Sebastian (chair)R. NeedsJ. Keeling N. MathurE. PughD. Khmelnitskii M. ParishM. CarpenterM. Koehl M. AtatureR. CowburnW. Milne C. BarnesJ. McManus DriscollS. Redfern N. BerloffA. FerrariD. Ritchie M. BlamireC. GreyJ. Robertson J. BaumbergZ. HadzibabicB. Simons A. Cheetham National Advisory Committee G. Aeppli, LondonV. Falko, LancasterM. Pepper, Cambridge A. Ardavan, OxfordR. Friend, CambridgeT. Perring, Didcot P. Attfield, EdinburghC. Frost, RutherfordJ. Saunders, London A. Boothroyd, OxfordG. Gehring, ShefieldA. Schofield, Birmingham A. Coldea, OxfordS. Hayden, BristolN. Shannon, Bristol L. Eaves, NottinghamN. Hussey, BristolM. Skolnick, Sheffield D. Edwards, LondonA. Huxley, EdinburghS. Thompson, York M. Ellerby, LondonH. Wilhelm, Didcot International Advisory Committee E. Abrahams, UCLAG. Kotliar, Piscataway E. V. Sampathkumaran, Mumbai G. Aeppli, LondonD. Khmelnitskii, CambridgeUK J. Sarrao, Los Alamos J. W. Allen, Ann ArborK. Kugel, MoscowJ. Schilling, St. Louise P. W. Anderson, Princeton C. Lacroix, Grenoble A. Schofield, Birmingham M. Aronson, Stony Brook P. A. LeeCambridge, USA V. Sechovsky, Prague Y. K. Bang, Kwangju and Pohang C.T. Liang, Taipei T. Senthil, Cambridge, USA M. Barma, Mumbai P. Majumdar, Allahabad J. G. Sereni, Bariloche G. Baskaran, Chennai Y. Maeno, Kyoto K. Shimizu, Osaka E. Bauer, Vienna J. Mannhart, Augsburg Q. Si, Houston G. Boebinger, Tallahassee M. B. Maple, San Diego M. Sigrist, Zurich R. Budhani, Delhi Y. Matsuda, Kyoto A. Simoni, Trento P. Canfield, Ames R. Moessner, Dresden D. Singh, Oak Ridge M. Continentino, Rio di Janiero A. Millis, New York A. Sood, Bangalore S. Coppersmith, Madison J. Mydosh, Leiden J. Spalek, Krakow B. Coqblin, Paris S. Nakatsuji, Tokyo F. Steglich, Dresden A. Chubukov, Madison G. Oomi

  1. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    from 280 kg/person to 380 kg/person and meat from 22 kg/person to 34 kg/person (McIntyre, 2008); (c) new cultivar types (e.g., hybrid varieties of wheat and rice, biotechnology); and (d) modern agronomic and crop management practices (e.g., fertilizers, herbicide, pesticide applications). However, some of the factors that lead to the green revolution have stressed the environment to limits leading to salinization and decreasing water quality. For example, from 1960 to 2000, the phosphorous use doubled from 10 million tons to 20 MT, pesticide use tripled from near zero to 3 MT, and nitrogen use as fertilizer increased to a staggering 80 MT from just 10 MT (Foley et al., 2007; Khan and Hanjra, 2008). Further, diversion of croplands to bio-fuels is already taking water away from food production; the economics, carbon sequestration, environmental, and food security impacts of biofuel production are net negative (Lal and Pimentel, 2009), leaving us with a carbon debt (Gibbs et al., 2008; Searchinger et al., 2008). Climate models predict that in most regions of the world the hottest seasons on record will become the norm by the end of the century-an outcome that bodes ill for feeding the world (Kumar and Singh, 2005). Also, crop yield increases of the green revolution era have now stagnated (Hossain et al., 2005). Thereby, further increase in food production through increase in cropland areas and\\or increased allocations of water for croplands are widely considered unsustainable and\\or infeasible. Indeed, cropland areas have even begun to decrease in many 3 parts of the World due to factors such as urbanization, industrialization, and salinization. Furthermore, ecological and environmental imperatives such as biodiversity conservation and atmospheric carbon sequestration have put a cap on the possible expansion of cropland areas to other lands such as forests and rangelands. Other important factors limit food security. These include factors such as diversion of croplands

  2. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    hydrocarbons. Loss of ozone by catalytic reactions involving halogen radicals lowers the concentrations of the hydroxyl radical OH and thus the oxidation power of the atmosphere. Figure 1 shows these and other relevant halogen-related processes schematically. The sum of particulate and gaseous halogen concentrations maximize in the marine troposphere. Important for our climate - via feedback with cloud microphysics mainly in the large regions of marine stratocumulus - are links between halogen chemistry and the sulfur cycle. HOBraq and HOClaq can increase the liquid phase oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI), while BrO can decrease the most important in situ source for SO2 in the marine troposphere, namely, the oxidation of DMS to SO2 by reaction with OH by providing an alternate pathway (BrO+DMS) that reduces the yield of SO2 from DMS oxidation. Thus, the presence of bromine and chlorine in the troposphere lowers gas phase SO2 concentrations and thus the formation of new sulfate particles via the reaction sequence SO2+OH→H2SO4. (17K)Figure 1. Schematic depiction of the most important halogen-related processes in the troposphere. High mixing ratios of iodine oxide at a coastal site indicate a potentially significant role of iodine for the destruction of O3 and new particle embryo formation (Alicke et al., 1999; O'Dowd et al., 1998). Almost 20 years earlier, Chameides and Davis (1980) suggested that open ocean iodine chemistry would be initiated by the photolysis of CH3I. This was based on the measurements of Lovelock et al. (1973) and Singh et al. (1979), who found volume mixing ratios of CH3I of 1-5 pmol mol-1 over the ocean.The potentially strong involvement of halogens in tropospheric chemistry was first observed in the Arctic, where strong ozone depletion events were found to coincide with high levels of bromine (Barrie et al., 1988).The first mid-latitude demonstration of reactive halogen chemistry in the troposphere was made downwind of salt pans in the Dead Sea area, where the

  3. PREFACE: Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Panchenko, Anna R.; Przytycka, Teresa

    2011-06-01

    networks have been identified, including scale free distribution of the vertex degree, network motifs, and modularity, to name a few. These studies of network organization require the network to be as complete as possible, which given the limitations of experimental techniques is not currently the case. Therefore, experimental procedures for detecting biomolecular interactions should be complemented by computational approaches. The paper by Lees et al provides a review of computational methods, integrating multiple independent sources of data to infer physical and functional protein-protein interaction networks. One of the important aspects of protein interactions that should be accounted for in the prediction of protein interaction networks is that many proteins are composed of distinct domains. Protein domains may mediate protein interactions while proteins and their interaction networks may gain complexity through gene duplication and expansion of existing domain architectures via domain rearrangements. The latter mechanisms have been explored in detail in the paper by Cohen-Gihon et al. Protein-protein interactions are not the only component of the cell's interactome. Regulation of cell activity can be achieved at the level of transcription and involve a transcription factor—DNA binding which typically requires recognition of a specific DNA sequence motif. Chip-Chip and the more recent Chip-Seq technologies allow in vivo identification of DNA binding sites and, together with novel in vitro approaches, provide data necessary for deciphering the corresponding binding motifs. Such information, complemented by structures of protein-DNA complexes and knowledge of the differences in binding sites among homologs, opens the door to constructing predictive binding models. The paper by Persikov and Singh provides an example of such a model in the Cys2His2 zinc finger family. Recent studies have indicated that the presence of such binding motifs is, however, neither necessary

  4. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    varieties, estimated at 85-100 t/ha for potato, 75-85 t/ha for beet and 12-15 t/ha for wheat (Evans 1977). These are far higher than the yields commonly obtained in practice. World average yields were only 1/6th of the potential for potato, 1/6th for wheat and 2/5th for sugar beet in 1995. Utilization of the crop The major part of potato production is usually used for human consumption. Human consumption of potatoes however has declined in the industrialised countries as the standard of living has increased. In these countries an increasing proportion of the crop is used for manufacturing products such as crisp, oven-ready chips, dehydrated potato powder. Thus, in Hungary the consumption of potatoes per person decreased from 110 kg in 1951/1960 to 60 kg in 1995, whereas the consumption of processed potatoes increased from 1 to 15 kg/person during this period. Uptake of potassium Potassium is the nutrient taken up by potato in the greatest quantity, it also takes up much nitrogen and appreciable amounts of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur (Perrenoud 1993). Maximum uptakes by different varieties in Japan range between 140 and 267 K2O (Kali Kenkyu Kai 1980). In England, potatoes grown on the " blueprint" system and giving the very high yield of 77.7 t/ha took up 450 kg/ha K2O (Anderson and Hewgill 1978). Brazílian experiments with 6 varieties showed the following uptakes (kg/ha): potassium 207-367 (Motta 1976). Removal of potassium by tubers 23 experimental crops in France (Loué 1977), -with a mean yield of 37.3 t/ha tubers removed: 196 kg K2O, respectively. It is equal to 5.3 kg K2O per 1 tonne tuber. Motta Macedo (1976) reports the following removals in kg/ha for 6 varieties grown in Brazíl: K2O: 118-192. In 14 experiments in India (Grewal and Singh 1979) a mean yield of 28.8 t/ha tuber was obtained which removed an average of 91 kg/ha K2O. At very high yield level, nutrient removal in tuber is very high. Anderson and Hewgill (1978) report a yield of 90 t

  5. Liming and Fertilization Effects on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield Between 1999 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    , pp. 219-232. RS (Royal Society). 2005. Climate change warming over food production. Web address: http://www.newscientist.com Runge, E. C. 1968. Effect of rainfall and temperature interaction during the growing season on corn yield. Agron. J, 60:503-507. Russell, C. M.-Jennifer, A. B. 1991. Climatic Risk in Crop Production: Models and Management for the Semiarid Tropics and Subtropics. C. A. B. International, Wallingford Semenov, M. A. and Porter, J. R. 1995. Climatic variability and modeling of crop yields. Agric. For Meteorol. 73:265-283. Seth, G. P. & Yeffrey, S. A. 2005. Crops and Environmental Change. Food Product Press. New York-London-Oxford Schulze, R. E., Gregory, A. K. and Richard, P. K. 1993. Global climate change and agricultural productivity in southern Africa. Global Environmental Change, Vol. 3, No. 4, December, pp. 330-349 Smith, W. J. 1920. Agricultural meteorology. The effect of weather on crops. Macmillan Comp., New York. Singh, B., Mustapha, E. M., Pierre A., Christopher, R. B. and Jean, P. T. 1998. Impacts of a Ghg-induced climate change on crop yields: Efects of acceleration in maturation, moisture stress and optimal temperature. Climatic change, Vol. 38, No. 1, January, pp. 51-86. SPSS. 2000. SigmaPlot for Windows. Ver. 3.2, Chicago, III.: SPSS, Inc Szász G. 2005. Climatic instability causing variability in crop output in the Carpathian Basin. (In Hungarian) In: „AGRO-21" Füzetek. 40. 33-69. Tubiello, F. N., Rosenzweig, C., Goldberg, R. A. Jagtap, S. and Jones, J. W. 2002. Effects of climate change on U.S. crop production: Simulation results using two different GCM scenarios. Part I: Wheat, potato, maize and citrus. Climate Research, Vol. 20, pp. 259-270. Uprety, D. C. 1999. Global change series. IARI, New Delhi Vesselin, A., Eitzinger, J., Vesna, C. and Michael, O. 2002. Potential impact of climate change on selected agricultural crops in north-eastern Austria. Global Change Biology. 8:372. Várallyay, Gy. 1992. Globális kl

  6. News & Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    , phone: 734/764-7329; email: bcoppola@umich.edu. The deadline for submission of proposals for symposia and workshops is December 13, 1999; the deadline for submission of abstracts of papers and posters is February 4, 2000. For general information contact Seyhan Ege, phone: 734/764-7340; email: snege@umich.edu. 16th IUPAC Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics 16th IUPAC Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics (concurrent with 55th Calorimetry Conference and 10th Symposium on Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials) August 6­11, 2000 Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada This conference will cover research topics in all areas of thermodynamics. In addition, there will be a special poster session for papers on two aspects of thermodynamics education: lecture demonstrations and undergraduate laboratory experiments. Come and join us for lobster and learn what is new and exciting in thermodynamics. To be on the email list for this meeting, send a message to: ICCT@IS.DAL.CA. For further details, consult the conference Web site: http://IS.DAL.CA/ ICCT. Chair: Mary Anne White, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J3, Canada; phone and fax: 902/494-3894, email: Mary.Anne.White@DAL.CA. Microscale Workshops The National Microscale Chemistry Center, located at Merrimack College in North Andover, Massachusetts, will offer several workshops in fall 1999, spring 2000, and fall 2000. Workshops for elementary school teachers run from 8:30 a.m. on a Thursday to 2:00 p.m. the following day. Workshops for high school teachers run from 5:30 p.m. on a Friday until 2:00 p.m. on Sunday. There are also workshops for college/2-year college/high school teachers that will be held during summer 2000, from 8:30 a.m. on a Monday to 2:00 p.m. on Friday. The workshops include all materials, free housing, and all meals; there is a registration fee. Early registration is advised. For further information, contact Mono M. Singh, Director, National Microscale Chemistry Center, 315

  7. Quantum Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin

    The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? 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  8. PREFACE: Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut

    2010-08-01

    functional theory methods in soft and hard matter' has established the first contact between the soft-matter community working with advanced classical density functional techniques and a theoretical materials science community working with engineering materials and armed with a simple but numerically very efficient dynamical density functional technique, the phase-field crystal method. A large number of common problems have been identified, which represent challenges for both communities during the coming years. This has been borne out by the lively discussions and some of the provocative talks. The organizers think that the workshop proved to be a truly successful event, matching to the high standards of the CECAM workshops, and hope that the workshop will indeed catalyze a long-term interaction between the two communities. As a final note, we would like to emphasize that progress in the areas highlighted in this special issue will positively impact both fields, and we expect that these issues will provide the natural link for collaborations and intellectual exchanges between these traditionally separate-yet-allied fields. In particular, such activities would lead to significant improvements in the applicability and versatility of classical DFT methods in both soft and hard matter systems, for the common benefit of physicists, chemists, and materials scientists. References [1] Evans R 1979 Adv. Phys. 28 143 [2] Oxtoby D W 1991 Liquids, Freezing and the Glass Transition (Session LI (1989) of Les Houches Summer Schools of Theoretical Physics) (Amsterdam: North Holland) p 147 [3] Singh Y 1991 Phys. Rep. 207 351 [4] Löwen H 1994 Phys. Rep. 237 249 [5] Español P and Löwen H 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 131 244101 [6] Elder K R, Katakowski M, Haataja M and Grant M 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 245701 [7] Elder K R and Grant M 2004 Phys. Rev. E 70 051605 [8] Berry J, Grant M and Elder K R 2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 031609 [9] Stefanovic P, Haataja M and Provatas N 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 225504