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Sample records for bi doped cdte

  1. Investigation of the origin of deep levels in CdTe doped with Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Saucedo, E.; Franc, J.; Elhadidy, H.; Horodysky, P.; Ruiz, C. M.; Bermudez, V.; Sochinskii, N. V.

    2008-05-01

    Combining optical (low temperature photoluminescence), electrical (thermoelectric effect spectroscopy), and structural (synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction) methods, the defect structure of CdTe doped with Bi was studied in crystals with dopant concentration in the range of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 19} at./cm{sup 3}. The semi-insulating state observed in crystals with low Bi concentration is assigned to the formation of a shallow donor level and a deep donor recombination center. Studying the evolution of lattice parameter with temperature, we postulate that the deep center is formed by a Te-Te dimer and their formation is explained by a tetrahedral to octahedral distortion, due to the introduction of Bi in the CdTe lattice. We also shows that this model agrees with the electrical, optical, and transport charge properties of the samples.

  2. Challenges in p-type Doping of CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Jedidiah; Swain, Santosh; Lynn, Kelvin

    We have made progress in defect identification of arsenic and phosphorous doped CdTe to understand the self-compensation mechanism which will help improve minority bulk carrier lifetime and net acceptor density. Combining previous measurements of un-doped CdTe, we performed a systematic comparison of defects between different types of crystals and confirmed the defects impacting the doping efficiency. CdTe bulk crystals have been grown via vertical Bridgman based melt growth technique with varying arsenic and phosphorous dopant schemes to attain p-type material. Furnace temperature profiles were varied to influence dopant solubility. Large carrier densities have been reproducibly obtained from these boules indicating successful incorporation of dopants into the lattice. However, these values are orders of magnitude lower than theoretical solubility values. Infrared Microscopy has revealed a plethora of geometrically abnormal second phase defects and X-ray Fluorescence has been used to identify the elemental composition of these defects. We believe that dopants become incorporated into these second phase defects as Cd compounds which act to inhibit dopant solubility in the lattice.

  3. Phosphorus Doping of Polycrystalline CdTe by Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Colegrove, Eric; Albin, David S.; Guthrey, Harvey; Harvey, Steve; Burst, James; Moutinho, Helio; Farrell, Stuart; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    Phosphorus diffusion in single crystal and polycrystalline CdTe material is explored using various methods. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) is used to determine 1D P diffusion profiles. A 2D diffusion model is used to determine the expected cross-sectional distribution of P in CdTe after diffusion anneals. Time of flight SIMS and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence corroborates expected P distributions. Devices fabricated with diffused P exhibit hole concentrations up to low 1015 cm-3, however a subsequent activation anneal enabled hole concentrations greater than 1016 cm-3. CdCl2 treatments and Cu based contacts were also explored in conjunction with the P doping process.

  4. Hydrogenation of undoped and nitrogen doped CdTe and ZnSe grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, L.S.; Setzler, S.D.; Ptak, A.J.; Giles, N.C.; Myers, T.H.

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen incorporation in both undoped and nitrogen-doped CdTe and ZnSe is investigated. Evidence for a strong nitrogen-hydrogen interaction is presented. Preliminary data indicate that the growth of CdTe and ZnSe under an atomic hydrogen flux results in a significant concentration of paramagnetic defects possibly accompanied by enhanced auto-doping from residual impurities.

  5. Thermoelectric Properties of Bi Doped Tetrahedrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prem Kumar, D. S.; Chetty, R.; Femi, O. E.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Malar, P.; Mallik, R. C.

    2016-08-01

    Bi doped tetrahedrites with nominal compositions of Cu12Sb4-x Bi x S13 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. Powder x-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that Cu12Sb4S13 (tetrahedrite structure) was the main phase, along with Cu3SbS4 and Cu3SbS3 as the secondary phases. Electron probe microanalysis provided the elemental composition of all the samples. It was confirmed that the main phase is the tetrahedrite phase with slight deviations in the stoichiometry. All the transport properties were measured between 423 K and 673 K. The electrical resistivity increased with an increase in Bi content for all the samples, possibly induced by the variation in the carrier concentration, which may be due to the influence of impurity phases. The increase in electrical resistivity with an increase in temperature indicates the degenerate semiconducting nature of the samples. The absolute Seebeck coefficient is positive throughout the temperature range indicating the p-type nature of the samples. The Seebeck coefficient for all the samples increased with an increase in Bi content as electrical resistivity. The variation of electrical resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient with doping can be attributed to the changes in the carrier concentration of the samples. The total thermal conductivity increases with an increase in temperature and decreases with an increase in the Bi content that could be due to the reduction in carrier thermal conductivity. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) ~0.84 at 673 K was obtained for the sample with x = 0.2 due to lower thermal conductivity (1.17 W/m K).

  6. First-principles DFT +G W study of oxygen-doped CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Mauricio A.; Orellana, Walter; Menéndez-Proupin, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The role of oxygen doping in CdTe is addressed by first-principles calculations. Formation energies, charge transition levels, and quasiparticle defect states are calculated within the DFT+G W formalism. The formation of a new defect is identified, the (OTe-TeCd) complex.Thiscomplex is energetically favored over both isovalent (OTe) and interstitial oxygen (Oi), in the Te-rich limit. We find that the incorporation of oxygen passivates the harmful deep energy levels associated with (TeCd), suggesting an improvement in the efficiency of CdTe based solar cells. Substitutional (OCd) is only stable in the neutral charge state and undergoes a Jahn-Teller distortion. We also investigate the diffusion profiles of interstitial oxygen and find a low-energy diffusion barrier of only 0.14 eV between two structurally distinct interstitial sites.

  7. Structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of co-doped CdTe QDs for quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyaswamy, Arivarasan; Ganapathy, Sasikala; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Ramasamy, Jayavel

    2015-12-01

    Zinc and sulfur alloyed CdTe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes have been fabricated for quantum dots sensitized solar cells. Alloyed CdTe QDs were prepared in aqueous phase using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a capping agent. The influence of co-doping on the structural property of CdTe QDs was studied by XRD analysis. The enhanced optical absorption of alloyed CdTe QDs was studied using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The capping of MSA molecules over CdTe QDs was confirmed by the FTIR and XPS analyses. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the prepared QDs were thermally stable up to 600 °C. The photovoltaic performance of alloyed CdTe QDs sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes were studied using J-V characteristics under the illumination of light with 1 Sun intensity. These results show the highest photo conversion efficiency of η = 1.21%-5% Zn & S alloyed CdTe QDs.

  8. First-principles DFT+GW study of oxygen doped CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, Walter; Flores, Mauricio A.; Menéndez-Proupin, Eduardo

    The role of oxygen doping in CdTe is addressed by first-principles calculations. Formation energies, charge transition levels and quasiparticle defect states are calculated within the DFT+GW formalism. The formation of a new defect is identified, the (OTe -TeCd) complex. This complex is energetically favored over both isovalent (OTe) and interstitial oxygen (Oi). We find that incorporation of oxygen passivates the harmful deep energy levels derived from Te antisites, suggesting an improvement in the efficiency of CdTe based solar cells. Our calculations indicate that both (OTe) and (Oi) have low formation energies. Moreover, (OCd) is only stable in the neutral charge state and undergoes a Jahn-Teller distortion. The (VCd - OTe) complex is found to be a shallow acceptor with a high formation energy. We also report an oxygen-related interstitial defect, which plays a key role in the diffusion mechanism of oxygen in CdTe. Support by FONDECYT Grant No. 1130437 is acknowledged. Powered@NLHPC: This research was partially supported by the supercomputing infrastructure of the NLHPC (ECM-02).

  9. Post-growth, In doping of CdTe single crystals via vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyahovitskaya, Vera; Kaplan, Larissa; Goswami, Jaydeb; Cahen, David

    1999-02-01

    We have developed a new, efficient method to dope bulk single crystals of CdTe by In, via gas phase diffusion, using In 4Te 3 as the source. Doping was carried out on crystals of very high resistivity (>5 MΩ cm), following annealing in the temperature range of 350-1000°C. Resulting crystals showed n-type conductivity with a free carrier concentration in the range of 10 15-10 18 cm -3 and carrier mobility of 100-750 cm 2/(V s), depending on the annealing temperature and time, and on the cooling conditions. Incorporation of In was found to be a function of annealing time and temperature only. Up to 650°C, the In and the free electron concentrations are roughly the same.

  10. Cu-doped CdS and its application in CdTe thin film solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yi; Yang, Jun; Yang, Ruilong; Shen, Kai; Wang, Dezhao; Wang, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Cu is widely used in the back contact formation of CdTe thin film solar cells. However, Cu is easily to diffuse from the back contact into the CdTe absorber layer and even to the cell junction interface CdS/CdTe. This phenomenon is generally believed to be the main factor affecting the CdTe solar cell stability. In this study Cu was intentionally doped in CdS thin film to study its effect on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the CdS material. Upon Cu doping, the VCd- and the surface-state-related photoluminescence emissions were dramatically decreased/quenched. The presence of Cu atom hindered the recrystallization/coalescence of the nano-sized grains in the as-deposited CdS film during the air and the CdCl2 annealing. CdTe thin film solar cell fabricated with Cu-doped CdS window layers demonstrated much decreased fill factor, which was induced by the increased space-charge recombination near the p-n junction and the worsened junction crystalline quality. Temperature dependent current-voltage curve measurement indicated that the doped Cu in the CdS window layer was not stable at both room and higher temperatures.

  11. Sn doped CdTe as candidate for intermediate-band solar cells: A first principles DFT+GW study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Mauricio A.; Menéndez-Proupin, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the electronic properties and defect formation energies of Sn doped CdTe combining first principles density-functional theory and many body GW calculations. Due to the Sn dopant, an isolated impurity band is formed in the middle of the forbidden band gap of CdTe allowing the absorption of sub-bandgap photons via an intermediate-band. Our results suggest CdTe:Sn as a promising candidate for the development of third-generation intermediate-band solar cells with theoretical efficiencies up to 63.2%.

  12. Amphoteric Doping of GaAsBi alloys with Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. L., III; Jen, T.; Yarlagadda, B.; Luengo-Kovac, M.; Sih, V.; Kurdak, C.; Goldman, R. S.

    2014-03-01

    Due to the significant bandgap reduction associated with bismuth incorporation, dilute bismuthide semiconductor alloys have been proposed for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Although Si and Be are the most common dopants for n- and p-type doping of GaAs and related materials during MBE growth, their use in high quality structures has limitations. For example, while Be has a high active solubility in GaAs, it is also a fast diffuser in GaAs. In this work, Si is found to be an amphoteric dopant in GaAsBi by varying the As4/Ga beam equivalent pressure ratio, resulting in n-type (p-type) films due to Si entering group III (group V) sites. The hole mobility is found to decrease with Bi composition, an indication that Bi-related defects are the main source of scattering in p-type GaAsBi. Yet, the electron mobility appears independent of Bi composition, at least in the range of compositions that have been fabricated and measured. To date, we have achieved Bi incorporation in excess of 6% Bi substituting for As, with electron mobilities as high as 2500 cm2/V-s for Si-doped (n ~ 1018 cm-3) GaAsBi. Using Si provides an alternative to the traditional use of C and Be as p-type dopants.

  13. Visualization of hormone binding proteins in vivo based on Mn-doped CdTe QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang fei; Yu, Ying; Lin, Bi xia; Hu, Xiao gang; Cao, Yu juan; Wu, Jian zhong

    2014-10-01

    Daminozide (B9) is a growth inhibitor with important regulatory roles in plant growth and development. Locating and quantifying B9-binding proteins in plant tissues will assist in investigating the mechanism behind the signal transduction of B9. In this study, red fluorescent Mn-doped CdTe quantum dots (CdTeMn QDs) were synthesized by a high-temperature hydrothermal process. Since CdTeMn QDs possess a maximum fluorescence emission peak at 610 nm, their fluorescence properties are more stable than those of CdTe QDs. A B9-CdTeMn probe was synthesized by coupling B9 with CdTeMn QDs. The fluorescence intensity of the probe is double that of CdTeMn QDs; its fluorescence stability is also superior under different ambient conditions. The probe retains the biological activity of B9 and is unaffected by interference from the green fluorescent protein present in plants. Therefore, we used this probe to label B9-binding proteins selectively in root tissue sections of mung bean seedlings. These proteins were observed predominantly on the surfaces of the cell membranes of the cortex and epidermal parenchyma.

  14. Magnetic properties of Eu doped BiGdO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nithya, R.; Yadagiri, K.; Shukla, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    Bulk Bismuth Gadolinium Oxide, BiGdO3 and Eu doped BiGdO3 compounds were synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction in air. Phase formation of these compounds was tracked using powder X-ray characterization technique since single phase formation was found to be sensitive to thermal treatment parameters such as cooling and heating rates. Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns revealed cubic structure with Pm-3m symmetry. An antiferromagnetic transition around 3.8K was observed in the pristine compound whereas doped samples showed paramagnetic nature in the whole measured temperature range.

  15. Photoluminescence of Cu-doped CdTe and related stability issues in CdS/CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, D.; Compaan, A. D.; Young, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Rose, D. H.

    2000-09-01

    We explore Cu electronic states in CdTe using photoluminescence as the main investigative method. Our results are consistent with some Cu atoms occupying substitutional positions on the Cd sublattice and with others forming Frenkel pairs of the type Cui+-VCd- involving an interstitial Cu and a Cd vacancy. In addition, we find that Cu-doped CdTe samples exhibit a significant "aging" behavior, attributable to the instability of Cu acceptor states as verified by our Hall measurements. The aging appears to be reversible by a 150-200 °C anneal. Our results are used to explain efficiency degradation of some CdTe solar-cell devices which use Cu for the formation of a backcontact.

  16. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  17. Bismuth-induced deep levels and carrier compensation in CdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2008-01-01

    First-principles calculations show that Bi on Cd site in CdTe can be either a donor, Bi_Cd+, or an acceptor, Bi_Cd- , depending on the Fermi level. The can bind a substitutional O (O_Te) with large binding energy of 1.40 eV. The calculated (0/-) transition level for B_Cd- - O_Te complex is in good agreement with the observed deep hole trapping level. Bi can also substitute Te to form an acceptor. The amphoteric nature of Bi in CdTe results in the pinning of the Fermi level and the high resistivity. We also discuss the origin of p-type CdTe at high Bi doping level.

  18. Highly-sensitive organophosphorus pesticide biosensors based on CdTe quantum dots and bi-enzyme immobilized eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gao; Yue, Zhao; Bing, Zhang; Yiwei, Tang; Xiuying, Liu; Jianrong, Li

    2016-02-01

    An optical biosensing method using CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and bi-enzyme-immobilized eggshell membranes for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has been developed. Increasing amounts of OPs led to a decrease of the enzymatic activity and thus a decrease in the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can quench the fluorescence of the CdTe QDs. Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the enzyme inhibition percentage and the logarithm of paraoxon or parathion concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10(-11)-1.0 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). The detection limit (S/N = 3) of the proposed biosensors were as low as 4.30 × 10(-12) mol L(-1) for paraoxon and 2.47 × 10(-12) mol L(-1) for parathion. The bi-enzyme-immobilized eggshell membrane demonstrated a long shelf-life of at least 2 months and the results showed good repeatability. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the OPs in real fruit samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26688862

  19. Bi-nanoparticle (CdTe and CdSe) mixed polyaniline hybrid thin films prepared using spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Deepak; Dutta, V.

    2009-02-01

    Polyaniline (Pani) films containing CdTe, CdSe, and both nanoparticles were deposited using spin coating technique. Pani was chemically synthesized by oxidation method, whereas surfactant free CdTe and CdSe nanoparticles were prepared using solvothermal method. Binanoparticle films showed an increase in the absorption from 350 nm to the near IR region. Absorption spectra also showed charge transfer complex formation for the binanoparticle hybrid thin films prepared with weight ratio of [Pani (camphor sulfonic acid, CSA):CdTe:CdSe] 200:100:75. Photoluminescence measurement for the bi-nanoparticle hybrid thin films confirmed that the required dissociation of excitons was taking place at the interface. Scanning electron microscopy images showed homogeneity and an interconnected network on the surface of the films prepared with Pani (CSA):CdTe:CdSe weight ratios of 200:100:50 and 200:100:75, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed better stability for the bi-nanoparticle hybrid films in comparison to Pani film. It also established the process of electrochemical charge transfer between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix.

  20. Tailoring Magnetic Doping in the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Zhu, Wenguang; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Di; Yao, Yugui

    2012-01-01

    WetheoreticallyinvestigatethepossibilityofestablishingferromagnetisminthetopologicalinsulatorBi2Se3viamagneticdopingof3dtransitionmetalelements.Theformationenergies,chargestates,bandstructures,andmagneticpropertiesofdopedBi2Se3arestudiedusing rst-principlescalculationswithindensityfunctionaltheory.OurresultsshowthatBisubstitutionalsitesareenergeticallymorefavorablethaninterstitialsitesforsingleimpurities.DetailedelectronicstructureanalysisrevealsthatCrandFedopedmaterialsarestillinsulatinginthebulkbuttheintrinsicbandgapofBi2Se3issubstantiallyreducedduetothestronghybridizationbetweenthedstatesofthedopantsandthepstatesoftheneighboringSeatoms.ThecalculatedmagneticcouplingsuggeststhatCrdopedBi2Se3ispossibletobebothferromagneticandinsulating,whileFedopedBi2Se3tendstobeweaklyantiferromagnetic.

  1. Thermoelectric properties of Bi-doped PbTe composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, A.; Datta, A.; Nolas, G. S.; Woods, L. M.

    2011-05-01

    An experimental and theoretical study is presented for n-type Bi-doped PbTe composites with different grain sizes and doping levels. The bulk polycrystalline composites were prepared by spark plasma sintering of the nanocrystals synthesized via micro-emulsion and direct precipitation. This technique is particularly attractive due to its low cost, its reproducibility, and the control of the composition and nanocrystal size that it affords. The thermoelectric properties of the synthesized specimens were experimentally measured and theoretically modeled. Our calculations reveal that the inclusion of electron/grain and phonon/grain interface scattering is crucial for the correct description and interpretation of the measured properties.

  2. Resonant Levels, Vacancies, and Doping in Bi2Te3, Bi2Te2Se, and Bi2Se3 Tetradymites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiendlocha, Bartlomiej

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structure of the tetradymites, Bi_2Te_3, Bi_2Te_2Se, and Bi_2Se_3, containing various dopants and vacancies, has been studied using first-principles calculations. We focus on the possibility of formation of resonant levels (RL), confirming the formation of RL by Sn in Bi_2Te_3 and predicting similar behavior of Sn in Bi_2Te_2Se and Bi_2Se_3. Vacancies, which are likely present on chalcogen atom sites in real samples of Bi_2Te_2Se and Bi_2Se_3, are also studied and their charged donor and resonant behavior discussed. Doping of vacancy-containing materials with regular acceptors, such as Ca or Mg, is shown to compensate the donor effect of vacancies, and n-p crossover, while increasing the dopant concentration, is observed. We verify that the RL on Sn is not disturbed by chalcogen vacancies in Bi_2Te_2Se or Bi_2Se_3, and for the Sn-doped materials with Se or Te vacancies, double doping, instead of heavy doping with Sn, is suggested as an effective way of obtaining the resonant level. This should help to avoid smearing of the RL, a possible reason for earlier unsuccessful experimental observation of the influence of the RL on the thermoelectric properties of Sn-doped Bi_2Te_2Se. Finally, we show that Al and Ga are possible new resonant impurities in tetradymites, hoping that this will stimulate further experimental studies.

  3. Resonant Levels, Vacancies, and Doping in Bi2Te3, Bi2Te2Se, and Bi2Se3 Tetradymites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiendlocha, Bartlomiej

    2016-04-01

    The electronic structure of the tetradymites, Bi_2 Te_3 , Bi_2 Te_2 Se, and Bi_2 Se_3 , containing various dopants and vacancies, has been studied using first-principles calculations. We focus on the possibility of formation of resonant levels (RL), confirming the formation of RL by Sn in Bi_2 Te_3 and predicting similar behavior of Sn in Bi_2 Te_2 Se and Bi_2 Se_3 . Vacancies, which are likely present on chalcogen atom sites in real samples of Bi_2 Te_2 Se and Bi_2 Se_3 , are also studied and their charged donor and resonant behavior discussed. Doping of vacancy-containing materials with regular acceptors, such as Ca or Mg, is shown to compensate the donor effect of vacancies, and n-p crossover, while increasing the dopant concentration, is observed. We verify that the RL on Sn is not disturbed by chalcogen vacancies in Bi_2 Te_2 Se or Bi_2 Se_3 , and for the Sn-doped materials with Se or Te vacancies, double doping, instead of heavy doping with Sn, is suggested as an effective way of obtaining the resonant level. This should help to avoid smearing of the RL, a possible reason for earlier unsuccessful experimental observation of the influence of the RL on the thermoelectric properties of Sn-doped Bi_2 Te_2 Se. Finally, we show that Al and Ga are possible new resonant impurities in tetradymites, hoping that this will stimulate further experimental studies.

  4. Multi-orbits observed in superconducting Nb-doped Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Benjamin; Corbae, Paul; Li, Gang; Yu, Fan; Asaba, Tomoya; Tinsman, Colin; Qiu, Yunsheng; Hor, Yew San; Li, Lu

    Recently discovered superconducting niobium doped Bi2Se3 shows promise to realize new physical phenomenon including the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic ordering and possibly topological superconductivity. To understand the new physics showcased in this system, a detailed knowledge of the electronic structure is needed. We present the first observation of quantum oscillations in the magnetization (the de Haas-van Alphen effect) of Nb-doped Bi2Se3. In the fully superconducting crystal, two distinct orbits are observed, in sharp contrast to Bi2Se3, Cu-doped Bi2Se3, and Sr-doped Bi2Se3. The multiple frequencies observed in our quantum oscillations, combined with our electrical transport studies, indicate the multi-orbit nature of the electronic state of Nb-doped Bi2Se3.

  5. Microwave synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Fuyang; Hua, Yingjie; Wang, Chongtai; Zhao, Xudong; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongdong

    2016-12-01

    Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 140°C for 30min. The structure, morphology and optical property of the Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 products have been systematically investigated. This study indicates that the incorporation of Tb(3+) could induce the conversion of structure from monoclinic to tetragonal for BiVO4. Furthermore, the as-obtained Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 samples showed an obvious morphological change: the hollow square rod-like BiVO4 crystal gradually changed to spindle-like crystal. The Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 products exhibited extraordinary photocatalytic activity for Methylene Blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. The doped BiVO4 at a molar ratio of 2at% (Tb and Bi) with a mixture of monoclinic and tetragonal phases showed and prominent photocatalytic degradation rate, which reached 99.9% in 120min. The results suggest that the differences in the photocatalytic activity of these BiVO4 crystals with different Tb(3+) doping concentrations can be attributed to the change of crystalline phases, and the coexistence of the monoclinic/tetragonal phases in BiVO4 products, which improve the efficient charge separation and transportation. PMID:27565962

  6. Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence from Ni in Bi/Ni-doped transparent glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Botao; Ruan, Jian; Qiu, Jianrong; Zeng, Heping

    2009-07-01

    Spectral properties of Bi/Ni-doped transparent MgO-Al2O3-Ga2O3-SiO2-TiO2 glass ceramics (GCs) containing spinel solution nanocrystals were investigated. The emission intensity of Ni in Bi/Ni-doped GCs was about 4 times stronger than that of Ni-doped GCs due to energy transfer from Bi to Ni. The Bi/Ni-doped GCs with 0.75 mol% Bi2O3 concentration exhibited a near-infrared emission with full width at half maximum of about 270 nm and a fluorescent lifetime of about 350 µs, making them very promising for applications in broadband optical amplifiers and tunable lasers.

  7. Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence of Bi-doped oxyfluoride glasses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Tan, Dezhi; Zhou, Shifeng; Hong, Zhanglian; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal N; Qiu, Jianrong

    2012-12-17

    Broadband near-infrared luminescence covering 900 to 1600 nm has been observed in Bi-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses. The partial substitution of fluoride for oxide in Bi-doped silicate glasses leads to an increase of the intensity and lifetime of the near-infrared luminescence and blue-shift of the near-infrared emission peaks. Both Bi-doped silicate and oxyfluoride silicate glasses show visible luminescence with blue, green, orange and red emission bands when excited by ultra-violet light. Careful investigation on the luminescence properties indicates that the change of near-infrared luminescence is related to optical basicity, phonon energy of the glass matrix and crystal field around Bi active centers. These results offer a valuable way to control the luminescence properties of Bi-doped materials and may find some applications in fiber amplifier and fiber laser. PMID:23263148

  8. Multiple Fermi surfaces in superconducting Nb-doped Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, B. J.; Corbae, Paul; Li, Gang; Yu, Fan; Asaba, Tomoya; Tinsman, Colin; Qiu, Y.; Medvedeva, J. E.; Hor, Y. S.; Li, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Topological insulator Bi2Se3 has shown a number of interesting physical properties. Doping Bi2Se3 with copper or strontium has been demonstrated to make the material superconducting and potentially even a topological superconductor. The recent discovery of superconducting niobium-doped Bi2Se3 reveals an exciting new physical phenomenon, the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic ordering, as well as signatures of an odd-parity p -wave superconducting order. To understand this new phenomenon, a detailed knowledge of the electronic structure is needed. We present an observation of quantum oscillations in the magnetization (the de Haas-van Alphen effect) of Nb-doped Bi2Se3 . In the fully superconducting crystal, two distinct orbits are observed, in sharp contrast to Bi2Se3 , Cu-doped Bi2Se3 , and Sr-doped Bi2Se3 . The multiple frequencies observed in our quantum oscillations, combined with our electrical transport studies, indicate the multi-orbit nature of the electronic state of Nb-doped Bi2Se3 .

  9. Ferromagnetism on a paramagnetic host background in cobalt-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Lü, Li; Wei, Zhan-Tao; Yang, Xin-Sheng; Zhao, Yong

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulators have been grown though melt-grown reaction. The Bi2Se3 matrix is diamagnetic and doped sample is a superposition of ferromagnetism (FM) and paramagnetism (PM) behavior at low temperature. The values of MSmol, Hc, and Mr increase as the Co concentration increases. Two possible explanations have been proposed for the origin of ferromagnetism in Co-doped Bi2Se3. One is the magnetic ordering from nanoclusters of Co-Se compound in the crystals, and the other is Ruderman—Kittel—Kasuya—Yosida (RKKY) interaction between magnetic impurities.

  10. Thermal growth and cathodoluminescence of Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemán, B.; Hidalgo, P.; Fernández, P.; Piqueras, J.

    2009-11-01

    Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods have been grown by a catalyst free evaporation-deposition method with precursors containing either ZnO and Bi2O3 or ZnS and Bi2O3 powders. The use of ZnS as a precursor was found to lead to a higher density of nano- and microstructures at lower temperatures than by using ZnO. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) shows that the Bi content in the wires and rods is in the range 0.15-0.35 at%. Bi incorporation was found to induce a red shift of the near band gap luminescence but no quantitative correlation between the shift and the amount of Bi, as measured by EDS, was observed. The I-V curves of single Bi doped wires had linear behaviour at low current and non-linear behaviour for high currents, qualitatively similar to that of undoped wires.

  11. Doping of Bi2Te3 using electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rischau, C. W.; Leridon, B.; Fauqué, B.; Metayer, V.; van der Beek, C. J.

    2013-11-01

    Electron irradiation is investigated as a way to dope the topological insulator Bi2Te3. For this, p-type Bi2Te3 single crystals have been irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons at room temperature and electrical measurements have been performed in situ as well as ex situ in magnetic fields up to 14 T. The defects created by irradiation act as electron donors, allowing the compensation of the initial hole-type conductivity of the material as well as the conversion of the conductivity from p to n type. The changes in carrier concentration are investigated using the Hall effect and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations, clearly observable in the p-type samples before irradiation, but also after the irradiation-induced conversion of the conductivity to n type. The SdH patterns observed for the magnetic field along the trigonal axis can be entirely explained assuming the contributions of only one valence and one conduction band, respectively, and Zeeman splitting of the orbital levels.

  12. Low Temperature Thermal Conductivity in Ni-doped Bi-2212.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovich, Roman; Hubbard, Margaret A.; Salamon, Myron B.; Yoshizaki, Ryozo

    1997-03-01

    Non-magnetic impurities in HTS materials are expected to contribute to electrical and thermal conductivity via formation of the electronic impurity states. Universal electrical conductivity(P.A. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 71, 1887 (1993). and universal linear-in-temperature thermal conductivity(M. L. Graf, S-K. Yip, J. Sauls, and D. Rainer, Phys. Rev. B) 53, 15147 (1996). is predicted below the cross-over energy scale γ which is the width of the impurity generated band. We performed experimental investigation of thermal conductivity in Ni-doped Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_208 (Bi-2212) with Ni-concentration up to 2.4%, for temperature between 50 mK and 2 K. We do not observe a linear-in-temperature regime in the temperature range studied. Instead, thermal conductivity can be described well by a power law κ ∝ A× T^α with α between 12\\over 3 and 13\\over 4 over the whole temperature range from 50 mK to 2 K. Possible reconciliation of our data with theoretical prediction may lie in the narrowness of the impurity band generated by the weak-scattering Ni dopants.

  13. One-pot aqueous synthesis of gadolinium doped CdTe quantum dots with dual imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunli; Shen, Zhitao; Luo, Chunhua; Lin, Hechun; Huang, Rong; Wang, Yiting; Peng, Hui

    2016-08-01

    A facile one-pot strategy has been developed for the aqueous synthesis of Gd doped CdTe (Gd:CdTe) QDs as fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging dual-modal agent. The prepared Gd:CdTe QDs showed narrow size distribution and the average size was less than 5nm. The amount of Gd(3+) dopant in Gd:CdTe QDs significantly affected the optical properties of obtained QDs. The highest PL QY for the prepared Gd:CdTe QDs was up to 42.5%. The QDs showed the weak toxicity and significant enhancement in MRI signal. The specific relaxivity value (r1) was determined to be 4.22mM(-1)s(-1). These properties make the prepared Gd:CdTe QDs be an effective dual-modal imaging agent and have great potential applications in biomedical field. PMID:27216651

  14. CdTe devices and method of manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Noufi, Rommel; Dhere, Ramesh G.; Albin, David S.; Barnes, Teresa; Burst, James; Duenow, Joel N.; Reese, Matthew

    2015-09-29

    A method of producing polycrystalline CdTe materials and devices that incorporate the polycrystalline CdTe materials are provided. In particular, a method of producing polycrystalline p-doped CdTe thin films for use in CdTe solar cells in which the CdTe thin films possess enhanced acceptor densities and minority carrier lifetimes, resulting in enhanced efficiency of the solar cells containing the CdTe material are provided.

  15. Enhanced dielectric, impedance and magnetic characteristics of Co doped multiferroic Bi2Fe4O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, S. R.; Sahu, B.; Kaushik, S. D.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic Bi2Fe4(1-x)Co4xO9 (x = 0, 0.05) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result indicated the decrease in lattice parameters due to 5% Co doping. Grain growth in the doped composition was confirmed from surface morphology characterization. Frequency dependent real part of dielectric constant (ɛ') at room temperature showed an enhancement of ~70% in doped sample at 1 kHz. A decrease in peak height with doping was noticed from the modulus study. Lastly, room temperature M-H measurement upto 9 T showed induced ferromagnetism in Bi2Fe4O9 due to 5% Co doping. The values of remnant magnetization (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) in Bi2Fe3.8Co0.2O9 was found to be 0.007 µB/f.u. and 0.295 kOe respectively.

  16. Eu doping in multiferroic BiFeO3 ceramics studied by Mossbauer and EXAFS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Deepti; Raghavendra Reddy, V; Gupta, Ajay; Meneghini, Carlo; Aquilanti, Giuliana

    2010-09-01

    Bismuth ferrite ceramics (BiFeO(3)) are multifunctional materials classified as multiferroics for their special magnetic and electric properties that can be modified by substitutional doping at the Bi and/or Fe sites. Understanding the relation between magnetoelectric response and structural/electronic modification upon doping is a relevant issue. In this work, the structure of Eu-doped multiferroic systems (Bi(1-x)Eu(x)FeO(3), x = 0, 0.5, 0.1, 0.15) as well as the valence state of Fe and Eu ions have been investigated combining Mossbauer and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy techniques. The Eu(3+) doping at the Bi site results in better magnetic properties. High temperature (57)Fe Mossbauer data and Fe K-edge XAFS results show that FeO(6) octahedron distortions reduce with Eu(3+) doping. It is conclusively shown that the observed magnetic properties in BiFeO(3) with chemical substitution (Eu) are mainly due to the structural distortions and not due to Fe multiple valence. (151)Eu Mossbauer measurements show that the Eu(3+)(Bi(3+)) site is magnetically inactive in BiFeO(3). PMID:21403301

  17. Eu doping in multiferroic BiFeO3 ceramics studied by Mossbauer and EXAFS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Deepti; Raghavendra Reddy, V.; Gupta, Ajay; Meneghini, Carlo; Aquilanti, Giuliana

    2010-09-01

    Bismuth ferrite ceramics (BiFeO3) are multifunctional materials classified as multiferroics for their special magnetic and electric properties that can be modified by substitutional doping at the Bi and/or Fe sites. Understanding the relation between magnetoelectric response and structural/electronic modification upon doping is a relevant issue. In this work, the structure of Eu-doped multiferroic systems (Bi1 - xEuxFeO3, x = 0, 0.5, 0.1, 0.15) as well as the valence state of Fe and Eu ions have been investigated combining Mossbauer and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy techniques. The Eu3 + doping at the Bi site results in better magnetic properties. High temperature 57Fe Mossbauer data and Fe K-edge XAFS results show that FeO6 octahedron distortions reduce with Eu3 + doping. It is conclusively shown that the observed magnetic properties in BiFeO3 with chemical substitution (Eu) are mainly due to the structural distortions and not due to Fe multiple valence. 151Eu Mossbauer measurements show that the Eu3 + (Bi3 + ) site is magnetically inactive in BiFeO3.

  18. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water oxidation over metal-doped monoclinic BiVO(4) photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Kanak Pal Singh; Kang, Hyun Joon; Bist, Amita; Dua, Piyush; Jang, Jum Suk; Lee, Jae Sung

    2012-10-01

    The visible-light-induced water oxidation ability of metal-ion-doped BiVO(4) was investigated and of 12 metal ion dopants tested, only W and Mo dramatically enhanced the water photo-oxidation activity of bare BiVO(4); Mo had the highest improvement by a factor of about six. Thus, BiVO(4) and W- or Mo-doped (2 atom %) BiVO(4) photoanodes about 1 μm thick were fabricated onto transparent conducting substrate by a metal-organic decomposition/spin-coating method. Under simulated one sun (air mass 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)) and at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode, the highest photocurrent density (J(PH)) of about 2.38 mA cm(-2) was achieved for Mo doping followed by W doping (J(PH) ≈ 1.98 mA cm(-2)), whereas undoped BiVO(4) gave a J(PH) value of about 0.42 mA cm(-2). The photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity of W- and Mo-doped BiVO(4) photoanodes corresponded to the incident photon to current conversion efficiency of about 35 and 40 % respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky analysis indicated a positive flat band shift of about 30 mV, a carrier concentration 1.6-2 times higher, and a charge-transfer resistance reduced by 3-4-fold for W- or Mo-doped BiVO(4) relative to undoped BiVO(4). Electronic structure calculations revealed that both W and Mo were shallow donors and Mo doping generated superior conductivity to W doping. The photo-oxidation activity of water on BiVO(4) photoanodes (undopeddopeddoped) was in accordance with the results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Mott-Schottky analysis, and theoretical electronic structural calculations. Thus, Mo or W doping enhanced the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity of monoclinic BiVO(4) by drastically reducing its charge-transfer resistance and thereby minimizing photoexcited electron-hole pair recombination. PMID:22927058

  19. Effects of Thallium Doping on the Transport Properties of Bi2Te3 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, L.; Wu, F.; Wang, X. X.; Cao, R. J.; Li, X. J.; Hu, X.; Song, H. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Thallium-doped Tl x Bi2-x Te3 (x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2) nanopowders were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The doping effect of thallium on the morphologies of the synthesized nanopowders was investigated. It was found that the doping of thallium can significantly change the morphologies of the synthesized nanopowders. The synthesized nanopowders were hot-pressed into bulk pellets and the doping effects of thallium on the transport properties of these pellets were investigated. The results show that the doping of thallium can enhance the Seebeck coefficient but increase the electrical resistivity. Moreover, the power factors of the thallium-doped samples decrease with the increasing of the thallium doping level as compared with the un-doped sample. This is attributed to the increase of the electrical resistivity and the disappearing of the flower-like morphologies of the doped nanopowders.

  20. Effects of Thallium Doping on the Transport Properties of Bi2Te3 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, L.; Wu, F.; Wang, X. X.; Cao, R. J.; Li, X. J.; Hu, X.; Song, H. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Thallium-doped Tl x Bi2- x Te3 ( x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2) nanopowders were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The doping effect of thallium on the morphologies of the synthesized nanopowders was investigated. It was found that the doping of thallium can significantly change the morphologies of the synthesized nanopowders. The synthesized nanopowders were hot-pressed into bulk pellets and the doping effects of thallium on the transport properties of these pellets were investigated. The results show that the doping of thallium can enhance the Seebeck coefficient but increase the electrical resistivity. Moreover, the power factors of the thallium-doped samples decrease with the increasing of the thallium doping level as compared with the un-doped sample. This is attributed to the increase of the electrical resistivity and the disappearing of the flower-like morphologies of the doped nanopowders.

  1. Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a spectral region of 1300-1470 nm.

    PubMed

    Bufetov, Igor A; Firstov, Sergey V; Khopin, Vladimir F; Medvedkov, Oleg I; Guryanov, Alexey N; Dianov, Evgeny M

    2008-10-01

    Bismuth-doped fiber lasers operating in the range 1300-1470 nm have been demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge. It has been shown that Bi-doped alumina-free phosphogermanosilicate fibers reveal optical gain in a wavelength range of 1240-1485 nm with pumping at 1205, 1230, or 808 nm. PMID:18830360

  2. Broadband infrared luminescence in Yb-doped Bi2O3-GeO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pingsheng; Su, Liangbi; Cheng, Junhua; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The Yb-doped Bi2O3-GeO2 glasses were prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. Near-infrared (NIR) broadband emission was found at about 1024 nm, and 1330 nm (under 785 nm excitation), and the measured fluorescent lifetime was about several hundred microseconds. The emission intensity of Yb-doped Bi2O3-GeO2 glasses increased with increasing of Yb dopant in our experiments. The NIR emission should be related to Yb3+ and lower valence Bi ions.

  3. Magnetic Ordering In Superconducting Nb-doped Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbae, Paul; Lawson, Benjamin; Li, Gang; Yu, Fan; Asaba, Tomoya; Tinsman, Colin; Qui, Yusheng; Hor, Yew San; Li, Lu

    Coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic order has been suggested by early studies of topological superconductor candidate, niobium doped Bi2Se3. In order to elucidate the interesting physics of this coexistence, we performed highly sensitive torque magnetometry to study the material's magnetization. We observed a bump feature in the magnetization around 8 Tesla in both the superconducting and non-superconducting samples. This is distinct from the paramagnetic torque response of the parent compound, Bi2Se3, suggesting some interesting magnetic order in Nb-doped Bi2Se3.

  4. Orbital bi-stripes in highly doped bilayer manganites

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, T.A.W.; Spencer, P.D.; Hatton, P.D.; Wilkins, S.B.; Zimmermann, M. von; Brown, S.D.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A.T.

    2005-08-01

    We present high-resolution high-energy and resonant x-ray-diffraction results from La{sub 2-2x}Sr{sub 1+2x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} for x=0.55, 0.575, and 0.60. These compounds show superlattice reflections at wave vectors of (h{+-}{delta},k{+-}{delta},l) and (h{+-}2{delta},k{+-}2{delta},l), arising from orbital ordering with associated Jahn-Teller distortions and charge ordering, respectively. We observe a phase transition boundary between the x=0.55 and x=0.575 doping levels. Samples with x=0.55 display structural characteristics similar to those previously reported for x=0.5. Compared to this the long-range order in samples with x=0.55 and x=0.6 have a distinct change in wave-vector and correlation length. We attribute this to a new orbital bi-stripe phase, accompanied by weak, frustrated, charge ordering. The observed azimuthal dependence of the orbital order reflection supports the model proposed for this new phase.

  5. Effect of Y doping on thermal properties of multiferroic BiCrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, Vanshree; Shukla, Aarti; Parveen, Atahar; Gaur, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of Yttrium doping (0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) on elastic and thermal properties of multiferroic BiCrO3 has been investigated using the Modified Rigid Ion Model (MRIM). We have computed the specific heat and volume thermal expansion coefficient for pure and doped BiCrO3 as a function of temperature (1K ≤ T ≤ 300K). The specific heat results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. A check on thermal stability of the pure and doped compounds is made by computing other properties like Debye temperature, cohesive energy and bulk modulus.

  6. Synthesis and photoactivity enhancement of Ba doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wen Ting; Huang, Wan Zhen; Zhou, Huan; Yin, Hao Yong; Zheng, Yi Fan; Song, Xu Chun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The Ba-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst have been synthesized by a hydrothermal route. • The photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was greatly enhanced by Ba-doping. • The effect of Ba on the catalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was studied and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} doped with different barium contents were successfully prepared by a simple hydrothermal route at 180 °C for 12 h. The as-synthesized samples were characterized in detailed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffusere flectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) and Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) theory. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated solar light. As a result, the photocatalytic properties were enhanced after Ba doping and the Ba-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} with R{sub Ba} = 0.15 showed the highest photocatalytic activities of 96.3% RhB was decomposed in 50 min. Close investigation revealed that the proper Ba doped into Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} could not only increases its BET surface area, decrease its crystalline size, but also act as electron traps and facilitate the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. The mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activities of Ba-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} were further investigated.

  7. Potential thermoelectric performance from optimization of hole-doped Bi2Se3

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, David S; Singh, David J

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the potential thermoelectric performance of hole-doped Bi2Se3, which is commonly considered to show inferior room temperature performance when compared to Bi2Te3. We find that if the lattice thermal conductivity can be reduced by nanostructuring techniques (as have been applied to Bi2Te3) the material may show optimized ZT values of unity or more in the 300 - 500 K temperature range and thus be suitable for cooling and moderate temperature waste heat recovery and thermoelectric solar cell applications. Central to this conclusion are the larger band gap and the relatively heavier valence bands of Bi2Se3.

  8. Influence of Zn2+ doping on the crystal structure and optical-electrical properties of CdTe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, R.; Sakthivel, K.

    2015-10-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of Cd1-xZnxTe (x = 0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.100) nanocrystalline thin film through a simple two step method. In the first step fine nanoparticles of Cd1-xZnxTe was prepared by solvothermal microwave irradiation (SMI) technique and then deposited as thin film using dip-coating technique. X-ray diffraction study showed that films are polycrystalline with cubic phase, which are preferentially oriented along the (1 1 1) direction. No impurity phase was observed in the XRD pattern even after higher concentration of doping (x = 0.100) of Zn. FESEM study revealed that the films are homogeneous without cracks and pinholes. TEM micrographs revealed the particles are slightly agglomerated and lesser than 25 nm. The optical absorption study revealed that pure and doped CdTe films possess a direct band gap material with bandgap values between 2.39 and 2.63 eV (±0.02 eV). The values of optical bandgap increase with an increase in dopant (Zn) concentration from x = 0.025 to 0.10. The pure cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystalline film shows a strong green emission peak centered at about 525 nm. The emission peaks of Cd1-xZnxTe nanocrystalline films are red shifted from 525 nm to 611 nm according to the dopant (Zn2+) concentration. The grains in the prepared films are uniformly distributed, which was confirmed by narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the emission peaks (40-65 nm). The DC conductivity has increased by 1.25 and 4 orders as the concentration of dopant increases from x = 0.025 to 0.10 at room temperature (30 °C) and 150 °C respectively. The higher conductivity value is underpinned by the smaller activation energy value and is explained by thermionic emission mechanism.

  9. Effect of Bi doping on morphotropic phase boundary and dielectric properties of PZT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Shraddha; Acharya, Smita

    2016-05-01

    In our present attempt, Pb(1-x)BixZr0.52Ti0.48O3 [PBZT] {where x = 0, 0.05, 0.1} is synthesized by sol-gel route. Effect of Bi addition on structure, sinterability and dielectric properties are observed. The presence of morphotropic phase boundary (coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral symmetry) is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Enhancement of sinterability after Bi doping is observed through a systematic sintering program. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric constant are studied. Bi doping in PZT is found to enhance room temperature dielectric constant. However, at high temperature the dielectric constant of pure PZT is more than that of doped PZT.

  10. Ferromagnetism through Cr doping in topological insulator Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, V. K.; Patnaik, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we report the preparation of single crystals of Bi2Te3 and Cr0.05(Bi2Te3)0.95 by modified Bridgman method. XRD, EDX and SEM analysis of these crystals have been done for the confirmation of the purity of the samples. Resistivity measurement from 2 K to 300 K has been done by Vander-Pauw method. We observed 20% increase in resistivity after Cr doping. Hall measurement has been done at 2 K for both the samples and we found that after Cr doping charge carrier density has increased but mobility is decreased by a factor of ˜7.9. We also provide evidence for ferromagnetism with Cr doping onto Bi2Te3.

  11. Enhanced ferromagnetism in co-doped BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Harsh; Singh, Deepa; Gupta, Rajeev; Garg, Ashish

    2012-02-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) is the most studied multiferroic material with high ferroelectric polarization as well above room temperature transition temperatures. Studies have shown significant improvements in the electrical and magnetic properties of BFO upon atomic substitutions at Bi (A) and Fe (B) sites. While enhanced ferromagnetism upon A-site doping is attributed to the suppression of cycloidal spin ordering of Fe moments, B site substitution reduces leakage current by eliminating oxygen vacancies. This study aims to combine these two aspects by co-doping the material at A- and B- sites using La^3+ and V^3+/V^+5 respectively and to investigate the electrical and magnetic characteristics of co-doped BFO. La-doped LaxBi1-xFeO3 and co-doped LaxBi1-xVyFe1-yO3 (x = .05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2; y = 0.03) samples were prepared solid-state reaction method. While La-doped samples show only reduced leakage without any discernible change in the magnetic characteristics, co-doped samples (La^3+ & V^5+ ) show significant enhancements in magnetic properties in addition to reduced leakage attributed to the elimination of oxygen vacancies. Improvement in the magnetic characteristics can be understood as a consequence of enhanced double exchange interaction between adjacent Fe ions. This argument is further strengthened by our observation that co-doped samples made by substitution of Fe with V^+3 show a magnetic response equivalent to that of only La-doped BFO samples.

  12. Magnetic doping and kondo effect in bi(2)se(3) nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Cha, Judy J; Williams, James R; Kong, Desheng; Meister, Stefan; Peng, Hailin; Bestwick, Andrew J; Gallagher, Patrick; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Cui, Yi

    2010-03-10

    A simple surface band structure and a large bulk band gap have allowed Bi2Se3 to become a reference material for the newly discovered three-dimensional topological insulators, which exhibit topologically protected conducting surface states that reside inside the bulk band gap. Studying topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 in nanostructures is advantageous because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, which enhances effects from the surface states; recently reported Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in topological insulator nanoribbons by some of us is a good example. Theoretically, introducing magnetic impurities in topological insulators is predicted to open a small gap in the surface states by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Here, we present synthesis of magnetically doped Bi2Se3 nanoribbons by vapor-liquid-solid growth using magnetic metal thin films as catalysts. Although the doping concentration is less than approximately 2%, low-temperature transport measurements of the Fe-doped Bi2Se3 nanoribbon devices show a clear Kondo effect at temperatures below 30 K, confirming the presence of magnetic impurities in the Bi2Se3 nanoribbons. The capability to dope topological insulator nanostructures magnetically opens up exciting opportunities for spintronics. PMID:20131918

  13. Bi-doped fibre lasers operating in the range 1470-1550 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M; Firstov, S V; Medvedkov, O I; Bufetov, Igor' A; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N

    2009-04-30

    Lasing in bismuth-doped optical fibres in the range 1470-1550 nm has been demonstrated for the first time. The gain media were Bi-doped phosphogermanosilicate and, for the first time, germanosilicate glass fibres. The gain spectrum of the phosphogermanosilicate fibres extends from 1300 to 1550 nm, the range which can be used in next-generation optical fibre communication systems. (letters)

  14. Structural determination of Bi-doped magnetite multifunctional nanoparticles for contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Laguna-Marco, M A; Piquer, C; Roca, A G; Boada, R; Andrés-Vergés, M; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S; Serna, C J; Iadecola, A; Chaboy, J

    2014-09-14

    To determine with precision how Bi atoms are distributed in Bi-doped iron oxide nanoparticles their structural characterization has been carried out by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) recorded at the K edge of Fe and at the L3 edge of Bi. The inorganic nanoparticles are nominally hybrid structures integrating an iron oxide core and a bismuth oxide shell. Fe K-edge XAS indicates the formation of a structurally ordered, non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3-δO4) phase for all the nanoparticles. The XAS spectra show that, in the samples synthesized by precipitation in aqueous media and laser pyrolysis, the Bi atoms neither enter into the iron oxide spinel lattice nor form any other mixed Bi-Fe oxides. No modification of the local structure around the Fe atoms induced by the Bi atoms is observed at the Fe K edge. In addition, contrary to expectations, our results indicate that the Bi atoms do not form a well-defined Bi oxide structure. The XAS study at the Bi L3 edge indicates that the environment around Bi atoms is highly disordered and only a first oxygen coordination shell is observed. Indefinite [BiO6-x(OH)x] units (isolated or aggregated forming tiny amorphous clusters) bonded through hydroxyl bridges to the nanoparticle, rather than a well defined Bi2O3 shell, surround the nanoparticle. On the other hand, the XAS study indicates that, in the samples synthesized by thermal decomposition, the Bi atoms are embedded in a longer range ordered structure showing the first and second neighbors. PMID:25057849

  15. Influence of Dy and Cu doping on the room temperature multiferroic properties of BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, A. Sathiya; Banu, I. B. Shameem; Anwar, Shahid

    2016-03-01

    A series of Bi1-xDyxFe0.98Cu0.02O3 (x=1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%) nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the undoped and doped samples crystallize in rhombohedral structure. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed for the doped nanoparticles as compared to undoped BiFeO3 (BFO) and when Dy substitution to Bi site is increased, the saturation magnetization (Ms) and remnant magnetization (Mr) show a remarkable increase. The Dy and Cu doping has improved the ferroelectric properties of the BFO. The measured magnetoelectric effect shows remarkable enhancement for the doped BFO as compared to the undoped BFO. The measured magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the doped samples has demonstrated that Dy and Cu doping can significantly improve the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3.

  16. Ab initio study of structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of Ti-doped ZnTe and CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amine Monir, M.; Baltache, H.; Murtaza, G.; Khenata, R.; Bin Omran, S.; Uğur, Ş.; Benalia, S.; Rached, D.

    2014-03-01

    The full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) is employed to investigate the structural, magnetic, electronic and optical properties of Ti-doped ZnTe and CdTe in the zinc blende phase. In this approach the local spin density approximation (LSDA) is used for the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. Results are provided for the lattice constant, bulk modulus, pressure derivative, magnetic moment, band structure, density of states and refractive indices. Our results are compared with other theoretical works and good agreement is shown.

  17. EPR on Y-ceramics and Bi-vitroceramics doped with S state paramagnetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Simion; Ilonca, Gheorghe; Barbur, Ioan; Ardelean, Ioan; Redac, Radu

    1989-12-01

    The effect of Gd doping and of thermal history on the EPR spectra from Y 1-xGd xBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ ceramics and, for the first time, from Bi 2-xGd xSr 2Ca 2O z vitroceramics was investigated. The results were correlated with the superconducting properties of the studied samples.

  18. High Pressure XANES studies on Mn dopeHigh Pressure XANES studies on Mn doped Bi2 Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Brian; Kumar, Ravhi; Baker, Jason; Dharmalingam, Prabhakaran; Park, Changyong; Unlv Team; Hpcat; Carnegie Institute Of Washington Collaboration

    Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 are narrow band-gap semiconductors have been extensively studied along with their alloys due to their promising technological applications as thermoelectric materials. More recently pressure induced superconductivity and structural transition have been observed in these materials around 7 GPa [1, 2]. Here we have performed high pressure x-ray near edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements at Bi L-III edge on Mn (0.1) doped Bi2Te3 samples to understand the variation of the Bi valence across the pressure induced superconductivity regime. We have inferred notable changes in the Bi valence at high pressure conditions. The results will be discussed in detail. Work at the University of Nevada Las Vegas (ALC) is funded by U.S. Department of Energy Award DE-SC0001928. Portions of this work were performed at HPCAT (Sector 16), Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory. HPCAT is supported by DOE-BES, DOE-NNSA, NSF, and the W.M. Keck Foundation. APS is supported by DOE-BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH1135.

  19. Effect of Pr Additions to Li-doped Bi2212 Bulk Superconductors Sintered at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Akihiro; Oikawa, Dai; Andoh, Hiroya; Sugiura, Toko; Tsukamoto, Takehiko

    The physical properties study of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy (Bi2212) ceramics samples sintered at low temperature has been carried out by measurement of electrical resistance and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of Pr doping on the formation process of the Bi2212 phase, and its structural and superconducting features were studied. The samples were prepared by a solid-state reaction method from oxides and carbonate powders. The samples with nominal composition Bi2.12Sr1.90Ca1.02Cu1.96Li0.15Cl0.15Oy added with praseodymium oxide (Pr2O3) were sintered in air at 710 °C. The Pr2O3 addition ranging between 0.1mass% and 1.2mass% promotes the formation of the Bi2212 phase in low temperature synthesis. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) value of the (200) and (0010) XRD peaks is slightly decreasing in the samples for low level doping and reaches a minimum around 0.6mass%. The maximum zero resistance temperature (Tc) is observed at 82.5K for the sample with 0.6mass% Pr2O3 addition by sintering even at 710 °C, which is about 150 °C lower than that of the non-added Bi2212 phase.

  20. High performance B doped BiVO4 photocatalyst with visible light response by citric acid complex method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zheng, Haoyan; Liu, Qiong; Niu, Chao; Che, Yinsheng; Dang, Mingyan

    2013-10-01

    A B-doped BiVO4 photocatalyst was synthesized by citric acid complex method and using H3BO3 as the dopant source, and the photocatalyst was characterized with XPS, XRD, SEM, BET and UV-Vis DRS. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of a methyl orange (MO) solution under visible light. This assay revealed that both the pure BiVO4 and all of the B doped samples were the monoclinic phase. Doping the BiVO4 with B increased the number of V(4+) and oxygen vacancies, which led to the red shift of the absorbing boundary of the B-doped BiVO4 but had little influence on the morphology and crystal size. The B doping improved the photocatalytic activity, and the highest photocatalytic degradation rate of 98% occurred with a B dopant concentration of 0.04. PMID:23751222

  1. The enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of yttrium-doped BiOBr synthesized via a reactable ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Minqiang; Li, Weibing; Xia, Jiexiang; Xu, Li; Di, Jun; Xu, Hui; Yin, Sheng; Li, Huaming; Li, Mengna

    2015-03-01

    Yttrium (Y)-doped BiOBr with different Y doping concentrations has been synthesized via solvothermal method in the presence of reactable ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C16mim]Br). Their structures, morphologies and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activities of the yttrium doped BiOBr samples were evaluated by the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. The yttrium doped BiOBr exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the two types of pollutants, and the 5wt%Y-doped BiOBr showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the reduced band gap and improved separation of electron-hole pairs.

  2. Electronic structure of a superconducting topological insulator Sr-doped Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, C. Q.; Li, H.; Chen, W. J.; Zhu, Fengfeng; Yao, Meng-Yu; Li, Z. J.; Wang, M.; Gao, Bo F.; Guan, D. D.; Liu, Canhua; Gao, C. L.; Qian, Dong; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-10-01

    Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, the atomic and low energy electronic structure of the Sr-doped superconducting topological insulators (SrxBi2Se3) was studied. Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that most of the Sr atoms are not in the van der Waals gap. After Sr doping, the Fermi level was found to move further upwards when compared with the parent compound Bi2Se3, which is consistent with the low carrier density in this system. The topological surface state was clearly observed, and the position of the Dirac point was determined in all doped samples. The surface state is well separated from the bulk conduction bands in the momentum space. The persistence of separated topological surface state combined with small Fermi energy makes this superconducting material a very promising candidate for the time reversal invariant topological superconductor.

  3. Study on structure and properties of transition metal doped BiF3 by first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yin, Jiu-Ren; Wu, Wen-Hu; Xie, Wei; Zhang, Ping; Ding, Yan-Huai

    2016-06-01

    Structure and physical properties of BiF3 doped with M=Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, V and Co are calculated by the DFT+U method. Effect of metal doping on the electronic structure and optical response of host materials BiF3 is investigated systematically. New energy levels are formed and located within the band gap, which could decrease the recombination rate of e-/h+ pairs. Furthermore, transition metal doping extends the optical absorption of BiF3 to the visible spectral region.

  4. Mo doping-enhanced dye absorption of Bi2Se3 nanoflowers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A simple solvothermal approach is explored to prepare Bi2−xMoxSe3 nanostructures by employing N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the solvent. Mo plays an important role in the assembly of the Bi2−xMoxSe3 nanostructures from nanoplates to nanoflowers. Structural and morphological studies indicate that the resulting products are large specific surface area single-crystalline Bi2−xMoxSe3 nanoflowers self-assembled from thin nanoplates during the reaction process. The absorption properties of the as-prepared samples are investigated with Rhodamine B (RhB) as dye, and it is found that the Bi1.85Mo0.15Se3 nanoflowers show an optimal adsorption capacity, implying that Mo doping not only changes the morphologies of the nanostructures but also enhances their absorption behaviors. PMID:24172176

  5. Size dependent magnetic and electrical properties of Ba-doped nanocrystalline BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hakim, M. A.; Basith, M. A.; Hossain, Md. Sarowar; Ahmmad, Bashir; Zubair, M. A.; Hussain, A.; Islam, Md. Fakhrul

    2016-03-01

    Improvement in magnetic and electrical properties of multiferroic BiFeO3 in conjunction with their dependence on particle size is crucial due to its potential applications in multifunctional miniaturized devices. In this investigation, we report a study on particle size dependent structural, magnetic and electrical properties of sol-gel derived Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 nanoparticles of different sizes ranging from ˜ 12 to 49 nm. The substitution of Bi by Ba significantly suppresses oxygen vacancies, reduces leakage current density and Fe2+ state. An improvement in both magnetic and electrical properties is observed for 10 % Ba-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles compared to its undoped counterpart. The saturation magnetization of Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 nanoparticles increase with reducing particle size in contrast with a decreasing trend of ferroelectric polarization. Moreover, a first order metamagnetic transition is noticed for ˜ 49 nm Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 nanoparticles which disappeared with decreasing particle size. The observed strong size dependent multiferroic properties are attributed to the complex interaction between vacancy induced crystallographic defects, multiple valence states of Fe, uncompensated surface spins, crystallographic distortion and suppression of spiral spin cycloid of BiFeO3.

  6. Energetic stability, oxidation states, and electronic structure of Bi-doped NaTaO3: a first-principles hybrid functional study.

    PubMed

    Joo, Paul H; Behtash, Maziar; Yang, Kesong

    2016-01-14

    We studied the defect formation energies, oxidation states of the dopants, and electronic structures of Bi-doped NaTaO3 using first-principles hybrid density functional theory calculations. Three possible structural models, including Bi-doped NaTaO3 with Bi at the Na site (Bi@Na), with Bi at the Ta site (Bi@Ta), and with Bi at both Na and Ta sites [Bi@(Na,Ta)], are constructed. Our results show that the preferred doping sites of Bi are strongly related to the preparation conditions of NaTaO3. It is energetically more favorable to form a Bi@Na structure under Na-poor conditions, to form a Bi@Ta structure under Na-rich conditions, and to form a Bi@(Na,Ta) structure under mildly Na-rich conditions. The Bi@Na doped model shows an n-type conducting character along with an expected blueshift of the optical absorption edge, in which the Bi atoms exist as Bi(3+) (6s(2)6p(0)). The Bi@Ta doped model has empty gap states consisting of Bi 6s states in its band gap, which can lead to visible-light absorption via the electron transition among the valence band, the conduction band, and the gap states. The Bi dopant is present as a Bi(5+) ion in this model, consistent with the experimental results. In contrast, the Bi@(Na,Ta) doped model has occupied gap states consisting of Bi 6s states in its band gap, and thus visible-light absorption is also expected in this system due to electron excitation from these occupied states to the conduction band, in which the Bi dopants exist as Bi(3+) ions. Our first-principles electronic structure calculations revealed the relationship between the Bi doping sites and the material preparation conditions, and clarified the oxidation states of Bi dopants in NaTaO3 as well as the origin of different visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen evolution behaviors in Bi@Ta and Bi@(Na,Ta) doped NaTaO3. This work can provide a useful reference for preparing a Bi-doped NaTaO3 photocatalyst with desired doping sites. PMID:26646215

  7. Optical processes in (Y,Bi)VO4 doped with Eu3+ or Pr3+.

    PubMed

    Boutinaud, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Zircon and fergusonite-type vanadates either undoped or doped with Eu(3+) or Pr(3+) are synthesized in the system (Y,Bi)2O3-V2O5 by solid state and coprecipitation procedures. Their optical properties are investigated at 300 and 77 K and the luminescence mechanisms are discussed on the basis of energy level schemes that combine the host and the dopant states. Fergusonite BiVO4 is shown to glow in the deep red region at 77 K upon excitation at 450 nm and shorter wavelengths. Host sensitization is demonstrated in Eu(3+)-doped fergusonite BiVO4 and zircon BiVO4 at 77 K, but lost as temperature is raised to 300 K. The origin of this effect is addressed by considering the nature of the host-band edge states and self-quenching processes. The near-UV excited luminescence in the system (Y, Bi)VO4:Pr(3+) (zircon) consists of the yellow bandlike emission of the zircon host and of the characteristic red (1)D2 → (3)H4 emission lines of Pr(3+) in vanadates. The relative contribution of these features can be fine-tuned at room temperature by adjusting the composition of the materials or the excitation wavelength. PMID:25219414

  8. Bi-functional Mo-doped WO3 nanowire array electrochromism-plus electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D; Shi, F; Xie, D; Wang, D H; Xia, X H; Wang, X L; Gu, C D; Tu, J P

    2016-03-01

    Metal-doping is considered to be an effective way for construction of advanced semiconducting metal oxides with tailored physicochemical properties. Herein, Mo-doped WO3 nanowire arrays are rationally fabricated by a sulfate-assisted hydrothermal method. Compared to the pure WO3, the optimized Mo-doped WO3 nanowire arrays exhibit improved electrochromic properties with fast switching speed (3.2s and 2.6s for coloration and bleaching, respectively), significant optical modulation (56.7% at 750nm, 83.0% at 1600nm and 48.5% at 10μm), high coloration efficiency (123.5cm(2)C(-1)) and excellent cycling stability. In addition, as a proof of concept, the Mo-doped WO3 nanowire arrays are demonstrated with electrochemical energy storage monitored by the electrochromism. This electrode design protocol can provide an alternative way for developing high-performance active materials for bi-functional electrochromic batteries. PMID:26669497

  9. Neutron diffraction study of Bi doped cubic spinel Co{sub 2}MnO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Rajeevan, N. E.; Kaushik, S. D.; Kumar, Ravi

    2015-06-24

    Polycrystalline Bi doped spinel Bi{sub x}Co{sub 2-x}MnO{sub 4} compounds were prepared by solid state reaction route. Room temperature neutron diffraction study reveals that all the compounds are formed in cubic phase and there is no change in the crystal structure due to Bi doping and the compound has cubic structure with Fd-3m space group. Cell parameter found to increase with respect to Bi doping and ferrimagnetic nature is established through magnetization. Low temperature neutron diffraction is carried out and emphasis the ferrimagnetic ordering in the samples of Bi{sub x}Co{sub 2-x}MnO{sub 4} series.

  10. Photoelectrochemical performance of W-doped BiVO4 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, S. Keith; Dutter, Melissa R.; Lawrence, David J.; Reisner, Barbara A.; DeVore, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tungsten doping and hydrogen annealing on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photoanodes for solar water splitting were studied. Thin films of BiVO were deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass slides by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate and vanadium oxysulfate. Tungsten doping was achieved by adding either silicotungstic acid (STA) or ammonium metatungstate (AMT) to the precursor. The 1.7- to 2.2-μm-thick films exhibited a highly porous microstructure. Undoped films that were reduced at 375°C in 3% H exhibited the largest photocurrent densities under 0.1 W cm-2 AM1.5 illumination, where photocurrent densities of up to 1.3 mA cm-2 at 0.5 V with respect to Ag/AgCl were achieved. Films doped with 1% or 5% (atomic percent) tungsten from either STA or AMT exhibited reduced PEC performance and greater sample-to-sample performance variations. Powder x-ray diffraction data indicated that the films continue to crystallize in the monoclinic polymorph at low doping levels but crystallize in the tetragonal scheelite structure at higher doping. It is surmised that the phase and morphology differences promoted by the addition of W during the deposition process reduced the PEC performance as measured by photovoltammetry.

  11. Origin of ferromagnetism enhancement in bi-layer chromium-doped indium zinc oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C. Y.

    2012-08-06

    This work demonstrates that by controlling the rapid thermal annealing temperature, amorphous chromium-doped indium zinc oxide films develop an amorphous-crystalline bi-layer structure and show magnetization up to {approx}30 emu/cm{sup 3}. The crystalline layer arises from significant out-diffusion of Zn from surfaces, leading to a large difference in the Zn:In ratio in amorphous and crystalline layers. Doped Cr ions in amorphous and crystalline layers form different valence configurations, creating a charge reservoir which transfers electrons through amorphous-crystalline interfaces and in turn enhances ferromagnetism.

  12. Bi-phasic titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with nitrogen and neodymium for enhanced photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Virginia; Bear, Joseph C.; McNaughter, Paul D.; McGettrick, James D.; Watson, Trystan; Charbonneau, Cecile; O'Brien, Paul; Barron, Andrew R.; Dunnill, Charles W.

    2015-10-01

    Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with ``Janus-like'' characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped particles under white light.Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with ``Janus-like'' characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped

  13. Incommensurate superstructure in heavily doped fullerene layer on Bi/Si(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Matetskiy, A. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Cs adsorption onto the C60-covered Si(111)-β- √{ 3 } × √{ 3 } -Bi reconstruction has been studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. Unexpected increase in apparent size of every second C60 molecule has been detected, hereupon the close packed molecular array almost doubles its periodicity. The change affects only the fullerenes that are in direct contact with the metal-induced reconstruction and takes no place already in the second layer. Photoelectron studies have revealed that this incommensurate "2 × 2" superstructure of a heavily doped C60 monolayer remains in an insulating state regardless of doping level.

  14. A combined method for synthesis of superconducting Cu doped Bi2Se3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Song, Yanru; You, Lixing; Li, Zhuojun; Gao, Bo; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-01-01

    We present a two-step technique for the synthesis of superconducting CuxBi2Se3. Cu0.15Bi2Se3 single crystals were synthesized using the melt-growth method. Although these samples are non-superconducting, they can be employed to generate high quality superconducting samples if used as precursors in the following electrochemical synthesis step. Samples made from Cu0.15Bi2Se3 reliably exhibit zero-resistance even under the non-optimal quenching condition, while samples made from pristine Bi2Se3 require fine tuning of the quenching conditions to achieve similar performance. Moreover, under the optimal quenching condition, the average superconducting shielding fraction was still lower in the samples made from pristine Bi2Se3 than in the samples made from Cu0.15Bi2Se3. These results suggest that the pre-doped Cu atoms facilitate the formation of a superconducting percolation network. We also discuss the useful clues that we gathered about the locations of Cu dopants that are responsible for superconductivity. PMID:26936470

  15. A combined method for synthesis of superconducting Cu doped Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Song, Yanru; You, Lixing; Li, Zhuojun; Gao, Bo; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-03-01

    We present a two-step technique for the synthesis of superconducting CuxBi2Se3. Cu0.15Bi2Se3 single crystals were synthesized using the melt-growth method. Although these samples are non-superconducting, they can be employed to generate high quality superconducting samples if used as precursors in the following electrochemical synthesis step. Samples made from Cu0.15Bi2Se3 reliably exhibit zero-resistance even under the non-optimal quenching condition, while samples made from pristine Bi2Se3 require fine tuning of the quenching conditions to achieve similar performance. Moreover, under the optimal quenching condition, the average superconducting shielding fraction was still lower in the samples made from pristine Bi2Se3 than in the samples made from Cu0.15Bi2Se3. These results suggest that the pre-doped Cu atoms facilitate the formation of a superconducting percolation network. We also discuss the useful clues that we gathered about the locations of Cu dopants that are responsible for superconductivity.

  16. A combined method for synthesis of superconducting Cu doped Bi2Se3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Song, Yanru; You, Lixing; Li, Zhuojun; Gao, Bo; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-01-01

    We present a two-step technique for the synthesis of superconducting CuxBi2Se3. Cu0.15Bi2Se3 single crystals were synthesized using the melt-growth method. Although these samples are non-superconducting, they can be employed to generate high quality superconducting samples if used as precursors in the following electrochemical synthesis step. Samples made from Cu0.15Bi2Se3 reliably exhibit zero-resistance even under the non-optimal quenching condition, while samples made from pristine Bi2Se3 require fine tuning of the quenching conditions to achieve similar performance. Moreover, under the optimal quenching condition, the average superconducting shielding fraction was still lower in the samples made from pristine Bi2Se3 than in the samples made from Cu0.15Bi2Se3. These results suggest that the pre-doped Cu atoms facilitate the formation of a superconducting percolation network. We also discuss the useful clues that we gathered about the locations of Cu dopants that are responsible for superconductivity. PMID:26936470

  17. Effects of stoichiometric doping in superconducting Bi-O-S compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, Corentin; Artacho, Emilio; Dutton, Siân E.; Molnar, Daniel; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Saxena, Siddharth S.

    2015-04-01

    Newly discovered Bi-O-S compounds remain an enigma in attempts to understand their electronic properties. A recent study of Bi4O4S3 has shown it to be a mixture of two phases, Bi2OS2 and Bi3O2S3, the latter being superconducting (Phelan et al 2013 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 5372-4). Using density functional theory, we explore the electronic structure of both the phases and the effect of the introduction of extra BiS2 bilayers. Our results demonstrate that the S2 layers dope the bismuth-sulphur bands and this causes metallisation. The bands at the Fermi level are of clear two-dimensional character. One band manifold is confined to the two adjacent, square-lattice bismuth-sulphur planes, a second manifold is confined to the square lattice of sulphur dimers. We show that the introduction of extra BiS2 bilayers does not influence the electronic structure. Finally, we also show that spin-orbit coupling does not have any significant effect on the states close to the Fermi level at the energy scale considered.

  18. Structural and optical properties of Pr doped BiFeO3 multiferroic ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikash; Subhash, Dwivedi, R. K.; Kumar, Manoj

    2013-02-01

    Pure and Pr substituted BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramics were synthesized by solid state reaction method. X-ray analysis shows the formation of BFO rhombohedral phase with R3c space group. Photoluminescent spectra of pure BFO showed blue emission corresponding to band gap at 2.67 eV. In Pr doped samples in addition to blue emission (2.67eV), a broad weak yellow emission has also been observed due to electronic transitions of dopant Pr3+ states. FTIR spectra showed two broad absorption peaks due to overlapping of Fe-O and Bi-O groups in the region 700 - 400 cm-1. These interesting optical properties of Pr doped BFO samples in visible region may find potential applications in optoelectronic devices.

  19. Synthesis and optical properties of Y3+ doped BiFeO3 multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikash; Sharma, Subhash; Kumar, Manoj; Dwivedi, R. K.

    2013-06-01

    Pure and Y3+ substituted BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramics were synthesized by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns of these samples have shown distorted rhombohedral structure with R3c space group symmetry. Photoluminescent spectra of pure BFO show blue emission corresponding to band-edge emission at 2.53 eV. In Y3+ doped samples in addition to blue emission (2.58eV), a broad weak yellow emission has also been observed due to electronic transitions of dopant Y3+ states. FTIR spectra show two broad absorption peaks due to overlapping of Fe-O and Bi-O groups in the region 380 - 700 cm-1. These interesting optical properties of Y3+ doped BFO samples in visible region may find potential applications in optoelectronic devices.

  20. Complex Boron Redistribution in P+ Doped-polysilicon / Nitrogen Doped Silicon Bi-layers during Activation Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadli, S.; Mansour, F.; Perrera, E. Bedel

    We have investigated and modeled the complex phenomenon of boron (B) redistribution process in strongly doped silicon bilayers structure. A one-dimensional two stream transfer model well adapted to the particular structure of bi- layers and to the effects of strong-concentrations has been developed. This model takes into account the instantaneous kinetics of B transfer, trapping, clustering and segregation during the thermal B activation annealing. The used silicon bi-layers have been obtained by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method, using in-situ nitrogen- doped-silicon (NiDoS) layer and strongly B doped polycrystalline-silicon (P+) layer. To avoid long redistributions, thermal annealing was carried out at relatively lowtemperatures (600 °C and 700 °C) for various times ranging between 30 minutes and 2 hours. The good adjustment of the simulated profiles with the experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) profiles allowed a fundamental understanding about the instantaneous physical phenomena giving and disturbing the complex B redistribution profiles-shoulders kinetics.

  1. Effect of doping in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbar, S. A.; Wong, M. S.; Botelho, M. J.; Sung, Y. M.; Alauddin, M.; Drummer, C. E.; Fair, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the effect of doping on the superconducting transition in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system are reported. Samples were prepared under identical conditions with varying types (Pb, Sb, Sn, Nb) and amounts of dopants. All samples consisted of multiple phases, and showed stable and reproducible superconducting transitions. Stabilization of the well known 110 K phase depends on both the type and amount of dopant. No trace of superconducting phase of 150 K and above was observed.

  2. Enhanced multiferroic characteristics in Fe-doped BiTiO ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. Q.; Yang, F. J.; Cao, W. Q.; Wang, H.; Yang, C. P.; Wang, D. Y.; Chen, K.

    2010-07-01

    Modification of Bi 4Ti 3O 12 multiferroic ceramics prepared by a conventional solid state reaction method were investigated by substituting Ti partly with Fe. The introduction of Fe does not change the layered perovskite structure of Bi 4Ti 3O 12. Upon increasing Fe content, the remnant polarization of the samples is enhanced. The magnetism of the ceramics at room temperature develops from diamagnetism to weak ferromagnetism with increasing Fe doping. The largest variations of 15% and 6% in remnant polarization and magnetization, achieved in a Bi 4Ti 1Fe 2O 12-δ sample after poling it in a magnetic field at 1 T and a DC electric field at 30 kV/cm for 10 min, are evidence of magnetoelectric coupling between the electric dipoles and magnetic dipoles at room temperature. The present results suggest a new candidate for a room temperature multiferroic material with enhanced properties.

  3. Structural and dielectric properties of Nd/Ca co-doped bi-ferrite multiferroics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashwini E-mail: ashu.dhanda@gmail.com; Sharma, Poorva E-mail: ashu.dhanda@gmail.com; Varshney, Dinesh E-mail: ashu.dhanda@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    Single-phase polycrystalline samples of Bi{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2−x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (x = 0.0, 0.1) were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction patterns accompanied by Rietveld-refined crystal structure parameters reveal the phase transition of Bi{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.1}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} with rhombohedral R3c symmetry to triclinic structure of Bi{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} sample. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant (ε') and dielectric loss (tanδ), infers enhancement of both ε' (tanδ) in narrow band gap of Nd/Ca co-doped BFO as compare to wide band pristine BFO.

  4. Atomic-Scale Magnetism of Cr-Doped Bi2Se3 Thin Film Topological Insulators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqing; West, Damien; He, Liang; Xu, Yongbing; Liu, Jun; Wang, Kejie; Wang, Yong; van der Laan, Gerrit; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shengbai; Wang, Kang L

    2015-10-27

    Magnetic doping is the most common method for breaking time-reversal-symmetry surface states of topological insulators (TIs) to realize novel physical phenomena and to create beneficial technological applications. Here we present a study of the magnetic coupling of a prototype magnetic TI, that is, Cr-doped Bi2Se3, in its ultrathin limit which is expected to give rise to quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. The high quality Bi2-xCrxSe3 epitaxial thin film was prepared using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), characterized with scanning transimission electron microscopy (STEM), electrical magnetotransport, and X-ray magnetic circularly dichroism (XMCD) techniques, and the results were simulated using density functional theory (DFT) with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We observed a sizable spin moment mspin = (2.05 ± 0.20) μB/Cr and a small and negative orbital moment morb = (-0.05 ± 0.02) μB/Cr of the Bi1.94Cr0.06Se3 thin film at 2.5 K. A remarkable fraction of the (CrBi-CrI)(3+) antiferromagnetic dimer in the Bi2-xCrxSe3 for 0.02 < x < 0.40 was obtained using first-principles simulations, which was neglected in previous studies. The spontaneous coexistence of ferro- and antiferromagnetic Cr defects in Bi2-xCrxSe3 explains our experimental observations and those based on conventional magnetometry which universally report magnetic moments significantly lower than 3 μB/Cr predicted by Hund's rule. PMID:26348798

  5. Bi-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers emitting in a spectral region of 1.3 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, E M; Firstov, S V; Bufetov, I A; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, A N

    2008-07-31

    A bismuth-doped fibre laser emitting at wavelengths within the second transparency window of silica fibres is fabricated. It is shown that Bi-doped aluminium-free phosphogermanosilicate fibres pumped in the regions of 800 and 1200 nm have the amplification band at 1275-1375 nm. (letters)

  6. Tailoring surface phase transition and magnetic behaviors in BiFeO3 via doping engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Xing, Guozhong; Wang, Rongming; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The charge-spin interactions in multiferroic materials (e.g., BiFeO3) have attracted enormous attention due to their high potential for next generation information electronics. However, the weak and deficient manipulation of charge-spin coupling notoriously limits their commercial applications. To tailor the spontaneous charge and the spin orientation synergistically in BiFeO3 (BFO), in this report, the 3d element of Mn doping engineering is employed and unveils the variation of surface phase transition and magnetic behaviors by introducing chemical strain. The spontaneous ferroelectric response and the corresponding domain structures, magnetic behaviors and spin dynamics in Mn-doped BFO ceramics have been investigated systematically. Both the surface phase transition and magnetization were enhanced in BFO via Mn doping. The interaction between the spontaneous polarization charge and magnetic spin reorientation in Mn-doped BFO are discussed in detail. Moreover, our extensive electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) results demonstrate that the 3d dopant plays a paramount role in the surface phase transition, which provides an alternative route to tune the charge-spin interactions in multiferroic materials. PMID:25774619

  7. Electric modulation of conduction in multiferroic Ca-doped BiFeO3 films

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chan Ho; Seidel, Jan; Kim, S. Y.; Rossen, P. B.; Yu, Pu; Gajek, Martin; Chu, Ying-Hao; Martin, Lane W; Holcromb, M. B.; He, Q; Maksymovych, Petro; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V; Baddorf, Arthur P; Basu, S. R.; Scullin, M. L.; Ramesh, R.

    2009-01-01

    Many interesting materials phenomena such as the emergence of high-T{sub c} superconductivity in the cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in the manganites arise out of a doping-driven competition between energetically similar ground states. Doped multiferroics present a tantalizing evolution of this generic concept of phase competition. Here, we present the observation of an electronic conductor-insulator transition by control of band-filling in the model antiferromagnetic ferroelectric BiFeO{sub 3} through Ca doping. Application of electric field enables us to control and manipulate this electronic transition to the extent that a p-n junction can be created, erased and inverted in this material. A 'dome-like' feature in the doping dependence of the ferroelectric transition is observed around a Ca concentration of {approx} 1/8, where a new pseudo-tetragonal phase appears and the electric modulation of conduction is optimized. Possible mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed on the basis of the interplay of ionic and electronic conduction. This observation opens the door to merging magnetoelectrics and magnetoelectronics at room temperature by combining electronic conduction with electric and magnetic degrees of freedom already present in the multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}.

  8. Tailoring surface phase transition and magnetic behaviors in BiFeO3 via doping engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Feng; Xing, Guozhong; Wang, Rongming; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The charge-spin interactions in multiferroic materials (e.g., BiFeO3) have attracted enormous attention due to their high potential for next generation information electronics. However, the weak and deficient manipulation of charge-spin coupling notoriously limits their commercial applications. To tailor the spontaneous charge and the spin orientation synergistically in BiFeO3 (BFO), in this report, the 3d element of Mn doping engineering is employed and unveils the variation of surface phase transition and magnetic behaviors by introducing chemical strain. The spontaneous ferroelectric response and the corresponding domain structures, magnetic behaviors and spin dynamics in Mn-doped BFO ceramics have been investigated systematically. Both the surface phase transition and magnetization were enhanced in BFO via Mn doping. The interaction between the spontaneous polarization charge and magnetic spin reorientation in Mn-doped BFO are discussed in detail. Moreover, our extensive electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) results demonstrate that the 3d dopant plays a paramount role in the surface phase transition, which provides an alternative route to tune the charge-spin interactions in multiferroic materials. PMID:25774619

  9. Superconductivity enhanced by Se doping in Eu3Bi2(S,Se)4F4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Zhai, H. F.; Tang, Z. J.; Li, L.; Li, Y. K.; Chen, Q.; Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Feng, C. M.; Cao, G. H.; Xu, Z. A.

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the negative-chemical-pressure effect of Eu3Bi2S4-x Se x F4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2.0) by the partial substitution of S with Se. The crystalline lattice substantially expands as Se is doped, suggesting an effective negative chemical pressure. With Se/S doping, the charge-density-wave-like anomaly is suppressed, and meanwhile the superconducting transition temperature (T_c) is enhanced. For x = 2.0 , T c reaches 3.35 K and bulk superconductivity is confirmed by the strong diamagnetic signal, with shielding volume fraction over 90%. Magnetic-susceptibility, specific-heat and Hall-effect measurements reveal that the Se/S doping increases the carrier density, corresponding to the increase of the average Eu valence. Our work provides a rare paradigm of negative-chemical-pressure effect.

  10. Structural transformation and multiferroic properties of Ba-Mn co-doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Jyoshna; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Pure BiFeO3 and Bi1-xBaxFe1-xMnxO3 (x = 0.10, 0.20) fine ceramics were synthesized using mechano-synthesis route. The influence of co-doping (Ba-Mn) on structural and multiferroic properties of BiFeO3 has been studied in different experimental conditions. X-ray diffraction patterns, Rietveld structural refinement of XRD patterns and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra reveal the structural transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to the biphasic structure (R3c + P4mm) on co-doping. The co-doping improves surface morphology and also reduces the particle size. The room temperature M-H loops of all samples showed antiferromagnetic/weak ferromagnetic behavior. Magnetoelectric coupling coefficient determination is carried out to reveal extent of intimate interaction between electric and magnetic dipoles interaction in the samples. Room temperature occurrence of ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric effect supports the observation of multiferroism and magnetoelectric coupling in BiFeO3. Thus, co-doping at Bi- and Fe-sites of BiFeO3 can improve multiferroic properties of BiFeO3 for various applications.

  11. W/Mo co-doped BiVO4 for photocatalytic treatment of polymer-containing wastewater in oilfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Wei; Wan, Wenchao; Zhang, Ruiyang; Lin, Yuanhua

    2015-06-01

    Polymer flooding is an effective way to enhance oil recovery (EOR). However, the treatment of the oily wastewater becomes an urgent issue. Photocatalysis is a promising approach for this purpose. In this report, W/Mo co-doped BiVO4 particles are synthesized by hydrothermal method. W/Mo co-doping could promote an effective separation of photogenerated carriers reflecting from the 6 times higher photocurrent density compared to pure BiVO4. The photodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) over 0.5 at.% W and 1.5 at.% Mo co-doped BiVO4 is 43% under UV-vis light irradiation for 3 h, which is much higher than that of pure BiVO4 (18%).

  12. Research on PEG modified Bi-doping lead dioxide electrode and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weihua; Yang, Wutao; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2012-05-01

    Bi-doping PbO2 electrode, which is called Bi-PbO2 for short, modified with different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was prepared by electrodeposition method in this paper. The microstructure and electrochemical properties of the different modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Mott-Schottky, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry techniques. The results show that adulteration of PEG has a noticeable improvement in the morphology of Bi-PbO2 electrode which can greatly decrease its particle size and enlarge its active surface area. Phenol degradation experiments reveal that the modified electrodes have excellent electro-catalytic activity and stability, and the optimal adulterate concentration of PEG is 8 g L-1. Electrochemical performance tests show that the modified electrodes exhibit more negative flatband potential (Efb), larger adsorption pseudo capacitance, lower adsorption resistance and higher oxygen evolution potential, and these characteristics promote the electro-catalytic activity of the Bi-PbO2 electrode. Finally, accelerated lifetime tests demonstrate that PEG modification can highly lengthen the service life of Bi-PbO2 electrode in its practical application.

  13. Structural, optical and dielectric property of Co doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, Smita Mohapatra, S. R. Sahoo, B. Singh, A. K.

    2014-04-24

    Multiferroic Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} and Co doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} are prepared by solid state route reaction method using bismuth oxide(Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}), iron oxide(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Their structural optical and dielectric properties are studied and compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm that there is no change in crystal structure due to Co doping. From dielectric constant measurement we conclude that dielectric constant increases due to Co doping. UV-Visible plot shows due to Co doping bang gap energy increases.

  14. Interlayer-I-doped BiOIO3 nanoplates with an optimized electronic structure for efficient visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanjuan; Xiong, Ting; Dong, Fan; Huang, Hongwei; Cen, Wanglai

    2016-07-01

    The success in the synthesis of Bi-based layered photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activities has triggered intensive studies. Herein, we prepared interlayer-I-doped BiOIO3 nanoplates by a facile method. Interestingly, it was found that I atoms were doped into the BiOIO3 interlayers instead of substituting for the lattice atoms based on theoretical and experimental results. The interbedded I atoms endowed BiOIO3 with an extended light response from the UV to the visible region by narrowing the bandgap and generating a middle level. The enhanced oxidation capability via positive-shifting the valence band position and improved carrier separation efficiency via forming charge delivery channels at the adjacent two layers can be achieved simultaneously. As expected, I-intercalated BiOIO3 with an optimized electronic structure demonstrated outstanding NO removal ability under visible light irradiation, much superior to pure BiOIO3. The present success in fabricating interlayer-I-doped BiOIO3 would open a promising route to prepare other Bi-based layered semiconductors with efficient visible-light photocatalysis. PMID:27284595

  15. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles and mechanism insight

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Da; Niu, Feng; Wang, Sen; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Gd doping on photocatalytic activity of BiFeO3 (BFO), Gd-doped BFO nanoparticles containing different Gd doping contents (Bi(1−x)GdxFeO3, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were synthesized using a facile sol-gel route. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. It was found that the Gd doping content could significantly affect the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared Gd-doped BFO, and the photocatalytic activity increased with increasing the Gd doping content up to the optimal value and then decreased with further enhancing Gd doping content. To elucidate the enhanced photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO, the trapping experiments, photoluminescence, photocurrent and electrochemical impedance measurements were performed. On the basis of these experimental results, the enhanced photocatalytic activities of Gd-doped BFO could be ascribed to the increased optical absorption, the efficient separation and migration of photogenerated charge carriers as well as the decreased recombination probability of electron-hole pairs derived from the Gd doping effect. Meanwhile, the possible photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO was critically discussed. PMID:27198166

  16. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles and mechanism insight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Da; Niu, Feng; Wang, Sen; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Gd doping on photocatalytic activity of BiFeO3 (BFO), Gd-doped BFO nanoparticles containing different Gd doping contents (Bi(1-x)GdxFeO3, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were synthesized using a facile sol-gel route. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. It was found that the Gd doping content could significantly affect the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared Gd-doped BFO, and the photocatalytic activity increased with increasing the Gd doping content up to the optimal value and then decreased with further enhancing Gd doping content. To elucidate the enhanced photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO, the trapping experiments, photoluminescence, photocurrent and electrochemical impedance measurements were performed. On the basis of these experimental results, the enhanced photocatalytic activities of Gd-doped BFO could be ascribed to the increased optical absorption, the efficient separation and migration of photogenerated charge carriers as well as the decreased recombination probability of electron-hole pairs derived from the Gd doping effect. Meanwhile, the possible photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO was critically discussed. PMID:27198166

  17. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles and mechanism insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Da; Niu, Feng; Wang, Sen; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of Gd doping on photocatalytic activity of BiFeO3 (BFO), Gd-doped BFO nanoparticles containing different Gd doping contents (Bi(1‑x)GdxFeO3, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were synthesized using a facile sol-gel route. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. It was found that the Gd doping content could significantly affect the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared Gd-doped BFO, and the photocatalytic activity increased with increasing the Gd doping content up to the optimal value and then decreased with further enhancing Gd doping content. To elucidate the enhanced photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO, the trapping experiments, photoluminescence, photocurrent and electrochemical impedance measurements were performed. On the basis of these experimental results, the enhanced photocatalytic activities of Gd-doped BFO could be ascribed to the increased optical absorption, the efficient separation and migration of photogenerated charge carriers as well as the decreased recombination probability of electron-hole pairs derived from the Gd doping effect. Meanwhile, the possible photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO was critically discussed.

  18. Synchronously Achieving Plasmonic Bi Metal Deposition and I(-) Doping by Utilizing BiOIO3 as the Self-Sacrificing Template for High-Performance Multifunctional Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shixin; Huang, Hongwei; Dong, Fan; Li, Min; Tian, Na; Zhang, Tierui; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-12-23

    Herein, we uncover simultaneously achieving plasmonic Bi metal deposition and I(-) doping by employing wide-band-gap BiOIO3 as the self-sacrificing template. It was synthesized via a facile NaBH4-assisted in situ reduction route under ambient conditions. The reducing extent as well as photocatalytic levels can be easily modulated by controlling the concentration of NaBH4 solution. It is interesting that the band gap of BiOIO3 can be continuously narrowed by the modification, and the photoresponse range is drastically extended to cover the whole visible region. Bi/I(-) codecorated BiOIO3 not only exhibits profoundly upgraded photoreactivity in comparison with pristine BiOIO3 but also shows universally strong photooxidation properties toward decomposition of multiple industrial contaminants and pharmaceutical, including phenol, 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), bisphenol A (BPA), dye model Rhodamine (RhB), tetracycline hydrochloride, and gaseous NO under visible light (λ ≥ 420 nm) or simulated solar light irradiation. It also outperforms the well-known and important photocatalysts C3N4, BiOBr, and Bi2WO6 for NO removal. The cooperative effects from Bi SPR and I(-) doping endow BiOIO3 with a narrowed band gap and highly boosted separation of charge carriers, thus responsible for the outstanding catalytic activity. The present study provides an absorbing candidate for practical environmental applications and also furthers our understanding of developing high-performance photocatalysts by manipulating manifold strategies in a facile way. PMID:26605639

  19. Shape evolution of Eu-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and their photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xuetang Ge, Yuanxing Li, Bin Fan, Fangling Wang, Fan

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of Eu-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} micro/nanostructure without any additives. • Dopant and doping level affect the shape evolution and photocatalytic activities. • Eu-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} exhibit superior photocatalytic activity in degradation of RhB. - Abstract: Europium-doped bismuth tungstate (Eu-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}) was synthesized via hydrothermal method. The composition, structure, and microstructure of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Depending on the doping level, nanoflakes and 3D hierarchical microspheres were formed. The photocatalytic activities of all products obtained were evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine-B under visible light irradiation. A substantially improved photocatalytic performance of Eu-doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} is achieved. This study demonstrates a simple method that could produce stable photocatalysts with greatly enhanced performance.

  20. Influence of Sodium Fluoride Doping on Thermoelectric Properties of BiCuSeO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novitskii, A. P.; Voronin, A. I.; Usenko, A. A.; Gorshenkov, M. V.; Khovaylo, V. V.; Shvanskaya, L. V.; Burkov, A. T.; Vasiliev, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    We examined the effect of NaF doping on the thermoelectric properties of p-type Bi1- x Na x CuSeO1- x F x ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) synthesized by a facile method combining a solid-state reaction and spark plasma sintering. The substitution of Bi3+ by Na+ and O2- by F- led to an enhancement of electrical conductivity and a slight increase in thermal conductivity, while the Seebeck coefficient was slightly affected by the doping. The power factor (2.12 μW cm-1 K-2 at 923 K) and the low thermal conductivity resulted in the dimensionless figure of merit ZT 0.42 for Bi0.95Na0.05CuSeO0.95F0.05 at 923 K. The obtained results indicated that ZT was not improved by the double substitution at the bismuth and oxygen sites.

  1. The influence of critical current density of Bi-2212 superconductors by defects after Yb-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tianni; Zhang, Cuiping; Guo, Shengwu; Wu, Yifang; Li, Chengshan; Zhou, Lian

    2015-12-01

    Bi2Sr2Ca1-xYbxCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) single crystals with x = 0.000, 0.005, 0.010 and 0.020 have been prepared by self-flux method. The influences of Yb doping on the formation of the dislocations in the lattice structures, as well as the related current carrying capability are investigated. Due to the SQUID measurement and the Bean model calculation, the maximum critical current density (Jc) is obtained when the Yb doping content is x = 0.010, though the Tc and the carrier concentration are not in the optimal region. Based on the HRTEM analyses of the Ca-O and Cu-O2 layers, the optimal dislocation density in the Cu-O2 layers is deduced according to the number of the dislocations per unit area. Besides, the sizes of the dislocations also prove the effectiveness of Yb substitution on the enhancement of the current carrying capability in Bi-2212 single crystals.

  2. Optical spectroscopy of Pr3+-doped γ-BiB3O6 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelisseyev, A.; Isaenko, L.; Korolev, V.; Stoyanovsky, V.; Gets, V.; Naumov, D.; Ilyina, O.

    2013-12-01

    Single crystals of Pr3+-doped γ-BiB3O6 of optical quality were grown. Band gap is 4.16 eV at 80 K, which differs only slightly from that for undoped samples. Pr concentration is 2 × 1020 cm-3 and the dopant is distributed uniformly along the crystal. Absorption cross-section for Pr3+ was estimated to be ˜1 × 10-20 cm2. At X-ray and UV, band-to-band excitation the Pr:γ-BiB3O6 crystals demonstrate an intense emission in the 450 nm broad band, which is related mainly to recombination of self-trapped excitons (STE). A part of energy is transferred radiatively to Pr3+ ions. The STE emission quenches as temperature increases to 250 K with simultaneous decrease of the decay time from 11 μs to 17 ns. Intensity and decay time of the Pr3+ intracenter luminescence with τ ˜ 50 μs at 450 nm excitation do not depend on temperature. Intensity of thermoluminescence in the 150-400 K range quenches 2 orders at Pr doping, and parameters of the traps were estimated. As a result of relatively narrow band gap in γ-BiB3O6:Pr3+, there is no cascade luminescence typical of many wide-band-gap matrices.

  3. Study of Dy-doped Bi2Te3: thin film growth and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S. E.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Zhang, S.-L.; Baker, A. A.; Figueroa, A. I.; Kellock, A. J.; Pushp, A.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Harris, J. S.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2015-06-01

    Breaking the time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in topological insulators (TIs) through ferromagnetic doping is an essential prerequisite for unlocking novel physical phenomena and exploring potential device applications. Here, we report the successful growth of high-quality (DyxBi1-x)2Te3 thin films with Dy concentrations up to x = 0.355 by molecular beam epitaxy. Bulk-sensitive magnetisation studies using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry find paramagnetic behaviour down to 2 K for the entire doping series. The effective magnetic moment, μeff, is strongly doping concentration-dependent and reduces from ˜12.6 μB Dy-1 for x = 0.023 to ˜4.3 μB Dy-1 for x = 0.355. X-ray absorption spectra and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Dy M4,5 edge are employed to provide a deeper insight into the magnetic nature of the Dy3+-doped films. XMCD, measured in surface-sensitive total-electron-yield detection, gives μeff = 4.2 μB Dy-1. The large measured moments make Dy-doped films interesting TI systems in which the TRS may be broken via the proximity effect due to an adjacent ferromagnetic insulator.

  4. Influence of Bi(3+)-doping on the magnetic and Mössbauer properties of spinel cobalt ferrite.

    PubMed

    Gore, Shyam K; Mane, Rajaram S; Naushad, Mu; Jadhav, Santosh S; Zate, Manohar K; Alothman, Z A; Hui, Biz K N

    2015-04-14

    The influence of Bi(3+)-doping on the magnetic and Mössbauer properties of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), wherein the Fe(3+) ions are replaced by the Bi(3+) ions to form CoBixFe2-xO4 ferrites, where x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 or 0.2, has been investigated. The structural and morphological properties of undoped and doped ferrites, synthesized chemically through a self-igniting sol-gel method, are initially screened using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The changes in magnetic moment of ions, their coupling with neighboring ions and cation exchange interactions are confirmed from the Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis. The effect of Bi(3+)-doping on the magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 ferrite is examined from the vibrating sample magnetometry spectra. Saturation magnetization and coercivity values are increased initially and then decreased, as result of Bi(3+)-doping. The obtained results with improved saturation magnetization (from 26.36 to 44.96 emu g(-1)), coercivity (from 1457 to 1863 Oe) and remanence magnetization (from 14.48 to 24.63 emu g(-1)) on 0.1-0.15 mol Bi(3+)-doping of CoBixFe2-xO4 demonstrate the usefulness for magnetic recording and memory devices. PMID:25742879

  5. A comprehensive investigation of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO4 with enhanced photocatalytic performance under sun-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yangyang; Tan, Guoqiang; Dong, Guohua; Ren, Huijun; Xia, Ao

    2016-02-01

    Tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO4 having enhanced photocatalytic activity have been synthesized by a facile microwave hydrothermal method. The structural analysis indicates that Gd doping can induce the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal BiVO4. The reaction results in precursor solutions imply that tetragonal GdVO4 seeds as crystal nucleus are the original and determined incentives to force the formation of tetragonal Gd-BiVO4. The influences of the surface defect, band structure, and BET surface area on the improved photocatalytic activities of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO4 are investigated systematically. The results demonstrate that the more surface oxygen deficiencies as active sites and the excellent mobility and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes are beneficial to the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance of tetragonal Gd-BiVO4. The RhB photodegradation experiments indicate that the contribution of high photocatalytic activities under simulated sun-light is mainly from UV-light region due to the tetragonal structure feature. The best photocatalytic performance is obtained for tetragonal 10 at% Gd-BiVO4, of which the RhB degradation rate can reach to 96% after 120 min simulated sun-light irradiation. The stable tetragonal Gd-BiVO4 with efficient mineralization will be a promising photocatalytic material applied in water purification.

  6. Prediction of the band structures of Bi2Te3-related binary and Sb/Se-doped ternary thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Byungki; Kim, Bong-Seo; Lee, Ji Eun; Joo, Sung-Jae; Min, Bok-Ki; Lee, HeeWoong; Park, Sudong; Oh, Min-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Density functional calculations are performed to study the band structures of Bi2Te3-related binary (Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Se3) and Sb/Se-doped ternary compounds [(Bi1- x Sb x )2Te3 and Bi2(Te1- y Se y )3]. The band gap was found to be increased by Sb doping and to be monotonically increased by Se doping. In ternary compounds, the change in the conduction band structure is more significant as compared to the change in the valence band structure. The band degeneracy of the valence band maximum is maintained at 6 in binaries and ternaries. However, when going from Bi2Te3 to Sb2Te3 (Bi2Se3), the degeneracy of the conduction band minimum is reduced from 6 to 2(1). Based on the results for the band structures, we suggest suitable stoichiometries of ternary compounds for high thermoelectric performance.

  7. Ultrahigh sensitivity of anomalous Hall effect sensor based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ni, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Jiles, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was recently discovered in magnetic element-doped topological insulators (TIs), which promises low power consumption and high efficiency spintronics and electronics. This discovery broadens the family of Hall sensors. In this paper, AHE sensors based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films are studied with two thicknesses (15 and 65 nm). It is found, in both cases, that ultrahigh Hall sensitivity can be obtained in Cr-doped Bi2Te3. Hall sensitivity reaches 1666 Ω/T in the sensor with the 15 nm TI thin film, which is higher than that of the conventional semiconductor HE sensor. The AHE of 65more » nm sensors is even stronger, which causes the sensitivity increasing to 2620 Ω/T. Furthermore, after comparing Cr-doped Bi2Te3 with the previously studied Mn-doped Bi2Te3 TI Hall sensor, the sensitivity of the present AHE sensor shows about 60 times higher in 65 nm sensors. Furthermore, the implementation of AHE sensors based on a magnetic-doped TI thin film indicates that the TIs are good candidates for ultrasensitive AHE sensors.« less

  8. Room temperature multiferroic properties of Eu doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, P.; Yadav, K. L.

    2009-04-01

    We have studied the multiferroic properties of Bi1-xEuxFeO3, x =0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.1 ceramics prepared by conventional solid state reaction method. The substitution of Eu in place of Bi increases the magnetization at room temperature. An anomaly in the dielectric constant is observed at ˜400 °C which corresponds to TN. Room-temperature dielectric polarization-electric field (P-E) curves indicate that higher doped compositions exhibit saturated P-E loops with Pr (remnant polarization) of these BFO-based samples increasing with the degree of Eu modification. As a result, improved multiferroic properties of the Bi0.9Eu0.1FeO3 ceramics with remnant polarization and magnetization (Pr and Mr) of 11 μC/cm2 and 0.0347 emu/g, respectively, were obtained. The evidence of weak ferromagnetism and saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops in Bi1-xEuxFeO3 system at room temperature makes it a good candidate for potential applications.

  9. Effect of biphase on dielectric properties of Bi-doped lead strontium titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. T.; Du, P. Y.; Zhao, Y. L.; Tu, Y.; Dai, J. L.; Weng, W. J.; Han, G. R.; Song, C. L.

    2010-11-01

    Pb 0.4Sr 0.6TiO 3 (PST) thin films doped with various concentration of Bi were prepared by a sol-gel method. The phase status, surface morphology and dielectric properties of these thin films were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance analyzer, respectively. Results showed that the thin films with the maximum dielectric constant and minimum dielectric loss were obtained for x=0.15. For x<0.15, only pure PST perovskite phase were in the thin films. For 0.2< x<0.4, the PST/Bi 2Ti 2O 7 biphase were obtained. The thin films with pure Bi 2Ti 2O 7 pyrochlore phase were obtained for x=0.67. The biphase thin films had high tunability and high figure of merit (FOM). The FOM of PST/Bi 2Ti 2O 7 biphase thin film was about 6 times higher than that thin films formed with pure perovskite phase or pure pyrochlore phase.

  10. Mo-doped BiVO4 photoanodes synthesized by reactive sputtering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Le; Toma, Francesca M; Cooper, Jason K; Lyon, Alan; Lin, Yongjing; Sharp, Ian D; Ager, Joel W

    2015-03-01

    We report a scalable and reproducible method for reactive co-sputtering of Mo-doped BiVO4 thin films with broad compositional control. Optimal photoanode performance is achieved at a Mo concentration of 3 at. %. Incorporation of Mo promotes growth of large grains and reduces majority carrier transport limitations, resulting in maximum AM1.5G photocurrent densities of 3.5 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs. RHE in pH 6.8 buffer solution containing 0.1 M Na2 SO3 as a hole scavenger. Operation as a front-illuminated water oxidation photoanode is achieved by balancing the operational stability, catalytic activity, and parasitic optical absorption of a FeOOH oxygen evolution catalyst. FeOOH/Mo:BiVO4 thin film photoanodes enable water oxidation under the front-side illumination conditions used in integrated tandem water splitting devices. PMID:25705871

  11. Performance analysis of bi-directional broadband passive optical network using erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalaq, Yasser; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2014-09-01

    The broadband passive optical network (BPON) has the ability to support high-speed data, voice, and video services to home and small businesses customers. In this work, the performance of bi-directional BPON is analyzed for both down and up streams traffic cases by the help of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The importance of BPON is reduced cost. Because PBON uses a splitter the cost of the maintenance between the providers and the customers side is suitable. In the proposed research, BPON has been tested by the use of bit error rate (BER) analyzer. BER analyzer realizes maximum Q factor, minimum bit error rate, and eye height.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Bi-doped Mg{sub 2}Si thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fiameni, S.; Battiston, S.; Boldrini, S.; Famengo, A.; Agresti, F.; Barison, S.; Fabrizio, M.

    2012-09-15

    The Mg{sub 2}Si-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion for the middle high range of temperature. They are very attractive as they could replace lead-based compounds due to their low cost and non toxicity. They could also result in thermoelectric generator weight reduction (a key feature for the automotive application field). The high value of thermal conductivity of the silicide-based materials could be reduced by increasing the phonon scattering in the presence of nanosized crystalline grains without heavily interfering with the electrical conductivity of the thermoelectric material. Nanostructured materials were obtained under inert atmosphere through ball milling, thermal treatment and spark plasma sintering processes. In particular, the role of several bismuth doping amounts in Mg{sub 2}Si were investigated (Mg{sub 2}Si:Bi=1:x for x=0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 M ratio). The morphology, the composition and the structure of the samples were characterized by FE-SEM, EDS and XRD analyses after each process step. Moreover, the Seebeck coefficient analyses at high temperature and the electrical and thermal conductivity of the samples are presented in this work. The nanostructuring processes were affect by the MgO amount increase which influenced the thermoelectric properties of the samples mainly by reducing the electrical conductivity. With the aim of further increasing the scattering phenomena by interface or boundary effect, carbon nanostructures named Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns were added to the Mg{sub 2}Si in order to produce a nanocomposite material. The influence of the nanostructured filler on the thermoelectric material properties is also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Figure of merit (ZT) of Bi-doped samples and undoped Mg{sub 2}Si. A maximum ZT value of 0.39 at 600 Degree-Sign C was obtained for the nanocomposite material obtained adding Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns to the Bi 0.02 at% doped silicide. Highlights: Black

  13. Induced Superconductivity In Bi2 Se3 Nanostructures By Anneal Doping Of Palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlack, Jerome T.; Rahman, Atikur; Drichko, Natalia; Markovic, Nina

    Utilizing thermal annealing at temperatures in excess of 100 Celsius we induce superconductivity in Bi2Se3 by palladium doping. Changes in the material structure are analyzed using a combination of AFM, optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The absorption of Pd results in superconductivity in the material with a transition temperature below 1K. The differential conductance as a function of temperature and magnetic field reveals multiple transitions in the material at several applied currents. This work was supported under the National Science Foundation Grant Nos. DGE-1232825 (J.T.M.) and DMR-1106167.

  14. Enhanced Multiferroic Properties of BiFeO3 Ceramics by mo Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, G. Q.; Miao, J.; Xu, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    We have investigated the magnetic and electrical properties of multiferroic BiFe1-xMoxO3 ceramics (BFMO, x = 0.0%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.8%) prepared by the sol-gel method. The phase structure of BFMO samples were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. It was found that the substitution of Mo is responsible for the increasing of the magnetization in BFMO ceramics. Moreover, both dielectric and polarization-electric field properties suggest that the Mo doping could improve the dielectric and ferroelectric properties in BFMO ceramic.

  15. Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy of Nb-doped Bi2Se3 Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurter, C.; Finck, A. D. K.; Qiu, Y.; Huemiller, E.; Weis, A.; Atkinson, J.; Medvedeva, J.; Hor, Y. S.; van Harlingen, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    Doped topological insulators are speculated to realize p-wave superconductivity with unusual low energy quasiparticles, such as surface Andreev bound states. We present point contact spectroscopy of thin exfoliated flakes of Nb-doped Bi2Se3 where superconductivity persists up to ~ 1 K, compared to 3.2 K in bulk crystals. The critical magnetic field is strongly anisotropic, consistent with quasi-2D behavior. Andreev reflection measurements of devices with low resistance contacts result in prominent BTK-like behavior with an enhanced conductance plateau at low bias. For high resistance contacts, we observe a split zero bias conductance anomaly and additional features at the superconducting gap. Our results suggest that this material is a promising platform for studying topological superconductivity. We acknowledge support from Microsoft Project Q.

  16. Effects of Pb doping on structural and electronic properties of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo-Martínez, J. A.; Baquero, R.

    2016-02-01

    Pb doping effect in the Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 compound (Bi2223) on the structural and electronic properties were investigated, using the Local Density (LDA) and Virtual Crystal (VCA) approximations within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT), taking as reference the procedure implemented by Lin et al. (2006) in the Bi2212 compound. Results show that, the incorporation of Pb-dopant in Bi2223 lead a rigid displacement of the Bi/Pb-O bands toward higher energies, with a null contribution at the Fermi level, around the high symmetry point M bar in the irreducible Brillouin zone, for Pb doping concentration equal to or more than 26%, avoiding the presence of the so-called Bi-O pockets in the Fermi surface, in good agreement with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, although a slight metallic character of the Bi-O bonds is still observed which would disagree with some experimental reports. The calculations show that the changes on the structural properties are associated to the presence or absence of the Bi-O pockets in the Fermi surface.

  17. Molecular Doping the Topological Dirac Semimetal Na3Bi across the Charge Neutrality Point with F4-TCNQ.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Mark T; Hellerstedt, Jack; O'Donnell, Kane M; Tadich, Anton; Fuhrer, Michael S

    2016-06-29

    We perform low-temperature transport and high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy on 20 nm thin film topological Dirac semimetal Na3Bi grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate efficient electron depletion ∼10(13) cm(-2) of Na3Bi via vacuum deposition of molecular F4-TCNQ without degrading the sample mobility. For samples with low as-grown n-type doping (1 × 10(12) cm(-2)), F4-TCNQ doping can achieve charge neutrality and even a net p-type doping. Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory are utilized to investigate the behavior of F4-TCNQ on the Na3Bi surface. PMID:27309858

  18. The effect of K-na co-doping on the formation and particle size of Bi-2212 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kır, M. Ebru; Özkurt, Berdan; Aytekin, M. Ersin

    2016-06-01

    Superconducting K-Na co-doped Bi2Sr2KxCa1Cu1.75Na0.25Oy (x=0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25) ceramics are prepared by a solid-state reaction method. It is clearly determined from XRD data that the characteristic peaks of Bi-2212 phase are observed in all samples. The resistivity measurements show that Tc (onset) values is gradually increasing as K content is increased. It is also found that K-Na co-doping influence the grain sizes for Bi-2212 phase significantly. The critical current densities as a function of magnetic field have been calculated from M-H hysteresis loops of samples according to Bean's critical model, indicating that K-Na co-doping cause higher Jc values than the pure ones.

  19. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of the hole-doped Bi2-xKxSr2Co2Oy ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; He, Qinglin; Cao, Ruijuan; Wu, Fang; Hu, Xing; Song, Hongzhang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the influence of K element doping on the thermoelectric properties of the Bi2-xKxSr2Co2Oy (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) samples prepared by the solid-state reaction method were investigated from 333 K to 973 K. It was shown that due to the p-type K doping the electrical resistivity of the doped sample can be reduced remarkably as compared with the undoped sample, especially for the optimum doped sample Bi1.9K0.1Sr2Co2Oy. The Seebeck coefficients of the K doped samples have only a slight decrease as compared with the undoped sample. As a result of the remarkable reduction of the electrical resistivity the power factor of the doped sample have a significant improvement. The thermal conductivity of the samples is depressed due to the defects caused by K doping. As an overall result, the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of the Bi1.9K0.1Sr2Co2Oy sample reaches a maximum value of 0.3 at 973 K, being 93% higher than that of the undoped sample.

  20. Growth of Nucleation Sites on Pd-doped Bi_2Sr_2Ca1 Cu_2O_8+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzoudis, D.; Finnemore, D. K.; Xu, Ming; Balachandran

    1996-03-01

    Enviromental Scanning Electron Microscope has shown evidence that during the growth of Bi_2Sr_2Ca_2Cu_3O_10+δ from mixed powders of Pb-doped Bi_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O_8+δ and other oxides, a dense array of hillocks or mesas grow at the interface between an Ag overlay and Pb doped Bi_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O_8+δ grains. These hillocks develop a texture that looks like ''chicken pox'' during the ramp up to the reaction temperature starting at about 700^circ C and they are about 500 to 1000 nm across and are spaced at about 500 to 1000 nm. If there is no Ag, this texture does not develop. Preliminary measurments indicate that the hillocks are re-crystallization of (Bi,Pb)_2Sr_2Ca_1Cu_2O_8+δ and are definetely not a Pb rich phase

  1. Nanoclusters of CaSe in calcium-doped Bi2Se3 grown by molecular-beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Shang, Panju; Guo, Xin; Zhao, Bao; Dai, Xianqi; Bin, Li; Jia, Jinfeng; Li, Quan; Xie, Maohai

    2016-02-26

    In calcium (Ca) doped Bi2Se3 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy, nanoclusters of CaSe are revealed by high-angle annular dark field imaging and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis using a scanning transmission electron microscope. As the interface between the ordinary insulator CaSe and topological insulator, Bi2Se3, can host topological nontrivial interface state, this represents an interesting material system for further studies. We show by first principles total energy calculations that aggregation of Ca atoms in Bi2Se3 is driven by energy minimization and a preferential intercalation of Ca in the van der Waals gap between quintuple layers of Bi2Se3 induces reordering of atomic stacking and causes an increasing amount of stacking faults in film. The above findings also provide an explanation of less-than-expected electrical carrier (hole) concentrations in Ca-doped samples. PMID:26808586

  2. Nanoclusters of CaSe in calcium-doped Bi2Se3 grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Panju; Guo, Xin; Zhao, Bao; Dai, Xianqi; Bin, Li; Jia, Jinfeng; Li, Quan; Xie, Maohai

    2016-02-01

    In calcium (Ca) doped Bi2Se3 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy, nanoclusters of CaSe are revealed by high-angle annular dark field imaging and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis using a scanning transmission electron microscope. As the interface between the ordinary insulator CaSe and topological insulator, Bi2Se3, can host topological nontrivial interface state, this represents an interesting material system for further studies. We show by first principles total energy calculations that aggregation of Ca atoms in Bi2Se3 is driven by energy minimization and a preferential intercalation of Ca in the van der Waals gap between quintuple layers of Bi2Se3 induces reordering of atomic stacking and causes an increasing amount of stacking faults in film. The above findings also provide an explanation of less-than-expected electrical carrier (hole) concentrations in Ca-doped samples.

  3. Novel behaviors of multiferroic properties in Na-Doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Liu, Weifang; Wu, Ping; Hai, Xiao; Guo, Minchen; Xi, Xiaojuan; Gao, Ju; Wang, Xu; Guo, Feng; Xu, Xunling; Wang, Can; Liu, Guangyao; Chu, Weiguo; Wang, Shouyu

    2014-08-01

    Highly aliovalent Na1+ ions were selected as the dopant to substitute Bi3+ ions in BiFeO3 (BFO) and Bi1-xNaxFeO3 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) nanoparticles prepared via a facile sol-gel method. Weak ferromagnetism and an obvious exchange bias (EB) phenomenon without field cooling were observed in the samples. To establish the presence of EB in the nanoparticles, training effect (TE) data were analyzed using Binek's model. Moreover, with the increase in Na1+ content, the band gap was decreased, while interestingly, the leakage current density was significantly reduced and the smallest leakage current density (~10-7 A cm-2) was observed for the 3% Na-doped BFO. The electrical conduction mechanism of samples was investigated by plotting log J versus log E. Oxygen vacancies decreased with the increase of Na content analyzed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. To further explain the decrease of band gap and leakage current density with the increase of Na content, the interplay of oxygen vacancies and holes was analyzed and a phenomenological qualitative model based on the electronic energy band proposed.Highly aliovalent Na1+ ions were selected as the dopant to substitute Bi3+ ions in BiFeO3 (BFO) and Bi1-xNaxFeO3 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) nanoparticles prepared via a facile sol-gel method. Weak ferromagnetism and an obvious exchange bias (EB) phenomenon without field cooling were observed in the samples. To establish the presence of EB in the nanoparticles, training effect (TE) data were analyzed using Binek's model. Moreover, with the increase in Na1+ content, the band gap was decreased, while interestingly, the leakage current density was significantly reduced and the smallest leakage current density (~10-7 A cm-2) was observed for the 3% Na-doped BFO. The electrical conduction mechanism of samples was investigated by plotting log J versus log E. Oxygen vacancies decreased with the increase of Na content analyzed through X-ray photoelectron

  4. Growth and magnetic properties of Ni-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Liu, L. G.; Zhang, M.; Yang, X. S.

    2016-09-01

    Transition metal doped topological insulators NixBi2-xSe3 were grown by the modified Bridgeman method. Their phase structures, electrical and magnetic transport properties were studied. The lattice constant c decreased with the increasing Ni concentration. All samples are highly c-axis oriented and exhibit weak metallic resistivity. The resistivity increased with both the increasing applied magnetic field and Ni concentration. The resistivity data could be fitted by different formulas below and above 30 K, respectively. The magnetic changed as the Ni dopant concentrations increased, which implied the nickel entering the matrix structure. For the sample with small amount of Ni (x=0.03), a behavior in the curves of temperature dependent of magnetism closely resembled a paramagnet. Bulk ferromagnetism was observed in highly doped samples (x≥0.05) from M(T) data. The samples with (x≥0.05) showed clear hysteresis loops, which suggested the existence of ferromagnetism ordering. All Ni-doped samples are observed with similar weak diamagnetic signals. It was considered that there were three possible origins of ferromagnetism: Ni-Se compound, the interaction of the doped Ni atoms and magnetic contamination.

  5. Synergetic effects of Sr-doped CuBi2O4 catalyst with enhanced photoactivity under UVA- light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Elaziouti, A; Laouedj, N; Bekka, A

    2016-08-01

    Sr-doped CuBi2O4 micro-particles were successively synthesized via a solid-state technique and were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS) techniques. Results show that Sr-doped CuBi2O4 was crystallized with a spinel-type structure and tetragonal crystal system, and the band gap energy was about 1.35 eV. The as-prepared Sr-doped CuBi2O4 treated at 573 °C for 12 h exhibited the highest efficiency, as a result of 97.22 % of CR degradation within 220 min, which is approximately 31 times greater than CR photodegradation when catalyzed by CuBi2O4 (3.13 %) and about 2.3 times superior than that catalyzed by the untreated Sr-doped CuBi2O4 sample (42.08 %). Pseudo-first-order kinetic model gave the best fit, with highest correlation coefficients (R (2) = 0.94-0.97). The Sr-doping and extending reaction time up to 12 h could be effective in producing Sr-doped CuBi2O4 materials that delay electron-hole recombination, thereby increasing the lifetime of the electron electron-hole separation and support the charge carrier transfer to the catalyst surface. On the basis of the calculated energy band positions, superoxide radical anions (O2 (•-)) were the main oxidative species responsible for the photocatalytic degradation of CR dye solution. PMID:26150294

  6. Investigation of transport mechanisms in Bi doped Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films for phase change memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarenko, Petr I.; Sherchenkov, Alexey A.; Kozyukhin, Sergey S.; Shtern, Maxim Y.; Timoshenkov, Sergey P.; Gromov, Dmitry G.; Redichev, Evgeniy N.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of Bi doping on the charge carrier transport mechanism in GST225 thin films was investigated. The three regions with different current-voltage dependencies were established. The energy diagrams for Bi doped GST225 thin films for different regions were analyzed. Analysis of experimental data showed that space charge limited current is the most possible explanation for the nonlinear I-V dependence in the middle electrical field strength (103 < E < 104 V/cm). Position of the trap levels (Et) controlling transport mechanism, and density of traps (Nt) were estimated with using of Rose and Lampert theories. It was established that Bi doping can significantly change I-V characteristic, resistivity, mobility gap, Urbach energy, density distribution of localized states, and activation energy of conductivity. The most pronounced modification of current-voltage characteristic and parameters of the thin films was established for GST225 + 0,5 wt. % Bi. Thus, doping of Ge2Sb2Te5 by Bi expands the range of material properties, which is important for the optimization of PCM technology.

  7. Sb- and Bi-doped Mg2Si: location of the dopants, micro- and nanostructures, electronic structures and thermoelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Farahi, Nader; VanZant, Mathew; Zhao, Jianbao; Tse, John S; Prabhudev, Sagar; Botton, Gianluigi A; Salvador, James R; Borondics, Ferenc; Liu, Zhenxian; Kleinke, Holger

    2014-10-28

    Due to increasing global energy concerns, alternative sustainable methods to create energy such as thermoelectric energy conversion have become increasingly important. Originally, research into thermoelectric materials was focused on tellurides of bismuth and lead because of the exemplary thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 and PbTe. These materials, however, contain toxic lead and tellurium, which is also scarce and thus expensive. A viable alternative material may exist in Mg2Si, which needs to be doped and alloyed in order to achieve reasonable thermoelectric efficiency. Doping is a major problem, as p-type doping has thus far not produced competitive efficiencies, and n-type doping is problematic because of the low solubility of the typical dopants Sb and Bi. This investigation shows experimentally that these dopants can indeed replace Si in the crystal lattice, and excess Sb and Bi atoms are present in the grain boundaries in the form of Mg3Sb2 and Mg3Bi2. As a consequence, the carrier concentration is lower than the formal Sb/Bi concentration suggests, and the thermal conductivity is significantly reduced. DFT calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data, including the band gap and the Seebeck coefficient. Overall, this results in competitive efficiencies despite the low carrier concentration. While ball-milling was previously shown to enhance the solubility of the dopants and thus the carrier concentration, this did not lead to enhanced thermoelectric properties. PMID:25005794

  8. Ferroelectric memristor based on Pt/BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhongqiang; Li, Qian; Li, Meiya; Wang, Qiangwen; Zhu, Yongdan; Liu, Xiaolian; Zhao, Xingzhong; Liu, Yun; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-03-01

    We report a continuously tunable resistive switching behavior in Pt/BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterostructure for ferroelectric memristor application. The resistance of this memristor can be tuned up to 5 × 105% by applying voltage pulses at room temperature, which exhibits excellent retention and anti-fatigue characteristics. The observed memristive behavior is attributed to the modulation effect of the ferroelectric polarization reversal on the width of depletion region and the height of potential barrier of the p-n junction formed at the BiFeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 interface.

  9. Ferromagnetism and topological surface states of manganese doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}: Insights from density-functional calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanchang; Zou, Xiaolong; Li, Jia; Zhou, Gang

    2014-03-28

    Based on first-principles calculations, the electronic, magnetic, and topological characters of manganese (Mn) doped topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. The Mn substitutionally doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, where Mn atoms tend to be uniformly distributed, was shown to be p-type ferromagnetic, arising from hole-mediated Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction. Mn doping leads to an intrinsic band splitting at Γ point, which is substantially different from that of nonmagnetic dopant. The topological surface state of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is indeed gapped by Mn doping; however, the bulk conductance limits the appearance of an insulating state. Moreover, the n-type doping behavior of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is derived from Mn entering into the van der Waals gap of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}.

  10. Flowerlike C-doped BiOCl nanostructures: Facile wet chemical fabrication and enhanced UV photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiahui; Wei, Bo; Zhu, Lin; Gao, Hong; Sun, Wenjun; Xu, Lingling

    2013-11-01

    3D-flowerlike C-doped bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) hierarchical structures have been synthesized through a facile, low temperature wet-chemical method using polyacrylamide (PAM) as both chelating and doping agents. The flowerlike products are composed of nanosheets, as verified by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystal structure and compositional characteristics were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photocatalytic activities of C-doped BiOCl samples with different amounts of PAM adding were investigated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye and colorless phonel contaminant under ultra-violet light irradiation. The as-prepared C-doped BiOCl exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than the pure one. Moreover, the best performance of the photo-degradation was observed on the sample synthesized by 0.4 g PAM adding. The results show that C-doped BiOCl can be used as a promising candidate for water-purification.

  11. Photoinduced electrical properties of Mn-doped BiFeO3 thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Sakamoto, Wataru; Moriya, Makoto; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2014-09-01

    Polycrystalline Mn-doped BiFeO3 thin films with a relatively narrow band gap were prepared on Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si and MgO(100) substrates by chemical solution deposition. Their photoinduced electrical properties under visible light irradiation (400-700 nm) were characterized. The rapid on/off response of the photocurrent to light in unpoled BiFeO3-based thin films was demonstrated. From the direction of the electric current, the internal bias electric field caused by the space charge distribution in the unpoled film is considered to have an important effect on photocurrent generation and photovoltaic phenomena. Although Mn doping did not greatly affect the band gap and ferroelectric remanent polarization, it had an influence on the photocurrent behavior and photovoltaic properties. The magnitude of the photoinduced current of the film decreased with increasing Mn doping. In this case, the energy level created in BiFeO3 by Mn doping traps carriers generated by photoexcitation. The interfacial state between the thin film and the top or bottom electrode and the electrical resistivity at low applied voltages were also found to be related to the photoinduced behavior of the Mn-doped BiFeO3 thin films.

  12. Strong red emission in Pr doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haiqin; Peng, Dengfeng; Wang, Xusheng; Tang, Mianmian; Zhang, Qiwei; Yao, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The photoluminescence of Pr doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ferroelectric ceramics prepared by conventional solid-state reaction were investigated. A bright red emission is observed at room temperature, which ascribed to 1D2→3H4 transition. The excitation bands are mainly located at 440 ˜ 505 nm, which is adaptable to the emission band of commercial blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) chips. The optimal emission intensity was also obtained when Pr doping level was 0.003 mol. Meanwhile, the enhanced ferroelectric properties were obtained by Pr doping. The results show that Pr doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 ceramics as a multifunctional material may be useful for white LEDs, sensor, and optical-electro integration.

  13. Enhanced stability of Bi-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 amorphous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyussembayev, S.; Prikhodko, O.; Tsendin, K.; Timoshenkov, S.; Korobova, N.

    2014-09-01

    Although, several reviews have appeared on various physical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses, there is no thorough study of local atomic structure and its modification for eutectic Ge-Sb-Te alloys doped with Bi. Ge2Sb2Te5 pure and Bi-doped films were deposited by ion-plasma sputtering method of synthesized GTS material on Si (100) and glass substrates coated with a conductive Al layer which was used as a bottom electrode. Current-voltage characteristics of different points of the same samples have been measured. Random distribution of inclusions within the sample made it possible to investigate the dependence of switching and memory effects on the phase composition at a constant value of other parameters. Measurements in the current controlled mode clearly showed that the memory state formation voltage does not depend on current in a wide range. Results indicate that the development of imaging technologies phase memory cells need to pay special attention to the conditions of Ge-Sb-Te film preparation. To increase the number of cycles "write - erase" should be additional prolonged annealing of the synthesized films.

  14. Strain-modulated ferromagnetism and band gap of Mn doped Bi2Se3

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Shifei; Yang, Hualing; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yingping; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The quantized anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) have been theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed in magnetic topological insulators (TI), but dissipative channels resulted by small-size band gap and weak ferromagnetism make QAHE be measured only at extremely low temperature (<0.1 K). Through density functional theory calculations, we systemically study of the magnetic properties and electronic structures of Mn doped Bi2Se3 with in-plane and out-of-plane strains. It is found that out-of-plane tensile strain not only improve ferromagnetism, but also enlarge Dirac-mass gap (up to 65.6 meV under 6% strain, which is higher than the thermal motion energy at room temperature ~26 meV) in the Mn doped Bi2Se3. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of these tunable properties are also discussed. This work provides a new route to realize high-temperature QAHE and paves the way towards novel quantum electronic device applications. PMID:27374782

  15. Strain-modulated ferromagnetism and band gap of Mn doped Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shifei; Yang, Hualing; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yingping; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-07-01

    The quantized anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) have been theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed in magnetic topological insulators (TI), but dissipative channels resulted by small-size band gap and weak ferromagnetism make QAHE be measured only at extremely low temperature (<0.1 K). Through density functional theory calculations, we systemically study of the magnetic properties and electronic structures of Mn doped Bi2Se3 with in-plane and out-of-plane strains. It is found that out-of-plane tensile strain not only improve ferromagnetism, but also enlarge Dirac-mass gap (up to 65.6 meV under 6% strain, which is higher than the thermal motion energy at room temperature ~26 meV) in the Mn doped Bi2Se3. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of these tunable properties are also discussed. This work provides a new route to realize high-temperature QAHE and paves the way towards novel quantum electronic device applications.

  16. Strain-modulated ferromagnetism and band gap of Mn doped Bi2Se3.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shifei; Yang, Hualing; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yingping; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The quantized anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) have been theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed in magnetic topological insulators (TI), but dissipative channels resulted by small-size band gap and weak ferromagnetism make QAHE be measured only at extremely low temperature (<0.1 K). Through density functional theory calculations, we systemically study of the magnetic properties and electronic structures of Mn doped Bi2Se3 with in-plane and out-of-plane strains. It is found that out-of-plane tensile strain not only improve ferromagnetism, but also enlarge Dirac-mass gap (up to 65.6 meV under 6% strain, which is higher than the thermal motion energy at room temperature ~26 meV) in the Mn doped Bi2Se3. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of these tunable properties are also discussed. This work provides a new route to realize high-temperature QAHE and paves the way towards novel quantum electronic device applications. PMID:27374782

  17. Atomic-level structural and chemical analysis of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, A.; Kepaptsoglou, D.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Ramasse, Q.; Hesjedal, T.; Lazarov, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the structure and chemical composition of the Cr-doped 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3. Single-crystalline thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001), and their structural and chemical properties determined on an atomic level by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. A regular quintuple layer stacking of the Bi2Se3 film is found, with the exception of the first several atomic layers in the initial growth. The spectroscopy data gives direct evidence that Cr is preferentially substituting for Bi in the Bi2Se3 host. We also show that Cr has a tendency to segregate at internal grain boundaries of the Bi2Se3 film. PMID:27221782

  18. Atomic-level structural and chemical analysis of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, A; Kepaptsoglou, D; Collins-McIntyre, L J; Ramasse, Q; Hesjedal, T; Lazarov, V K

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the structure and chemical composition of the Cr-doped 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3. Single-crystalline thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001), and their structural and chemical properties determined on an atomic level by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. A regular quintuple layer stacking of the Bi2Se3 film is found, with the exception of the first several atomic layers in the initial growth. The spectroscopy data gives direct evidence that Cr is preferentially substituting for Bi in the Bi2Se3 host. We also show that Cr has a tendency to segregate at internal grain boundaries of the Bi2Se3 film. PMID:27221782

  19. Atomic-level structural and chemical analysis of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, A.; Kepaptsoglou, D.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Ramasse, Q.; Hesjedal, T.; Lazarov, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of the structure and chemical composition of the Cr-doped 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3. Single-crystalline thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3 (0001), and their structural and chemical properties determined on an atomic level by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. A regular quintuple layer stacking of the Bi2Se3 film is found, with the exception of the first several atomic layers in the initial growth. The spectroscopy data gives direct evidence that Cr is preferentially substituting for Bi in the Bi2Se3 host. We also show that Cr has a tendency to segregate at internal grain boundaries of the Bi2Se3 film.

  20. Optimization of excess Bi doping to enhance ferroic orders of spin casted BiFeO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Surbhi; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika; James, A. R.; Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar

    2014-06-21

    Multiferroic Bismuth Ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) thin films with varying excess bismuth (Bi) concentration were grown by chemical solution deposition technique. Room temperature multiferroic properties (ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and piezoelectricity) of the deposited BiFeO{sub 3} thin films have been studied. High resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal that the dominant phases formed in the prepared samples change continuously from a mixture of BiFeO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to pure BiFeO{sub 3} phase and, subsequently, to a mixture of BiFeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with increase in the concentration of excess Bi from 0% to 15%. BiFeO{sub 3} thin films having low content (0% and 2%) of excess Bi showed the traces of ferromagnetic phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Deterioration in ferroic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films is also observed when prepared with higher content (15%) of excess Bi. Single-phased BiFeO{sub 3} thin film prepared with 5% excess Bi concentration exhibited the soft ferromagnetic hysteresis loops and ferroelectric characteristics with remnant polarization 4.2 μC/cm{sup 2} and saturation magnetization 11.66 emu/g. The switching of fine spontaneous domains with applied dc bias has been observed using piezoresponse force microscopy in BiFeO{sub 3} thin films having 5% excess Bi. The results are important to identify optimum excess Bi concentration needed for the formation of single phase BiFeO{sub 3} thin films exhibiting the improved multiferroic properties.

  1. Enhanced ferromagnetic properties in Ho and Ni co-doped BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. S.; Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, J. S.; Kang, J.-H.; Lee, B. W.; Lee, Y. P.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline Bi1-xHoxFe1-yNiyO3 (x = 0, 0.1; y = 0, 0.03), which were prepared by the solid-state method, have been investigated. The powder X-ray diffraction reveals that all the samples are polycrystalline and show rhombohedral perovskite structure. The micro-Raman scattering studies confirm that Bi0.9Ho0.1Fe0.97Ni0.03O3 has a compressive lattice distortion induced by the simultaneous substitution of Ho and Ni ions at A and B-sites, respectively. From the magnetization dependences at room temperature, Bi0.9Ho0.1Fe0.97Ni0.03O3 has enhanced magnetization (0.2280 emu/g) and low coercive field (280 Oe). It was revealed that the Ni dopant plays an important role for the improved ferromagnetic properties and the Ho dopant favors the magnetic exchange interactions in the co-doped ceramic.

  2. Structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of Sr and V doped BiFeO3 multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, Reetu; Agarwal, Ashish; Sanghi, Sujata; Hooda, Ashima; Godara, Priyanka

    2015-07-01

    Bi0.85Sr0.15FeO3 (BSFO), Bi0.85Sr0.15Fe0.97V0.03O3 (BSFVO1) and Bi0.85Sr0.15Fe0.95V0.05O3 (BSFVO2) ceramics were synthesized by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction studies and Rietveld refinement results indicate that all the samples crystallized in rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure. The remnant magnetization and coercive field of BSFVO2 were greatly enhanced in comparison with BSFO. The enhancement of remnant magnetization was attributed to collapse of the spiral spin structure caused by change in bond length and bond angles of BSFO on V substitution. The enhanced value of coercive field might be attributed to decreased grain size with V substitution. BSFO sample shows dispersion in dielectric constant (έ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) values in lower frequency region. With V doping this dispersion is reduced resulting in frequency independent region. Dielectric anomaly peak due to charge defects in BSFO sample is also suppressed significantly on V substitution. BSFVO2 sample shows almost temperature stable behavior in έ and tan δ in the studied temperature range. Temperature dependence of index 's' of power law suggests that overlapping large polaron tunneling model is applicable for describing the conduction mechanism in BSFO sample while small polaron tunneling model is appropriate for BSFVO1 and BSFVO2 samples in the studied temperature range.

  3. A new molecular precursor route for the synthesis of Bi-Y, Y-Nb and Bi-doped Y-Nb oxides at moderate temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bayot, D.A.; Dupont, A.M.; Devillers, Michel M.

    2007-03-15

    Yttrium-based multimetallic oxides containing bismuth and/or niobium were prepared by a method starting from pre-isolated stable water-soluble precursors which are complexes with the ethylenediaminetetraacetate ligand (edta). The cubic Bi{sub 1-} {sub x} Y {sub x} O{sub 1.5} (x=0.22, 0.25 and 0.3) and Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} oxides were obtained in a pure form in a range of moderate temperatures (600-650 deg. C). This preparation method also allowed to stabilize at room temperature, without quenching, the tetragonal YNbO{sub 4} oxide in a distorted form (T'-phase) by calcining the precursor at 800 deg. C. When heated up to 1000 deg. C, this metastable T'-phase transforms into the metastable 'high-temperature' T oxide, which converts on cooling down to room temperature into the thermodynamically stable monoclinic M oxide. Doping the YNbO{sub 4} oxide with Bi{sup 3+} cations (0.5% and 1% Bi with respect to total Bi+Y amount) led at 800 deg. C to a mixture of the T'-phase and the thermodynamically stable monoclinic one. At 900 deg. C, the almost pure monoclinic structure was obtained. - Graphical abstract: Bi-Y, Nb-Y and Bi-doped Nb-Y oxides were prepared by a molecular precursors method from pre-isolated water-soluble edta-based complexes. The cubic Bi{sub 1-} {sub x} Y {sub x} O{sub 1.5} and Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} oxides were obtained in a pure form at the moderate temperature of 650 deg. C. A distorted tetragonal YNbO{sub 4} phase was also stabilized at room temperature by calcining the precursor at 800 deg. C, and the pure corresponding monoclinic oxide has been obtained near 1100 deg. C.

  4. Identifying Antisite and Vacancy Defects in n-doped Bi2Se3 Topological Insulators from Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and First Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jeong Heum; Park, Joon-Suh; Kim, Howon; Jang, Won Jun; Han, Jinhee; Lee, Hyungjun; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Kahng, Se-Jong

    2014-03-01

    Intrinsic defects are the major sources of n-type doping character in Bi2Se3 topological insulators, but their structural nature remains unsettled; Theoretical calculations predicted that SeBi antisite was the most preferred under Se-rich, i.e. molecular beam epitaxy conditions, but there has been no report on its experimental observation. Here, we present our energy-dependent atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images for intrinsic defects obtained from Bi2Se3 thin films grown under Se-rich conditions. We observed two types of defects, and identified them as SeBi antisite and Bi vacancy located at Bi layer right below surface Se layer, by comparing experimental STM images with the simulated ones obtained from first principles calculations. Our study shows that, in agreement with previous predictions, not Se-vacancy at surface but SeBi antisite is the origin of n-type doping in our Bi2Se3.

  5. Microstructure and interfacial chemistry of pure and La-doped BiFeO₃ thin films.

    PubMed

    Basu, Joysurya; Katoch, Rajesh; Garg, Ashish; Barry Carter, C

    2013-12-01

    We report on the microstructure and interfacial chemistry of thin films of pure and La-doped multiferroic bismuth ferrite (Bi1-x Lax FeO3 or BLFO), synthesized on Indium Tin Oxide-coated glass substrates by solution-deposition technique and studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Our results show that undoped and La-doped thin films are polycrystalline with distorted rhombohedral structure without any presence of any line or planar defect in the films. In addition, the films with La doping did not show any structural change and maintain the equilibrium structure. Cross section compositional analysis using X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry did not reveal either any interdiffusion of chemical species or formation of reaction product at the film-substrate interface. However, a closer examination of the microstructure of the films shows tiny pores along with the presence of approximately 2-3 nm thin amorphous layers, which may have significant influence on the functional properties of such films. PMID:24133020

  6. Optical Temperature Sensor Through Upconversion Emission from the Er3+ Doped SrBi8Ti7O27 Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hua; Wang, Xusheng; Hu, Yifeng; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Sui, Yongxing; Song, Zhitang

    2016-06-01

    Er doped SrBi8Ti7O27 (SBT) ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by a solid-state reaction technique. By Er doping, the intensive green upconversion emissions were recorded under 980 nm diode laser excitation with 20 mW. The fluorescence spectrum was investigated in the temperature range of 150-580 K. By the fluorescence intensity ratio technique, the green emission band was studied as a function of temperature with a maximum sensing sensitivity of 0.0028 at 510 K. These results indicate that the Er doped SBT ferroelectric ceramics are promising multifunctional sensing materials.

  7. Bi-Sn alloy catalyst for simultaneous morphology and doping control of silicon nanowires in radial junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhongwei; Lu, Jiawen; Qian, Shengyi; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Wang, Junzhuan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Yu, Linwei E-mail: linwei.yu@polytechnique.edu

    2015-10-19

    Low-melting point metals such as bismuth (Bi) and tin (Sn) are ideal choices for mediating a low temperature growth of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) for radial junction thin film solar cells. The incorporation of Bi catalyst atoms leads to sufficient n-type doping in the SiNWs core that exempts the use of hazardous dopant gases, while an easy morphology control with pure Bi catalyst has never been demonstrated so far. We here propose a Bi-Sn alloy catalyst strategy to achieve both a beneficial catalyst-doping and an ideal SiNW morphology control. In addition to a potential of further growth temperature reduction, we show that the alloy catalyst can remain quite stable during a vapor-liquid-solid growth, while providing still sufficient n-type catalyst-doping to the SiNWs. Radial junction solar cells constructed over the alloy-catalyzed SiNWs have demonstrated a strongly enhanced photocurrent generation, thanks to optimized nanowire morphology, and largely improved performance compared to the reference samples based on the pure Bi or Sn-catalyzed SiNWs.

  8. Magnetic Cr doping of Bi2Se3: Evidence for divalent Cr from x-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, A. I.; van der Laan, G.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Zhang, S.-L.; Baker, A. A.; Harrison, S. E.; Schönherr, P.; Cibin, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ferromagnetically doped topological insulators with broken time-reversal symmetry are a prerequisite for observing the quantum anomalous Hall effect. Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2(Se,Te)3 is the most successful materials system so far, as it combines ferromagnetic ordering with acceptable levels of additional bulk doping. Here, we report a study of the local electronic structure of Cr dopants in epitaxially grown Bi2Se3 thin films. Contrary to the established view that the Cr dopant is trivalent because it substitutionally replaces Bi3+, we find instead that Cr is divalent. This is evidenced by the energy positions of the Cr K and L2,3 absorption edges relative to reference samples. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure at the K edge shows that the Cr dopants substitute on octahedral sites with the surrounding Se ions contracted by Δd =-0.36 Å, in agreement with recent band structure calculations. Comparison of the Cr L2,3 x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at T =5 K with multiplet calculations gives a spin moment of 3.64 μB/Crbulk, which is close to the saturation moment for Cr2+ d4. The reduced Cr oxidation state in doped Bi2Se3 is ascribed to the formation of a covalent bond between Cr d (eg) and Se p orbitals, which is favored by the contraction of the Cr-Se distances.

  9. Change of the Surface Structure by F Doping in BiS2-Based Superconductor CeO1-xFxBiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, S.; Fujisawa, Y.; Machida, T.; Nagao, M.; Takano, Y.; Sakata, H.

    The observation of the surface structure on single crystalline CeO1-xFxBiS2 (x = 0.5, and 0.7) was performed successfully using a scanning tunneling microscopy. In the sample with x = 0.5, the square lattice composed of Bi atoms was observed. In addition, defects of the surface atoms and streaks were detected on the surface as in the case of NdO0.7F0.3BiS2 single crystal. With further F doping, the surface structure of sample with x = 0.7 showed a novel structure, termed by the "bone" structure. This result suggests that the F concentration affects the surface structure.

  10. Fermiology of possible topological superconductor Tl0.5Bi2Te3 derived from hole-doped topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, C. X.; Wang, Z.; Takane, D.; Nakayama, K.; Souma, S.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Taskin, A. A.; Ando, Yoichi

    2016-06-01

    We have performed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on Tl0.5Bi2Te3 , a possible topological superconductor derived from Bi2Te3 . We found that the bulk Fermi surface consists of multiple three-dimensional hole pockets surrounding the Z point, produced by the direct hole doping into the valence band. The Dirac-cone surface state is well isolated from the bulk bands, and the surface chemical potential is variable in the entire band-gap range. Tl0.5Bi2Te3 thus provides an excellent platform to realize two-dimensional topological superconductivity through a proximity effect from the superconducting bulk. Also, the observed Fermi-surface topology provides a concrete basis for constructing theoretical models for bulk topological superconductivity in hole-doped topological insulators.

  11. Synthetic conditions and their doping effect on {Beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}.

    SciTech Connect

    Kyratsi, Th.; Kika, I.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Chrissafis, K.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2009-04-01

    In this work the synthetic conditions for K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} and their effect on its thermoelectric properties were investigated. K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} was prepared as a single phase using K{sub 2}Se and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} as starting materials in a furnace or via a reaction using direct flame, followed by remelting or annealing. Seebeck coefficient measurements showed that the doping level in the material is sensitive to the synthetic conditions. Higher synthesis temperatures as well as the flame reaction technique followed by annealing gave more homogenous samples with higher Seebeck coefficient. IR optical spectroscopic measurements showed a wide range of doping level achieved among the different synthetic conditions. These findings suggest that synthetic conditions can act as a useful tool for the optimization of the thermoelectric properties of these materials.

  12. Electronic and transport properties of the Mn-doped topological insulator Bi2Te3 : A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carva, K.; Kudrnovský, J.; Máca, F.; Drchal, V.; Turek, I.; Baláž, P.; Tkáč, V.; Holý, V.; Sechovský, V.; Honolka, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a first-principles study of the electronic, magnetic, and transport properties of the topological insulator Bi2Te3 doped with Mn atoms in substitutional (MnBi) and interstitial van der Waals gap positions (Mni), which act as acceptors and donors, respectively. The effect of native BiTe- and TeBi-antisite defects and their influence on calculated electronic transport properties is also investigated. We have studied four models representing typical cases, namely, (i) Bi2Te3 with and without native defects, (ii) MnBi defects with and without native defects, (iii) the same, but for Mni defects, and (iv) the combined presence of MnBi and Mni. It has been found that lattice relaxations around MnBi defects play an important role for both magnetic and transport properties. The resistivity is strongly influenced by the amount of carriers, their type, and by the relative positions of the Mn-impurity energy levels and the Fermi energy. Our results suggest strategies to tune bulk resistivities and also clarify the location of Mn atoms in samples. Calculations indicate that at least two of the considered defects have to be present simultaneously in order to explain the experimental observations, and the role of interstitials may be more important than expected.

  13. Simultaneous enhancement of magnetic and ferroelectric properties in Dy and Cr co-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mao, Weiwei; Wang, Xingfu; Chu, Liang; Zhu, Yiyi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing'ao; Huang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO), Bi0.95Dy0.05FeO3 and Bi0.95Dy0.05Fe0.95Cr0.05O3 samples were successfully synthesized by a carbon microsphere-assisted sol-gel (CSG) method. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed a lattice distortion from a rhombohedral structure to a tetragonal structure upon doping Dy and Cr in BFO. The morphology of BFO and doped BFO could be effectively controlled to form nanoparticles, due to the nucleation sites of the carbon microspheres. The co-doping of Dy and Cr in BFO had a significant improvement effect on the magnetic properties, with the remnant magnetization being 0.557 emu g(-1), due to the structural phase transition, size effects and the strong ferromagnetic interaction between Fe(3+)-O-Cr(3+) ions arising from Cr substitution. Meanwhile, the doping of Dy into BFO effectively reduced the leakage current and enhanced the ferroelectric properties. The simultaneous enhancement of magnetic and ferroelectric properties shows the great potential application of Dy- and Cr-co-doped BFO in future multifunctional devices. PMID:26862599

  14. Improvement and luminescent mechanism of Bi4Si3O12 scintillation crystals by Dy3+ doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bobo; Xu, Jiayue; Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Haibo; Tian, Tian; Chu, Yaoqing; Pan, Yubai; Cui, Qingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Bi4Si3O12:Dy (BSO:Dy) crystals have been grown by the modified vertical Bridgeman method and doping effects on light yield have been investigated. Doped with small amount of Dy2O3 (0.05-0.3 mol%), the light yield and energy resolution of BSO crystals were improved significantly. However, high concentrations of Dy2O3 doping resulted in the decrease of light yield. Pulse height measurement under γ-ray irradiation shows that 0.1 mol% Dy2O3 doping can make the relative light yield of BSO from 24.6% to 35.8% of BGO crystal, with fast decay time of ~90 ns. X-ray excited radioluminescence spectra showed Dy doping has an extra emission in the host emission band (Bi3+ emission) and acts as a sensitizer to the Bi luminescent center. These results indicate that BSO:Dy crystal could be one of promising candidates for replacing BGO in some application such as electromagnetic calorimeter and dual readout in nuclear or high energy physics.

  15. Effects of Bi doping on structural and magnetic properties of double perovskite oxides Sr2FeMoO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yaohai; Feng, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xin; Shen, Yifu; Wang, Ding

    2016-08-01

    A new series of double perovskite compounds Sr2 - δBixFeMoO6 have been synthesized by solid-state reaction. δ refers to the nominal doping content of Bi (δ = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5), while the Bi content obtained by the Rietveld refinement is x = 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.12. Their crystal structure and magnetic properties are investigated. Rietveld analysis of the room temperature XRD data shows all the samples crystallize in the cubic crystal structure with the space group Fm 3 ‾ m and have no phase transition. SEM images show that substituted samples present a denser microstructure and bigger grains than Sr2FeMoO6, which is caused by a liquid sintering process due to the effumability of Bi. The unit cell volume increases with augment of Bi3+ concentration despite the smaller ionic radius Bi3+ compared with the Sr2+, which is attributed to the electronic effect. The degree of Fe/Mo order (η) increases first and then decreases to almost disappearance with augment of Bi doping, which is the result of contribution from electronic effect. Calculated saturation magnetization Ms(3) according to our phase separation likeness model matches well with the experimental ones. The observed variations of magnetoresistance (MR) are consistent with the Fe/Mo order (η) due to the internal connection with anti-site defect (ASD).

  16. Electronic structure and photocatalytic water splitting of lanthanum-doped Bi{sub 2}AlNbO{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yingxuan; Chen Gang Zhang Hongjie; Li Zhonghua

    2009-04-02

    Bi{sub 2-x}La{sub x}AlNbO{sub 7} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.5) photocatalysts were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectra and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. The band gaps of the photocatalysts were estimated from absorption edge of diffuse reflectance spectra, which were increased by the doping of lanthanum. It was found from the electronic band structure study that orbitals of La 5d, Bi 6p and Nb 4d formed a conduction band at a more positive level than Bi 6p and Nb 4d orbitals, which results in increasing the band gap. Photocatalytic activity for water splitting of Bi{sub 1.8}La{sub 0.2}AlNbO{sub 7} was about 2 times higher than that of nondoped Bi{sub 2}AlNbO{sub 7}. The increased photocatalytic activity of La-doped Bi{sub 2}AlNbO{sub 7} was discussed in relation to the band structure and the strong absorption of OH groups at the surface of the catalyst.

  17. Origin of enhanced multiferroic properties in Dy and Co co-doped BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, J. S.; Lee, Y. P.; Park, J. S.; Rhee, J. Y.; Kang, J.-H.; Lee, K. W.; Lee, B. W.; Seo, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties of polycrystalline BiFeO3, Bi0.9Dy0.1FeO3, BiFe0.97Co0.03O3 and Bi0.9Dy0.1Fe0.97Co0.03O3, which were prepared by solid-state method, have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that all the samples are in single phase and show rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure with R3c space group. Both XRD and Raman-scattering studies show that Dy and Co co-doped sample has a compressive lattice distortion induced by co-substitution of Dy and Co ions at the A and the B sites, respectively. Dy and Co co-doping favors weak ferromagnetism ordering with evident magnetic hysteresis loop and enhances magnetization values at room temperature. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop for Dy and Co co-doped sample shows the nearly saturated polarization at 40 kV/cm and large remnant polarization. Dy dopant is prominent in the reduced leakage current density, while Co dopant is remarkable in the improved remnant magnetization in Bi0.9Dy0.1Fe0.97Co0.03O3 ceramic. By using a simple model, it was found that the anharmonicity of canted spiral cycloidal spin structure was responsible for the weak ferromagnetism of pure BiFeO3, and the enhanced magnetization in Co-doped sample was attributed to the transition from the incommensurate cycloidal spiral spin structure towards the G-type canted collinear antiferromagnetic structure.

  18. Electronic structure of a superconducting topological insulator Sr-doped Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Han, C. Q.; Chen, W. J.; Zhu, Fengfeng; Yao, Meng-Yu; Li, H.; Li, Z. J.; Wang, M.; Gao, Bo F.; Guan, D. D.; Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong Jia, Jin-Feng; Gao, C. L.

    2015-10-26

    Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, the atomic and low energy electronic structure of the Sr-doped superconducting topological insulators (Sr{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) was studied. Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that most of the Sr atoms are not in the van der Waals gap. After Sr doping, the Fermi level was found to move further upwards when compared with the parent compound Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, which is consistent with the low carrier density in this system. The topological surface state was clearly observed, and the position of the Dirac point was determined in all doped samples. The surface state is well separated from the bulk conduction bands in the momentum space. The persistence of separated topological surface state combined with small Fermi energy makes this superconducting material a very promising candidate for the time reversal invariant topological superconductor.

  19. The influence of Er, Ti co-doping on the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yinina; Xing, Wenyu; Chen, Jieyu; Bai, Yulong; Zhao, Shifeng; Zhang, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The pure and Er, Ti co-doped BiFeO3 thin films were prepared by chemistry solution deposition. Enhanced ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties were obtained, which is mainly attributed to that the effect of co-doping Er and Ti leads to the drastic crystal structural transformation from rhombohedral phase to orthorhombic phase. Thus crystal structural transformation not only changes the switching behavior of the polarization path to improve the ferroelectric polarization, but also suppresses the original spiral spin structure to release the locked magnetization. At the same time, the leakage current density is decreased after doping Er3+ and Ti4+, which results from that the crystal structural transformation changes the leakage current mechanism. The present work provides an available way on improving the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3 thin films.

  20. Magnetic and structural properties of Mn-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, R.; Vališka, M.; Vondráček, M.; Horáková, K.; Tkáč, V.; Carva, K.; Baláž, P.; Holý, V.; Springholz, G.; Sechovský, V.; Honolka, J.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough investigation is presented of the magnetic and structural properties of Mn-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulators grown by molecular beam epitaxy on top of insulating BaF2 (111) substrates. The magnetic properties have been studied in the temperature range from 2 K to 300 K in magnetic fields up to 7 T. The systems were further characterized by means of high-resolution X-ray diffraction, electron-microprobe analysis, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Samples with the atomic concentration of Mn up to about 0.06 exhibit an almost perfect crystalline structure while, for higher Mn concentrations, diffuse scattering from defects is observed. Photoemission results suggest a localized non-metallic Mn 3d5 ground state which is weakly or intermediately coupled to the Bi2Se3 environment. The exchange interaction between the Mn moments leads to a ferromagnetic phase at low temperatures with a roughly linear relation between the Curie temperature and the atomic concentration of Mn.

  1. Y3Fe5O12/Na,Bi,Sr-doped PZT particulate magnetoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnevskaya, I. V.; Bobrova, I. A.; Lupeiko, T. G.; Agamirzoeva, M. R.; Myagkaya, K. V.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites of Na, Bi, Sr substituted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and yttrium iron garnet having representative formula (100-х) wt% Na,Bi,Sr-doped PZT (PZTNB-1)+х wt% Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) with х=10-90 were manufactured using powdered components obtained through sol-gel processes. It is shown that the decrease in sintering temperature provided by the use of finely dispersed PZTNB-1 and YIG powders allows to significantly reduce content of fluorite-like foreign phase based on zirconium oxide, which forms due to the interfacial interaction during heat treatment and becomes stabilized by yttrium oxide. Connectivity has considerable effect on the value of ME coefficient of composite ceramics. With the same x value, ΔЕ/ΔН characteristic decreases when changing from 0-3-type structured composites (PZT grains embedded in ferrite matrix) to 3-3-(interpenetrating network of two phases) and especially 3-0-type samples (YIG grains embedded in PZT matrix); in the last case this can be attributed to the substrate clamping effect when ferrite grains are clamped with piezoelectric matrix. ΔЕ/ΔН value of 0-3 composites with х=40-60 wt% was found to be ∼1.6 mV/(cm Oe).

  2. Aqueous synthesis of CdTe at FeOOH and CdTe at Ni(OH){sub 2} composited nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Li Liang; Ren Jicun . E-mail: Jicunren@sjtu.edu.cn

    2006-06-15

    Two kinds of bi-functional nanomaterials, CdTe at FeOOH and CdTe at Ni(OH){sub 2}, were synthesized in water phase. In the synthesis, using the luminescent CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) as a core, Fe{sup 3+} (Ni{sup 2+}) was added to CdTe NCs aqueous solution and slowly hydrolyzed to deposit a layer of hydroxide onto the luminescent CdTe NCs in the presence of stabilizer. TEM, XRD, XPS, UV, fluorescence spectrometer and physical property measurement system (PPMS) were used to characterize the final products, and the results showed that the as-prepared nanoparticles with core/shell structure exhibited certain magnetic properties and fluorescence. - Graphical abstract: Fluorescent and magnetic bi-functional CdTe at FeOOH and CdTe at Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by seed-mediated approach in water phase.

  3. Effects of oxygen vacancy and N-doping on the electronic and photocatalytic properties of Bi{sub 2}MO{sub 6} (M=Mo, W)

    SciTech Connect

    Lai Kangrong; Wei Wei; Zhu Yingtao; Guo Meng; Dai Ying; Huang Baibiao

    2012-03-15

    The electronic properties of Bi{sub 2}MO{sub 6} (M=Mo and W) are studied by using the first-principles calculations. It is attributed to its smaller electron effective mass that Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} has higher photocatalytic activity than Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. The oxygen vacancy in Bi{sub 2}MO{sub 6} serves as a trapping center of photogenerated electrons and thus is in favor of the photocatalytic efficiency. Nitrogen-doping induces localized structure distortion and thus improves the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, band gaps decrease obviously with doping concentration increasing, therefore the photoabsorption edges will give rise to a redshift in Bi{sub 2}MO{sub 6}. - Graphical abstract: The oxygen vacancy in Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} serves as a trapping center of photogenerated electrons. Nitrogen-doping improves the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, band gaps decrease obviously with doping concentration increasing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen vacancy may serve as a trapping center of photogenerated electrons and thus promote the photocatalytic efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen-doping induces localized structure distortion and thus improves the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap decreases obviously with doping concentration increasing and thus the photoabsorption edges will redshift in Bi{sub 2}MO{sub 6}.

  4. PL and EL characteristics in Bi- and rare earth-co-doped (La1-XGaX)2O3 phosphor thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Nishi, Yuki; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2011-12-01

    Multicolor photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) were observed from newly developed Bi- and rare earth (RE)-co-doped (La1-XGaX)2O3 ((La1-XGaX)2O3:Bi,RE) phosphor thin films. (La1-XGaX)2O3:Bi,RE phosphor thin films were prepared by varying the Ga content (Ga/(La+Ga) atomic ratio) or the co-doped RE content (RE/(RE+La+Ga) atomic ratio) under co-doping Bi at a constant content (Bi/(Bi+La+Ga) atomic ratio) of 3 at.% using a combinatorial r.f. magnetron sputtering deposition method. High PL intensity was obtained in postannealed (La0.9Ga0.1)2O3:Bi,RE phosphor thin films prepared with a Ga content around 10 at.%; TFEL devices fabricated using the phosphor thin films exhibited high luminance. The obtained luminance intensities in EL and PL in the phosphor thin films prepared with various contents of co-doped RE, such as Dy, Er, Eu, Tb and Tm changed considerably as the kind and content of RE were varied. Color changes from blue and blue-green to various colors in PL and EL emissions, respectively, were obtained in postannealed (La0.9Ga0.1)2O3:Bi,RE phosphor thin films, i.e., films prepared by co-doping Bi at a constant content with various REs at varying levels of content. All the observed emission peaks in PL and EL from (La0.9Ga0.1)2O3:Bi,RE phosphor thin films were assigned to either the broad emission originating from the transition in Bi3+ or the visible emission peaks originating from the transition in the co-doped trivalent RE ion.

  5. Doping of BiScO3-PbTiO3 Ceramics for Enhanced Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp; Sayir, Ali; Dynys, Fred

    2008-01-01

    High-temperature piezoelectrics are a key technology for aeronautics and aerospace applications such as fuel modulation to increase the engine efficiency and decrease emissions. The principal challenge for the insertion of piezoelectric materials is the limitation on upper use temperature which is due to low Curie-Temperature (T(sub c) and increasing electrical conductivity. BiScO3 -PbTiO3 (BS-PT) system is a promising candidate for improving the operating temperature for piezoelectric actuators due to its high TC (>400 C). Effects of Zr and Mn doping of the BS-PT ceramics have been studied and all electrical and electromechanical properties for Sc-deficient and Ti-deficient BS- PT ceramics are reported as a function of electrical field and temperature. Donor doping with Zr and Mn (in Sc deficient compositions) increased the DC-resistivity and decreased tan at all temperatures. Resulting ceramics exhibited saturated hysteresis loops with low losses and showed no dependence on the applied field (above twice the coercive field) and measurement frequency.

  6. The effects of Gd3+ doping on the physical structure and photocatalytic performance of Bi2MoO6 nanoplate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Changlin; Wu, Zhen; Liu, Renyue; He, Hongbo; Fan, Wenhong; Xue, Shuangshuang

    2016-06-01

    Gd3+ doped Bi2MoO6 nanoplate crystals were fabricated by solvothermal combined calcination method. The effects of Gd3+ doping with different concentrations on the texture, crystal and optical properties of Bi2MoO6 were investigated by N2 physical adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum (UV-vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Under simulated solar light irradiation, the influences of Gd3+doping on photocatalytic activity of Bi2MoO6 were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B. The characterization results showed that with Gd3+ doping, a contraction of lattice and a decrease in crystallite size occurred. Meanwhile, an increase in surface area over Gd3+ doped Bi2MoO6 was observed. Moreover, Gd3+ doping could obviously enhance the visible light harvesting of Bi2MoO6 and promoted the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. With optimum Gd3+(6 wt%) doping, Gd/Bi2MoO6 exhibited the best activity and stability in degradation of Rhodamine B.

  7. Conduction and magnetization improvement of BiFeO{sub 3} multiferroic nanoparticles by Ag{sup +} doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.A.; Mansour, S.F.; El-Dek, S.I.; Abu-Abdeen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: HRTEM micrographs of the samples BiFeO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • Flash auto combustion method was successful in the preparation of Ag doped BiFeO{sub 3} in nanosize. • Ag doping results in hexagonal platelet shapes up to x = 0.10, at x ≥ 0.15 needle shape predominates. • Mixed conduction is obtained in Ag doped samples. • This nanometric multiferroic could be recommended as attractive cathode for solid oxide fuel cell. - Abstract: Nanometric multiferroic namely Ag doped (BiFeO{sub 3}) was synthesized using flash auto combustion technique and glycine as a fuel. Single phase rhombohedral–hexagonal perovskite structure was obtained by annealing at 550 °C, as determined from XRD. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) clarifies the hexagonal platelet shape with size 17.9 nm. Maximum room temperature AC conductivity was obtained at Ag content of x = 0.10. The results of this study promote the use of such multiferroic in solid oxide fuel cell applications.

  8. Enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit in strained Tl-doped Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Y.; Singh, N.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2014-07-21

    We explain recent experimental findings on Tl-doped Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by determining the electronic and transport properties by first-principles calculations and semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Though Tl-doping introduces a momentum-dependent spin-orbit splitting, the effective mass of the carriers is essentially not modified, while the band gap is reduced. Tl is found to be exceptional in this respect as other dopants modify the dispersion, which compromises thermoelectricity. Moreover, we demonstrate that only after Tl-doping strain becomes an efficient tool for enhancing the thermoelectric performance. A high figure of merit of 0.86 is obtained for strong p-doping (7 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, maximal power factor) at 500 K under 2% tensile strain.

  9. Superconducting properties of doped and off-stoichiometric Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, G.; Paul, D. M. c.K.; Lees, M. R.

    1994-02-01

    High quality single crystals and grain aligned rods of off-stoichiometric Bi-2212 superconductor have been grown by the ‘floating zone’ method using an infra-red image furnace. Growths starting from off-stoichiometric compositions have been performed to optimize the size of the crystals and their superconducting properties. Aligned rods and single crystals of the Y doped compound, Bi 2.2Sr 1.64Ca 0.96Y 0.2Cu 2O 8, have also been grown successfully and characterized. The effects of annealing and oxygen stoichiometry on the superconducting properties of these crystals are presented.

  10. Structural Transition and Enhanced Ferromagnetic Properties of La, Nd, Gd, and Dy-Doped BiFeO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Varshney, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    The structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of rare-earth-doped Bi0.8 RE0.2FeO3 ceramics (rare-earth (RE) = La, Nd, Gd, and Dy) synthesized by solid-state reaction are reported and discussed. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Bi0.8La0.2FeO3 and Bi0.8Nd0.2FeO3 were indexed to rhombohedral ( R3 c) and triclinic ( P1) structures, respectively. Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern of Bi0.8Dy0.2FeO3 confirmed its biphasic nature ( Pnma + R3 c space groups) whereas for Bi0.8Gd0.2FeO3 the orthorhombic phase with Pna21 symmetry made a major contribution, with minor contributions from the orthorhombic ( Pnma) and rhombohedral ( R3 c) phases. Raman spectroscopy revealed changes in BiFeO3 mode positions, in addition to structural changes, on RE ion substitution. The effect of RE ion substitution on dielectric constant and loss tangent were studied at room temperature in a wide range of frequency, 50 Hz-1 MHz. Room temperature magnetization-magnetic field ( M- H) measurements indicated that magnetization increased with increasing structural distortion and with partial destruction of the spin cycloid as a result of doping of BiFeO3 ceramics with rare earth ions. These compounds, with improved remnant magnetization and coercive field, are suitable for use in spin-based electronic devices.

  11. Effect of SnO, MgO and Ag2O Mix-doping on the Formation and Superconducting Properties of Bi-2223 Ag/tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. Y.; Yi, D.; Chen, H.; Nagata, A.

    The Ag/tapes with the composition Bi1.8Pb0.4Sr1.9Ca2.1Cu3.5Oy + x wt% SnO + y wt% MgO + z wt% Ag2O (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4; y = 0, 0.2; z = 0, 0.2) were prepared by sintering at 835°C for 120 h after partial-melting at 845°C for 1 h. The individual SnO doping, SnO and Ag2O mix-doping, and SnO and MgO mix-doping all decrease the conversion of Bi-2212 phase to Bi-2223 phase. The tape with individual 0.4 wt% SnO doping shows the lowest conversion and the lowest critical current density. However, the SnO, MgO and Ag2O mix-doping increase the conversion of Bi-2212 phase to Bi-2223 phase. The tape with 0.2 wt% SnO, 0.2 wt% MgO and 0.2 wt%Ag2O mix-doping shows the highest proportion of Bi-2223 phase and the highest critical current density.

  12. Cobalt-doped Bi{sub 26}Mo{sub 10}O{sub 69}: Crystal structure and conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskaya, Z.A.; Buyanova, E.S.; Petrova, S.A.; Morozova, M.V.; Zhukovskiy, V.M.; Zakharov, R.G.; Tarakina, N.V.; Berger, I.F.

    2013-08-15

    A series of cobalt-doped bismuth molybdates were synthesized and investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The ranges of solid solution were determined. Two new compounds, Bi{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}[Bi{sub 12}O{sub 14}]Mo{sub 5}O{sub 34.5±δ} (x=0.2) and Bi[Bi{sub 12}O{sub 14}]Mo{sub 5−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 34.5±δ} (y=0.2), which crystallise in monoclinic unit cells have been examined in detail by diffraction methods. Impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the studied materials are good ionic conductors with conductivity values about 5×10{sup −3} S×cm{sup −1} at 973 K and 1.7×10{sup −4} S×cm{sup −1} at 623 K, which are similar to conductivity values of yttrium substituted zirconia and (YSZ) gadolinium doped ceria (CGO). - Graphical abstract: Measured and calculated diffraction spectra for Bi{sub 12.8}Co{sub 0.2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 34±δ} and projection of the Bi{sub 12.8}Co{sub 0.2}Mo{sub 5}O{sub 34±δ} crystal structure onto the ac plane. Highlights: • The limit of the Bi{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}[Bi{sub 12}O{sub 14}]Mo{sub 5}O{sub 34.5±δ} homogeneity range is equal to x=0.2. • The limit of the Bi[Bi{sub 12}O{sub 14}]Mo{sub 5−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 34.5±δ} homogeneity range is equal to y=0.2. • Solid solutions have monoclinic symmetry. No phase transition is observed. • The conductivity at 700° for y=0.2 solid solutions is equal to −lg σ, S×cm{sup −1}=2.23. • The conductivity at 350° for y=0.2 solid solutions is equal to −lg σ, S×cm{sup −1}=3.74.

  13. Donor-doping and reduced leakage current in Nb-doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Li, Linhao; Zang, Jiadong; Sinclair, Derek C.

    2015-03-01

    Low levels of so-called "donor-doping" in titanate-based perovskite oxides such as La for Ba, Sr, and Nb for Ti in (Ba, Sr)TiO3 can significantly reduce the resistivity of these typical (d0) dielectric materials and expand application areas to positive temperature coefficient resistors, thermoelectrics, conductive wafers as thin film substrates, and solid oxide fuel cell anode materials. Here, we show low levels of Nb-doping (≤1 at. %) on the Ti-site in the well-known lead-free piezoelectric perovskite oxide Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) produces completely different behaviours whereby much higher resistivity is obtained, therefore indicating a different donor-doping (substitution) mechanism. There is a switch in conduction mechanism from oxygen-ions in undoped NBT with an activation energy (Ea) of <0.9 eV to electronic (band gap) conduction in 0.5-1 at. % Nb-doped NBT with Ea ˜ 1.5-1.8 eV. This demonstrates the necessity of further systematic doping studies to elucidate the defect chemistry of NBT which is clearly different to that of (Ba,Sr)TiO3. This defect chemistry needs to be understood if NBT-based materials are going to be manufactured on a large scale for commercial applications. This study also illustrates different donor-doping mechanisms to exist within the family of d0 titanate-based perovskites.

  14. Hydrothermal fabrication of multi-functional Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doped BiPO4: Photocatalytic activity and tunable luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yao; Huang, Hongwei; Quan, Chaoming; Tian, Na; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated for first time the tunable photoluminescence (PL) properties and photocatalytic activity of the Tb3+ and Eu3+ co-doped BiPO4 assemblies. They are fabricated via a facile hydrothermal approach. Through co-doping of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions and changing the doping ratio, the emission color of the co-doped BiPO4 phosphors can be tuned precisely from green to yellow and red. Meanwhile, a very efficient energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ can be observed. Fascinatingly, a warmwhite color has been realized in the co-doped sample by tuning the ratio of Tb3+/Eu3+ to a certain value as displayed in the CIE chromaticity diagram. The doped BiPO4 samples also exhibit significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the pristine BiPO4 pertaining to Rhodamine (RhB) degradation under UV light. This enhancement should be attributed to the trapping electron effect induced by ion doping that endows BiPO4 with high separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, thereby greatly promoting the photocatalytic reactivity. It was corroborated by the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). Moreover, the crystal structure, microstructure and optical properties of as-prepared samples were investigated in details.

  15. Enhanced multiferroic properties in Ti-doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Z. M.; Qiu, Y.; Yuan, S. L.; Wu, M. S.; Huo, S. X.; Duan, H. N.

    2010-09-15

    Structural, magnetic, and ferroelectric properties have been investigated for Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4(1-x)}Ti{sub 4x}O{sub 9} (0{<=}x{<=}0.2) bulk ceramics, which were synthesized by a modified Pechini method. X-ray diffraction reveals that all samples are single phase with no impurities detected. Compared with antiferromagnetic Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} compound, doping with Ti ions induces the appearance of weak ferromagnetism at room temperature, which is discussed in terms of the collapse of the frustrated antiferromagnetic spin structure. Moreover, appropriate Ti doping also significantly reduces electric leakage and leads to the enhancement of electrical polarization. Among all samples, the optimal multiferroics with M{sub r{approx}}0.0188 emu/g and P{sub r{approx}}0.262 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} at room temperature is found for x=0.15 ceramics. It is thus shown that Ti-doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} is a promising candidate for preparing multiferroic materials.

  16. Topological insulator Bi2Se3(111) surface doped with transition metals: An ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, L. B.; Seixas, L.; Schmidt, T. M.; Miwa, R. H.; Fazzio, A.

    2013-07-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we provide a map of the energetic stability and the electronic behavior of the topologically protected surface states of the topological insulator (TI), Bi2Se3, doped with transition metals (TMs), TM/Bi2Se3(111). We find that Fe, Mn, and Cr impurities are energetically more stable at the Bi substitutional sites, whereas we may find energetically stable substitutional as well as interstitial configurations for Co and Ni impurity atoms. Through scanning tunneling microscopy simulations, we verify that each TM atomic species and its position in the Bi2Se3(111) surface can be identified. The substitutional Fe and Cr impurities exhibit an energetic preference for the out-of-plane net magnetic moment, giving rise to a small energy gap at the Dirac point (DP), whereas the in-plane magnetic moment of substitutional Mn/Bi2Se3(111) promotes a shift of the DP from the center of the surface Brillouin zone, opening up a small energy gap. For the substitutional impurities, the shapes of the metallic bands are somewhat preserved compared with the energy bands of the pristine Bi2Se3(111) surface. Interstitial Co atoms also present an in-plane net magnetic moment, where we find the formation of metallic bands, suppressing the presence of the DP. For the Ni/Bi2Se3(111) impurity there is not a net magnetic moment, and therefore, the DP is preserved. Further formation energy results indicate other plausible (meta)stable impurity configurations, giving rise to quite different scenarios for the topological properties of TM/Bi2Se3(111), even for the same TM impurity.

  17. Introducing a large polar tetragonal distortion into Ba-doped BiFeO3 by low-temperature fluorination.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Oliver; Kruk, Robert; Patterson, Eric A; Loho, Christoph; Reitz, Christian; Wright, Adrian J; Knight, Kevin S; Hahn, Horst; Slater, Peter R

    2014-12-01

    This article reports on the synthesis and crystallographic and magnetic structure of barium-doped BiFeO3 compounds with approximate composition Bi(1-x)Ba(x)FeO(3-x/2), as well as those of the fluorinated compounds Bi(1-x)Ba(x)FeO(3-x)F(x) (both with x = 0.2, 0.3), prepared by low-temperature fluorination of the oxide precursors using polyvinylidenedifluoride. Whereas the oxide compounds were obtained as cubic (x = 0.2) and slightly tetragonal (x = 0.3, c/a ≈ 1.003) distorted perovskite compounds, a large tetragonal polar distortion was observed for the oxyfluoride compounds (c/a ≈ 1.08 for x = 0.2 and ∼1.05 for x = 0.3), being isostructural to tetragonal PbTiO3. Although described differently in previous reports on Ba-doped BiFeO3, the observed remanent magnetization is found to agree well with the amount of BaFe12O19 only detectable by neutron diffraction and the well-known magnetic properties of BaFe12O19. The oxyfluoride compounds show G-type antiferromagnetic ordering with magnetic moments lying in the a/b plane. PMID:25383956

  18. Growth of nucleation sites on Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8 + delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Xu, Ming; Kouzoudis, D.; Bloomer, T.; Kramer, M. J.; McKernan, Stuart; Balachandran, U.; Haldar, Pradeep

    1996-01-01

    In the growth of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ from mixed powders of Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ and other oxides, it has been discovered that a dense array of hillocks or mesas grow at the interface between a Ag overlay and Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ grains during the ramp up to the reaction temperature. As viewed in an environmental scanning electron microscope, the Ag coated grains develop a texture that looks like ``chicken pox'' growing on the grains at about 700 °C. These hillocks are about 100 nm across and are spaced at about 500 to 1000 nm. If there is no Ag, this texture does not develop. Preliminary measurements indicate that the hillocks are a recrystallization of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ, and are definitely not a Pb rich phase.

  19. The preparation of a Eu3+-doped ZnO bi-functional layer and its application in organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Na; Luo, Qun; Qiao, Xvsheng; Ma, Chang-Qi

    2015-12-01

    Recently, spectra conversion has been used to minimize energy loss in photovoltaic devices. In this work, we explore the development of a novel Eu3+-doped ZnO bi-functional layer for use in organic solar cells. The bi-functional layer acts as both a spectra conversion and an electron transporting layer. Compared to conventional spectra conversion layers, it has a simpler device structure, is easier to fabricate, and has a wider spectrum-sensitized region. A series of Eu3+-doped ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized using the simple solution route. X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-visible absorbance spectra were used to characterize the obtained ZnO nanocrystals. The results reveal that the size and bandgap of ZnO nanocrystals can be controlled through regulation of the doping concentration of Eu3+ ions. The energy transfer of ZnO → Eu3+ is observed by photoluminescence (PL) spectra. At a bandgap excitation of around 300-400 nm, a typical emission band from the Eu3+ is obtained. By employing the Eu3+- doped ZnO nanocrystals as a buffer layer in a P3HT:PC61BM bulk heterojunction device, the obtained performance is similar to the undoped ZnO device, indicating that the electrical properties of ZnO are not affected by Eu3+ doping. Due to the down-conversion energy transfer between ZnO and Eu3+, the external quantum efficiency of the ZnO:Eu3+ device at 300-400 nm is higher than that of the pure ZnO device, which subsequently leads to an increase in short circuit current density (J SC). This work proves that it is possible to improve the solar spectrum response in the ultraviolet region of organic solar cells effectively by incorporating the bi-functional layer.

  20. Carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in the magnetic topological insulator Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mao; Li, Wei; Zhu, Siyuan; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Wang, Jiajia; Pan, Hong; Nurmamat, Munisa; Sumida, Kazuki; Ji, Fuhao; Liu, Zhen; Yang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhengtai; Shen, Dawei; Kimura, Akio; Qiao, Shan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically doped topological insulators, possessing an energy gap created at the Dirac point through time-reversal-symmetry breaking, are predicted to exhibit exotic phenomena including the quantized anomalous Hall effect and a dissipationless transport, which facilitate the development of low-power-consumption devices using electron spins. Although several candidates of magnetically doped topological insulators were demonstrated to show long-range magnetic order, the realization of the quantized anomalous Hall effect is so far restricted to the Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 system at extremely low temperature; however, the microscopic origin of its ferromagnetism is poorly understood. Here we present an element-resolved study for Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to unambiguously show that the long-range magnetic order is mediated by the p-hole carriers of the host lattice, and the interaction between the Sb(Te) p and Cr d states is crucial. Our results are important for material engineering in realizing the quantized anomalous Hall effect at higher temperatures. PMID:26582485

  1. Carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in the magnetic topological insulator Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Mao; Li, Wei; Zhu, Siyuan; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Wang, Jiajia; Pan, Hong; Nurmamat, Munisa; Sumida, Kazuki; Ji, Fuhao; Liu, Zhen; Yang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhengtai; Shen, Dawei; Kimura, Akio; Qiao, Shan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-11-01

    Magnetically doped topological insulators, possessing an energy gap created at the Dirac point through time-reversal-symmetry breaking, are predicted to exhibit exotic phenomena including the quantized anomalous Hall effect and a dissipationless transport, which facilitate the development of low-power-consumption devices using electron spins. Although several candidates of magnetically doped topological insulators were demonstrated to show long-range magnetic order, the realization of the quantized anomalous Hall effect is so far restricted to the Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 system at extremely low temperature; however, the microscopic origin of its ferromagnetism is poorly understood. Here we present an element-resolved study for Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to unambiguously show that the long-range magnetic order is mediated by the p-hole carriers of the host lattice, and the interaction between the Sb(Te) p and Cr d states is crucial. Our results are important for material engineering in realizing the quantized anomalous Hall effect at higher temperatures.

  2. Carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in the magnetic topological insulator Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mao; Li, Wei; Zhu, Siyuan; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Wang, Jiajia; Pan, Hong; Nurmamat, Munisa; Sumida, Kazuki; Ji, Fuhao; Liu, Zhen; Yang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhengtai; Shen, Dawei; Kimura, Akio; Qiao, Shan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically doped topological insulators, possessing an energy gap created at the Dirac point through time-reversal-symmetry breaking, are predicted to exhibit exotic phenomena including the quantized anomalous Hall effect and a dissipationless transport, which facilitate the development of low-power-consumption devices using electron spins. Although several candidates of magnetically doped topological insulators were demonstrated to show long-range magnetic order, the realization of the quantized anomalous Hall effect is so far restricted to the Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 system at extremely low temperature; however, the microscopic origin of its ferromagnetism is poorly understood. Here we present an element-resolved study for Cr-doped (Sb,Bi)2Te3 using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism to unambiguously show that the long-range magnetic order is mediated by the p-hole carriers of the host lattice, and the interaction between the Sb(Te) p and Cr d states is crucial. Our results are important for material engineering in realizing the quantized anomalous Hall effect at higher temperatures. PMID:26582485

  3. Study of Ho-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, S. E.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Zhang, S. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Hesjedal, T.; Baker, A. A.; Figueroa, A. I.; Laan, G. van der; Kellock, A. J.; Pushp, A.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Harris, J. S.

    2015-11-02

    Breaking time-reversal symmetry through magnetic doping of topological insulators has been identified as a key strategy for unlocking exotic physical states. Here, we report the growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films doped with the highest magnetic moment element Ho. Diffraction studies demonstrate high quality films for up to 21% Ho incorporation. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry reveals paramagnetism down to 2 K with an effective magnetic moment of ∼5 μ{sub B}/Ho. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows that the topological surface state remains intact with Ho doping, consistent with the material's paramagnetic state. The large saturation moment achieved makes these films useful for incorporation into heterostructures, whereby magnetic order can be introduced via interfacial coupling.

  4. Calcination temperature influenced multiferroic properties of Ca-doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Dhir, Gitanjali Uniyal, Poonam; Verma, N. K.

    2015-06-24

    The influence of Ca-doping and particle size on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles has been studied. A sol-gel method was employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their particle size was tailored by varying the calcination temperature. Structural analysis revealed a rhombohedral distortion induced by Ca-substitution. The broadening of diffraction peaks with decreasing calcination temperature was indicative of reduction in crystallite size. The morphological analysis revealed the formation of agglomerated nanoparticles having average particle size ranging from 10-15 and 50-55 nm for C4 and C6, respectively. The agglomeration is attributed to high surface energy of nanoparticles. Ferromagnetism has been displayed by all the synthesized nanoparticles. Enhancement of saturation magnetization with Ca-substitution is attributed to suppression of spin cycloid structure by the reduction in size, lattice distortion and creation of oxygen vacancies by the substitution of divalent ion at trivalent site. Further, this value increases as a function of decreasing particle size. Strong particle size effects on magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles are owed to increasing surface to volume ratio. All these observations are indicative of strong dependence of multiferroism on particle size.

  5. Enhancment of ferromagnetism in Ba and Er co-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeimi, A. S.; Dehghan, E.; Sanavi Khoshnoud, D.; Gholizadeh, A.

    2015-11-01

    Bi1-y-xBayErxFeO3 [BByExFO, (0.13≤y≤0.17, 0≤x≤0.2)] nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a sol-gel method. The structural, microstructural and magnetic properties have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and magnetometry measurements at room temperature. The refinement of X-ray diffraction pattern of BB0.15E0FO indicates a phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to tetragonal (P4mm) with increasing Ba content and a transition from the coexistence of rhombohedral-tetragonal phase to orthorhombic (Pbnm) in BB0.15ExFO samples with increasing Er concentration. The Raman analysis confirms crystal phase transition in BB0.15ExFO compounds. The FE-SEM and TEM analysis show that the average nanoparticle size is about 50-100 nm and it decreases with Er concentration. The remnant magnetisation of BB0.15E0.1FO sample (Mr=0.98 emu/g) is approximately two times greater than compared to BB0.15E0FO (Mr=0.51 emu/g) that may be attributed to the collapse of spin structure and modifying exchange interactions because of Er+3 doping. This enhancement in magnetic properties at room temperature can play an important role for the practical applications.

  6. Structural and electronic properties of manganese-doped Bi2Te3 epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Růžička, J.; Caha, O.; Holý, V.; Steiner, H.; Volobuiev, V.; Ney, A.; Bauer, G.; Duchoň, T.; Veltruská, K.; Khalakhan, I.; Matolín, V.; Schwier, E. F.; Iwasawa, H.; Shimada, K.; Springholz, G.

    2015-01-01

    We show that in manganese-doped topological insulator bismuth telluride layers, Mn atoms are incorporated predominantly as interstitials in the van der Waals gaps between the quintuple layers and not substitutionally on Bi sites within the quintuple layers. The structural properties of epitaxial layers with Mn concentration of up to 13% are studied by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, evidencing a shrinking of both the in-plane and out-of plane lattice parameters with increasing Mn content. Ferromagnetism sets in for Mn contents around 3% and the Curie temperatures rises up to 15 K for a Mn concentration of 9%. The easy magnetization axis is along the c-axis perpendicular to the (0001) epilayer plane. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals that the Fermi level is situated in the conduction band and no evidence for a gap opening at the topological surface state with the Dirac cone dispersion is found within the experimental resolution at temperatures close to the Curie temperature. From the detailed analysis of the extended x-ray absorption fine-structure experiments (EXAFS) performed at the MnK-edge, we demonstrate that the Mn atoms occupy interstitial positions within the van der Waals gap and are surrounded octahedrally by Te atoms of the adjacent quintuple layers.

  7. Enhanced photoluminescence from CaMoO4:Eu3+ by Bi3+ co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun Ock; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2016-02-01

    When optical active ions are doped into a host, two different methods for determining the composition ratio are usually employed. In one method, the condition for the number of cations was satisfied, in the other method, the condition for the amount of cation charge was satisfied. Until now the two different methods have been adapted, although the local sites of the dopant ions in the host are well known. By comparing the luminescence properties of samples synthesized with different compositions, we observed that the condition for the amount of cation charge (charge compensation) played a key role in the preparation of phosphor materials by enhancing both their crystallinity and covalency. These results demonstrate that the charge compensation is significantly effective in enhancing the emission intensity of the phosphor. Also, when Bi3+ ions are incorporated into the CaMoO4:Eu3+ phosphor, they break the symmetry of the crystal field around the Eu3+ ions and result in an enhancement of the PL intensity by a factors of 1.7 ˜ 2.7 (condition for the number of cations) and 6.2 (condition of charge compensation).

  8. Characterization of Sb-doped Bi(2)UO(6) solid solutions by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Misra, N L; Yadav, A K; Dhara, Sangita; Mishra, S K; Phatak, Rohan; Poswal, A K; Jha, S N; Sinha, A K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2013-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of Sb-doped Bi(2)UO(6) solid solutions, in a limited composition range, is reported for the first time. The solid solutions were prepared by solid-state reactions of Bi(2)O(3), Sb(2)O(3) and U(3)O(8) in the required stoichiometry. The reaction products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements at the Bi and U L(3) edges. The XRD patterns indicate the precipitation of additional phases in the samples when Sb doping exceeds 4 at%. The chemical shifts of the Bi absorption edges in the samples, determined from the XANES spectra, show a systematic variation only up to 4 at% of Sb doping and support the results of XRD measurements. These observations are further supported by the local structure parameters obtained by analysis of the EXAFS spectra. The local structure of U is found to remain unchanged upon Sb doping indicating that Sb(+3) ions replace Bi(+3) during the doping of Bi(2)UO(6) by Sb. PMID:23665633

  9. Effect of Bi3+ ions on physical, thermal, spectroscopic and optical properties of Nd3+ doped sodium diborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeranna Gowda, V. C.

    2013-10-01

    Neodymium doped sodium diborate glasses containing bismuth oxide were prepared by melt quenching method. An effort has been made to understand whether the stiffness of tightly bound diborate groups affect upon the addition of heavy metal oxide. The increase in density and decrease in molar volume with increase of Bi2O3 content indicates the opening of diborate glass structure to achieve better packing and bonding. The mixed bonding such as Bi-O-B may occur during glass formation leads to decrease in its glass transition temperature. The increase in oxygen packing density values also indicates the existence of tight packing of the oxide network. The optical properties are measured using UV-visible spectroscopy. The increase in refractive index is attributed to the increasing number of highly polarizing Bi3+ ions with higher atomic weight and coordination number. The decrease in the optical band gap energy with increase in Bi2O3 content is ascribed to shifting of absorption edge to a longer wavelength region. The IR spectra reveal that the glass network consists of tightly bound diborate and BiO6 octahedral units.

  10. Effect of Co doping on structural, optical, magnetic and dielectric properties of Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, S. R.; Sahu, B.; Singh, A. K.; Kaushik, S. D.

    2015-06-24

    Polycrystalline Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} and 2% Co doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} were prepared by solid state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result reveals that there is no change in the crystal structure due to Co doping and the compound has orthorhombic structure. UV-visible spectroscopy confirms the decrease in band gap due Co doping. Zero field cooled magnetization measurement at 100 Oe magnetic field shows substantial decrease in the magnetic transition temperature. Room temperature frequency dependent dielectric permittivity at 1V DC bias shows ∼10% increase in Co doped sample with respect to pure Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9}.

  11. Room temperature dielectric and magnetic properties of Gd and Ti co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Basith, M. A. E-mail: arima@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp; Kurni, O.; Alam, M. S.; Sinha, B. L.; Ahmmad, Bashir E-mail: arima@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp

    2014-01-14

    Room temperature dielectric and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} samples, co-doped with magnetic Gd and non-magnetic Ti in place of Bi and Fe, respectively, were reported. The nominal compositions of Bi{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1–x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.00-0.25) ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the substitution of Fe by Ti induces a phase transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic at x > 0.20. Morphological studies demonstrated that the average grain size was reduced from ∼1.5 μm to ∼200 nm with the increase in Ti content. Due to Ti substitution, the dielectric constant was stable over a wide range of high frequencies (30 kHz to 20 MHz) by suppressing the dispersion at low frequencies. The dielectric properties of the compounds are associated with their improved morphologies and reduced leakage current densities probably due to the lower concentration of oxygen vacancies in the compositions. Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1–x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.00-0.25) ceramics measured at room temperature were enhanced with Ti substitution up to 20% compared to that of pure BiFeO{sub 3} and Ti undoped Bi{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} samples. The enhanced magnetic properties might be attributed to the substitution induced suppression of spiral spin structure of BiFeO{sub 3}. An asymmetric shifts both in the field and magnetization axes of magnetization versus magnetic field curves was observed. This indicates the presence of exchange bias effect in these compounds notably at room temperature.

  12. Room temperature dielectric and magnetic properties of Gd and Ti co-doped BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basith, M. A.; Kurni, O.; Alam, M. S.; Sinha, B. L.; Ahmmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Room temperature dielectric and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 samples, co-doped with magnetic Gd and non-magnetic Ti in place of Bi and Fe, respectively, were reported. The nominal compositions of Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1-xTixO3 (x = 0.00-0.25) ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the substitution of Fe by Ti induces a phase transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic at x > 0.20. Morphological studies demonstrated that the average grain size was reduced from ˜1.5 μm to ˜200 nm with the increase in Ti content. Due to Ti substitution, the dielectric constant was stable over a wide range of high frequencies (30 kHz to 20 MHz) by suppressing the dispersion at low frequencies. The dielectric properties of the compounds are associated with their improved morphologies and reduced leakage current densities probably due to the lower concentration of oxygen vacancies in the compositions. Magnetic properties of Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1-xTixO3 (x = 0.00-0.25) ceramics measured at room temperature were enhanced with Ti substitution up to 20% compared to that of pure BiFeO3 and Ti undoped Bi0.9Gd0.1FeO3 samples. The enhanced magnetic properties might be attributed to the substitution induced suppression of spiral spin structure of BiFeO3. An asymmetric shifts both in the field and magnetization axes of magnetization versus magnetic field curves was observed. This indicates the presence of exchange bias effect in these compounds notably at room temperature.

  13. Investigation of energy transfer mechanisms between Bi(2+) and Tm(3+) by time-resolved spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal; Dong, Guoping; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-11-01

    Here, we report for the first time the optical properties of Bi(2+) and Tm(3+) co-doped germanate glasses and elucidate the potential of this material as substrates to improve the performance of CdTe solar cell. A strong emission peak at 800nm is observed under the excitation of 450-700nm in this material. The energy transfer processes from the transitions of Bi(2+) [(2)P3/2(1)→(2)P1/2]: Tm(3+) [(3)H6→(3)H4] are investigated by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. A cover glass exhibiting an ultra-broadband response spectrum covering the entire solar visible wavelength region is suggested to enhance the conversion efficiency of CdTe solar cells significantly. PMID:23850790

  14. Mechanosynthesis, magnetic and Mössbauer characterization of pure and Ti4+-doped cubic phase BiFeO3 nanocrystalline particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widatallah, H. M.; Al-Qayoudhi, M. S.; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Rawas, A.; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Khalafalla, M. E. H.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A.; Al-Omari, I.

    2014-04-01

    The mechanosynthesis of cubic γ-phase pure BiFeO3 and Ti4+-doped BiFeO3 nanocrystalline particles and their preliminary characterization with magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy are reported. The BiFeO3 nanoparticles (5-40 nm) were prepared by heating a 48 h pre-milled 1:1 molar mixture of α-Bi2O3 and α-Fe2O3 at 400 °C for (1 h). Doping α-Fe2O3 in the initial mixture of reactants with Ti4+ was found to lead to the formation of Ti4+-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles by milling the reactants for 32 h. The magnetization of the BiFeO3 nanoparticles is found to be tripled under a maximum external field of 1.35 T and their magnetic hardness increases by ˜15 times relative to those of the corresponding bulk. The Ti4+-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles exhibit higher magnetization relative to the pure ones. These observations are related to the spiral modulated spin structure of the compound. The Mössbauer data show ˜12 % of the BiFeO3 nanocrystalline particles to be superparamagnetic having blocking temperatures of less than 78 K. The quadrupole shift values of the magnetic spectral component favor the cubic structural symmetry. These observations were mainly associated with possible collective magnetic excitations as well as transverse relaxation of canted surface spins. The Ti-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles gave statistically-poor Mössbauer spectra with no signs of a superparamagnetic behavior.

  15. Samarium and Nitrogen Co-Doped Bi2 WO6 Photocatalysts: Synergistic Effect of Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) Redox Centers and N-Doped Level for Enhancing Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangzhi; Li, Wenjun; Gu, Shaonan; Li, Hongda; Wu, Xue; Liu, Xintong

    2016-08-26

    Samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by using a hydrothermal method. The crystal structures, morphology, elemental compositions, and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated. The incorporation of samarium and nitrogen ions into Bi2 WO6 was proved by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated that the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 possessed strong visible-light absorption. Remarkably, the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than single-doped and pure Bi2 WO6 under visible-light irradiation. Radical trapping experiments indicated that holes (h(+) ) and superoxide radicals ((.) O2 (-) ) were the main active species. The results of photoluminescence spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements demonstrated that the recombination rate of the photogenerated electrons and holes pairs was greatly depressed. The enhanced activity was attributed to the synergistic effect of the in-built Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) redox pair centers and the N-doped level. The mechanism of the excellent photocatalytic activity of Sm-N-Bi2 WO6 is also discussed. PMID:27464522

  16. Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of Yb-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kexuan; Tian, Jinrong; Song, Yanrong; Liu, Jinghui; Guoyu, Heyang; Xu, Runqin; Wang, Meng; Fang, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a Q-switched mode-locked (QML) and a continuous-wave mode-locked (CWML) ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as saturable absorber (SA) in all normal dispersion regime. The Bi2Se3-SA is conventionally composited by embedding Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets into polyvinyl alcohol thin film, which provides a modulation depth of 7.6% and a saturation intensity of 38.9 MW/cm2. Based on this SA, with different cavity length, ytterbium-doped fiber laser can be operated at QML and CWML state, respectively. In the QML operation, a Q-switched envelope has the shortest pulse width of 1.12 μs and the tunable repetition rate from 96 to 175 kHz. The largest pulse envelope energy is 39.6 nJ, corresponding to average output power of 6.93 mW. In the CWML operation, an environmentally stable dissipative soliton laser pulse with pulse duration of ˜210 ps is obtained. The single pulse energy is 0.83 nJ with the repetition rate of 11.38 MHz at the wavelength of 1037 nm.

  17. Aliovalent Ba2+ doping: A way to reduce oxygen vacancy in multiferroic BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rajasree; Sharma, Sucheta; Mandal, Kalyan

    2016-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the impact of Ba2+ substitution on the structural, dielectric relaxation and AC conductivity properties of Bi1-xBaxFeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) ceramics. Ba doping incorporates rhombohedral to tetragonal structural transformation in perovskite BFO. XPS data shows change in oxygen vacancy concentration with Ba doping and it also suggests that schoimetry of the doped compounds is not maintained by creating mix valance state of Fe. Reduction in oxygen vacancy (OVs) in the doped samples is explained by Kroger-Vink notation. Arrhenius plot shows activation energy for dielectric relaxation of the doped samples lies between ~1.16 and 1.44 eV. AC conductivity of material decreases as Ba ion substitution increases in the parent compound. Electrical conductivity is attributed to the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) motion of the oxygen vacancies in the samples. Coulombic potential barrier (WM) height, calculated from Elliott model for CBH motion of charge carriers shows correlation with the activation energy of AC conductivity at low temperature. Activation energy value obtained from the impedance measurements of the samples implies short range migration of oxygen vacancies dominates the frequency dependent conductivity while the frequency independent part of conductivity is the result of long range migration of oxygen vacancies.

  18. Enhanced electrical properties in multiferroic BiFeO3 ceramics co-doped by La3+ and V5+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Benfang; Li, Meiya; Wang, Jing; Pei, Ling; Guo, Dongyun; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2008-09-01

    La3+ and V5+ co-doped Bi0.85La0.15Fe1-xVxO3 (BLFVx, x = 0-0.1) ceramics were prepared by a rapid liquid sintering technique. The effects of the V5+-doping content on the structure and electrical properties of BLFVx ceramics were investigated. In the range of the V5+ content x from 0 to 0.03, BLFVx ceramics had a polycrystalline perovskite structure with tiny residual Bi2O3, while an impurity phase appeared for x > 0.03. As the x increased from 0 to 0.1, both the leakage current density and the dielectric loss (tan δ) for BLFVx ceramics decreased gradually, while the dielectric constant (ɛr) first increased and then decreased gradually in this process, reaching a maximum value of 273 for x = 0.03. Among the BLFVx ceramics, the BLFVx=0.01 ceramic showed a well-saturated hysteresis loop with large remanent polarization (Pr) of 39.4 µC cm-2 and a low coercive electric field (Ec) of ±43.1 kV cm-1 under an applied electric field of ±75 kV cm-1. In addition, these ceramics exhibited good anti-fatigue characteristics after 2 × 1010 read/write polarization cycles. These suggested that La3+ and V5+ co-doping was beneficial for enhancing the dielectric, ferroelectric and anti-fatigue properties of the BLFVx ceramics.

  19. Photoelectrochemical performance of W-doped BiVO4 thin-films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen K.; Dutter, Melissa R.; Lawrence, David J.; Reisner, Barbara A.; DeVore, Thomas C.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of tungsten doping and hydrogen annealing treatments on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photoanodes for solar water splitting was studied. Thin films of BiVO4 were deposited on ITO-coated glass slides by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate and vanadium oxysulfate. Tungsten doping was achieved by adding either silicotungstic acid (STA) or ammonium metatungstate (AMT) in the aqueous precursor. The 1.7 μm - 2.2 μm thick films exhibited a highly porous microstructure. Undoped films that were reduced at 375 ºC in 3% H2 exhibited the largest photocurrent densities under 0.1 W cm-2 AM1.5 illumination. This performance enhancement was believed to be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies, which are shallow electron donors, in the films. Films doped with 1% or 5% tungsten from either STA or AMT exhibited reduced photoelectrochemical performance and greater sample-to-sample performance variations. Powder X-ray diffraction data of the undoped films indicated that they were comprised primarily of the monoclinic scheelite phase while unidentified phases were also present. Scanning electron microscopy showed slightly different morphology characteristics for the Wdoped films. It is surmised that the addition of W in the deposition process promoted the morphology differences and the formation of different phases, thus reducing the PEC performance of the photoanode samples. Significant PEC performance variability was also observed among films deposited using the described process.

  20. Template-Engaged In Situ Synthesis of Carbon-Doped Monoclinic Mesoporous BiVO4: Photocatalytic Treatment of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Mingming; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian; Tripathi, Pranav K.; Liu, Yafei; Hu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, carbon-doped monoclinic scheelite mesoporous bismuth vanadate was synthesized through template-engaged in situ method. The bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and ammonia metavanadate were used as bismuth and vanadium precursors, respectively, glucose as carbon source, and mesoporous SiO2 aerogel as a hard template. Carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 were obtained by heat treatment of BiVO4/glucose/template to carbonize glucose and form monoclinic crystal, followed by etching with NaOH solution to remove the SiO2 template. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and desorption, UV-visible spectroscopy, Energy dispersive spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the sample with a carbon content of 0.5 wt.% possesses a specific surface area of 10.2 m2/g and has mesoporous structure with the most probable pore size of 13.9 nm. The band gap of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 was estimated to be 2.33 eV, indicating the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. The photocatalytic efficiency of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light (λ > 400 nm) in 120 min reaches 98.7%, Besides, the carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 photocatalyst still showed high stability: 85% for Rhodamine B degradation after ten recycles.

  1. Ti doping-induced magnetic and morphological transformations in Sr- and Ca-substituted BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, V. A.; Paixão, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation focuses on the crystal structure, microstructure, local ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ (x  =  0.05, 0.1, 0.15; δ  =  (0.1  -  x)/2) multiferroics prepared by a solid-state reaction method. All the samples have been found to be isostructural with the pure BiFeO3 (the material crystallizes in a polar rhombohedral structure belonging to the space group R3c). It has been shown that the pattern of changes in the lattice parameters of the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ samples can be interpreted as consistent with the doping-driven elimination of anion vacancies at x  ⩽  0.1 and the formation of cation vacancies at x  >  0.1. The readjustment of the defect structure associated with the mechanism of charge compensation in the aliovalent-substituted BiFeO3 is accompanied by correlated changes in the morphology, ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain structure and magnetic properties of the materials. In particular, it has been found that the deviation from the ideal (δ  =  0) cation-anion stoichiometry in the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ system leads to a significant decrease in the average size of crystal grain and ferroelectric domains and gives rise to an antiferromagnetic-weak ferromagnetic transformation. Results of this study have been compared with those obtained for equally substituted samples of the Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ series (Khomchenko and Paixão 2015 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27 436002) to demonstrate how the variation in the chemical pressure introduced by the partial replacement of Bi3+ with bigger (Sr2+) and smaller (Ca2+) ions can affect the multiferroic behavior of Ti-doped bismuth ferrites.

  2. Ti doping-induced magnetic and morphological transformations in Sr- and Ca-substituted BiFeO3.

    PubMed

    Khomchenko, V A; Paixão, J A

    2016-04-27

    The investigation focuses on the crystal structure, microstructure, local ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti(x)O(3-δ) (x  =  0.05, 0.1, 0.15; δ  =  (0.1  -  x)/2) multiferroics prepared by a solid-state reaction method. All the samples have been found to be isostructural with the pure BiFeO3 (the material crystallizes in a polar rhombohedral structure belonging to the space group R3c). It has been shown that the pattern of changes in the lattice parameters of the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe(1-x)Ti(x)O(3-δ) samples can be interpreted as consistent with the doping-driven elimination of anion vacancies at x  ⩽  0.1 and the formation of cation vacancies at x  >  0.1. The readjustment of the defect structure associated with the mechanism of charge compensation in the aliovalent-substituted BiFeO3 is accompanied by correlated changes in the morphology, ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain structure and magnetic properties of the materials. In particular, it has been found that the deviation from the ideal (δ  =  0) cation-anion stoichiometry in the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe(1-x)Ti (x)O(3-δ) system leads to a significant decrease in the average size of crystal grain and ferroelectric domains and gives rise to an antiferromagnetic-weak ferromagnetic transformation. Results of this study have been compared with those obtained for equally substituted samples of the Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe(1-x)Ti(x)O(3-δ) series (Khomchenko and Paixão 2015 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27 436002) to demonstrate how the variation in the chemical pressure introduced by the partial replacement of Bi(3+) with bigger (Sr(2+)) and smaller (Ca(2+)) ions can affect the multiferroic behavior of Ti-doped bismuth ferrites. PMID:27009357

  3. Preparation and characterization of Bi-doped TiO{sub 2} and its solar photocatalytic activity for the degradation of isoproturon herbicide

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Police Anil Kumar; Srinivas, Basavaraju; Kala, Pruthu; Kumari, Valluri Durga; Subrahmanyam, Machiraju

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Visible active Bi-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst preparation and thorough charaterization. {yields} Bi-TiO{sub 2} shows high activity for isoproturon degradation under solar light irradiation. {yields} The spectral response of TiO{sub 2} shifts from UV to visible light region by Bi doping. {yields} Bi{sup 3+{delta}+} species are playing a vital role in minimizing e{sup -}/h{sup +} recombination. -- Abstract: Bi-doped TiO{sub 2} catalyst was prepared by sol-gel method and was characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), X-ray photo electronic spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and BET surface area. The photocatalytic activity of the catalysts were evaluated for the degradation of isoproturon herbicide under solar light irradiation. The UV-Visible DRS of Bi-doped TiO{sub 2} showed red shift in optical absorption. The presence of Bi{sup 3+{delta}+} species are playing a vital role in minimizing the electron hole recombination resulting higher activity compared to bare TiO{sub 2}.

  4. Broadband near-infrared luminescence in gamma-irradiated Bi-doped alpha-BaB(2)O(4) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Su, Liangbi; Yu, Jun; Zhou, Peng; Li, Hongjun; Zheng, Lihe; Yang, Yan; Wu, Feng; Xia, Haiping; Xu, Jun

    2009-08-15

    Spectroscopic properties of as-grown and gamma-irradiated undoped and Bi-doped alpha-BBO (BaB(2)O(4)) single crystals were investigated. Bi(2+) and color centers in Bi:alpha-BBO crystals were investigated to be nonluminescent in the near-infrared (NIR) region. Broadband NIR luminescence at 1139 nm with a FWHM of 108 nm and a decay time of 526 mus was realized in Bi:alpha-BBO crystal through gamma irradiation. Bi(+) was attributed to be responsible for the NIR emission, which can be bleached by thermal annealing. The involved physical processes in Bi:alpha-BBO crystal during the courses of irradiation and heat annealing were tentatively established. PMID:19684830

  5. Study on superstructure in ion co-doped BiFeO3 by using transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Shi-Zhou; Guo, Chao; Li, Mei-Ya; Chen, Zhen-Lian; Zou, Hua-Min

    2015-04-01

    La3+ and V5+ co-doped BiFeO3 ceramics are synthesized by rapid liquid sintering technique. The modulated structure in Bi0.85La0.15Fe0.97V0.03O3 is investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two kinds of superstructures are observed in the samples. One is the component modulated superstructure and twin-domain, which is generated by La3+ ordered substitution for Bi3+ and frequently appears. The chemical composition of the superstructure is explored by x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The model of the ordered structure is proposed. Simulation based on the model is conducted. The second is the fluorite-type δ-Bi2O3 related superstructure. The relation between the ferroelectric property and the microstructure of the sample is also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51372174, 11074193, and 51132001) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  6. CdTe Feedstock Development and Validation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-00280

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate different CdTe feedstock formulations (feedstock provided by Redlen) to determine if they would significantly improve CdTe performance with ancillary benefits associated with whether changes in feedstock would affect CdTe cell processing and possibly reliability of cells. Feedstock also included attempts to intentionally dope the CdTe with pre-selected elements.

  7. Ferroelectric Sm-Doped BiMnO3 Thin Films with Ferromagnetic Transition Temperature Enhanced to 140 K

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A combined chemical pressure and substrate biaxial pressure crystal engineering approach was demonstrated for producing highly epitaxial Sm-doped BiMnO3 (BSMO) films on SrTiO3 single crystal substrates, with enhanced magnetic transition temperatures, TC up to as high as 140 K, 40 K higher than that for standard BiMnO3 (BMO) films. Strong room temperature ferroelectricity with piezoresponse amplitude, d33 = 10 pm/V, and long-term retention of polarization were also observed. Furthermore, the BSMO films were much easier to grow than pure BMO films, with excellent phase purity over a wide growth window. The work represents a very effective way to independently control strain in-plane and out-of-plane, which is important not just for BMO but for controlling the properties of many other strongly correlated oxides. PMID:25141031

  8. Effect of RF power on structural and magnetic properties of La doped Bi2Fe4O9 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhiya, M.; Pugazhvadivu, K. S.; Balakrishnan, L.; Tamilarasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    Effect of RF power on structural and magnetic properties of lanthanum (La3+) doped Bi2Fe4O9 thin films grown on p-Si substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering has studied in this investigation. It is observed that the sputtering power affects the crystalline nature and magnetic properties of grown thin films. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum confirms that the Bi2Fe4O9 (BFO) thin films were crystallized well with orthorhombic structure. The BFO thin films which was prepared at sputtering power of 100 W have good crystallinity than those prepared at 40 W. The magnetic properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic hysteresis perceptive loop shows that the anti-ferromagnetic behavior of the sample at room temperature. These results confirms that the crystallinity and magnetic properties of the BFO thin films were enhanced at the higher sputtering power (100 W).

  9. Ab initio study of the strain dependent thermodynamics of Bi doping in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Heather; Puchala, Brian; Kuech, Thomas F.; Morgan, Dane

    2012-08-01

    The thermodynamics of Bi incorporation into bulk and epitaxial GaAs was studied using density functional theory (DFT) and anharmonic elasticity calculations. The equilibrium concentration of Bi was determined as a function of epitaxial strain state, temperature, and growth conditions. For a bulk, unstrained system, Bi in GaAs under typical growth conditions (Ga-rich and Bi-metal-rich at 400 °C) has a dilute heat of solution of 572 meV/Bi and a solubility of x=5.2×10-5 in GaAs1-xBix. However, epitaxial strain can greatly enhance this solubility, and under the same conditions an epitaxial film of GaAs1-xBix with 5% in-plane tensile strain is predicted to have a Bi solubility of x=7.3×10-3, representing approximately a hundred times increase in solubility over the unstrained bulk case. Despite these potentially large increases in solubility, the equilibrium solubility is still very low compared to values that have been achieved experimentally through nonequilibrium growth. These values of solubility are also sensitive to the choice of the Bi reference state. If the primary route for phase separation is the formation of GaBi within the same structure, rather than Bi metal, GaBi would serve as the source/sink for Bi. If GaBi is used as the Bi reference state, the epitaxial formation energy on a bulk unstrained GaAs substrate is reduced dramatically to 144 meV/Bi, yielding a Bi solubility of x=0.083 in GaAs1-xBix. These calculations suggest that Bi solubility could be greatly enhanced if Bi metal formation is inhibited and the system is forced to remain constrained to the GaAs1-xBix structure. Although GaBi is not a naturally stable compound, it could potentially be stabilized through a combination of kinetic limitations and alloying.

  10. Specific features of nonlinear optical properties of Eu3+ doped BiFeO3 nanopowders near antiferromagnetic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bahraoui, T.; Sekkati, M.; Taibi, M.; Abd-Lefdil, M.; El-Naggar, A. M.; AlZayed, N. S.; Albassam, A. A.; Kityk, I. V.; Maciag, A.

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the Eu3+ doped BiFeO3 nanopowders was performed near the antiferromagnetic transformation by photoinduced optical second harmonic generation. As photoinduced laser beams we have used bicolor coherent excitations of the Er:glass laser emitting at 1540 nm with frequency repetition about 15 ns. The studies of the photoinduced SHG were performed versus temperature including the temperature range of ferromagnetic-ferroelectric transition (350 °C…390 °C). The optimal light polarization and intensity ratio were chosen; the sensitivity of the photoinduced SHG to the multiferroic phase transitions was explored.

  11. Absorption, fluorescence and second harmonic generation in Cr³⁺-doped BiB₃O₆ glasses.

    PubMed

    Kuznik, W; Fuks-Janczarek, I; Wojciechowski, A; Kityk, I V; Kiisk, V; Majchrowski, A; Jaroszewicz, L R; Brik, M G; Nagy, G U L

    2015-06-15

    Synthesis, spectral properties and photoinduced nonlinear optical effects of chromium-doped BiB3O6 glass are studied in the present paper. Absorption, excitation and time resolved luminescence spectra are presented and luminescence decay behavior is discussed. Detailed analysis of the obtained spectra (assignment of the most prominent spectral features in terms of the corresponding Cr(3+) energy levels, crystal field strength Dq, Racah parameters B and C) was performed. A weak photostimulated second harmonic generation signal was found to increase drastically due to poling by proton implantation in the investigated sample. PMID:25795605

  12. Optical absorption of Bi/sub 12/SiO/sub 20/ single crystals doped with chromium or nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, V.M.; Kolosov, E.E.; Shilova, M.V.

    1986-08-01

    In the present work on Bi/sub 12/SiO/sub 20/ single crystals (BSO) undoped and doped with Cr or Ni, the authors studied the room-temperature optical absorption in the range 0.4-1.2 micrometers during emission of the photochromic effect and determined the impurity level energies due to Cr or Ni. The crystals studied were grown by the Czochralski method. In study of the photochromic effect, the authors used ultraviolet radiation from a mercury lamp and radiation from a He-Ne laser. The optical absorption spectral dependences are shown. It is confirmed that observation of photochromic effect in chromium-doped BSO crystals is encumbered by relaxation of their optical transmission. The extent of optical excitation in these sample depends substantially on the time elapsed after irradiation.

  13. Terahertz Faraday Rotation in the Quantum Anomalous Hall System V-doped (Bi,Sb)2 Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Ozge; Frenzel, Alex; Chang, Cui-Zu; Pilon, Daniel; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Gedik, Nuh; Gedik group Team; Moodera group Collaboration

    Time-reversal symmetry breaking in a topological insulator (TI) can be achieved by introducing ferromagnetism, which opens up a gap in the Dirac surface states. When the chemical potential is tuned to lie within the surface gap, the quantum anomalous Hall state emerges, which can be regarded as the quantum Hall state at zero external magnetic field. Recently, this state has been observed by static transport measurements in thin films of magnetically doped TIs. Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be an effective probe of surface states and Hall effects in topological materials. Here, we use polarization modulation terahertz spectroscopy to study the intrinsic properties of massive Dirac electrons in V-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 via Faraday rotation measurements.

  14. Effect of local structural distortion on magnetic and dielectric properties in BiFeO3 with Ba, Ti co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G. F.; Ruan, Y. J.; Liu, W.; Wu, X. S.

    2015-07-01

    The structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of Bi1-xBaxFe1-xTixO3 (x≤0.25) ceramics are studied systematically. The symmetry of the unit cell for BiFeO3 co-doping with Ba and Ti remains the space group of R3c. The addition of Ba and Ti increases the unit cell volume without changing the unit cell symmetry. The remnant magnetization decreases monotonically with increasing the doping content, which may originate from contraction in Fe-O-Fe bond and FeO6 octahedron. Charge compensation occurs in BiFeO3 with Ba and Ti co-doping, which may suppress the charge defects and decrease the magnetism. The substitution of Fe with smaller radial Ti ion supplies larger vibration space in FeO6 octahedron, which may enhance the dielectric constant and decrease the dielectric loss significantly.

  15. Effect of isovalent non-magnetic Fe-site doping on the electronic structure and spontaneous polarization of BiFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Poorva; Prasad, R.; Roy, Amritendu; Garg, Ashish

    2015-05-14

    We report the results of our first-principles calculations on the effect of isovalent, non-magnetic, Al{sup 3+} ion doping on the electronic structure and spontaneous polarization of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}. Our calculations reveal that Al{sup 3+} doping in BiFeO{sub 3} results in the reduction of Fe–O–Fe bond angle, leading to the weakening of antiferromagnetic superexchange interaction, further substantiated by the reduction of exchange interaction constant with increasing doping level. Lowering of well-depth is suggestive of reduced switching potential and improved P-E loop with lowered coercivity. Chemical bonding analysis by electron localization function shows that cation–oxygen bonding is of mixed ionic–covalent character, with marginal increase in the covalent character with increasing doping concentration. Large spontaneous polarization of undoped BiFeO{sub 3} is retained with lower doping level (6.25%), while for higher doping content (31.25%), the spontaneous polarization is reduced, primarily due to larger c/a ratio at higher doping level.

  16. Effects of low-level Ag doping on Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x}

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, T.A.; Eror, N.G.; Krishnaraj, P.; Prorok, B.C.; Lelovic, M.; Balachandran, U.

    1995-07-01

    Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} has been doped with silver, up to 10,000 ppm, in three ways: excess additions, substitution of Ag for Bi, and substitution of Ag for Sr. Effects of doping on the c-axis lattice parameter and critical temperature ({Tc}) were measured. Effects from doing were only observed in slow-cooled [10{degree}/hr] oxygen equilibrated samples. Doping by excess additions caused a small decrease in {Tc} and an increase in the c-axis length of the lattice. Doping by substitution, compared to excess Ag additions, caused a larger decrease in {Tc} and higher c-axis values for doping levels up to 1,000 ppm. Doping by substitution at higher levels (1,000--10,000 ppm) caused {Tc} to increase and the c-axis to decrease. Samples with similar substitutional doping levels exhibited comparable {Tc} values and samples with Ag substituted for Sr consistently exhibited higher c-axis values than samples that had equivalent amounts of Ag substituted for Bi.

  17. Enhancement of Red Persistent Luminescence in Cr3+-Doped ZnGa2O4 Phosphors by Bi2O3 Codoping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yixi; Ueda, Jumpei; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2013-05-01

    Bi2O3 was proved to be an effective codopant to enhance red persistent luminescence in Cr3+-doped ZnGa2O4 spinel. The Cr-Bi-codoped ZnGa2O4 phosphors showed about 10 times higher persistent luminescence intensity than the Cr-singly-doped phosphors. The radiance (in mW sr-1m-2) of persistent luminescence in ZnGa2O4:Cr,Bi phosphors was comparable to that in commercialized SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy phosphors. Increases of Cr3+ absorption and photoluminescence were also observed in the Cr-Br-codoped ZnGa2O4 sample. The obtained results suggest that Bi2O3 may play a critical role in stabilizing Cr3+ in ZnGa2O4 spinel.

  18. One-pot synthesis of Ag+ doped BiVO4 microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity via a facile hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shiwen; Li, Quanguo; Li, Feng; Cao, Wei; Li, Taohai

    2016-05-01

    The Ag+/BiVO4 photocatalyst was fabricated through a facile hydrothermal method by using K6V10O28·9H2O as the vanadium source. The impact of Ag+ on the product's structure and morphology was studied. It was shown that the amount of Ag+ has no effect on the product's crystal phases but plays an important role on the morphology of the nanoparticles that construct the shell of BiVO4 microspheres. In addition, the Ag+-doped photocatalysts have much higher photocatalytic activities in removing RhB and MB under the UV light illumination than the pure BiVO4. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed in photoexcitation of the BiVO4 electrons which subsequently captured by the dopant. The present work may offer a novel route to reach higher photocatalytic activity by doping the Ag+ in the semiconductor catalysts.

  19. Effect of lanthanum doping on tetragonal-like BiFe O3 with mixed-phase domain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Lu; Caesario, Petrus; Fang, Liang; Ren, Peng; Wang, Le; Zhou, Yang; Gruverman, Alexei; Wang, Junling

    2014-10-01

    The recent discoveries of both chemical-driven and strain-driven morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) in BiFe O3 (BFO) thin films have opened up new horizons in developing high-performance lead-free piezoelectrics. An attempt to bridge these two MPBs is made by doping La into highly strained BFO thin films with the coexistence of tetragonal-like and rhombohedral-like phases. The structural, morphological, and ferroelectric properties of such films are investigated. It is observed that La doping changes the energy landscape between the tetragonal-like and the rhombohedral-like polymorphs due to the chemical pressure imposed by the La substitution. Polar instability is found upon increasing La doping for the in-plane polarization component, which correlates with the vanishing of in-plane ferroelectric domain structures. The transition sequence of the in-plane ferroelectric polarization resembles that previously reported for the bulklike rhombohedral phase of BFO under continuous La doping, indicating the universality of the chemical-alloying effect on the ferroelectric order.

  20. Thermoelectric Properties of Cu-Doped n-Type Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 Prepared by Liquid Phase Growth Using a Sliding Boat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuura, Tsukasa; Kato, Toshihito; Kamata, Kin-ya

    2015-06-01

    N-type Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 thermoelectric materials were prepared by liquid phase growth (LPG) using a sliding boat, a simple and short fabrication process for Bi2Te3-related materials. Cu was selected as a donor dopant, and its effect on thermoelectric properties was investigated. Thick sheets and bars of Cu x Bi2 Te2.85Se0.15 ( x=0-0.25) of 1-2mm in thickness were obtained using the process. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron micrographs showed that the in-plane direction tended to correspond to the hexagonal c-plane, which is the preferred direction for thermoelectric conversion. Cu-doping was effective in controlling conduction type and carrier (electron) concentration. The conduction type was p-type for undoped Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 and became n-type after Cu-doping. The Hall carrier concentration was increased by Cu-doping. Small resistivity was achieved in Cu0.02Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 owing to an optimized amount of Cu-doping and high crystal orientation. As a result, the maximum power factor near 310K for Cu0.02Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was approximately 4×10-3W/K2m and had good reproducibility. Furthermore, the thermal stability of Cu0.02Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was also confirmed by thermal cycling measurements of electrical resistivity. Thus, n-type Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 with a large power factor was prepared using the present LPG process.

  1. AlO x /LiF composite protection layer for Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 quantum anomalous Hall films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yunbo; Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Hao, Zhenqi; Zhang, Liguo; Liu, Chang; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun

    2016-08-01

    We have realized robust quantum anomalous Hall samples by protecting Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 topological insulator films with a combination of LiF and AlO x capping layers. The AlO x /LiF composite capping layer well keeps the quantum anomalous Hall states of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 films and effectively prevent them from degradation induced by ambient conditions. The progress is a key step towards the realization of the quantum phenomena in heterostructures and devices based on quantum anomalous Hall system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11325421).

  2. Large power factor and anomalous Hall effect and their correlation with observed linear magneto resistance in Co-doped Bi2Se3 3D topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rahul; Shukla, K. K.; Kumar, A.; Okram, G. S.; Singh, D.; Ganeshan, V.; Lakhani, Archana; Ghosh, A. K.; Chatterjee, Sandip

    2016-09-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR), thermo power, magnetization and Hall effect measurements have been performed on Co-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulators. The undoped sample shows that the maximum MR as a destructive interference due to a π-Berry phase leads to a decrease of MR. As the Co is doped, the linearity in MR is increased. The observed MR of Bi2Se3 can be explained with the classical model. The low temperature MR behavior of Co doped samples cannot be explained with the same model, but can be explained with the quantum linear MR model. Magnetization behavior indicates the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering with Co doping. Hall effect data also supports the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering in Co-doped Bi2Se3 samples by showing the anomalous Hall effect. Furthermore, when spectral weight suppression is insignificant, Bi2Se3 behaves as a dilute magnetic semiconductor. Moreover, the maximum power factor is observed when time reversal symmetry (TRS) is maintained. As the TRS is broken the power factor value is decreased, which indicates that with the rise of Dirac cone above the Fermi level the anomalous Hall effect and linearity in MR increase and the power factor decreases.

  3. Large power factor and anomalous Hall effect and their correlation with observed linear magneto resistance in Co-doped Bi2Se3 3D topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul; Shukla, K K; Kumar, A; Okram, G S; Singh, D; Ganeshan, V; Lakhani, Archana; Ghosh, A K; Chatterjee, Sandip

    2016-09-21

    Magnetoresistance (MR), thermo power, magnetization and Hall effect measurements have been performed on Co-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulators. The undoped sample shows that the maximum MR as a destructive interference due to a π-Berry phase leads to a decrease of MR. As the Co is doped, the linearity in MR is increased. The observed MR of Bi2Se3 can be explained with the classical model. The low temperature MR behavior of Co doped samples cannot be explained with the same model, but can be explained with the quantum linear MR model. Magnetization behavior indicates the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering with Co doping. Hall effect data also supports the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering in Co-doped Bi2Se3 samples by showing the anomalous Hall effect. Furthermore, when spectral weight suppression is insignificant, Bi2Se3 behaves as a dilute magnetic semiconductor. Moreover, the maximum power factor is observed when time reversal symmetry (TRS) is maintained. As the TRS is broken the power factor value is decreased, which indicates that with the rise of Dirac cone above the Fermi level the anomalous Hall effect and linearity in MR increase and the power factor decreases. PMID:27419361

  4. Growth mechanism and photocatalytic activity of self-organized N-doped (BiO)₂CO₃ hierarchical nanosheet microspheres from bismuth citrate and urea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fan; Xiong, Ting; Wang, Rui; Sun, Yanjuan; Jiang, Yanke

    2014-05-14

    Synthesis of nano-/microstructured functional materials with 3D hierarchical microspheres structure has provided new opportunities for optimizing their physical and chemical properties. This work revealed a new growth mechanism of self-organized N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres which were fabricated by hydrothermal treatment of bismuth citrate and urea without an additive. Based on time-dependent observation, several evolution processes were believed to account for the formation of the self-organized N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres. Initially, crystallized (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 particles were formed during the nucleation and crystallization processes. Subsequently, the intermediate (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 reacted with CO3(2-) to generate (BiO)2CO3 growth nuclei on the surface of the CO2 bubbles which can act as heterogeneous nucleation centers. Next, the (BiO)2CO3 growth nuclei aggregated together after the consumption of CO2 bubbles with the increased concentration of OH(-) and further grew to be nanosheets. The microspheres constructed by small nanosheets further grew with the consumption of small particles. Finally, all (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 transformed to the (BiO)2CO3 phase, accompanied by the doping of N element into the lattice of (BiO)2CO3, and thereby, the well-defined N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres were shaped. Depending on the distance between neighboring CO2 bubbles, the resulting microspheres can be linked or dispersed. Besides, the gradual release of CO2 bubbles and CO3(2-) played a crucial role in controlling the nucleation and growth process, resulting in different sizes of microspheres. The fabricated N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres displayed admirably efficient and durable photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light towards removal of NO, which is mainly attributed to the introduction of N element and the special hierarchical structure. This work provides new insights into the controlled synthesis of

  5. Electronic and Thermodynamic Properties of Sn and SbI3 Doped Single Crystals p - Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, M. Z.; Popov, D. I.; Nemov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Bi2Te3 - Sb2Te3 solid solutions, the most commonly used thermoelectrics (~300K), are characterized by inhomogeneities and defects of various types, and doping contributes to spatial inhomogeneity. These impurity energy states fall into the band gap with small high-field SdH oscillations. However, it is known that Sn impurity pins the Fermi level and tremendously improves the spatial homogeneity, leading to observation of high amplitude SdH oscillations in lower magnetic field. The iodine (I) impurity was chosen to shift the Fermi level and affect the filling factor of impurity states. Numerous experimental results on magnetoresistivity, specific heat and magnetic susceptibility indicate that the most probable model for one-electron states in Bi2Te3 solid solutions doped with Sn is the presence of two impurity bands one filled and one empty- with the Fermi level pinned in-between. Earlier we reported on SdH oscillations at T = 4.2K and in magnetic Field up to 10T. Here, we report on investigations of the magnetoresistivity (2 < T < 295K) and its oscillations (T < 12K). We deduce the carriers mobility and concentration and their temperature dependence along with that of the dampening of SdH amplitude. We also report on specific heat measurements in the range (2 < T < 295K), with a low T power law of exponent p=3.5 behavior.

  6. Composition-driven structural phase transitions in rare-earth-doped BiFeO3 ceramics: a review.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Donna C

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth ferrite suffers from high leakage currents and the presence of a complex incommensurate spin cycloidal magnetic ordering, which has limited its commercial viability and has led researchers to investigate the functionality of doped BiFeO3 ceramics. In particular, the substitution of rare earths onto the Bi(3+) site of the perovskite lattice have been shown to lead to improved functional properties, including lower leakage currents and the suppression of the magnetic spin cycloid. There is particular interest in materials with compositions close to structural morphotropic phase boundaries, because these may lead to materials with enhanced electronic and magnetic properties analogous to the highly relevant PbZrO3- PbTiO3 solid solution. However, many contradictory crystal structures and physical behaviors are reported within the literature. To understand the structure-property relationships in these materials, it is vital that we first unravel the complex structural phase diagrams. We report here a comprehensive review of structural phase transitions in rare-earth-doped bismuth ferrite ceramics across the entire lanthanide series. We attempt to rationalize the literature in terms of the perovskite tool kit and propose an updated phase diagram based on an interpretation of the literature. PMID:25585391

  7. Co-doping induced coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in Bi3.9Co0.1O4S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chuan; Feng, Zhenjie; Yin, Xunqing; Li, Qing; Kang, Baojuan; Lu, Bo; Jing, Chao; Cao, Shixun; Zhang, Jincang

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Co doping on the physical properties of the Bi4O4S3 system was studied. We discovered that stable Bi3.9Co0.1O4S3 compound exhibits both long-range ferromagnetism and enhanced superconductivity with thermodynamic evidences for Tc ∼ 5.5 K. We found that there is an anomalous feature which represents superconducting transition in the hysteretic M-vs.-H loops for Bi3.9Co0.1O4S3 at T = 3 K.

  8. First-principles study of roles of Cu and Cl in polycrystalline CdTe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Ji -Hui; Yin, Wan -Jian; Park, Ji -Sang; Metzger, Wyatt; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-01-25

    In this study, Cu and Cl treatments are important processes to achieve high efficiency polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells, thus it will be beneficial to understand the roles they play in both bulk CdTe and CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study Cu and Cl-related defects in bulk CdTe. We find that Cl has only a limited effect on improving p-type doping and too much Cl can induce deep traps in bulk CdTe, whereas Cu can enhance ptype doping of bulk CdTe. In the presence of GBs, we find that, in general, Cl and Cu willmore » prefer to stay at GBs, especially for those with Te-Te wrong bonds, in agreement with experimental observations.« less

  9. First-principles study of roles of Cu and Cl in polycrystalline CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yin, Wan-Jian; Park, Ji-Sang; Metzger, Wyatt; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Cu and Cl treatments are important processes to achieve high efficiency polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells, thus it will be beneficial to understand the roles they play in both bulk CdTe and CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study Cu and Cl-related defects in bulk CdTe. We find that Cl has only a limited effect on improving p-type doping and too much Cl can induce deep traps in bulk CdTe, whereas Cu can enhance p-type doping of bulk CdTe. In the presence of GBs, we find that, in general, Cl and Cu will prefer to stay at GBs, especially for those with Te-Te wrong bonds, in agreement with experimental observations.

  10. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of porous olive-shaped sulfur-doped BiVO4-supported cobalt oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhenxuan; Dai, Hongxing; Deng, Jiguang; Liu, Yuxi; Au, Chak Tong

    2013-04-01

    Porous S-doped bismuth vanadate with an olive-like morphology and its supported cobalt oxide (y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08, y = 0.1, 0.8, and 1.6) photocatalysts were fabricated using the dodecylamine-assisted alcohol-hydrothermal and incipient wetness impregnation methods, respectively. It is shown that the y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08 photocatalysts were single-phase with a monoclinic scheetlite structure, a porous olive-like morphology, a surface area of 8.8-9.2 m2/g, and a bandgap energy of 2.38-2.41 eV. There was the co-presence of surface Bi5+, Bi3+, V5+, V3+, Co3+, and Co2+ species in y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08. The 0.8 wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08 sample performed the best for methylene blue degradation under visible-light illumination. The photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. We believe that the sulfur and CoOx co-doping, higher oxygen adspecies concentration, and lower bandgap energy were responsible for the excellent visible-light-driven catalytic activity of 0.8 wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08.

  11. Enhanced ferromagnetic properties in Ho and Ni co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. S.; Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, J. S.; Lee, Y. P.; Kang, J.-H.; Lee, B. W.

    2014-01-07

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline Bi{sub 1-x}Ho{sub x}Fe{sub 1-y}Ni{sub y}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.1; y = 0, 0.03), which were prepared by the solid-state method, have been investigated. The powder X-ray diffraction reveals that all the samples are polycrystalline and show rhombohedral perovskite structure. The micro-Raman scattering studies confirm that Bi{sub 0.9}Ho{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.97}Ni{sub 0.03}O{sub 3} has a compressive lattice distortion induced by the simultaneous substitution of Ho and Ni ions at A and B-sites, respectively. From the magnetization dependences at room temperature, Bi{sub 0.9}Ho{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.97}Ni{sub 0.03}O{sub 3} has enhanced magnetization (0.2280 emu/g) and low coercive field (280 Oe). It was revealed that the Ni dopant plays an important role for the improved ferromagnetic properties and the Ho dopant favors the magnetic exchange interactions in the co-doped ceramic.

  12. Calcium-doping effects on photovoltaic response and structure in multiferroic BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, C. S.; Hung, C.-M.; Xu, Z.-R.; Schmidt, V. H.; Ting, Y.; Chien, R. R.; Peng, Y.-T.; Anthoninappen, J.

    2013-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) effects, power-conversion efficiencies, and structures have been systematically measured in (Bi1-xCax)FeO3-δ ceramics for x = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15. The heterostructures of indium tin oxide (ITO) film/(Bi1-xCax)FeO3-δ ceramics/Au film exhibit significant PV effects under illumination of λ = 405 nm. The maximum power-conversion efficiency in the ITO/(Bi0.90Ca0.10)FeO2.95 (BFO10C)/Au can reach 0.0072%, which is larger than 0.0025% observed in the graphene/polycrystalline BFO/Pt films [Zang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 132904 (2011)]. A theoretical model based on optically excited current in the depletion region between ITO film and Ca-doped BFO ceramics is used to describe the I-V characteristic, open-circuit voltage, and short-circuit current density as a function of illumination intensity. This work suggests that the Ca-substitution can reduce the rhombohedral distortion and stabilize the single-phase structure.

  13. Nanostructures of Sr2+ doped BiFeO3 multifunctional ceramics with tunable photoluminescence and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S K; Rakshit, T; Ray, S K; Mishra, S K; Krishna, P S R; Chandra, Amreesh

    2013-02-01

    Careful tuning of formation (calcination) temperature of Sr(2+) doped BiFeO(3) multiferroic ceramics results in tailorable particle morphologies ranging from spherical to pillar-like. Based on the minimization of Gibb's free energy approach, the dominant homogeneous mechanism for particle growth is suggested. The chemical substitution of a trivalent ion (Bi(3+)) by a divalent ion (Sr(2+)) causes the transformation of certain fraction of Fe(3+) to Fe(4+) and/or the appearance of oxygen vacancies. This has been respectively proved by the analysis of XPS and refinement of neutron diffraction data. Although significant modification in the particle morphology is observed, the crystal unit cell remains rhombohedral with a R3c space group but interesting variations in physical properties are achieved. O-vacancies induced strong and sharp photoluminescence activity in the IR region, similar to ZnO, is reported for the first time. This observation opens up a new application for multiferroic ceramics. SQUID M-H data confirms the straightening of the canted spin structure of BiFeO(3), which in turn results in magnetism similar to ferromagnetic materials. Findings of the magneto-dielectric effect are also discussed to claim the multiferroic nature of the sample. PMID:23300169

  14. Nanostructures of Sr2+ doped BiFeO3 multifunctional ceramics with tunable photoluminescence and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, S. K.; Rakshit, T.; Ray, S. K.; Mishra, S. K.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Chandra, Amreesh

    2013-02-01

    Careful tuning of formation (calcination) temperature of Sr2+ doped BiFeO3 multiferroic ceramics results in tailorable particle morphologies ranging from spherical to pillar-like. Based on the minimization of Gibb’s free energy approach, the dominant homogeneous mechanism for particle growth is suggested. The chemical substitution of a trivalent ion (Bi3+) by a divalent ion (Sr2+) causes the transformation of certain fraction of Fe3+ to Fe4+ and/or the appearance of oxygen vacancies. This has been respectively proved by the analysis of XPS and refinement of neutron diffraction data. Although significant modification in the particle morphology is observed, the crystal unit cell remains rhombohedral with a R3c space group but interesting variations in physical properties are achieved. O-vacancies induced strong and sharp photoluminescence activity in the IR region, similar to ZnO, is reported for the first time. This observation opens up a new application for multiferroic ceramics. SQUID M-H data confirms the straightening of the canted spin structure of BiFeO3, which in turn results in magnetism similar to ferromagnetic materials. Findings of the magneto-dielectric effect are also discussed to claim the multiferroic nature of the sample.

  15. An ordered and porous N-doped carbon dot-sensitized Bi2O3 inverse opal with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Zuxing; Xie, Anjian; Xiao, Changhe; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Shen, Yuhua

    2015-08-01

    A novel ordered porous Bi2O3 inverse opal structure (IOS) was prepared using a polystyrene (PS) photonic crystal as the template for the first time. Nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were chosen to sensitize the as-prepared Bi2O3 IOS for improving photoelectrochemical performance and photocatalytic activity. The photocurrent density of the fabricated N-CDs/Bi2O3 IOS with favorable visible light absorption properties can achieve 0.75 mA cm-2, which significantly enhanced performance two-, seven-, and thirty-fold compared with that of the CDs/Bi2O3 IOS, Bi2O3 IOS, and Bi2O3 nanoparticles (NPs), respectively. The N-CDs/Bi2O3 IOS also has increased photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB), 4 times higher than Bi2O3 NPs. The above performance enhancement of N-CDs/Bi2O3 IOS is caused by the synergistic effect of N-CDs sensitization and the highly ordered IOS, which make it a promising material to be used in clean energy, solar cells, potential applications in water purification and so on.

  16. Nitrogen-doped carbon and high-content alumina containing bi-active cobalt oxides for efficient storage of lithium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bibo; Zhang, Shilin; Yao, Feng; Huo, Ruijie; Zhang, Fazhi; Xu, Sailong

    2016-01-15

    Low-content ultrathin coating of non-active alumina (Al2O3) has been extensively utilized as one of the most effective strategies to improve electrochemical performances of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), however, typically by employing expensive atomic layer deposition equipment. We herein demonstrate a simple preparation of high-content and well-dispersed Al2O3 (24.33wt.%)-containing multi-component composite (CoO/Co3O4/N-C/Al2O3) by calcination of melamine/CoAl-layered double hydroxide (CoAl-LDH) mixture. The resulting composite bundles the advantages expected to improve electrochemical performances: (i) bi-active CoO/Co3O4, (ii) highly conductive N-doped carbon, and (iii) N-doped carbon and high-content non-active Al2O3 as buffering reagents, as well as (iv) good distribution of bi- and non-active components resulted from the lattice orientation and confinement effect of the LDH layers. Electrochemical evaluation shows that the composite electrode delivers a highly enhanced reversible capacity of 1078mAhg(-1) after 50cycles at 100mAg(-1), compared with the bi-active CoO/Co3O4 mixtures with and without non-active Al2O3. Transmission electron microscopy/scanning electron microscopy observations and electrochemical impedance spectra experimentally provide the information on the good distributions of multiple components and the improved conductivity underlying the enhancements, respectively. Our LDH precursor-based preparation route may be extended to design and prepare various multi-component transition metal oxides for efficient lithium storage. PMID:26454377

  17. BiPO4: a better host for doping lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Boddu Sanyasi; Vishwanadh, Bathula; Sudarsan, Vasanthakumaran; Vatsa, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-03-21

    In the present manuscript it is demonstrated that BiPO(4) is a better alternative to lanthanide phosphate host for making lanthanide ion-based luminescent materials. Hexagonal and monoclinic forms of BiPO(4) phase were prepared based on the reaction of Bi(3+) and PO(4)(3-) ions in ethylene glycol medium at 100 and 185 °C, respectively. From the differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies it is confirmed that the difference in the nucleation mechanism rather than the phase transition is responsible for the monoclinic phase formation at low temperatures (125 °C). Monoclinic BiPO(4) is quite stable and forms random solid solutions with lanthanide phosphates having both monoclinic (monazite) and tetragonal (xenotime) structures, as confirmed by XRD, FTIR and (31)P solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies. On excitation corresponding to the (1)S(0)→(3)P(1) transition of Bi(3+) in BiPO(4):Ln samples, energy transfer from host to lanthanide ions takes place. The studies are quite relevant as there is a growing interest all over the world in replacing lanthanide based host used for different applications with easily available, easily purifiable and cheap main group elements (like Sb, Bi etc.) based hosts. PMID:22286329

  18. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of Sm3+-doped BiOBr phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halappa, Pramod; Shivakumara, C.; Saraf, Rohit; Nagabhushana, H.

    2016-05-01

    Well-crystallized tetragonal layered BiOBr and Bi0.95Sm0.05OBr phosphors were prepared by the solid state method. These compounds were characterized using powder X-Ray diffraction and photoluminescence technique. In PL spectra, the electric dipole transitions dominate than other transitions which indicate that the Sm3+ ions occupy a site with an inversion center of BiOBr. CIE chromaticity diagram confirmed that these phosphors can be useful in the fabrication of red component in white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) for display device applications.

  19. Enhancement of piezoelectric response in Ga doped BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, N.; Wolfman, J.; Daumont, C.; Négulescu, B.; Ruyter, A.; Feuillard, G.; Bavencoffe, M.; Fortineau, J.; Sauvage, T.; Courtois, B.; Bouyanfif, H.; Longuet, J. L.; Autret-Lambert, C.; Gervais, F.

    2015-06-01

    The piezoelectric properties of compositional spread (1 - x)BiFeO3-xGaFeO3 epitaxial thin films are investigated where Ga3+ substitution for Bi3+ is attempted in Bi1-xGaxFeO3 compounds. Ga content x was varied from 0 to 12% (atomic). Ferroelectric characterizations are reported at various length scales. Around 6.5% of Ga content, an enhancement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient d33 eff is observed together with a change of symmetry of the film. Measured d33 eff values in 135 nm thick films increased from 25 pm/V for undoped BiFeO3 to 55 pm/V for 6.5% Ga with no extrinsic contribution from ferroelastic domain rearrangement.

  20. Effect of Sr-doping on multiferroic properties of Bi0.8La0.2Fe0.9Mn0.1O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anup K.; Kevin, H.; Chatterjee, B.; Dwivedi, G. D.; Barman, A.; Yang, H. D.; Chatterjee, S.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of Sr-doping on ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism at room temperature has been studied for Bi0.8La0.2Fe0.9Mn0.1O3 ceramic system. X-ray diffraction shows that a structural phase transition occurs from rhombohedral structure of BiFeO3 (space group R3c) to orthorhombic structure of Bi0.8La0.2FeO3 (space group C222). Substitutions of Sr-ions in Bi-site and Mn-ions in Fe-site do not induce any further structural change. Moreover, doping of Sr-ions plays a crucial role to obtain single phased samples. DTA and TGA studies show that both the magnetic transition temperature (TM) and the ferroelectric transition temperature (TC) decrease for Bi0.7Sr0.1La0.2Fe0.9Mn0.1O3. Sr-doping enhances the ferroelectric property by increasing the electric polarization. M-H measurement shows that Sr-ions partially destroy the spin cycloidal structure in it giving rise to weak ferromagnetism (nonlinearity) at room temperature.

  1. Features of the charge-transport mechanism in layered Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, N. A. Abdullaev, N. M.; Aliguliyeva, H. V.; Kerimova, T. G.; Mehdiyev, G. S.; Nemov, S. A.

    2011-01-15

    The temperature dependences (T = 5-300 K) of the resistivity in the plane of layers and in the direction perpendicular to the layers, as well as the Hall effect and the magnetoresistance (H < 80 kOe, T = 0.5-4.2 K) in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium, are investigated. It is shown that the doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with terbium atoms results in p-type conductivity and in increasing hole concentration. The doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with chlorine atoms modifies also the character of its conductivity instead of changing only the type from p to n. In the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the direction perpendicular to layers, a portion arises with the activation conductivity caused by the hopping between localized states. The charge-transport mechanism in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine is proposed.

  2. Hydrothermal fabrication of N-doped (BiO)2CO3: Structural and morphological influence on the visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fan; Wang, Rui; Li, Xinwei; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2014-11-01

    Various 3D N-doped (BiO)2CO3 (N-BOC) hierarchical superstructures self-assembled with 2D nanosheets were fabricated by one-step hydrothermal treatment of bismuth citrate and urea. The as-obtained samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, FT-IR, SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and UV-vis DRS. The hydrothermal temperature plays a crucial role in tuning the crystal and morphological structure of the samples. Adjusting the reaction temperature to 150, 180 and 210 °C, we obtained N-doped (BiO)2CO3 samples with corresponding attractive persimmon-like, flower-like and nanoflakes nano/microstructures. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by removal of NO under visible and solar light irradiation. The results revealed that the N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical superstructures showed enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity compared to pure (BiO)2CO3 and TiO2-based visible light photocatalysts. The outstanding photocatalytic performance of N-BOC samples can be ascribed to the doped nitrogen and the special hierarchical structure. The present work could provide new perspectives in controlling the morphological structure and photocatalytic activity of photocatalyst for better environmental pollution control.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of rare-earth doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase in lithium borate based nanocrystallized glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Harihara Venkataraman, B.; Fujiwara, Takumi; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2009-06-15

    Glass composites comprising of un-doped and samarium-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} nanocrystallites are fabricated in the glass system 16.66SrO-16.66[(1-x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-xSm{sub 2}O{sub 3}]-16.66Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-50Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (0<=x<=0.5, in mol%) via the melt quenching technique. The glassy nature of the as-quenched samples is established by differential thermal analyses. Transmission electron microscopic studies reveal the presence of about 15 nm sized spherical crystallites of the fluorite-like SrBi{sub 1.9}Sm{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase in the samples heat treated at 530 deg. C. The formation of layered perovskite-type un-doped and samarium-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} nanocrystallites with an orthorhombic structure through the intermediate fluorite phase is confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopic studies. The influence of samarium doping on the lattice parameters, lattice distortions, and the Raman peak positions of SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} perovskite phase is clarified. The dielectric constants of the perovskite SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} and SrBi{sub 1.9}Sm{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} nanocrystals are relatively larger than those of the corresponding fluorite-like phase and the precursor glass. - Graphical Abstract: This figure shows the XRD patterns at room temperature for the as-quenched and heat treated samples in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped (x=0.1) glass. Based on these results, it is concluded that the formation of samarium-doped perovskite SBN phase takes place via an intermediate fluorite-like phase in the crystallization of this glass.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies of Ag doped Bi2WO6 and their photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumrongrojthanath, Phattharanit; Thongtem, Titipun; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Somchai

    2013-12-01

    In this research, 0-3 mol% Ag doped Bi2WO6 hierarchical multilayered flower-like assemblies were successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 24 h. The XRD, FE-SEM, FTIR and Raman analyses revealed the presence of flower-like Russellite Bi2WO6 structures which were constructed from a large number of orderly arranged 2D layers of interconnected nanoplates. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under Xe visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The 3 mol% Ag doped Bi2WO6 showed the highest photocatalytic activities of 98.20% within 180 min.

  5. Facile synthesis of surface N-doped Bi2O2CO3: Origin of visible light photocatalytic activity and in situ DRIFTS studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Fang; Cao, Kun; Doronkin, Dmitry E; Dong, Fan; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2016-04-15

    Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets were prepared by a facile room temperature chemical method. Due to the high oxygen atom density in {001} facets of Bi2O2CO3, the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) does not only influence the growth of crystalline Bi2O2CO3, but also modifies the surface properties of Bi2O2CO3 through the interaction between CTAB and Bi2O2CO3. Nitrogen from CTAB as dopant interstitially incorporates in the Bi2O2CO3 surface evidenced by both experimental and theoretical investigations. Hence, the formation of localized states from NO bond improves the visible light absorption and charge separation efficiency, which leads to an enhancement of visible light photocatalytic activity toward to the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and oxidation of NO. In addition, the photocatalytic NO oxidation over Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets was successfully monitored for the first time using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Both bidentate and monodentate nitrates were identified on the surface of catalysts during the photocatalytic reaction process. The application of this strategy to another relevant bismuth based photocatalyst, BiOCl, demonstrated that surface interstitial N doping could also be achieved in this case. Therefore, our current route seems to be a general option to modify the surface properties of bismuth based photocatalysts. PMID:26780703

  6. One-pot solvothermal preparation and enhanced photocatalytic activity of metallic silver and graphene co-doped BiVO4 ternary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Wei, Yongge; Guo, Wan; Guo, Yihang; Guo, Yingna

    2015-03-01

    A series of metallic silver and graphene (GR) co-doped monoclinic BiVO4 ternary systems (Ag/GR/BiVO4) are demonstrated by a single-step solvothermal method. The phase and chemical structure, morphology, textural and optical absorption properties of the Ag/GR/BiVO4 ternary systems are well characterized, and then their simulated sunlight and visible-light photocatalytic activity were evaluated by the degradation of a typical dye pollutant, rhodamine B (RhB). For comparison, binary systems of Ag/BiVO4 and GR/BiVO4 as well as solitary BiVO4 are also tested under the same conditions. Meanwhile, the separation and transportation of the photogenerated carriers in the simulated sunlight-irradiating Ag/GR/BiVO4 ternary systems are studied by photoelectrochemistry experiments, and the active species generated during the process of photodegradation are investigated by free radical and hole scavenging experiments. On the basis of the above results, mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of RhB over the Ag/GR/BiVO4 ternary system is revealed. Finally, the reusability of the catalyst was evaluated by five consecutive catalytic runs.

  7. Unusual continuous dual absorption peaks in Ca-doped BiFeO3 nanostructures for broadened microwave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong-Jun; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Song, Wei-Li; Liu, Xing-Da; Cao, Wen-Qiang; Shao, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Electromagnetic absorption materials have received increasing attention owing to their wide applications in aerospace, communication and the electronics industry, and multiferroic materials with both polarization and magnetic properties are considered promising ceramics for microwave absorption application. However, the insufficient absorption intensity coupled with the narrow effective absorption bandwidth has limited the development of high-performance multiferroic materials for practical microwave absorption. To address such issues, in the present work, we utilize interfacial engineering in BiFeO3 nanoparticles via Ca doping, with the purpose of tailoring the phase boundary. Upon Ca-substitution, the co-existence of both R3c and P4mm phases has been confirmed to massively enhance both dielectric and magnetic properties via manipulating the phase boundary and the destruction of the spiral spin structure. Unlike the commonly reported magnetic/dielectric hybrid microwave absorption composites, Bi0.95Ca0.05FeO3 has been found to deliver unusual continuous dual absorption peaks at a small thickness (1.56 mm), which has remarkably broadened the effective absorption bandwidth (8.7-12.1 GHz). The fundamental mechanisms based on the phase boundary engineering have been discussed, suggesting a novel platform for designing advanced multiferroic materials with wide applications.Electromagnetic absorption materials have received increasing attention owing to their wide applications in aerospace, communication and the electronics industry, and multiferroic materials with both polarization and magnetic properties are considered promising ceramics for microwave absorption application. However, the insufficient absorption intensity coupled with the narrow effective absorption bandwidth has limited the development of high-performance multiferroic materials for practical microwave absorption. To address such issues, in the present work, we utilize interfacial engineering in BiFeO3

  8. Surface chemical and photocatalytic consequences of Ca-doping of BiFeO3 as probed by XPS and H2O2 decomposition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, Mohamed I.; Ramadan, Wegdan; Katrib, Ali; Rabee, Abdallah I. M.

    2014-10-01

    Pure and Ca-doped Bi1-xCaxFeO3 samples were prepared with x = 0.0-0.2, adopting a sol-gel method. Previously reported studies performed on similarly composed and prepared samples revealed that Ca-doping, above solubility limit (namely at ≥10%-Ca), results in phase separation and formation of BiFeO3/α(γ)-Fe2O3 nanocomposite particles. Hetero p/n nanojunctions thus established were considered to help separating photo-generated electron-hole pairs and, therefore, explain consequent promotion of photo-Fenton catalytic activity of BiFeO3 towards methylene blue degradation in presence of H2O2 additive. However, the encompassed decomposition of H2O2 was not addressed. To bridge this gap of knowledge, the present investigation was designed to assess Ca-doping-effected surface chemical modifications and gauge its impact on the heterogeneous photo-/thermo-catalytic activity of BiFeO3 towards H2O2 decomposition, by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and H2O2 decomposition gravimetry. XPS results revealed generation of high binding energy Bi 4f and Fe 2p states, as well as enhancement of the surface basicity, upon doping to 10%-Ca. These surface chemical consequences are rendered hardly detectable upon further increase of the dopant magnitude to 20%-Ca. In parallel, the H2O2 decomposition activity of the ferrite, under natural visible light, is enhanced to optimize upon Ca-doping at 10%, and, then, decreased on further doping to 20%. H2O2 decomposition experiments carried out in absence of light indicate that the doping promoting impact is reflected essentially in the photocatalytic activity. Accordingly, the observed surface chemical consequences of Ca-doping are considered to consolidate the p/n nanojunctions consequently established in the material bulk, by retarding recombination of visible light generated electron-hole pairs, thus enhancing the heterogeneous photocatalytic activity of BiFeO3.

  9. Light-induced relaxation dynamics in Rh-doped Bi12TiO20 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, V.; Vlaikova, E.; Goovaerts, E.

    2014-12-01

    The lifetime of the excited charge carriers in Rh-doped BTO crystals is characterized by measuring the time-resolved photoinduced absorption (PIA) after nanosecond pulse excitation from a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ=532 nm). It was found that the Rh-addition in the BTO structure slows down the relaxation decay in comparison with non- doped BTO, which is attributed to additional trapping centers related to the rhodium dopant. The experimental curve is well fitted by a double-exponential decay which is ascribed to the presence of two different shallow traps contributing to the charge transport and recombination mechanisms in Rh-doped BTO crystal.

  10. Study of the structural, electric and magnetic properties of Mn-doped Bi2Te3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, M. D.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Shelford, L. R.; Coldea, A. I.; Prabhakaran, D.; Speller, S. C.; Mousavi, T.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Salman, Z.; Giblin, S. R.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2013-10-01

    Breaking the time reversal symmetry of a topological insulator, for example by the presence of magnetic ions, is a prerequisite for spin-based electronic applications in the future. In this regard Mn-doped Bi2Te3 is a prototypical example that merits a systematic investigation of its magnetic properties. Unfortunately, Mn doping is challenging in many host materials—resulting in structural or chemical inhomogeneities affecting the magnetic properties. Here, we present a systematic study of the structural, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Mn-doped Bi2Te3 single crystals using complimentary experimental techniques. These materials exhibit a ferromagnetic phase that is very sensitive to the structural details, with TC varying between 9 and 13 K (bulk values) and a saturation moment that reaches 4.4(5) μB per Mn in the ordered phase. Muon spin rotation suggests that the magnetism is homogeneous throughout the sample. Furthermore, torque measurements in fields up to 33 T reveal an easy axis magnetic anisotropy perpendicular to the ab-plane. The electrical transport data show an anomaly around TC that is easily suppressed by an applied magnetic field, and also anisotropic behavior due to the spin-dependent scattering in relation to the alignment of the Mn magnetic moment. Hall measurements on different crystals established that these systems are n-doped with carrier concentrations of ˜ 0.5-3.0 × 1020 cm-3. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Mn L2,3 edge at 1.8 K reveals a large spin magnetic moment of 4.3(3) μB/Mn, and a small orbital magnetic moment of 0.18(2) μB/Mn. The results also indicate a ground state of mixed d4-d5-d6 character of a localized electronic nature, similar to the diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs. XMCD measurements in a field of 6 T give a transition point at T ≈ 16 K, which is ascribed to short range magnetic order induced by the magnetic field. In the ferromagnetic state the easy direction of

  11. Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Younghun; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Jihyun; Chun, Seungju; Kim, Donghwan

    2013-12-02

    CdTe thin films grown on bi-layer graphene were demonstrated by using the close-spaced sublimation method, where CdTe was selectively grown on the graphene. The density of the CdTe domains was increased with increasing the number of the defective sites in the graphene, which was controlled by the duration of UV exposure. The CdTe growth rate on the bi-layer graphene electrodes was 400 nm/min with a bandgap energy of 1.45–1.49 eV. Scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, micro-photoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction technique were used to confirm the high quality of the CdTe thin films grown on the graphene electrodes.

  12. Structural investigation of Bi doped InSe chalcogenide thin films using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shaveta; Sharma, Rita; Kumar, Praveen; Chander, Ravi; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M.

    2015-05-01

    The infrared transparency of the chalcogenide glasses have been investigated presently for the CO/CO2 laser power in various medical diagnostic applications. The addition of Bi improves the chemical durability and broadens the IR transparency region of various chalcogenide glassy systems. In the present work, we have studied the effect of Bi addition on the structural properties of In-Se thin films by using the RAMAN spectroscopy. The melt quenched bulk ingot of BixIn25-xSe75 (1≤ x≤ 7) alloys were used for the vacuum thermal evaporation of films in a vacuum better than 10-5 mbar. RAMAN bands at 1575, 1354 and 525 cm-1 has been observed, while with the increase in the Bi concentration vibrational band disappear at 525 cm-1 in sample x=7.

  13. Study of coexisting phases in Bi doped La0.67Sr0.33MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambhala, Nagaiah; Chen, Miaoxiang; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xi-xiang; Rajesh, Desapogu; Bhagyashree, K. S.; Goveas, Lora Rita; Bhat, S. V.; Kumar, P. Anil; Mathieu, Roland; Angappane, S.

    2016-05-01

    We report the remarkable phase separation behavior in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 doped with Bi3+ ion at La site. The temperature dependent resistivity and magnetization of La0.67-xBixSr0.33MnO3 (x>0) show the presence of phase separation of ferromagnetic metallic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic insulating phases. Markedly, the field dependant magnetization studies of La0.67-xBixSr0.33MnO3 (x=0.3) show the metamagnetic nature of ferromagnetic metallic state implying the competition of coexisting ferromagnetic metallic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic phases. The electron spin resonance and exchange bias studies of La0.67-xBixSr0.33MnO3 (x=0.4 and 0.5) substantiate the coexistence of ferromagnetic clusters in antiferromagnetic matrix.

  14. Ionic liquid assisted microwave synthesis route towards color-tunable luminescence of lanthanide- doped BiPO4

    SciTech Connect

    Cybinska, Joanna; Lorbeer, Chantal; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2015-07-08

    Ln3+-doped (Ln=Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy) nanoparticles of BiPO4 with a particle size below 10 nm were synthesized in a straightforward manner from the appropriate mixture of the respective metal acetates and the task-specific ionic liquids choline or butylammonium dihydrogen-phosphate by conversion in a laboratory microwave (120 °C, 10 min). The ionic liquid acts not only as a solvent and microwave susceptor, but also as the reaction partner and nanoparticle stabilizer. The materials were thoroughly characterized not only with respect to their optical properties but also by PXRD, FT-IR, TEM techniques. Furthermore, depending on the lanthanide, the nanomaterial shows intense luminescence of different colors such as: orange (Sm3+), red (Eu3+), green (Tb3+) or even white (Dy3+).

  15. The electric transport properties of Al-doped ZnO/BiFeO3/ITO glass heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fei; Chen, Changle; Luo, Bingcheng; Jin, Kexin

    2011-04-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) and 4 wt. % Al-doped ZnO (ZAO) layers were grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. I-V curves of the ZAO/BFO/ITO glass structure were investigated over the temperature range from 60 to 240 K. Analysis of the leakage current demonstrates that Poole-Frenkel emission is the dominant mechanism in our sample. The relations between resistance and temperature at positive and negative bias voltages are different, and the difference arises from the ferroelectric switching in BFO and the interfacial depletion layer between the semiconducting and the ferroelectric layers. Magnetoresistance (MR) effect is observed and the negative MR is related to the electron spin-dependent scattering and the interface resistance of the heterostructure.

  16. Influence of Zr4+ doping on structural and electrical properties of SrBi4Ti4O15 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Panigrahi, S.

    2015-06-01

    This article reports a systematic study of doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of layer structured strontium bismuth titanate ceramic. In this study monophasic SrBi4Ti4-xZrxO15 with x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 ceramics were synthesized from the solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Zr-modified SBT ceramics have a pure four-layer Aurivillius phase structure. Dielectric properties revealed that the diffuseness of phase transition increases where as corresponding permittivity value decrease with increasing Zr content. Piezoelectric properties of SBTZ ceramics were improved by the modification of Zirconium ion. Moreover, the reason behind for improvement of piezoelectric properties of modified SBTZ ceramics was also discussed.

  17. Ionic liquid assisted microwave synthesis route towards color-tunable luminescence of lanthanide- doped BiPO4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cybinska, Joanna; Lorbeer, Chantal; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2015-07-08

    Ln3+-doped (Ln=Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy) nanoparticles of BiPO4 with a particle size below 10 nm were synthesized in a straightforward manner from the appropriate mixture of the respective metal acetates and the task-specific ionic liquids choline or butylammonium dihydrogen-phosphate by conversion in a laboratory microwave (120 °C, 10 min). The ionic liquid acts not only as a solvent and microwave susceptor, but also as the reaction partner and nanoparticle stabilizer. The materials were thoroughly characterized not only with respect to their optical properties but also by PXRD, FT-IR, TEM techniques. Furthermore, depending on the lanthanide, the nanomaterial shows intense luminescencemore » of different colors such as: orange (Sm3+), red (Eu3+), green (Tb3+) or even white (Dy3+).« less

  18. Effect of Mn doping on ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3.

    PubMed

    Glinka, Yuri D; Babakiray, Sercan; Holcomb, Mikel B; Lederman, David

    2016-04-27

    Transient reflectivity (TR) measured at laser photon energy 1.51 eV from the indirectly intersurface-coupled topological insulator Bi2-x Mn x Se3 films (12 nm thick) revealed a strong dependence of the rise-time and initial decay-time constants on photoexcited carrier density and Mn content. In undoped samples (x  =  0), these time constants are exclusively governed by electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering, respectively, whereas in films with x  =  0.013-0.27 ultrafast carrier dynamics are completely controlled by photoexcited electron trapping by ionized Mn(2+) acceptors and their dimers. The shortest decay-time (~0.75 ps) measured for the film with x  =  0.27 suggests a great potential of Mn-doped Bi2Se3 films for applications in high-speed optoelectronic devices. Using Raman spectroscopy exploiting similar laser photon energy (1.58 eV), we demonstrate that due to indirect intersurface coupling in the films, the photoexcited electron trapping in the bulk enhances the electron-phonon interaction strength in Dirac surface states. PMID:27001950

  19. Unusual continuous dual absorption peaks in Ca-doped BiFeO3 nanostructures for broadened microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Jun; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Song, Wei-Li; Liu, Xing-Da; Cao, Wen-Qiang; Shao, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2016-05-21

    Electromagnetic absorption materials have received increasing attention owing to their wide applications in aerospace, communication and the electronics industry, and multiferroic materials with both polarization and magnetic properties are considered promising ceramics for microwave absorption application. However, the insufficient absorption intensity coupled with the narrow effective absorption bandwidth has limited the development of high-performance multiferroic materials for practical microwave absorption. To address such issues, in the present work, we utilize interfacial engineering in BiFeO3 nanoparticles via Ca doping, with the purpose of tailoring the phase boundary. Upon Ca-substitution, the co-existence of both R3c and P4mm phases has been confirmed to massively enhance both dielectric and magnetic properties via manipulating the phase boundary and the destruction of the spiral spin structure. Unlike the commonly reported magnetic/dielectric hybrid microwave absorption composites, Bi0.95Ca0.05FeO3 has been found to deliver unusual continuous dual absorption peaks at a small thickness (1.56 mm), which has remarkably broadened the effective absorption bandwidth (8.7-12.1 GHz). The fundamental mechanisms based on the phase boundary engineering have been discussed, suggesting a novel platform for designing advanced multiferroic materials with wide applications. PMID:27143336

  20. Transport studies on Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thin films with nearly quantized anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minhao; Richardella, Anthony; Kandala, Abhinav; Wang, Wudi; Yazdani, Ali; Samarth, Nitin; Ong, N. Phuan

    2015-03-01

    We describe measurements of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thin films (6-8 QL thickness) grown on (111) SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The Fermi level is tuned close to the neutral point by tuning the growth flux ratios of Cr, Bi and Sb. Transport measurements were carried out in a dilution fridge at a base temperature of 20 mK. By tuning the chemical potential with a back gate on the STO substrate, we observed an anomalous Hall effect as high as 0.95h/e2, with a coercive field ~ 0.15 T and a narrow transition between positive/negative Hall plateaus. Transport measurements in a non-local configuration showed a Hall-effect-like non-local resistance with a systematic dependence on the back gate voltage and with pronounced peaks which resembled the non-local resistance of the quantum Hall effect. The non-local signal has a maximum that coincides with the maximum in Hall conductivity, indicating the edge channel as its origin. Our results show that the edge channel manifests itself in various transport properties even though the Hall resistance is not perfectly quantized. Supported by DARPA SPAWAR Grant No. N66001-11-1-4110 and MURI grant on Topological Insulators (ARO W911NF-12-1-0461).

  1. Effect of Mn doping on ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David

    2016-04-01

    Transient reflectivity (TR) measured at laser photon energy 1.51 eV from the indirectly intersurface-coupled topological insulator Bi2-x Mn x Se3 films (12 nm thick) revealed a strong dependence of the rise-time and initial decay-time constants on photoexcited carrier density and Mn content. In undoped samples (x  =  0), these time constants are exclusively governed by electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering, respectively, whereas in films with x  =  0.013-0.27 ultrafast carrier dynamics are completely controlled by photoexcited electron trapping by ionized Mn2+ acceptors and their dimers. The shortest decay-time (~0.75 ps) measured for the film with x  =  0.27 suggests a great potential of Mn-doped Bi2Se3 films for applications in high-speed optoelectronic devices. Using Raman spectroscopy exploiting similar laser photon energy (1.58 eV), we demonstrate that due to indirect intersurface coupling in the films, the photoexcited electron trapping in the bulk enhances the electron-phonon interaction strength in Dirac surface states.

  2. Sm(3+)-doped Ba3Bi(PO4)3 orange reddish emitting phosphor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fu; Yang, Zhiping; Yu, Quanmao; Liu, Yufeng; Li, Xu; Lu, Fachun

    2013-03-15

    Ba(3)Bi(PO(4))(3):Sm(3+) phosphors were prepared via solid state reaction process. The crystal structure of the phosphor was characterized by XRD. The PL properties of Ba(3)Bi(PO(4))(3):Sm(3+) were investigated. The optimized phosphor with the composition of Ba(3)Bi(PO(4))(3):0.06Sm(3+) presents the several excitation bands from 300 to 500 nm, and exhibits very good luminescence properties. Under the excitation of ultraviolet 373, 401 and blue 467 nm, the phosphor presented red luminescence with dominating emissions at 563, 599, 646 and 709 nm, corresponding to (4)G(5/2)→(6)H(J) (J=5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/9) transitions, respectively. The critical distance was calculated to be 21.0 Å. The energy transfer type between Sm(3+) ions was confirmed as the d-d interaction by using the Van Uitert model. The chromatic properties of the typical sample Ba(3)Bi(PO(4))(3):0.06Sm(3+) phosphor have been found to have chromaticity coordinates of (0.59, 0.38), under the excitation of 401 nm. PMID:23391850

  3. Resistive switching in doped BiFeO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lei; Jiang, Changjun Xue, Desheng

    2014-05-07

    Polycrystalline Bi{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} films (BXFO) were synthesized by sol-gel spin coating method. Local resistive switching behavior was investigated. Bipolar resistive switching characteristics were clearly observed in both two samples. However, for the Bi{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} film, the switching from the low resistance (LRS) to the high resistance (HRS) occurred at positive bias and the switching from the HRS to the LRS at negative bias. On the contrary, the resistance of Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} film was switched from the LRS to the HRS when a negative bias was applied. Possible mechanisms for both resistive switching forms were discussed on the basis of the Schottky-like barrier.

  4. CdTe Solar Cells: The Role of Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain

    2014-06-06

    In this work, we report on developing 1D reaction-diffusion solver to understand the kinetics of p-type doping formation in CdTe absorbers and to shine some light on underlying causes of metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cell has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport and Poisson equation. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of Cu diffusion anneal time showing pronounced effect the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results suggest strong potential of the approach in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic device.

  5. Enhanced thermoelectric properties and development of nanotwins in Na-doped Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun; Lee, Jae Ki; Park, Su-Dong; Ryu, Byungki; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Bong-Seo; Min, Bok-Ki; Joo, Sung-Jae; Lee, Hee-Woong; Cho, Young-Rae

    2016-03-01

    We found that Na is a good source to develop twin structures in the Bi-Te system, such as Ag as noted in a previous study. The twin boundaries had a considerable influence on reductions of the lattice thermal conductivity due to phonon scattering by the nano-ordered layers and on reductions of the electrical resistivity owing to the defects generated by the substitution of Na into the cation sites. Here, we report the enhanced thermoelectric properties of a Na-doped p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 alloy. Measurements show that the electrical resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient decrease with Na doping due to an increase in the free carrier (hole) concentration and that the lattice thermal conductivity decreases with Na doping. The achieved maximum ZT value was 1.20 at 423 K, which is approximately 20% higher than that of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 under the same fabrication conditions. These results were achievable by controlling the morphology of the twin structure and the carrier concentration by means of Na doping. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Structural defects as a factor controlling the magnetic properties of pure and Ti-doped Bi1-x Ca x FeO3-x/2 multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, V. A.; Paixão, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of the factors that may significantly affect the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3-based perovskites remains one of the most challenging tasks in condensed matter physics. To reveal the reasons behind the doping-driven instability of the cycloidal antiferromagnetic order in the polar phase of Bi1-x Ca x FeO3-x/2, synthesis and investigation of the crystal structure, microstructure, local ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the ceramic samples of Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ (x  =  0.05, 0.1, 0.15) have been carried out. The compounds possess a rhombohedral structure (space group R3c). The compositional dependence of unit cell volume in this series can be interpreted as suggesting the doping-induced elimination of anion vacancies at x  ⩽  0.1 and the formation of cation vacancies at x  >  0.1. The filling of oxygen vacancies suppresses a weak ferromagnetic contribution characteristic of the parent Bi0.9Ca0.1FeO2.95. The appearance of cation vacancies restores the weak ferromagnetic phase. The key role of lattice defects in the magnetic behavior of Ca-doped BiFeO3 has been confirmed by the observation of a correlation between the magnetic properties and the morphology/ferroelectric domain structure of the Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ ceramics.

  7. Structural defects as a factor controlling the magnetic properties of pure and Ti-doped Bi(1-x)Ca(x)FeO(3-x/2) multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Khomchenko, V A; Paixão, J A

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of the factors that may significantly affect the multiferroic properties of BiFeO3-based perovskites remains one of the most challenging tasks in condensed matter physics. To reveal the reasons behind the doping-driven instability of the cycloidal antiferromagnetic order in the polar phase of Bi(1-x)Ca(x)FeO(3-x/2), synthesis and investigation of the crystal structure, microstructure, local ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the ceramic samples of Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe(1-x)Ti(x)O(3-δ) (x  =  0.05, 0.1, 0.15) have been carried out. The compounds possess a rhombohedral structure (space group R3c). The compositional dependence of unit cell volume in this series can be interpreted as suggesting the doping-induced elimination of anion vacancies at x  ⩽  0.1 and the formation of cation vacancies at x  >  0.1. The filling of oxygen vacancies suppresses a weak ferromagnetic contribution characteristic of the parent Bi0.9Ca0.1FeO2.95. The appearance of cation vacancies restores the weak ferromagnetic phase. The key role of lattice defects in the magnetic behavior of Ca-doped BiFeO3 has been confirmed by the observation of a correlation between the magnetic properties and the morphology/ferroelectric domain structure of the Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe(1-x)Ti(x)O(3-δ) ceramics. PMID:26447603

  8. First-principles study on doping and temperature dependence of thermoelectric property of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo; Zhang, Cuiling

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The direction-induced ZT is found. At ZZ direction and n = 1.47 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, the ZT can reach maximal value, 0.36, which is three times as much as maximal laboratorial value. This result matches well the analysis of electron effective mass. Highlights: ► Electrical transportations of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} depend on the concentration and temperature. ► The direction-induced ZT is found. ► At ZZ direction and n = 1.47 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, the ZT can reach maximal value, 0.36. ► The maximal ZT value is three times as much as maximal laboratorial value. ► By doping and temperature tuning, Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} is a promising thermoelectric material. - Abstract: The electronic structure and thermoelectric property of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} are investigated. The electron and hole effective mass of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} is analyzed in detail, from which we find that the thermoelectric transportation varies in different directions in Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} crystal. Along ac plane the higher figure of merit (ZT) could be achieved. For n-type doped Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}, the optimal doping concentration is found in the range of (1.0–5.0) × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, in which the maximal ZT reaches 0.21 at 900 K, but along ZZ direction, the maximal ZT reaches 0.36. These findings provide a new understanding of thermoelectricity-dependent structure factors and improving ZT ways. The donor concentration N increases as T increases at one bar of pressure under a suitable chemical potential μ, but above this chemical potential μ, the donor concentration N keeps a constant.

  9. Effect of Bi2O3 on the structural and spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ ions doped sodiumfluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariyappan, M.; Arunkumar, S.; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-02-01

    Trivalent samarium ions doped bismuth sodiumfluoroborate glasses have been prepared with the chemical composition 40B2O3+(40-x)Na2CO3+xBi2O3+19CaF2+1Sm2O3 (where x = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 in wt%) following the conventional melt quenching technique. The structural and spectroscopic characterizations have been carried out using XRD, FTIR and UV-Vis-NIR, luminescence and decay measurements. Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory has been used to study the effect of local field environment around the Sm3+ ion site to calculate the radiative properties. Bonding parameters and JO intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) were determined from the absorption spectra to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry around the Sm3+ ion site. The spectroscopic quality factor (χ = Ω4/Ω6) and asymmetry ratio (R/O) have been determined to elucidate the potential strength of the stimulated emission and asymmetry around the Sm3+ ion site in the prepared glasses. Using JO theory, various radiative properties like transition probability (A), effective bandwidth (Δλeff), stimulated emission cross-section (σpE) and branching ratio (βR) for the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 emission levels of the prepared glasses were determined and compared with the reported literature. The decay curves corresponding to the 4G5/2 level of the Sm3+ ions were measured and are found to be single exponential for lower Bi2O3 content and turn to become non-exponential for higher Bi2O3 content and is due to the donor to acceptor energy transfer through cross-relaxation process. Among the prepared glasses, 40BiNFBS glass exhibit higher A, βR, σpE and η values and is suggested for useful gain medium and reddish orange laser applications.

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of Pr and Ti doped BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikash; Sharma, Subhash; Dwivedi, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Bi1-xPrxFe1-xTixO3 ceramics with x = 0.00, 0.10 and 0.20 were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Rietveld fitting of diffraction data reveals structural transition from rhombohedral phase (R3C) for x ≤ 0.10 to orthorhombic phase (Pnma) for x = 0.20. FTIR spectra exhibit broad absorption bands, which may be due to the overlapping of Fe-O and Bi-O vibrations in these ceramics. UV-visible spectroscopy results show strong absorption of light in the spectral range of 400-600 nm, indicating optical band gap in the visible region for these samples.

  11. Significantly Improved Mechanical Properties of Bi- Sn Solder Alloys by Ag- Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, M.; Chen, H. S.; Kammlott, G. W.; Jin, S.

    1997-08-01

    The addition of small amounts of Ag (less than ~;0.5 wt. %) is found to significantly improve the ductility of the binary Bi-Sn eutectic solder. The ductility improvement, more than a threefold increase in tensile elongation, is observed even at a relatively high strain rate (0.01 s-1). As the Bi-Sn binary eutectic alloy tends to fail catastrophically by brittle fracture at high strain rates, the reduced strain-rate sensitivity in the Ag-containing alloy is beneficial for improving solder reliability on sudden impacting as might be encountered during device assembly, shipping, or thermal shock/cycling. The observed increase in alloy ductility by Ag additions is attributed to a substantial refinement of the solidification microstructure.

  12. Broadband optical amplification with water-free hexagonal double-clad Bi doped silica fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Takahashi, M.; Ohara, M.; Kondo, I.; Fujii, Yusuke

    2016-03-01

    1.3 - 1.55 micron optical amplifiers for the long distance up-stream and down-stream networks for a future increase of fiber access networks in telecommunications are attractive. A bismuth-doped silica glass has a potential of the broadband spectrum as lasers and amplifier applications at 1.3 -1.55 micron. The bismuth-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers were discussed by the MOCVD method. In this report optical amplification characteristics at 1.3 - 1.55 micron are presented with the water free hexagonal double-clad bismuth-doped silica fiber (HDC-BDF) made by the vertical axial vapor-phase deposition (VAD) method. The bismuth and aluminum ions were vapor-phase doped into the silicon and germanium oxide. Pumping into the HDC-BDF was performed by using the tilt-polished fiber from the hexagonal surface with the multimode fiber pigtail of the pumping LD. 2 dB amplified gain was obtained with less than -40 dBm CW input signal power at 1310nm.

  13. Structural, electrical and multiferroic properties of La-doped mullite Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, C.M.; Kim, J.W.; Kim, J.-W.; Kim, S.S.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Chemical solution deposited La-doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin film. • Structural, electrical and multiferroic properties were investigated. • La-doped Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} exhibited enhanced electrical and multiferroic properties. - Abstract: Thin films of (Bi{sub 2−x}La{sub x})Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} (x = 0 and x = 0.05) were prepared on Pt(1 1 1)/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(1 0 0) substrates by using a chemical solution deposition method to investigate structural, microstructural, electrical and multiferroic properties. Both the thin films were crystallized in mullite type phases with orthorhombic structures containing no secondary and impurity phases, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies. The (Bi{sub 1.95}La{sub 0.05})Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin film exhibited improved electrical and multiferroic properties at room-temperature. The leakage current density of the (Bi{sub 1.95}La{sub 0.05})Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin film was one order of magnitude lower than that of the Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin film. Furthermore, in the thin film form, (Bi{sub 2−x}La{sub x})Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} exhibited better stability against electrical breakdowns and enhanced multiferroic properties.

  14. Ergodicity and nonergodicity in La-doped Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2TiO3 relaxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Thi Hinh; Han, Hyoung-Su; Lee, Jae-Shin; Ahn, Chang-Won; Kim, Ill-Won; Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-04-01

    The phase transition of La-doped [Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2]TiO3 (BNKT) ceramics was investigated by using high-temperature X-ray diffraction and temperature-dependent dielectric measurements. Undoped BNKT was found to be a nonergodic relaxor, which was evidenced by the presence of a depolarization temperature below which polar nanoregions were frozen. However, La-doped BNKT ceramics are believed to be composites consisting of ergodic and nonergodic relaxors. The results suggest that a nonergodic relaxor with tetragonal symmetry might be distributed in an ergodic relaxor matrix with pseudocubic symmetry.

  15. Effects of Co doping on electronic structure and electric/magnetic properties of La0.1Bi0.9FeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ShouYu; Feng, Yu; Liu, WeiFang; Yu, DaShu; Li, DeJun

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we report the influence of Co-doping on the electronic band structure, dielectric and magnetic properties of La0.1Bi0.9Fe1- x Co x O3 ceramics. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation shows that Co dopant can shift the valence band spectrum and core-level lines of constituent elements towards higher bind energy regions simultaneously increase the concentration of oxygen vacancies in ceramics. The effects of dopant are discussed with focus given to the Co-doping induced enhancement of electrical conductivity and resistive switching phenomena.

  16. Growth and optical properties of Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20} single crystals doped with first row transition metal and aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Petrova, D.; Gospodinov, M.; Sveshtarov, P.

    1995-10-01

    Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20} single crystals co-doped with first row transition metals and aluminum were grown from the melt by the Czochralski technique. Optimal growth conditions for optically homogeneous crystals have been established. Dopant molar concentrations in the crystal were determined and segregation coefficients calculated. Transmission spectra were measured in the 0.38--0.85 {micro}m range. It was established that adding Al to the melt bleached the crystals and blue-shifted the entire transmission spectrum. Doping with Cu produced a strong photochromic effect after daylight exposure, changing the crystal color from yellow to red.

  17. Upconversion luminescence, ferroelectrics and piezoelectrics of Er Doped SrBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15}

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Dengfeng; Zou Hua; Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi; Xu Chaonan; Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo

    2012-12-15

    Er{sup 3+} doped SrBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (SBT) bismuth layered-structure ferroelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid-state method, and their upconversion photoluminescent (UC) properties were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration and incident pump power. Green (555 nm) and red (670 nm) emission bands were obtained under 980 nm excitation at room temperature, which corresponded to the radiative transitions from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}, and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, respectively. The emission color of the samples could be changed with moderating the doping concentrations. The dependence of UC intensity on pumping power indicated a two-photon emission process. Studies on dielectric properties indicated that the introduction of Er increased the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature (Tc) of SBT, thus making this ceramic suitable for piezoelectric sensor applications at higher temperatures. Piezoelectric measurement showed that the doped SBT had a relative higher piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} compared with the non-doped ceramics. The thermal annealing behaviors of the doped sample revealed a stable piezoelectric property. The doped SBT showed bright UC emission while simultaneously having increased Tc and d{sub 33}. As a multifunctional material, Er doped SBT ferroelectric oxide showed great potential in application of sensor, future optical-electro integration and coupling devices.

  18. Doping dependence of the coupling of electrons to bosonic modes in the single-layer high-temperature Bi2Sr2CuO6 superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Meevasana, W.

    2010-06-02

    A recent highlight in the study of high-Tc superconductors is the observation of band renormalization or self-energy effects on the quasiparticles. This is seen in the form of kinks in the quasiparticle dispersions as measured by photoemission and interpreted as signatures of collective bosonic modes coupling to the electrons. Here we compare for the first time the self-energies in an optimally doped and strongly overdoped, nonsuperconducting single-layer Bi-cuprate (Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6}). In addition to the appearance of a strong overall weakening, we also find that the weight of the self-energy in the overdoped system shifts to higher energies. We present evidence that this is related to a change in the coupling to c-axis phonons due to the rapid change of the c-axis screening in this doping range.

  19. Observation of orbital ordering and Jahn-Teller distortions supporting the Wigner-crystal model in highly doped Bi1-xCaxMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, S.; Kiryukhin, V.; Cheong, S.-W.; Kim, B. G.; Hill, J. P.; Thomas, K. J.; Tonnerre, J. M.; Joly, Y.; Staub, U.; Scagnoli, V.

    2007-02-01

    We report on the experimental characterization of orbital ordering and the associated lattice distortions in highly doped Bi1-xCaxMnO3 . Resonant x-ray diffraction was used at the MnL -edge for the direct observation of the ordered localized states, and at the MnK -edge for the sensitivity to the distortions of the manganese-oxygen octahedra. The orbital ordering on Mn atoms was directly observed at x=0.69 ; the analysis and the numerical simulations of the K -edge spectra allow us to characterize the pattern of the distorted octahedra at x=(4)/(5) . These observations support the Wigner-crystal-type model at both dopings; the bi-stripe model is ruled out at x=0.69 .

  20. Crossover between two-dimensional surface state and three-dimensional bulk phase in Fe-doped Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Na Hyun; Lee, Kyujoon; Kim, Jinsu; Jang, Jungwon; Kim, Jinhee; Jung, Myung-Hwa

    2014-06-01

    In Fe-doped Bi2Te3, we have observed higher mobility, larger linear magnetoresistance, and anomalous quantum oscillations. The angle dependence of Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations gives two different periodicities depending on the angle from the c-axis. The low-angle SdH period is identified with a surface origin, while the high-angle period is against the surface origin. The high-angle SdH period well agrees with the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) period with a bulk origin. The physical parameters obtained from the quantum oscillations support the crossover between two-dimensional surface state and three-dimensional bulk phase by Fe doping in Bi2Te3.

  1. Origin of the low critical observing temperature of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 film

    PubMed Central

    Li, W.; Claassen, M.; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moritz, B.; Jia, T.; Zhang, C.; Rebec, S.; Lee, J. J.; Hashimoto, M.; Lu, D.-H.; Moore, R. G.; Moodera, J. S.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z.-X.

    2016-01-01

    The experimental realization of the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetically-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 films stands out as a landmark of modern condensed matter physics. However, ultra-low temperatures down to few tens of mK are needed to reach the quantization of Hall resistance, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the ferromagnetic phase transition temperature of the films. Here, we systematically study the band structure of V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thin films by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and show unambiguously that the bulk valence band (BVB) maximum lies higher in energy than the surface state Dirac point. Our results demonstrate clear evidence that localization of BVB carriers plays an active role and can account for the temperature discrepancy. PMID:27599406

  2. Crossover between two-dimensional surface state and three-dimensional bulk phase in Fe-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Na Hyun; Lee, Kyujoon; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Jinsu; Jang, Jungwon; Kim, Jinhee

    2014-06-23

    In Fe-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, we have observed higher mobility, larger linear magnetoresistance, and anomalous quantum oscillations. The angle dependence of Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations gives two different periodicities depending on the angle from the c-axis. The low-angle SdH period is identified with a surface origin, while the high-angle period is against the surface origin. The high-angle SdH period well agrees with the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) period with a bulk origin. The physical parameters obtained from the quantum oscillations support the crossover between two-dimensional surface state and three-dimensional bulk phase by Fe doping in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}.

  3. Origin of the low critical observing temperature of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 film.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Claassen, M; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moritz, B; Jia, T; Zhang, C; Rebec, S; Lee, J J; Hashimoto, M; Lu, D-H; Moore, R G; Moodera, J S; Devereaux, T P; Shen, Z-X

    2016-01-01

    The experimental realization of the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetically-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 films stands out as a landmark of modern condensed matter physics. However, ultra-low temperatures down to few tens of mK are needed to reach the quantization of Hall resistance, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the ferromagnetic phase transition temperature of the films. Here, we systematically study the band structure of V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thin films by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and show unambiguously that the bulk valence band (BVB) maximum lies higher in energy than the surface state Dirac point. Our results demonstrate clear evidence that localization of BVB carriers plays an active role and can account for the temperature discrepancy. PMID:27599406

  4. Predicting metal-to-metal charge transfer in closed-shell transition metal oxides doped with Bi 3+ or Pb 2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinaud, Philippe; Cavalli, Enrico

    2011-02-01

    An empirical model is proposed to predict the energy position of the metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) bands in closed shell d 0 transition metal complex oxides doped with Bi 3+ or Pb 2+ ions. The model is constructed on the basis of optical data compiled from the literature and from the investigation of the luminescence properties of a series of compounds (titanates, vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates, and zirconates) prepared and characterized in this work.

  5. Thermal properties of transition metals doped (A: Co, Ni and Cu) BiFe0.9A0.1O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Azra; Agrawal, Shraddha; Azam, Ameer

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis of pure and transition metals (Co, Ni and Cu) doped BiFeO3nanoparticles, a promising G-type antiferromagnetic material have been done by auto combustion method using citric acid as a fuel. Microstructural analyses were done by XRD and FTIR. The thermal stability of the sample was determined by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and heat flow rate was plotted by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC).

  6. Luminescent rare earth vanadate nanoparticles doped with Eu3+ and Bi3 for sensing and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, Alberto; Carrillo-Carrión, Carolina; Zyuzin, Mikhail; Hartmann, Raimo; Ashraf, Sumaira; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are attracting interest in nanomedicine due to their potential medical applications, ranging from optical biolabels and contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging to carriers for drug and gene delivery for disease therapy.[1] Rare earth (RE) based nanophosphors exhibit important advantages compared with other available luminescent materials, such as quantum dots and nanostructures functionalized with organic dyes, due to their lower toxicities, photostabilities, high thermal and chemical stabilities, high luminescence quantum yields, and sharp emission bands.[2] Yttrium orthovanadate NPs doped with Eu3+ and Bi3+, functionalized with poly acryl acid (PAA), and excitable by near-ultraviolet light have been synthesized by homogeneous precipitation at 120 °C from solutions of rare earth precursors (yttrium acetylacetonate and europium nitrate), bismuth nitrate, sodium orthovanadate, and PAA, in an ethylene glycol/water mixture. Quasispheres with sizes from 93 to 51 nm were obtained. The as synthesized NPs were already functionalized with PAA. The NPs showed the typical red luminescence of Eu3+, which can be excited with near-UV light through an energy transfer from the vanadate anion. The presence of Bi3+ shifts the maximum of the broad excitation band from 280 nm to 342 nm. This excitation path is much more efficient than the direct excitation of the Eu3+ electronic levels, and results in a much higher luminescence. The NPs can be uptaken by HeLa cells, and are eventually located in the lysosomes after being internalized. Finally, the functionalization with PAA provides -COOH anchors for adding functional ligands of biomedical interest that can be used for sensing applications.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic removal of sodium pentachlorophenate with self-doped Bi2WO6 under visible light by generating more superoxide ions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xing; Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-05-20

    In this study, we demonstrate that the photocatalytic sodium pentachlorophenate removal efficiency of Bi2WO6 under visible light can be greatly enhanced by bismuth self-doping through a simple soft-chemical method. Density functional theory calculations and systematical characterization results revealed that bismuth self-doping did not change the redox power of photogenerated carriers but promoted the separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs of Bi2WO6 to produce more superoxide ions, which were confirmed by photocurrent generation and electron spin resonance spectra as well as superoxide ion measurement results. We employed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and total organic carbon analysis to probe the degradation and the mineralization processes. It was found that more superoxide ions promoted the dechlorination process to favor the subsequent benzene ring cleavage and the final mineralization of sodium pentachlorophenate during bismuth self-doped Bi2WO6 photocatalysis by producing easily decomposable quinone intermediates. This study provides new insight into the effects of photogenerated reactive species on the degradation of sodium pentachlorophenate and also sheds light on the design of highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts for chlorophenol pollutant removal. PMID:24787282

  8. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soumendu Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra

    2015-08-28

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO){sub 24} nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals—Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO){sub 24} nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties.

  9. Time delay and excitation mode induced tunable red/near-infrared to green emission ratio of Er doped BiOCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avram, Daniel; Florea, Mihaela; Tiseanu, Ion; Tiseanu, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Herein, we report on the emission color tunability of Er doped BiOCl measured under up—conversion as well as x-ray excitation modes. The dependence of red (670 nm) to green emission (543 nm) ratio on Er concentration (1 and 5%), excitation wavelength into different (656.4, 802 and 976 nm) or across single Er absorption levels (965 ÷ 990 nm) and delay after the laser pulse (0.001 ÷ 1 ms) is discussed in terms of ground state absorption/excited state absorption and energy transfer up-conversion mechanisms. A first example of extended Er x-ray emission measured in the range of 500 to 1700 nm shows comparable emission intensities corresponding to 543 nm and 1500 nm based transitions. The present results together with our earlier report on the upconversion emission of Er doped BiOCl excited at 1500 nm, suggest that Er doped BiOCl may be considered an attractive system for optical and x-ray imaging applications.

  10. Comparison of Sn-doped and nonstoichiometric vertical-Bridgman-grown crystals of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se

    SciTech Connect

    Kushwaha, S. K. Gibson, Q. D.; Cava, R. J.; Xiong, J.; Ong, N. P.; Pletikosic, I.; Weber, A. P.; Fedorov, A. V.; Valla, T.

    2014-04-14

    A comparative study of the properties of topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se (BTS) crystals grown by the vertical Bridgeman method is described. Two defect mechanisms that create acceptor impurities to compensate for the native n-type carriers are compared: Bi excess, and light Sn doping. Both methods yield low carrier concentrations and an n-p crossover over the length of the grown crystal boules, but lower carrier concentrations and higher resistivities are obtained for the Sn-doped crystals, which reach carrier concentrations as low as 8 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. Further, the temperature dependent resistivities for the Sn-doped crystals display strongly activated behavior at high temperatures, with a characteristic energy of half the bulk band gap. The (001) cleaved Sn-doped BTS crystals display high quality Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) quantum oscillations due to the topological surface state electrons. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) characterization shows that the Fermi energy (E{sub F}) for the Sn-doped crystals falls cleanly in the surface states with no interference from the bulk bands, which the Dirac point for the surface states lies approximately 60 meV below the top of the bulk valence band maximum, and allows for a determination of the bulk and surface state carrier concentrations as a function of Energy near E{sub F}. Electronic structure calculations that compare Bi excess and Sn dopants in BTS demonstrate that Sn acts as a special impurity, with a localized impurity band that acts as a charge buffer occurring inside the bulk band gap. We propose that the special resonant level character of Sn in BTS gives rise to the exceptionally low carrier concentrations and activated resistivities observed.

  11. Comparison of Sn-doped and nonstoichiometric vertical-Bridgman-grown crystals of the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, S. K.; Gibson, Q. D.; Xiong, J.; Pletikosic, I.; Weber, A. P.; Fedorov, A. V.; Ong, N. P.; Valla, T.; Cava, R. J.

    2014-04-01

    A comparative study of the properties of topological insulator Bi2Te2Se (BTS) crystals grown by the vertical Bridgeman method is described. Two defect mechanisms that create acceptor impurities to compensate for the native n-type carriers are compared: Bi excess, and light Sn doping. Both methods yield low carrier concentrations and an n-p crossover over the length of the grown crystal boules, but lower carrier concentrations and higher resistivities are obtained for the Sn-doped crystals, which reach carrier concentrations as low as 8 × 1014 cm-3. Further, the temperature dependent resistivities for the Sn-doped crystals display strongly activated behavior at high temperatures, with a characteristic energy of half the bulk band gap. The (001) cleaved Sn-doped BTS crystals display high quality Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) quantum oscillations due to the topological surface state electrons. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) characterization shows that the Fermi energy (EF) for the Sn-doped crystals falls cleanly in the surface states with no interference from the bulk bands, which the Dirac point for the surface states lies approximately 60 meV below the top of the bulk valence band maximum, and allows for a determination of the bulk and surface state carrier concentrations as a function of Energy near EF. Electronic structure calculations that compare Bi excess and Sn dopants in BTS demonstrate that Sn acts as a special impurity, with a localized impurity band that acts as a charge buffer occurring inside the bulk band gap. We propose that the special resonant level character of Sn in BTS gives rise to the exceptionally low carrier concentrations and activated resistivities observed.

  12. Interstitial BiO molecule as a broadband IR luminescence centre in bismuth-doped silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, V O; Plotnichenko, V G; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2011-12-31

    Experimental data on absorption and luminescence in optical fibres with a Bi : SiO{sub 2} glass core are compared to experimentally determined and calculated spectroscopic properties of the BiO molecule. The results suggest that the IR luminescence of Bi : SiO{sub 2} glass is due to interstitial BiO molecules. This assumption is supported by quantum-chemical simulation results for a BiO molecule in a ring interstice of the silica glass network.

  13. Picosecond pulse generation in a passively mode-locked Bi-doped fibre laser

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, Aleksandr A; Kryukov, P G; Dianov, Evgenii M; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2009-10-31

    CW passive mode locking is achieved in a bismuth-doped fibre laser using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror optimised for operation in the range 1100-1200 nm. The pump source is a cw ytterbium fibre laser (1075 nm, maximum output power of 2.7 W), and the pulse parameters can be tuned by varying the intracavity group velocity dispersion using a diffraction grating pair. Stable laser pulses are obtained with a duration down to {tau}{sub p} {approx} 1.1 ps. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  14. Topological transition in Bi1-xSbx studied as a function of Sb doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kousa, Yuka; Taskin, Alexey A.; Takeichi, Yasuo; Nishide, Akinori; Kakizaki, Akito; D'Angelo, Marie; Lefevre, Patrick; Bertran, Francois; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Komori, Fumio; Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoichi; Matsuda, Iwao

    2011-12-01

    Spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements were performed on Bi1-xSbx samples at x=0.04, 0.07, and 0.21 to study the change of the surface band structure from nontopological to topological. Energy shift of the T and Ls bulk bands with Sb concentration is quantitatively evaluated. An edge state becomes topologically nontrivial at x=0.04. An additional trivial edge state appears at the L band gap that forms at x>0.04 and apparently hybridize with the nontrivial edge state. A scenario for the topological transition mechanism is presented. Related issues of self-energy and temperature dependence of the surface state are also considered.

  15. Photoluminescence, enhanced ferroelectric, and dielectric properties of Pr{sup 3+}-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} multifunctional ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Hua; Yu, Yao; Li, Jun; Cao, Qiufeng; Wang, Xusheng; Hou, Junwei

    2015-09-15

    Pr{sup 3+}-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBN) multifunctional ceramics were synthesized by the conventional solid state method. The photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra, enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FESEM analyses indicated that the samples were simple phase and uniform flake-structure. Under the 250–350 nm ultraviolet (UV) excitations, the red emission was obtained and the optimal emission intensity was investigated when Pr doping level was 0.005 mol. With the increasing of the Pr{sup 3+} ion contents, the ferroelectric properties were enhanced obviously. As a new multifunctional material, the Pr{sup 3+}-doped SBN ceramics could be used for a wide range of application, such as integrated electro-optical devices.

  16. Magneto-optical Kerr effect in Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu; Yao, Bing; Richardella, Anthony; Kandala, Abhinav; Fraleigh, Robert; Lee, Joon Sue; Samarth, Nitin; Yeats, Andrew; Awschalom, David D.

    2014-03-01

    When a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) is interfaced with magnetism, the breaking of time reversal symmetry results in new phenomena such as the recently observed quantum anomalous Hall effect [C.-Z. Zhang et al., Science340, 167 (2013)]. Thus motivated, we use the polar-mode magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) to probe the temperature- and field-dependent magnetization in molecular beam epitaxy grown Cr-doped thin films of the 3D TI (Bi,Sb)2Te3. Square MOKE hysteresis loops observed at low temperatures indicate robust ferromagnetism with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and Curie temperature that varies from ~ 5 K to ~ 150 K, depending on sample details. A key question is the nature of the ferromagnetism: is it a carrier-mediated mechanism, Van Vleck mechanism or due to extrinsic clusters? We address this issue by varying the magnetic ion concentration and carrier density via sample composition as well as by varying the chemical potential by back gating. Finally, we use spatially-resolved MOKE to image the magnetization in these samples. Supported by ONR and DARPA.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell bi-layer anode with gadolinia-doped ceria for utilization of solid carbon fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Isaiah D.; Koylu, Umit O.; Dogan, Fatih

    Pyrolytic carbon was used as fuel in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and a bi-layer anode composed of nickel oxide gadolinia-doped ceria (NiO-GDC) and NiO-YSZ. The common problems of bulk shrinkage and emergent porosity in the YSZ layer adjacent to the GDC/YSZ interface were avoided by using an interlayer of porous NiO-YSZ as a buffer anode layer between the electrolyte and the NiO-GDC primary anode. Cells were fabricated from commercially available component powders so that unconventional production methods suggested in the literature were avoided, that is, the necessity of glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis, specialty multicomponent oxide powders, sputtering, or chemical vapor deposition. The easily-fabricated cell was successfully utilized with hydrogen and propane fuels as well as carbon deposited on the anode during the cyclic operation with the propane. A cell of similar construction could be used in the exhaust stream of a diesel engine to capture and utilize soot for secondary power generation and decreased particulate pollution without the need for filter regeneration.

  18. Specific features of Tm3+ doped BiB3O6 glasses fluorescence spectra and their kinetics.

    PubMed

    Majchrowski, A; Jaroszewicz, L; Kuznik, W; Brik, M G; Klosowicz, S; Kityk, I V

    2012-02-15

    Synthesis and spectral fluorescent features of the thulium-doped BiB(3)O(6) glasses are presented. All spectra were recorded using a pulsed (pulse energy ca. 1μJ, pulse duration 10ns) 355nm third harmonic of 10kHz Nd:YAG laser as an excitation source. A laser beam was focused in a backscattering geometry onto about 1mm(2) spot on the surface of a sample. The Andor SR-303i spectrograph equipped with an Andor DH-501 intensified charge coupled device with spectral resolution up to 1nm was used as a spectra recorder. The time-resolution of this system can be as low as 5ns. The decay kinetics was derived from integrated time-resolved spectra. Additionally the absorption and excitation spectra were measured. The main parameters of the Judd-Ofelt analysis were calculated and comparison of the obtained results with corresponding data for other materials was carried out. PMID:22154264

  19. Growth of Bi doped cadmium zinc telluride single crystals by Bridgman oscillation method and its structural, optical, and electrical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Carcelen, V.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.; Dieguez, E.; Hidalgo, P.

    2010-05-15

    The II-VI compound semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is very useful for room temperature radiation detection applications. In the present research, we have successfully grown Bi doped CZT single crystals with two different zinc concentrations (8 and 14 at. %) by the Bridgman oscillation method, in which one experiment has been carried out with a platinum (Pt) tube as the ampoule support. Pt also acts as a cold finger and reduces the growth velocity and enhances crystalline perfection. The grown single crystals have been studied with different analysis methods. The stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive by x-ray and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analyses and it was found there is no incorporation of impurities in the grown crystal. The presence of Cd and Te vacancies was determined by cathodoluminescence studies. Electrical properties were assessed by I-V analysis and indicated higher resistive value (8.53x10{sup 8} {Omega} cm) for the crystal grown with higher zinc concentration (with Cd excess) compare to the other (3.71x10{sup 5} {Omega} cm).

  20. Effect of Sn doping on nonlinear optical properties of quaternary Se-Sn-(Bi,Te) chalcogenide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Preeti Sharma, Ambika

    2015-08-28

    The aim of this work is to report the effect of Sn doping on the third order nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide Se{sub 84-x}Te{sub 15}Bi{sub 1.0}Sn{sub x} thin films. Melt quenching technique has been used for the preparation of bulk chalcogenide glasses. Thin films of the studied composition are deposited on cleaned glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique. Optical band gap (E{sub g}) is calculated by using Tauc extrapolation method and is found to increase from 1.27 eV to 1.64 eV with the incorporation of Sn content. Stryland approach is utilized for the calculation of two photon absorption coefficient (β{sub 2}). The nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and third order susceptibility (χ{sup (3}) are calculated using Tichy and Ticha approach. The result shows that nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) follows the same trend as that of linear refractive index (n). The values of n{sub 2} of studied composition as compared to pure silica are 1000-5000 times higher.

  1. Stabilisation of Fe2O3-rich Perovskite Nanophase in Epitaxial Rare-earth Doped BiFeO3 Films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M; Marincel, Daniel M; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ramasse, Quentin M; MacLaren, Ian; Findlay, Scott D; Fraleigh, Robert D; Ross, Ian M; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Rainforth, W Mark

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that BiFeO3 exhibits ferroelectric hysteresis but none have shown a strong ferromagnetic response in either bulk or thin film without significant structural or compositional modification. When remanent magnetisations are observed in BiFeO3 based thin films, iron oxide second phases are often detected. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution electron energy loss spectrum-mapping and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, we reveal the existence of a new Fe2O3-rich perovskite nanophase, with an approximate formula (Fe0.6Bi0.25Nd0.15)(3+) Fe(3+)O3, formed within epitaxial Ti and Nd doped BiFeO3 perovskite films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The incorporation of Nd and Bi ions on the A-site and coherent growth with the matrix stabilise the Fe2O3-rich perovskite phase and preliminary density functional theory calculations suggest that it should have a ferrimagnetic response. Perovskite-structured Fe2O3 has been reported previously but never conclusively proven when fabricated at high-pressure high-temperature. This work suggests the incorporation of large A-site species may help stabilise perovskite-structured Fe2O3. This finding is therefore significant not only to the thin film but also to the high-pressure community. PMID:26272264

  2. Stabilisation of Fe2O3-rich Perovskite Nanophase in Epitaxial Rare-earth Doped BiFeO3 Films

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M.; Marincel, Daniel M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ramasse, Quentin M.; MacLaren, Ian; Findlay, Scott D.; Fraleigh, Robert D.; Ross, Ian M.; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Mark Rainforth, W.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that BiFeO3 exhibits ferroelectric hysteresis but none have shown a strong ferromagnetic response in either bulk or thin film without significant structural or compositional modification. When remanent magnetisations are observed in BiFeO3 based thin films, iron oxide second phases are often detected. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution electron energy loss spectrum-mapping and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, we reveal the existence of a new Fe2O3-rich perovskite nanophase, with an approximate formula (Fe0.6Bi0.25Nd0.15)3+ Fe3+O3, formed within epitaxial Ti and Nd doped BiFeO3 perovskite films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The incorporation of Nd and Bi ions on the A-site and coherent growth with the matrix stabilise the Fe2O3-rich perovskite phase and preliminary density functional theory calculations suggest that it should have a ferrimagnetic response. Perovskite-structured Fe2O3 has been reported previously but never conclusively proven when fabricated at high-pressure high-temperature. This work suggests the incorporation of large A-site species may help stabilise perovskite-structured Fe2O3. This finding is therefore significant not only to the thin film but also to the high-pressure community. PMID:26272264

  3. Stabilisation of Fe2O3-rich Perovskite Nanophase in Epitaxial Rare-earth Doped BiFeO3 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M.; Marincel, Daniel M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ramasse, Quentin M.; MacLaren, Ian; Findlay, Scott D.; Fraleigh, Robert D.; Ross, Ian M.; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Mark Rainforth, W.

    2015-08-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that BiFeO3 exhibits ferroelectric hysteresis but none have shown a strong ferromagnetic response in either bulk or thin film without significant structural or compositional modification. When remanent magnetisations are observed in BiFeO3 based thin films, iron oxide second phases are often detected. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution electron energy loss spectrum-mapping and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, we reveal the existence of a new Fe2O3-rich perovskite nanophase, with an approximate formula (Fe0.6Bi0.25Nd0.15)3+ Fe3+O3, formed within epitaxial Ti and Nd doped BiFeO3 perovskite films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The incorporation of Nd and Bi ions on the A-site and coherent growth with the matrix stabilise the Fe2O3-rich perovskite phase and preliminary density functional theory calculations suggest that it should have a ferrimagnetic response. Perovskite-structured Fe2O3 has been reported previously but never conclusively proven when fabricated at high-pressure high-temperature. This work suggests the incorporation of large A-site species may help stabilise perovskite-structured Fe2O3. This finding is therefore significant not only to the thin film but also to the high-pressure community.

  4. Improved multiferroic properties of La-doped 0.6BiFeO3—0.4SrTiO3 solid solution ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zheng-Zheng; Li, Jian-Qing; Tian, Zhao-Ming; Qiu, Yang; Yuan, Song-Liu

    2012-10-01

    The 0.6(Bi1-xLax)FeO3—0.4SrTiO3 (x = 0, 0.1) multiferroic ceramics are prepared by a modified Pechini method to study the effect of substitution of SrTiO3 and La in BiFeO3. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the single phase characteristics of all the compositions each with a rhombohedral structure. The magnetic properties of the ceramics are significantly improved by a solid solution with SrTiO3 and substitution of La. The values of the dielectric constant ɛr and loss tangent tan δ of all the samples decrease with increasing frequency and become constant at room temperature. The La-doped 0.6BiFeO3—0.4SrTiO3 ceramics exhibit improved dielectric and ferroelectric properties, with higher dielectric constant enhanced remnant polarization (Pr) and lower leakage current at room temperature. Compared with a anti-ferromagnetic BiFeO3 compound, the 0.6(Bi0.9La0.1)FeO3—0.4SrTiO3 sample shows the optimal ferromagnetism with remnant magnetization Mr ~ 0.135 emμ/g and ferroelectricity with Pr ~ 5.94 μC/cm2 at room temperature.

  5. Ferromagnetism of magnetically doped topological insulators in Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Y.; Zhang, Z. Hadimani, R. L.; Tuttle, G.; Jiles, D. C.; Nlebedim, I. C.

    2015-05-07

    We investigated the effect of magnetic doping on magnetic and transport properties of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films. Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3} thin films with x = 0.03, 0.14, and 0.29 were grown epitaxially on mica substrate with low surface roughness (∼0.4 nm). It is found that Cr is an electron acceptor in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and increases the magnetization of Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3}. When x = 0.14 and 0.29, ferromagnetism appears in Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2−x}Te{sub 3} thin films, where anomalous Hall effect and weak localization of magnetoconductance were observed. The Curie temperature, coercivity, and remnant Hall resistance of thin films increase with increasing Cr concentration. The Arrott-Noakes plot demonstrates that the critical mechanism of the ferromagnetism can be described better with 3D-Heisenberg model than with mean field model. Our work may benefit for the practical applications of magnetic topological insulators in spintronics and magnetoelectric devices.

  6. Oxygen ordering and electrochromism in Ca-doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Jan; Luo, Weidong; Nguyen, Phi; Siriyara Jagannatha, Suresha; Lee, Alan; Kim, Sang-Yong; Yang, Chan-Ho; Pennycook, Stephen; Pantelides, Sokrates; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2011-03-01

    We show that calcium-doped bismuth ferrite thin films exhibit an electrochromic effect arising from an intrinsic mechanism due to redistribution of carriers, without the need for additional electrolytes that are needed in common electrochromic devices. The absorption change and coloration efficiency at the band edge are 4.8 ×106m-1 and 190cm2C-1 , respectively, which are among the highest reported values for inorganic electrochromes. These experimental findings are supported by optical absorption calculations from first-principles theory, confirming the strong absorption change at the band edge. Supported by DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH1123, and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (2010-0013528). J.S. acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  7. Bi-stable resistive switching characteristics in Ti-doped ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ti-doped ZnO (ZnO/Ti) thin films were grown on indium tin oxide substrates by a facile electrodeposition route. The morphology, crystal structure and resistive switching properties were examined, respectively. The morphology reveals that grains are composed of small crystals. The (002) preferential growth along c-axis of ZnO/Ti could be observed from structural analysis. The XPS study shows the presence of oxygen vacancies in the prepared films. Typical bipolar and reversible resistance switching effects were observed. High ROFF/RON ratios (approximately 14) and low operation voltages within 100 switching cycles are obtained. The filament theory and the interface effect are suggested to be responsible for the resistive switching phenomenon. PMID:23557254

  8. Ba and Ti co-doped BiFeO3 thin films via a modified chemical route with synchronous improvement in ferroelectric and magnetic behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yao; Li, Jing; Chen, Jingyi; Deng, Yuan

    2013-03-01

    A modified chemical route via the layer-by-layer alternative deposition of BaTiO3 and BiFeO3 two compositions followed by the solution processing has been developed to prepare Ba and Ti co-doped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films. The Ba and Ti co-doped BiFeO3 films crystallize in single perovskite phase and are composed of uniformly distributed grains of tens of nanometers as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images, respectively. But the films show local composition fluctuation with further high-resolution transmission electron microscope analysis, which leads to increased inner strain and thus a phase transition from R3c to P4mm occurs as Ba and Ti contents reach 50 mol. %. Accompanying the structural phase transition, a saturated P-E hysteresis loop with Pr ˜ 27 μC/cm2 and Ps ˜ 87 μC/cm2 and, moreover, a transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state with Mr ˜ 1.46 emu/cm3 and Hc ˜ 1000 Oe have been observed. A strain induced structural change is proposed to explain for the observed synchronous enhancement in ferroelectric and magnetic properties, and elastic energy calculation is carried out to verify the viewpoint on magnetic behavior. The modified multiferroic behaviors of Ba, Ti co-doped BiFeO3 film imply an improved magnetoelectric coupling, which makes the material good candidate as memory devices and sensors.

  9. Magnetic properties of Mn-doped Bi2Se3 compound: temperature dependence and pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Panfilov, A S; Grechnev, G E; Fedorchenko, A V; Conder, K; Pomjakushina, E V

    2015-11-18

    Magnetic susceptibility χ of Bi2-x Mn x Se3 (x  =  0.01-0.2) was measured in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. For all the samples, a Curie-Weiss behaviour of χ(T) was revealed with effective magnetic moments of Mn ions corresponding to the spin value S  =  5/2, which couple antiferromagnetically with the paramagnetic Curie temperature Θ ~ -50 K. In addition, for the samples of nominal composition x  =  0.1 and 0.2 the effect of a hydrostatic pressure P up to 2 kbar on χ has been measured at fixed temperatures 78 and 300 K that allowed to estimate the pressure derivative of Θ to be dΘ/dP ~ -0.8 K kbar(-1). Based on the observed behaviour of Θ with varied Mn concentration and pressure, a possible mechanism of interaction between localized Mn moments is discussed. PMID:26471893

  10. Investigation of Optical Nonlinearities in Bi-Doped Se-Te Chalcogenide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Preeti; Sharma, Ambika

    2015-03-01

    The present paper reports the nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide Se85- x Te15Bi x (0 ≤ x ≤ 5) thin films. The formulation proposed by Boling, Fournier, and Snitzer and Tichy and Ticha has been used to compute the nonlinear refractive index n 2. The two-photon absorption coefficient β 2, and first- and third-order susceptibilities [ χ (1) and χ (3)] are also reported. The nonlinear refractive index n 2 is well correlated with the linear refractive index n and Wemple-DiDomenico (WDD) parameters, in turn depending on the density ρ and molar volume V m of the system. The density of the system is calculated experimentally by using Archimedes' principle. The linear optical parameters, viz. n, WDD parameters, and optical bandgap E g, are measured experimentally using ellipsometric curves obtained by spectrophotometry. The composition-dependent behavior of n 2 is analyzed on the basis of various parameters, viz. density, bond distribution, cohesive energy (CE), and optical bandgap E g, of the system. The variation of n 2 and β 2 with changing bandgap E g is also reported. The values of n 2 and χ (3) of the investigated chalcogenides are compared with those of pure silica, oxide, and other Se-based glasses.

  11. Thermoelectric properties of homogeneously and non-homogeneously doped CdTe15/16M1/16 (M=N, P, As, Sb) and Cd15/16TeM1/16 (M=Na, K, Rb, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. H.; Qin, X. Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.; Song, C. J.; Liu, Y. F.; Wang, L.; Xin, H. X.

    2015-11-01

    The electrical transport properties of p-doped semiconductors CdTe15/16M1/16 (M=N, P, As, Sb) and Cd15/16TeM1/16 (M=Na, K, Rb, Cs) with two configurations are investigated through first-principles calculations combined with Boltzmann transport theory under the relaxation time approximation. It is found that N and Cs atoms in the homogeneous structure induce much sharper electron densities of states (DOSs) and flatter energy bands at the valence band edges than the rest of doped elements, resulting in much larger Seebeck coefficients. The calculations reveal that most of the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities are impacted unfavorably by the conglomeration of impurity atoms considered. Though the power factors for homogeneous doping of N and Cs are comparatively smaller, the electronic figures of merit are much larger at 800-1000 K than the rest ones due to much smaller electronic thermal conductivities, therefore probably enhancing the thermoelectric figures of merit. The results show that doping the elements with electronegativities distinct from the host atoms can enhance the Seebeck coefficients and the thermoelectric performances of bulk semiconductors efficiently if the energy levels of doped atoms resonate with those of host atoms and the arrangement of doped atoms is modulated appropriately to avoid deteriorating the sharpness of the DOS (or transport distribution).

  12. Local Magnetoelectric Effect in La-Doped BiFeO3 Multiferroic Thin Films Revealed by Magnetic-Field-Assisted Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Zhou, Ming-Xiu; Lu, Zeng-Xing; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Multiferroic La-doped BiFeO3 thin films have been prepared by a sol-gel plus spin-coating process, and the local magnetoelectric coupling effect has been investigated by the magnetic-field-assisted scanning probe microscopy connected with a ferroelectric analyzer. The local ferroelectric polarization response to external magnetic fields is observed and a so-called optimized magnetic field of ~40 Oe is obtained, at which the ferroelectric polarization reaches the maximum. Moreover, we carry out the magnetic-field-dependent surface conductivity measurements and illustrate the origin of local magnetoresistance in the La-doped BiFeO3 thin films, which is closely related to the local ferroelectric polarization response to external magnetic fields. This work not only provides a useful technique to characterize the local magnetoelectric coupling for a wide range of multiferroic materials but also is significant for deeply understanding the local multiferroic behaviors in the BiFeO3-based systems.

  13. Defect properties of Sb- and Bi-doped CuInSe{sub 2}: The effect of the deep lone-pair s states

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ji-Sang; Yang, Ji-Hui; Ramanathan, Kannan; Wei, Su-Huai

    2014-12-15

    Bi or Sb doping has been used to make better material properties of polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} as solar cell absorbers, including the experimentally observed improved electrical properties. However, the mechanism is still not clear. Using first-principles method, we investigate the stability and electronic structure of Bi- and Sb-related defects in CuInSe{sub 2} and study their effects on the doping efficiency. Contrary to previous thinking that Bi or Sb substituted on the anion site, we find that under anion-rich conditions, the impurities can substitute on cation sites and are isovalent to In because of the formation of the impurity lone pair s states. When the impurities substitute for Cu, the defects act as shallow double donors and help remove the deep In{sub Cu} level, thus resulting in the improved carrier life time. On the other hand, under anion-poor conditions, impurities at the Se site create amphoteric deep levels that are detrimental to the device performance.

  14. Local Magnetoelectric Effect in La-Doped BiFeO3 Multiferroic Thin Films Revealed by Magnetic-Field-Assisted Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Zhou, Ming-Xiu; Lu, Zeng-Xing; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Multiferroic La-doped BiFeO3 thin films have been prepared by a sol-gel plus spin-coating process, and the local magnetoelectric coupling effect has been investigated by the magnetic-field-assisted scanning probe microscopy connected with a ferroelectric analyzer. The local ferroelectric polarization response to external magnetic fields is observed and a so-called optimized magnetic field of ~40 Oe is obtained, at which the ferroelectric polarization reaches the maximum. Moreover, we carry out the magnetic-field-dependent surface conductivity measurements and illustrate the origin of local magnetoresistance in the La-doped BiFeO3 thin films, which is closely related to the local ferroelectric polarization response to external magnetic fields. This work not only provides a useful technique to characterize the local magnetoelectric coupling for a wide range of multiferroic materials but also is significant for deeply understanding the local multiferroic behaviors in the BiFeO3-based systems. PMID:27356565

  15. Defect properties of Sb- and Bi-doped CuInSe2: The effect of the deep lone-pair s states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Sang; Yang, Ji-Hui; Ramanathan, Kannan; Wei, Su-Huai

    2014-12-01

    Bi or Sb doping has been used to make better material properties of polycrystalline Cu2(In,Ga)Se2 as solar cell absorbers, including the experimentally observed improved electrical properties. However, the mechanism is still not clear. Using first-principles method, we investigate the stability and electronic structure of Bi- and Sb-related defects in CuInSe2 and study their effects on the doping efficiency. Contrary to previous thinking that Bi or Sb substituted on the anion site, we find that under anion-rich conditions, the impurities can substitute on cation sites and are isovalent to In because of the formation of the impurity lone pair s states. When the impurities substitute for Cu, the defects act as shallow double donors and help remove the deep InCu level, thus resulting in the improved carrier life time. On the other hand, under anion-poor conditions, impurities at the Se site create amphoteric deep levels that are detrimental to the device performance.

  16. Regulation of structure rigidity for improvement of the thermal stability of near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiangbing; Xu, Beibei; Tan, Dezhi; Wang, Juechen; Zheng, Shuhong; Jiang, Wei; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhou, Shifeng

    2013-11-18

    The effect of heat-treatment on the near-infrared (NIR) luminescence properties was studied in Bi-doped borate glasses. The luminescence intensity generally decreases with the increase of temperature, and the thermal stability can be improved by nearly 4.5 times with addition of 5 mol% La2O3. Collaborative studies by using steady photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra, luminescence decay curve, differential thermal analysis (DTA), Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that the luminescence decrement is associated with the agglomeration of Bi active centers during heat-treatment. The improvement of the thermal stability of NIR luminescence with the addition of La2O3 is benefited from the enhancement of structure rigidity due to the strong cationic field strength of La3+. The results not only provide valuable guidance for suppressing performance degradation of Bi-doped glass during fiber drawing process, but also present an effective way to control the luminescence properties of main group elements in glasses from the perspective of glass structure. PMID:24514300

  17. Synthesis, thermal and electrical properties of Al-doped Bi4V1.8Cu0.2O10.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essalim, R.; Ammar, A.; Tanouti, B.; Mauvy, F.

    2016-08-01

    Partial substitution of copper with aluminum in Bi4V1.8Cu0.2O10.7 has led to the Bi4V1.8Cu0.2-xAlxO10.7+x/2 solid solution. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis have shown that the compounds with x=0.05 and x=0.10 are tetragonal with γ‧ form of Bi4V2O11, while the compound with x=0.15 is of β polymorph. The effect of Al3+ doping on electrical conductivity has been studied using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of doped samples along with the amount of Al3+ has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range 250-700 °C. The slope changes observed in the Arrhenius plots agree with the microstructural transitions occurring in these compounds. The highest ionic conductivity values are obtained for the sample with x=0.05.

  18. Chromium Doping of the Topological Insulator Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Daniel; Hewitt, Andrew; Kumar, Raj; Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Maggard, Paul; Hunte, Frank

    A major materials science challenge is to minimize bulk conductivity in topological insulators so that topological surface state physics can be cleanly accessed. One solution to this problem has been the development of quaternary bismuth chalcogenides Bi2-xSbxTe3-ySey (BSTS) which can be tuned to place the mid-gap Fermi level near the Dirac point associated with the topological surface state. This is ideal for accessing interesting topological physics including the exotic magnetoelectric effects associated with breaking time reversal symmetry. With this goal in mind, we have grown Cr-doped crystals of Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3 to assess the impact of magnetic dopants on the electronic and magnetic properties of this material. For 4 percent Cr doping we find electronic structure modifications measured by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and observe magnetic ordering below 50 K in bulk magnetometry. Higher doping levels show evidence of phase segregation.

  19. Near-infrared luminescence and color tunable chromophores based on Cr(3+)-doped mullite-type Bi2(Ga,Al)4O9 solid solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengyin; Xia, Zhiguo; Chen, Mingyue; Molokeev, Maxim S; Liu, Quanlin

    2015-02-16

    Cr(3+)-activated mullite-type Bi2Ga(4-x)Al(x)O9 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) solid solutions were prepared by the solid state reaction, and their spectroscopic properties were investigated in conjunction with the structural evolution. Under excitation at 610 nm, Bi2[Ga(4-y)Al(y)]3.97O9:0.03Cr(3+) (y = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) phosphors exhibited broad-band near-infrared (NIR) emission peaking at ∼710 nm in the range 650-850 nm, and the optimum Cr(3+) concentrations and concentration quenching mechanism were determined. Except for the interesting NIR emission, the body color changed from white (at x = 0) to green (at x = 0.08) for Bi2Ga(4-x)O9:xCr(3+), and from light yellow (at x = 0) to deep brown (at x = 0.08) for Bi2Al(4-x)O9:xCr(3+), respectively. Moreover, as a result of variable Al/Ga ratio, the observed body color for Bi2[Ga(4-y)Al(y)]3.97O9:0.03Cr(3+) (y = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) varied from deep brown to green. The relationship between the observed colors and their diffuse reflectance spectra were also studied for the understanding of the different absorption bands. The results indicated that Cr(3+)-doped Bi2Ga(4-x)Al(x)O9 solid solutions appeared as the bifunctional materials with NIR phosphors and color-tunable pigments. PMID:25622046

  20. Shockley-Read-Hall lifetimes in CdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Buurma, C.; Sivananthan, S.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    2014-07-07

    A combination of first principles electronic structure calculations, Green's function method, and empirical tight-binding Hamiltonian method is used to evaluate the minority carrier lifetimes of CdTe due to recombination via native point defects in CdTe. For defect energy levels near mid-gap, our calculated value of the Shockley-Read-Hall capture cross section for both electrons and holes is ~10⁻¹³ cm², which is considerably different from the most commonly employed values. We further find that minority carrier lifetimes in doped CdTe are affected more by defect levels closer to the Fermi level than those in the mid-gap.

  1. The simultaneous enhancement of photorefraction and optical damage resistance in MgO and Bi2O3 co-doped LiNbO3 crystals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dahuai; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Chen, Muling; Chen, Shaolin; Zhang, Ling; Rupp, Romano; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-01-01

    For a long time that optical damage was renamed as photorefraction, here we find that the optical damage resistance and photorefraction can be simultaneously enhanced in MgO and Bi2O3 co-doped LiNbO3 (LN:Bi,Mg). The photorefractive response time of LN:Bi,Mg was shortened to 170 ms while the photorefractive sensitivity reached up to 21 cm(2)/J. Meanwhile, LN:Bi,Mg crystals could withstand a light intensity higher than 10(6)  W/cm(2) without apparent optical damage. Our experimental results indicate that photorefraction doesn't equal to optical damage. The underground mechanism was analyzed and attributed to that diffusion dominates the transport process of charge carriers, that is to say photorefraction causes only slight optical damage under diffusion mechanism, which is very important for the practical applications of photorefractive crystals, such as in holographic storage, integrated optics and 3D display. PMID:26837261

  2. The simultaneous enhancement of photorefraction and optical damage resistance in MgO and Bi2O3 co-doped LiNbO3 crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dahuai; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Chen, Muling; Chen, Shaolin; Zhang, Ling; Rupp, Romano; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-01-01

    For a long time that optical damage was renamed as photorefraction, here we find that the optical damage resistance and photorefraction can be simultaneously enhanced in MgO and Bi2O3 co-doped LiNbO3 (LN:Bi,Mg). The photorefractive response time of LN:Bi,Mg was shortened to 170 ms while the photorefractive sensitivity reached up to 21 cm2/J. Meanwhile, LN:Bi,Mg crystals could withstand a light intensity higher than 106  W/cm2 without apparent optical damage. Our experimental results indicate that photorefraction doesn’t equal to optical damage. The underground mechanism was analyzed and attributed to that diffusion dominates the transport process of charge carriers, that is to say photorefraction causes only slight optical damage under diffusion mechanism, which is very important for the practical applications of photorefractive crystals, such as in holographic storage, integrated optics and 3D display. PMID:26837261

  3. Effect of Ce doping on the microstructure and electrical properties of BiFeO3 thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Meiya; Pei, Ling; Yu, Benfang; Guo, Dongyun; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2009-06-01

    Ce-doped Bi1-xCexFeO3 (BCFOx) thin films with x = 0-0.12 were successfully prepared on SnO2 : F(FTO)/glass substrates by chemical solution deposition. The BCFOx films showed a gradual phase transition from a rhombohedral to a pseudotetragonal structure with increase in the Ce content. The substitution of Bi with Ce greatly reduced the leakage current and the dielectric loss of the BCFOx films, which showed an Ohmic conduction mechanism. The BCFOx films with x = 0.06 exhibited a well squared-shaped P-E hysteresis loop with a remanent polarization (2Pr) of 92.3 µC cm-2 and an improved anti-fatigue characteristic after 1010 read/write polarization cycles.

  4. Free energy landscape approach to aid pure phase synthesis of transition metal (X=Cr, Mn and Fe) doped bismuth titanate (Bi2Ti2O7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Cedric L.; Huda, Muhammad N.

    2016-06-01

    A density functional theory study of Cr, Mn and Fe substitutions in Bi2Ti2O7 (BTO) photocatalysts is presented. We performed a stability analysis from our total energy calculations and have determined formations of dopant inspired phases are detrimental to the overall photocatalytic performance of X-doped BTO. From our calculated formation energies and electronic structures it is shown that X substitution of Ti is least stable and should be associated with formation of secondary phases more so than X substitution of Bi. This result contradicts the many experimental studies which suggest transition metal dopants always substitute Ti in BTO, but on the other hand, explains the poor photocatalytic response beyond what has become known as the critical dopant concentration.

  5. Doping of single crystals of the solid solution Bi/sub 2/Te/Sub 2. 85/Se/sub 0. 15/ with indium

    SciTech Connect

    Svechnikova, T.E.; Chizhevskaya, S.N.; Polikarpova, N.V.

    1987-12-01

    Perfect single crystals of the solid solution Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 2.85/Se/sub 0.15/ doped with In/sub 2/Te/sub 3/ (0.2 up to 5 mole % in the charge) were prepared by Czochralski's method with replenishment from the liquid phase. The indium content in the melts and in the single crystals was determined by the method of atomic-absorption spectroscopy. The effective distribution factor of indium in the solid solution Bi/sub 2/Te/sub 2.85/Se/sub 0.15/ equals /approx/ 0.5. Increasing the indium concentration in the solid solution decreases the electrical and thermal conductivity of the lattice.

  6. Dielectric, multiferroic properties and resistance modulation of Ta-doped Bi0.97Ba0.03FeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, S. Y.; Liu, W. F.; Guo, F.; Xi, X. J.; Wang, H. J.; Li, D. J.

    2014-02-01

    Single phase Bi0.97Ba0.03Fe1-xTaxO3 ceramics with x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 were synthesized by modified rapid sintering process method. The formation of rhombohedral perovskite-like structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction investigation for all the samples. Dielectric and leakage current measurements indicated that the content of the oxygen vacancy in the samples decreased as a function of the substitution of Ta5+ ions. A distinct threshold switching behavior was observed in the leakage current density. The impedance measurements suggested that the grain effect made a major contribution to the resistance. The changes in dielectric, multiferroic properties and resistance modulation of the Ta5+ and Ba2+ co-doped BiFeO3 ceramics could have a huge potential for material application.

  7. Lead-nano-dopings effects on the structural, microstructural, vibrational and thermal properties of Bi 2- xPb xSrV 2O 9 layered perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsabawy, Khaled M.; Abou Sekkina, Morsy M.; Asker, Mohamed A.; El-Newehy, Mohamed H.

    2010-07-01

    The sample with in the general formula Bi 2-xPb xSrV 2O 9, where x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.6 mol were synthesized by the high temperature solid state reaction and firing method. The X-ray diffractograms confirmed the formation of single phased layered perovskite in all samples. TGA and DTA thermal analyses on the green samples included steps of thermal analysis of strontium carbonate, bismuth carbonate, ammonium vanadate, lead oxide and finally on the high temperature solid state formation. The effect of lead dopings on the sintering, structural and micro-structure, properties of 212BiSrV-ceramics were investigated. The infrared absorption spectra show a series of vibrational modes within the range of 400-1600 cm -1.

  8. Tailoring ergodicity through selective A-site doping in the Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-Bi1/2K1/2TiO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Matias; Liu, Na; Deluca, Marco; Heidt, Sabrina; Ringl, Ines; Dietz, Christian; Stark, Robert W.; Jo, Wook

    2015-04-01

    The morphotropic phase boundary composition Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-20 mol. % Bi1/2K1/2TiO3 was chosen as initial material to do selective A-site aliovalent doping replacing Na and K by 1 at. % La, respectively. The materials were studied macroscopically by measuring dielectric and electromechanical properties. The Na-replaced material has a lower freezing temperature Tfr, lower remanent polarization and remanent strain, and thus a higher degree of ergodicity than the K-replaced material. These results are contrasted with local poling experiments and hysteresis loops obtained from piezoresponse force microscopy. The faster relaxation of the tip-induced local polarization and the lower remanent state in bias-on and -off loops confirm the higher degree of ergodicity of the Na-replaced material. The difference in functional properties is attributed to small variations in chemical pressure achieved through selective doping. Raman results support this working hypothesis.

  9. Enhancement of photoinduced electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO/BiFeO3 layered thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yuitoo, Isamu; Takeuchi, Teruaki; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2015-10-01

    Polycrystalline BiFeO3 and Al-doped ZnO/BiFeO3 bilayered thin films were prepared on Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si substrates by chemical solution deposition. Their photoinduced electrical properties under blue light irradiation were characterized. The rapid on/off response of the photocurrent to light in unpoled BiFeO3 (BFO) and Al-doped ZnO/BiFeO3 (AZO/BFO) thin films was demonstrated. The AZO/BFO layered film exhibited an approximately triple-digit larger photocurrent in comparison with a BFO single-layer film. This is attributable to the photoexcited carrier generation effect at the interface between AZO (n-type) and BFO (p-type) films. Furthermore, in the AZO/BFO layered structure, the direction of the internal bias electric field caused by the space charge distribution in the unpoled BFO film is the same as that of the built-in electric field by forming a p-n junction of AZO and BFO layers. Photovoltaic properties were also improved by fabricating such a layered film. On the other hand, when the placement of BFO to AZO was reversed, the photoelectric current decreased to approximately one-tenth of that of the BFO single-layer film. In the BFO/AZO film, the internal electric field at the p-n junction between BFO and AZO is considered to have an orientation opposite to the self-bias field formed in the BFO film.

  10. Single-Crystal CdTe Homojunction Structures for Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Peng-Yu; Dahal, Rajendra; Wang, Gwo-Ching; Zhang, Shengbai; Lu, Toh-Ming; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2015-09-01

    We report two different CdTe homojunction solar cell structures. Single-crystal CdTe homojunction solar cells were grown on GaAs single-crystal substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Arsenic and iodine were used as dopants for p-type and n-type CdTe, respectively. Another homojunction solar cell structure was fabricated by growing n-type CdTe directly on bulk p-type CdTe single-crystal substrates. The electrical properties of the different layers were characterized by Hall measurements. When arsine was used as arsenic source, the highest hole concentration was ~6 × 1016 cm-3 and the activation efficiency was ~3%. Very abrupt arsenic doping profiles were observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. For n-type CdTe with a growth temperature of 250°C and a high Cd/Te ratio the electron concentration was ~4.5 × 1016 cm-3. Because of the 300 nm thick n-type CdTe layer, the short circuit current of the solar cell grown on the bulk CdTe substrate was less than 10 mA/cm2. The open circuit voltage of the device was 0.86 V. According to a prediction based on measurement of short circuit current density ( J sc) as a function of open circuit voltage ( V oc), an open circuit voltage of 0.92 V could be achieved by growing CdTe solar cells on bulk CdTe substrates.

  11. Thermoelectric and mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube doped Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 thermoelectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Hsin; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Kiggans, James O.

    2013-11-01

    Since many thermoelectrics are brittle in nature with low mechanical strength, improving their mechanical properties is important to fabricate devices such as thermoelectric power generators and coolers. In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into polycrystalline Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 through powder processing, which increased the flexural strength from 32 MPa to 90 MPa. Electrical and thermal conductivities were both reduced in the CNT containing materials, leading to unchanged figure of merit. Dynamic Young's and shear moduli of the composites were lower than the base material, while the Poisson's ratio was not affected by CNT doping.

  12. Momentum and Doping Dependent Gap Dynamics of Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 O8 + d studied by Time and Angle Resolved Photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jonathan Han Son; Miller, Tristan; Zhang, Wen Tao; Kurashima, Koshi; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Lanzara, Alessandra

    Dynamics of the superconducting gap and pseudogap can be induced by laser pumping and such dynamics may reveal critical clues for the underlying mechanism behind their formation and possibly the origin of superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. Here we report ultra-fast and ultra-high resolution time resolved angle-resolved photoemission (tr-ARPES) measurements in double layer Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 both as a function of doping and excitation density. The momentum dependent behavior of the gap dynamics and quasiparticle recombination will be discussed.

  13. Tuning ferroic states in La doped BiFeO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} displacive multiferroic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cótica, L. F.; Freitas, V. F.; Protzek, O. A.; Eiras, J. A.; Garcia, D.; Yokaichiya, F.; Santos, I. A.; Guo, R.; Bhalla, A. S.

    2014-07-21

    In this manuscript, X-ray and high-resolution neutron powder diffraction investigations, associated with Rietveld refinements, magnetic hysteresis curves and a modeling of electron-density distributions around the ions, are used to describe the driving forces responsible for tuning the ferroic states in La doped (0.6)BiFeO{sub 3}-(0.4)PbTiO{sub 3} compositions. The intrinsic relations between the ferroic orders and the structural arrangements (angles, distances and electron-density distributions around the ions) are revealed, helping in the understanding of some aspects comprising the ferroic properties of perovskite-based displacive multiferroic compounds.

  14. Crystals, magnetic and electronic properties of a new ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} and K-doped compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Saparov, Bayrammurad Sefat, Athena S.

    2013-08-15

    This is a report on the new 122 ternary transition-metal pnictide of BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}, which is crystallized from bismuth flux. BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} adopts ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure (I4/mmm) with a=4.4902(3) Å and c=14.687(1) Å; it is antiferromagnetic with anisotropic magnetic susceptibility and semiconducting with a band gap of E{sub g}=6 meV. Heat capacity result confirms the insulating ground state in BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} with the electronic residual Sommerfeld coefficient of γ=0. The high temperature magnetization results show that magnetic ordering temperature is T{sub N} ∼400 K. Hole-doping in BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} via potassium in Ba{sub 1−x}K{sub x}Mn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} results in metallic behavior for x=0.10(1), 0.32(1) and 0.36(1). With K-doping, more magnetically anisotropic behavior is observed. Although there is a downturn in electrical resistivity and low-field magnetization data below 4 K in>30%-doped crystals, there is no sign of zero resistance or diamagnetism. - Graphical abstract: Local moment antiferromagnet BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}, the first bismuthide with ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure, turns metallic upon K-doping. Highlights: • BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} and Ba{sub 1−x}K{sub x}Mn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} (0≤x<0.4) measuring up to 1 cm in length have been synthesized from Bi flux reactions. • BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} is the first bismuthide with ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. • BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} is a small gap semiconductor but, upon hole-doping, turns metallic with a downturn in resistivity below 4 K. • BaMn{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} is a local moment antiferromagnet with T{sub N} ∼400 K.

  15. Structural and optical modification in Bi doped As{sub 40}S{sub 60} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, Ramakanta; Chinnaiyah, S. S.; Ganesan, R.

    2015-06-24

    The influence of substitution of Bi atom instead of S atoms on the structural and optical properties of thin films of As{sub 40}S{sub 60} are reported. The density is found to be increased with the addition Bi heavy metal into As{sub 2}S{sub 3}. The amorphous to polycrystalline structure of the bulk sample is observed for Bi more than 7%. The glass transition temperature is found to be decreased with addition of Bi. The absorption edge shifts to shorter wavelength, thereby decreasing optical band gap of Bi{sub x}As{sub 40}S{sub 60-x} (x=0,2 and 4% here) film. The optical parameter change is discussed from the stand point of chemical bonds formed in the films and related to the defect states produced due to incorporation of Bi atoms in place of chalcogenide S atoms.

  16. Emission Analysis of RE3+ ( = Nd3+ & Er3+) Doped Bi2O3-B2O3-LiF Glass Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Srinivasa; Buddhudu, S.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on the absorption and emission spectra o of RE3+ ( = Nd3+ or Er3+) doped Bi2O3-B2O3-LiF (Bi-B-LiF) glass system. The absorption spectrum of Nd3+ doped Bi-B-LiF glass has exhibited eight absorption bands at 513 nm, 525 nm, 584 nm, 626 nm, 682 nm, 748 nm, 805 nm and 876 which correspond to the electronic transitions of (4I9/2→4G9/2), (4I9/2→4G9/2, 4G7/2), (4I9/2→4G5/2, 2G7/2), (4I9/2→2H11/2), (4I9/2→4F9/2), (4I9/2→4F5/2, 4S3/2), (4I9/2→4F5/2, 2H9/2) and (4I9/2→4F5/2) respectively. From Nd3+ : Bi-B-LiF glass, three NIR emission bands have been observed at 900 nm, 1075 nm and 1342 nm, which are assigned to the transitions of (4F3/2→4I9/2), (4F3/2→4I11/2) and (4F3/2→4I13/2) respectively with an excitation at 514.5 nm (Ar+ ion laser). The Er3+ : Bi-B-LiF glass has revealed six absorption bands at 489 nm, 522 nm, 653 nm, 800 nm, 973 nm and 1531 nm which are labeled to the transitions of (4I15/2→4F7/2), (4I15/2→2H11/2, 4G11/2), (4I15/2→4F9/2), (4I15/2→4I7/2), (4I15/2→4I11/2), and (4I15/2→4I13/2) respectively. From the Er3+: Bi-B-LiF glass, an NIR emission at 1540 nm (4I13/2→4I15/2), has been observed with an excitation at 514.5 nm (Ar+ ion laser).

  17. γ irradiation induced effects on bismuth active centres and related photoluminescence properties of Bi/Er co-doped optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, D.; Mihai, L.; Neguţ, D.; Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the effects of γ irradiation on bismuth active centres (BACs) and related photoluminescence properties of bismuth/erbium co-doped silica fibre (BEDF), [Si] ~28, [Ge] ~1.60, [Al] ~0.10, [Er] ~ <0.10 and [Bi] ~0.10 atom%, fabricated by in-situ solution doping and Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD). The samples were irradiated at 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy doses, and dose rate of 5.5 kGy/h, at room temperature. The optical properties of BEDF samples are tested before and after γ irradiation. We found that high dose γ irradiation could significantly influence the formation and composition of BACs and their photoluminescence performance, as important changes in absorption and emission properties associated with the 830 nm pump produces the direct evidence of γ irradiation effects on BAC-Si. We notice that the saturable to unsaturable absorption ratio at pump wavelength could be increased with high dose γ irradiation, indicating that emission and pump efficiency could be increased by γ irradiation. Our experimental results also reveal good radiation survivability of the BEDF under low and moderate γ irradiation. Our investigation suggests the existence of irradiation related processing available for tailoring the photoluminescence properties and performance of bismuth doped/co-doped fibres.

  18. Luminescent, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of Pr doped Bi{sub 7}Ti{sub 4}NbO{sub 21} multifunctional ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Hua; Hui, Xinwei; Wang, Xusheng Li, Jun; Li, Yanxia; Yao, Xi; Peng, Dengfeng

    2013-12-14

    Pr doped Bi{sub 7}Ti{sub 4}NbO{sub 21} (BTN) multifunctional ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering technique and their luminescent, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction data showed that the samples were single phase, and the scanning electron microscopy image indicated that the ceramics had flake-like grains with uniform thickness. The red emission was observed under the ultraviolet and blue light excitation at room temperature. The thermal quench of luminescence was measured and the result indicated that Pr doped BTN ceramics might be potentially applied in luminescent probes and temperature sensors. With the increasing Pr{sup 3+} content, the intensity of the photoluminescence increased initially and then decreased due to concentration quenching; The Curie temperature T{sub c} was slightly shifted to the lower temperature; the ferroelectric properties was almost unchanged by doping. As a new multifunctional material, the Pr doped BTN ceramics could be used for a wide range of application, such as integrated electro-optical devices.

  19. γ irradiation induced effects on bismuth active centres and related photoluminescence properties of Bi/Er co-doped optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Sporea, D; Mihai, L; Neguţ, D; Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of γ irradiation on bismuth active centres (BACs) and related photoluminescence properties of bismuth/erbium co-doped silica fibre (BEDF), [Si] ~28, [Ge] ~1.60, [Al] ~0.10, [Er] ~ <0.10 and [Bi] ~0.10 atom%, fabricated by in-situ solution doping and Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD). The samples were irradiated at 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy doses, and dose rate of 5.5 kGy/h, at room temperature. The optical properties of BEDF samples are tested before and after γ irradiation. We found that high dose γ irradiation could significantly influence the formation and composition of BACs and their photoluminescence performance, as important changes in absorption and emission properties associated with the 830 nm pump produces the direct evidence of γ irradiation effects on BAC-Si. We notice that the saturable to unsaturable absorption ratio at pump wavelength could be increased with high dose γ irradiation, indicating that emission and pump efficiency could be increased by γ irradiation. Our experimental results also reveal good radiation survivability of the BEDF under low and moderate γ irradiation. Our investigation suggests the existence of irradiation related processing available for tailoring the photoluminescence properties and performance of bismuth doped/co-doped fibres. PMID:27440386

  20. Improved electron transfer and plasmonic effect in dye-sensitized solar cells with bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Tae; Chi, Won Seok; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles are surface-modified via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene)methacrylate (POEM), which can coordinate to the Ag precursor, i.e. silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (AgCF3SO3). Following the reduction of Ag ions, a Nb2O5 doping process and calcination at 450 °C, bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures are generated. The resulting nanostructures are characterized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the Nb-doped TiO2/Ag nanostructure photoanode with a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) as the solid polymer electrolyte shows an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.9%, which is much higher than those of neat TiO2 (4.7%) and Nb-doped TiO2 (5.4%). The enhancement of η is mostly due to the increase of current density, attributed to the improved electron transfer properties including electron injection, collection, and plasmonic effects without the negative effects of charge recombination or problems with corrosion. These properties are supported by intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements. PMID:24457831

  1. γ irradiation induced effects on bismuth active centres and related photoluminescence properties of Bi/Er co-doped optical fibres

    PubMed Central

    Sporea, D.; Mihai, L.; Neguţ, D.; Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of γ irradiation on bismuth active centres (BACs) and related photoluminescence properties of bismuth/erbium co-doped silica fibre (BEDF), [Si] ~28, [Ge] ~1.60, [Al] ~0.10, [Er] ~ <0.10 and [Bi] ~0.10 atom%, fabricated by in-situ solution doping and Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD). The samples were irradiated at 1 kGy, 5 kGy, 15 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy doses, and dose rate of 5.5 kGy/h, at room temperature. The optical properties of BEDF samples are tested before and after γ irradiation. We found that high dose γ irradiation could significantly influence the formation and composition of BACs and their photoluminescence performance, as important changes in absorption and emission properties associated with the 830 nm pump produces the direct evidence of γ irradiation effects on BAC-Si. We notice that the saturable to unsaturable absorption ratio at pump wavelength could be increased with high dose γ irradiation, indicating that emission and pump efficiency could be increased by γ irradiation. Our experimental results also reveal good radiation survivability of the BEDF under low and moderate γ irradiation. Our investigation suggests the existence of irradiation related processing available for tailoring the photoluminescence properties and performance of bismuth doped/co-doped fibres. PMID:27440386

  2. Enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in n-type Cu0.008Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 by using Nb doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Ryu, Byungki; Park, Hee Jung; Lee, Kimoon; Roh, Jong Wook; Kim, Sang Il; Hwang, Sungwoo; Choi, Soon-Mok; Kim, Jong-Young; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Sung Wng

    2016-01-01

    Doping with foreign atom has been shown to be an effective way to enhance the dimensionless figure of merit ZT of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric raw materials. Herein, we report that doping with Nb is effective in enhancing the Seebeck coefficient of n-type Cu0.008Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 polycrystalline bulks. Considering compensation of the Seebeck coefficient due to decrease of the electrical conductivity in Nb-doped compositions, the absolute value of Seebeck coefficient rather increased benefiting from an enhancement of the density of states (DOS) effective mass m* from 1.09 m 0 (Cu0.008Bi2Te2.7Se0.3) to 1.21 m 0 - 1.27 m 0 (Cu0.008Bi2- x Nb x Te2.7Se0.3) due to a DOS engineering effect. The values of ZT were 0.84 at 300 K and 0.86 at 320 K for Cu0.008Bi1.99Nb0.01Te2.7Se0.3. This compositional tuning approach highlights the possibility of further enhancement of ZT for n-type Bi2Te3-based compounds by using a combination of nanostructuring technologies to reduce the thermal conductivity.

  3. Effects of K doping on structural and superconducting properties of Bi{sub 1.5}Pb{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.8}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Belala, K; Mosbah, M. F.

    2013-12-16

    Two kinds of potassium doped Bi(Pb)2212 samples are used to investigate the effect of doping the Bi(Pb)2212 ((Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}) phase by potassium (K): In the first one K is substituted on the Sr site; In the second one K is added. Using the solid state method reaction samples of Bi{sub 1.5}Pb{sub 0.5}(Sr{sub 1.8−x}K{sub x})CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d} and Bi{sub 1.5}Pb{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.8}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d}K{sub x} (0 ≤ x≤ 0.05) have been prepared from powders of carbonates and primary oxides having purity over 99%. The samples have been characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and resistivity versus temperature measurements. Results show how the kind and the rate of doping by potassium affects the structural and transport properties of Bi(Pb)2212 phase.

  4. Optical characterization of Tm3+ doped Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glasses in absence and presence of BaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kexuan; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Shunbin; Guo, Yanyan; Zhou, Dechun; Yu, Fengxia

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, Two new Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glasses (one presence of BaF2) doped with 1mol% Tm2O3 were prepared by melt-quenching technique. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), the absorption, Raman, IR spectra and fluorescence spectra were measured. The Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters, emission cross section, absorption cross section, and gain coefficient of Tm3+ ions were comparatively investigated. After the BaF2 introduced, the glass showed a better thermal stability, lower phonon energy and weaker OH‑ absorption coefficient, meanwhile, a larger ~1.8 μm emission cross section σem (7.56 × 10‑21 cm2) and a longer fluorescence lifetime τmea (2.25 ms) corresponding to the Tm3+: 4F3 → 3H6 transition were obtained, which is due to the addition of fluoride in glass could reduce the quenching rate of hydroxyls and raise the cross-relaxation (3H6 + 3H4 → 3F4 + 3F4) rate. Our results suggest that the Tm3+ doped Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glass with BaF2 might be potential to the application in efficient ~1.8 μm lasers system.

  5. Optical characterization of Tm(3+) doped Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glasses in absence and presence of BaF2.

    PubMed

    Han, Kexuan; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Shunbin; Guo, Yanyan; Zhou, Dechun; Yu, Fengxia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Two new Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glasses (one presence of BaF2) doped with 1mol% Tm2O3 were prepared by melt-quenching technique. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), the absorption, Raman, IR spectra and fluorescence spectra were measured. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, emission cross section, absorption cross section, and gain coefficient of Tm(3+) ions were comparatively investigated. After the BaF2 introduced, the glass showed a better thermal stability, lower phonon energy and weaker OH(-) absorption coefficient, meanwhile, a larger ~1.8 μm emission cross section σem (7.56 × 10(-21) cm(2)) and a longer fluorescence lifetime τmea (2.25 ms) corresponding to the Tm(3+): (4)F3 → (3)H6 transition were obtained, which is due to the addition of fluoride in glass could reduce the quenching rate of hydroxyls and raise the cross-relaxation ((3)H6 + (3)H4 → (3)F4 + (3)F4) rate. Our results suggest that the Tm(3+) doped Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glass with BaF2 might be potential to the application in efficient ~1.8 μm lasers system. PMID:27506152

  6. Co-doping of (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3: secondary phase formation and lattice site preference of Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, V.; Staab, T. E. M.

    2012-11-01

    Bismuth sodium titanate (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) is considered to be one of the most promising lead-free alternatives to piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). However, the effect of dopants on the material has so far received little attention from an atomic point of view. In this study we investigated the effects of cobalt-doping on the formation of additional phases and determined the preferred lattice site of cobalt in BNT. The latter was achieved by comparing the measured x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra to numerically calculated spectra of cobalt on various lattice sites in BNT. (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 + x mol% Co (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.6) was synthesized via solid state reaction. As revealed by SEM backscattering images, a secondary phase formed in all doped specimens. Using both XRD and SEM-EDX, it was identified as Co2TiO4 for dopant levels >0.5 mol%. In addition, a certain amount of cobalt was incorporated into BNT, as shown by electron probe microanalysis. This amount increased with increasing dopant levels, suggesting that an equilibrium forms together with the secondary phase. The XANES experiments revealed that cobalt occupies the octahedral B-site in the BNT perovskite lattice, substituting Ti and promoting the formation of oxygen vacancies in the material.

  7. Direct observation of bulk charge modulations in optimally doped Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Lee, W.-S.; Dellea, G.; Amorese, A.; Mazzoli, C.; Kummer, K.; Brookes, N. B.; Moritz, B.; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Hussain, Z.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z.-X.; Braicovich, L.

    2014-06-01

    Bulk charge density modulations, recently observed in high critical-temperature (Tc) cuprate superconductors, coexist with the so-called pseudogap and compete with superconductivity. However, its direct observation has been limited to a narrow doping region in the underdoped regime. Using energy-resolved resonant x-ray scattering we have found evidence for such bulk charge modulations, or soft collective charge modes (soft CCMs), in optimally doped Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ (Pb-Bi2212) around the summit of the superconducting dome with momentum transfer q∥˜0.28 reciprocal lattice units (r.l.u.) along the Cu-O bond direction. The signal is stronger at T ≃Tc than at lower temperatures, thereby confirming a competition between soft CCMs and superconductivity. These results demonstrate that soft CCMs are not constrained to the underdoped regime, suggesting that soft CCMs appear across a large part of the phase diagram of cuprates and are intimately entangled with high-Tc superconductivity.

  8. Effect of doping of vanadium ions on crystal structure, dielectric and magnetic properties of Bi0.8Ba0.2FeO3 multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godara, Priyanka; Agarwal, Ashish; Ahlawat, Neetu; Sanghi, Sujata; Kaswan, Kavita

    2016-05-01

    Synthesis of Bi0.8Ba0.2Fe1-xVxO3 multiferroics (with x=0.0, 0.02 and 0.04 having code V0, V2 and V4, respectively) have been done by solid-state reaction technique. The structural, magnetic and electrical characterization of the prepared ceramics have been carried out using X-ray diffraction, Vibrating sample magnetometry and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. Rietveld refinement studies show that all samples have rhombohedral structure (R3c). The observed lattice distortion is due to the difference in the ionic radii of parent ions and doped ions. Sizeable M-H hysteresis loops revealed the transformation of antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 (BFO) into ferromagnetic with Ba and V addition. The highest values of coercive field ~4.5 kOe and saturation magnetization ~1.14 emu/g are observed for V0 and V2 samples, respectively. The dielectric properties were improved with the co-doping as compared with the pure BFO compound due to structural distortion and decrease of oxygen vacancies by addition of higher valence V5+ cation.

  9. Optical characterization of Tm3+ doped Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glasses in absence and presence of BaF2

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kexuan; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Shunbin; Guo, Yanyan; Zhou, Dechun; Yu, Fengxia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Two new Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glasses (one presence of BaF2) doped with 1mol% Tm2O3 were prepared by melt-quenching technique. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), the absorption, Raman, IR spectra and fluorescence spectra were measured. The Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters, emission cross section, absorption cross section, and gain coefficient of Tm3+ ions were comparatively investigated. After the BaF2 introduced, the glass showed a better thermal stability, lower phonon energy and weaker OH− absorption coefficient, meanwhile, a larger ~1.8 μm emission cross section σem (7.56 × 10−21 cm2) and a longer fluorescence lifetime τmea (2.25 ms) corresponding to the Tm3+: 4F3 → 3H6 transition were obtained, which is due to the addition of fluoride in glass could reduce the quenching rate of hydroxyls and raise the cross-relaxation (3H6 + 3H4 → 3F4 + 3F4) rate. Our results suggest that the Tm3+ doped Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3 glass with BaF2 might be potential to the application in efficient ~1.8 μm lasers system. PMID:27506152

  10. Doping evolution of the electronic structure in the single-layer cuprates Bi2Sr2−xLaxCuO6 delta: Comparison with other single-layer cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, M.

    2010-04-30

    We have performed angle-resolved photoemission and core-level x-ray photoemission studies of the single-layer cuprate Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} (Bi2201) and revealed the doping evolution of the electronic structure from the lightly-doped to optimally-doped regions. We have observed the formation of the dispersive quasi-particle band, evolution of the Fermi 'arc' into the Fermi surface and the shift of the chemical potential with hole doping as in other cuprates. The doping evolution in Bi2201 is similar to that in Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (Na-CCOC), where a rapid chemical potential shift toward the lower Hubbard band of the parent insulator has been observed, but is quite different from that in La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO), where the chemical potential does not shift, yet the dispersive band and the Fermi arc/surface are formed around the Fermi level already in the lightly-doped region. The (underlying) Fermi surface shape and band dispersions are quantitatively analyzed using tightbinding fit, and the deduced next-nearest-neighbor hopping integral t also confirm the similarity to Na-CCOC and the difference from LSCO.

  11. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of CuBi co-doped mesoporous zeolite Beta for the removal of NOx by selective catalytic reduction with ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiguo; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wu, Huixia; Chen, Lisong; Zhao, Han; Liu, Yan; Pan, Linyu; Chen, Hangrong

    2016-01-01

    A series of CuBi co-doped mesoporous zeolite Beta (CuxBiy-mBeta) were prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal treatment approach and were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, TEM/SEM, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD and in situ DRIFTS. The catalysts CuxBiy-mBeta were applied to the removal of NOx by selective catalytic reduction with ammonia (NH3-SCR), especially the optimized Cu1Bi1-mBeta achieved the high efficiency for the removal of NOx and N2 selectivity, superior water and sulfur resistance as well as good durability. The excellent catalytic performance could be attributed to the acid sites of the support and the synergistic effect between copper and bismuth species. Moreover, in situ DRIFTS results showed that amides NH2 and NH4+ generated from NH3 adsorption could be responsible for the high selective catalytic reduction of NOx to N2. In addition, a possible catalytic reaction mechanism on Cu1Bi1-mBeta for the removal of NOx by NH3-SCR was proposed for explaining this catalytic process. PMID:27445009

  12. Quantized Hall Effect and Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in Highly Doped Bi2Se3: Evidence for Layered Transport of Bulk Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Helin; Tian, Jifa; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Shen, Tian; Hu, Jiuning; Qiao, Shan; Chen, Yong P.

    2012-05-01

    Bi2Se3 is an important semiconductor thermoelectric material and a prototype topological insulator. Here we report observation of Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations accompanied by quantized Hall resistances (Rxy) in highly doped n-type Bi2Se3 with bulk carrier concentrations of few 1019cm-3. Measurements under tilted magnetic fields show that the magnetotransport is 2D-like, where only the c-axis component of the magnetic field controls the Landau level formation. The quantized step size in 1/Rxy is found to scale with the sample thickness, and average ˜e2/h per quintuple layer. We show that the observed magnetotransport features do not come from the sample surface, but arise from the bulk of the sample acting as many parallel 2D electron systems to give a multilayered quantum Hall effect. In addition to revealing a new electronic property of Bi2Se3, our finding also has important implications for electronic transport studies of topological insulator materials.

  13. Quantized Hall effect and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in highly doped Bi2Se3: evidence for layered transport of bulk carriers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Helin; Tian, Jifa; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Shen, Tian; Hu, Jiuning; Qiao, Shan; Chen, Yong P

    2012-05-25

    Bi2Se3 is an important semiconductor thermoelectric material and a prototype topological insulator. Here we report observation of Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations accompanied by quantized Hall resistances (R(xy)) in highly doped n-type Bi2Se3 with bulk carrier concentrations of few 10(19) cm(-3). Measurements under tilted magnetic fields show that the magnetotransport is 2D-like, where only the c-axis component of the magnetic field controls the Landau level formation. The quantized step size in 1/R(xy) is found to scale with the sample thickness, and average ~e(2)/h per quintuple layer. We show that the observed magnetotransport features do not come from the sample surface, but arise from the bulk of the sample acting as many parallel 2D electron systems to give a multilayered quantum Hall effect. In addition to revealing a new electronic property of Bi2Se3, our finding also has important implications for electronic transport studies of topological insulator materials. PMID:23003290

  14. Primary Phase Field of the Pb-Doped 2223 High-Tc Superconductor in the (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O System

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Ng, W.; Cook, L. P.; Kearsley, A.; Greenwood, W.

    1999-01-01

    Both liquidus and subsolidus phase equilibrium data are of central importance for applications of high temperature superconductors in the (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system, including material synthesis, melt processing and single crystal growth. The subsolidus equilibria of the 110 K high-Tc Pb-doped 2223 ([Bi, Pb], Sr, Ca, Cu) phase and the location of the primary phase field (crystallization field) have been determined in this study. For the quantitative determination of liquidus data, a wicking technique was developed to capture the melt for quantitative microchemical analysis. A total of 29 five-phase volumes that include the 2223 phase as a component was obtained. The initial melt compositions of these volumes range from a mole fraction of 7.3 % to 28.0 % for Bi, 11.3 % to 27.8 % for Sr, 1.2 % to 19.4 % for Pb, 9.8 % to 30.8 % for Ca, and 17.1 % to 47.0 % for Cu. Based on these data, the crystallization field for the 2223 phase was constructed using the convex hull technique. A section of this “volume” was obtained by holding two components of the composition at the median value, allowing projection on the other three axes to show the extent of the field.

  15. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of CuBi co-doped mesoporous zeolite Beta for the removal of NOx by selective catalytic reduction with ammonia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiguo; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wu, Huixia; Chen, Lisong; Zhao, Han; Liu, Yan; Pan, Linyu; Chen, Hangrong

    2016-01-01

    A series of CuBi co-doped mesoporous zeolite Beta (CuxBiy-mBeta) were prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal treatment approach and were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, TEM/SEM, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD and in situ DRIFTS. The catalysts CuxBiy-mBeta were applied to the removal of NOx by selective catalytic reduction with ammonia (NH3-SCR), especially the optimized Cu1Bi1-mBeta achieved the high efficiency for the removal of NOx and N2 selectivity, superior water and sulfur resistance as well as good durability. The excellent catalytic performance could be attributed to the acid sites of the support and the synergistic effect between copper and bismuth species. Moreover, in situ DRIFTS results showed that amides NH2 and NH4(+) generated from NH3 adsorption could be responsible for the high selective catalytic reduction of NOx to N2. In addition, a possible catalytic reaction mechanism on Cu1Bi1-mBeta for the removal of NOx by NH3-SCR was proposed for explaining this catalytic process. PMID:27445009

  16. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of CuBi co-doped mesoporous zeolite Beta for the removal of NOx by selective catalytic reduction with ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhiguo; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wu, Huixia; Chen, Lisong; Zhao, Han; Liu, Yan; Pan, Linyu; Chen, Hangrong

    2016-07-01

    A series of CuBi co-doped mesoporous zeolite Beta (CuxBiy-mBeta) were prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal treatment approach and were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, TEM/SEM, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD and in situ DRIFTS. The catalysts CuxBiy-mBeta were applied to the removal of NOx by selective catalytic reduction with ammonia (NH3-SCR), especially the optimized Cu1Bi1-mBeta achieved the high efficiency for the removal of NOx and N2 selectivity, superior water and sulfur resistance as well as good durability. The excellent catalytic performance could be attributed to the acid sites of the support and the synergistic effect between copper and bismuth species. Moreover, in situ DRIFTS results showed that amides NH2 and NH4+ generated from NH3 adsorption could be responsible for the high selective catalytic reduction of NOx to N2. In addition, a possible catalytic reaction mechanism on Cu1Bi1-mBeta for the removal of NOx by NH3-SCR was proposed for explaining this catalytic process.

  17. Effects of Ag{sub 2}O doping on the electromagnetic properties of a BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Heon; Kim, H. C.

    2001-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of an Ag{sub 2}O doped and an undoped BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor were evaluated to investigate the effect of the pinning center on the magnetic shielding and suspension/levitation phenomena. The residual magnetization M=M{sup +}{endash}M{sup {minus}} increased with the dopant concentration, a maximum for 2% doping, wherein a fine uniform dispersion of Ag particles was observed. The fine Ag particles form a cluster with increasing dopant as the particles condense with each other and grow, consequently does the number of flux passing through decreases, so the magnetization M decreases. This result indicates that M is proportional to the number of magnetic flux lines passing through the sample, because the smaller the particle size the larger the ratio of the surface area to the volume. Magnetic shielding was evaluated by measuring the induced voltage in the secondary coil by placing the sample in between the primary coil. The voltage was initially set to 0.5 V, and decreased to 0.17 and 0.28 V, respectively, for the undoped and 2% Ag{sub 2}O doped samples. The much less change in the induced voltage for the 2% doped sample is attributed to increased flux shielding by shielding the vortex current. Simultaneous stable levitation and suspension of 2% Ag{sub 2}O doped disk samples weighing 0.3 g were observed, respectively, above (3 mm) and beneath (2 mm) a toroidal permanent magnet under a field cooled condition. The role of flux pinning is discussed to account for the phenomena by considering the hysteretic force function. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Device Fabrication using Crystalline CdTe and CdTe Ternary Alloys Grown by MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Burst, James; Seyedmohammadi, Shahram; Malik, Roger; Li, Jian V.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Barnes, Teresa

    2015-06-14

    We fabricated epitaxial CdTe:In/CdTe:As homojunction and CdZnTe/CdTe and CdMgTe/CdTe heterojunction devices grown on bulk CdTe substrates in order to study the fundamental device physics of CdTe solar cells. Selection of emitter-layer alloys was based on passivation studies using double heterostructures as well as band alignment. Initial results show significant device integration challenges, including low dopant activation, high resistivity substrates and the development of low-resistance contacts. To date, the highest open-circuit voltage is 715 mV in a CdZnTe/CdTe heterojunction following anneal, while the highest fill factor of 52% was attained in an annealed CdTe homojunction. In general, all currentvoltage measurements show high series resistance, capacitancevoltages measurements show variable doping, and quantum efficiency measurements show low collection. Ongoing work includes overcoming the high resistance in these devices and addressing other possible device limitations such as non-optimum junction depth, interface recombination, and reduced bulk lifetime due to structural defects.

  19. High Light Absorption and Charge Separation Efficiency at Low Applied Voltage from Sb-Doped SnO2/BiVO4 Core/Shell Nanorod-Array Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lite; Zhao, Chenqi; Giri, Binod; Allen, Patrick; Xu, Xiaowei; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Fan, Yangyang; Titova, Lyubov V; Rao, Pratap M

    2016-06-01

    BiVO4 has become the top-performing semiconductor among photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. However, BiVO4 photoanodes are still limited to a fraction of the theoretically possible photocurrent at low applied voltages because of modest charge transport properties and a trade-off between light absorption and charge separation efficiencies. Here, we investigate photoanodes composed of thin layers of BiVO4 coated onto Sb-doped SnO2 (Sb:SnO2) nanorod-arrays (Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 NRAs) and demonstrate a high value for the product of light absorption and charge separation efficiencies (ηabs × ηsep) of ∼51% at an applied voltage of 0.6 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, as determined by integration of the quantum efficiency over the standard AM 1.5G spectrum. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the highest ηabs × ηsep efficiencies achieved to date at this voltage for nanowire-core/BiVO4-shell photoanodes. Moreover, although WO3 has recently been extensively studied as a core nanowire material for core/shell BiVO4 photoanodes, the Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 NRAs generate larger photocurrents, especially at low applied voltages. In addition, we present control experiments on planar Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 and WO3/BiVO4 heterojunctions, which indicate that Sb:SnO2 is more favorable as a core material. These results indicate that integration of Sb:SnO2 nanorod cores with other successful strategies such as doping and coating with oxygen evolution catalysts can move the performance of BiVO4 and related semiconductors closer to their theoretical potential. PMID:27203779

  20. Atomic-force microscopy and photoluminescence of nanostructured CdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Babentsov, V.; Sizov, F.; Franc, J.; Luchenko, A.; Svezhentsova, E. Tsybrii, Z.

    2013-09-15

    Low-dimensional CdTe nanorods with a diameter of 10-30 nm and a high aspect ratio that reaches 100 are studied. The nanorods are grown by the physical vapor transport method with the use of Bi precipitates on the substrates. In addition, thin films of closely packed CdTe nanorods with the transverse dimensions {approx}(100-200) nm are grown. Atomic-force microscopy shows that the cross sections of all of the nanorods were hexagonally shaped. By photoluminescence measurements, the inference about the wurtzite structure of CdTe is supported, and the structural quality, electron-phonon coupling, and defects are analyzed. On the basis of recent ab initio calculations, the nature of defects responsible for the formation of deep levels in the CdTe layers and bulk crystals are analyzed.

  1. X-ray magnetic spectroscopy of MBE-grown Mn-doped Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Watson, M. D.; Zhang, S. L.; Coldea, A. I.; Hesjedal, T.; Baker, A. A.; Harrison, S. E.; Pushp, A.; Kellock, A. J.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Laan, G. van der

    2014-12-15

    We report the growth of Mn-doped Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), SQUID magnetometry and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Epitaxial films were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by co-evaporation. The films exhibit a spiral growth mechanism typical of this material class, as revealed by AFM. The XRD measurements demonstrate a good crystalline structure which is retained upon doping up to ∼7.5 atomic-% Mn, determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and show no evidence of the formation of parasitic phases. However an increasing interstitial incorporation of Mn is observed with increasing doping concentration. A magnetic moment of 5.1 μ{sub B}/Mn is obtained from bulk-sensitive SQUID measurements, and a much lower moment of 1.6 μ{sub B}/Mn from surface-sensitive XMCD. At ∼2.5 K, XMCD at the Mn L{sub 2,3} edge, reveals short-range magnetic order in the films and indicates ferromagnetic order below 1.5 K.

  2. Mn-doped 0.15BiInO3-0.85PbTiO3 piezoelectric films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Ko, Song Won; Lee, Soonil; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Undoped, 0.5 and 1.0 mol. % Mn-doped 0.15BiInO3-0.85PbTiO3 films were grown on PbTiO3/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Phase-pure perovskite films were obtained at a substrate temperature of 585 °C irrespective of Mn doping level. The 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped films showed a room temperature permittivity of 480 and a dielectric loss tangent of 0.015 at 100 kHz after 650 °C post-deposition annealing. The coercive field and remanent polarization were 80 kV/cm and 29 µC/cm2, respectively. The ferroelectric transition temperature of the films ranged from 535 to 585 °C. The e31,f piezoelectric coefficient was -7.1 C/m2. X-ray diffraction and phase transition temperature data showed that the Mn atoms substitute on the Ti-site as Mn3+; the resulting films have p-type conduction characteristics.

  3. High-Rate LiTi2(PO4)3@N-C Composite via Bi-nitrogen Sources Doping.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Xue, Xia; Tang, Yougen; Jing, Yan; Huang, Bin; Ren, Yu; Yao, Yan; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-12-30

    Mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@nitrogen-rich doped carbon composites have been synthesized by a novel bi-nitrogen sources doping strategy. Tripolycyanamide (C3H6N6) and urea are proposed for the first time as both nitrogen and carbon sources to achieve a homogeneous nitrogen-doped carbon coating layer via an in situ method. The electrode delivers ultrahigh rate performance and outstanding cycling stability in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In an organic electrolyte system, the electrode demonstrates high discharge capacities of 120 mAh g(-1) and 87 mAh g(-1) at 20C and 50C, respectively. Moreover, 89.5% of initial discharge capacity is retained after 1000 cycles at 10C. When used as an anode for aqueous LIBs, the electrode also demonstrates superior rate capability with the discharge capacity of 103 mAh g(-1) at 10C, corresponding to 84% of that at 1C. Outstanding cycling stability with capacity retention of 91.2% after 100 cycles at 30 mA g(-1) and 90.4% over 400 cycles at 150 mA g(-1) are also demonstrated. The uniform nitrogen-rich carbon coating and unique mesoporous structure play important roles in effectively suppressing the charge-transfer resistance and facilitating Li ion/electron diffusion, thus leading to the superior electrochemical properties. PMID:26633580

  4. Ti doping-driven magnetic and morphological changes in multiferroic ceramics of Bi0.9La0.1FeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, V. A.; Paixão, J. A.

    2015-09-01

    Investigation of the crystal structure, microstructure, local ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of the Bi0.9La0.1Fe1-y Ti y O3 (0  ⩽  y  ⩽  0.1) perovskites has been carried out at room temperature to shed light on the conditions that favor the appearance of spontaneous magnetization in the polar phase of BiFeO3-based multiferroics. The compounds have been shown to possess the noncentrosymmetric rhombohedral structure (space group R3c) specific to the antiferromagnetic (cycloidal) phase of the parent Bi0.9La0.1FeO3. A gradual suppression of the rhombohedral distortions and a decrease of the ferroelectric polarization have been found in the series with increasing Ti content. The substitution dramatically affects the morphology of the ceramic samples: a drastic (from ~10 μm for y = 0 to ~1 μm for 0.02  ⩽  y  ⩽  0.1) decrease of the average grain size has been revealed. The decrease is accompanied by the formation of a nanodimensional ferroelectric domain structure. The origin of the morphological changes has been explained by the charge-compensating mechanism that involves the formation of lattice defects in the donor-doped materials. It has been proposed that the same mechanism can be responsible for the substitution-induced removal of the cycloidal modulation resulting in the establishment of a weak ferromagnetic state in the Bi0.9La0.1Fe1-y Ti y O3 series.

  5. Positron probing of gamma-irradiated Ge doped with P, As, Sb, and Bi: Changes in atomic structures of defects due to n→ p conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, N. Yu.; Emtsev, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    The emission of the high-momentum annihilation radiation from the subvalent ion core shells and electron density around a positron localized at a vacancy-group-V-impurity atom complexes produced in oxygen-lean Ge doped with P, As, Sb, and Bi by irradiation with 60Co gamma-rays at room temperature have been investigated with the help of the angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) before and after n→ p conversion. The probability of positron annihilation in the subvalent shells of atoms incorporated in dominant radiation centers was found to be dependent on the ratio of the ion core radii ri(P 5+, As 5+)/ ri(Ge 4+)<1 and ri(Sb 5+, Bi 5+)/ ri(Ge 4+)>1, respectively. In passing from P to As impurity atoms the activation energy Δ Ee of electron emission to be detected by DLTS measurements is increased by ~(+0.017 eV) vs. the increase of the electron density parameter to be reconstructed by ACAR data, Δ r‧ s= r‧ s(As)- r‧ s(P)≈0.029 a.u. On the contrary, in passing from Sb to Bi impurity atoms, Δ Ee value is decreased by ~(-0.028 eV) whereas the electron density parameter rises by Δ r‧ s= r‧ s(Bi)- r‧ s(Sb)≈0.04 a.u. After n→ p conversion a marked decrease in both the electron density and the number of ion cores around the positron points to the fact that the radiation-produced complexes with group-V-impurity atoms (P, As, Sb, Bi) are of a multi-vacancy character. The deep acceptor states in the forbidden gap ( Ev+0.1), ( Ev+0.12), ( Ev+0.16) eV to be attributed to the P-, As-, Sb-, and Bi-containing multi-vacancy centers, respectively, were found to contribute to lessening the electron density around the trapped positron. It is argued that a close similarity of the As 5+ and Ge 4+ ion cores results in a small (but marked) augmentation in the electron density around the positron in As-containing multi-vacancy centers after n→ p conversion. A trend for inward relaxation of the ion cores is observed in all radiation-produced centers

  6. Two-dimensional bismuth-rich nanosheets through the evaporative thinning of Se-doped Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Eve D.; Shi, Fengyuan; Chasapis, Thomas C.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2016-02-01

    High bulk conductance obscures the behavior of surface states in the prototypical topological insulators Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3. However, ternary phases of Bi2Te3-ySey with balanced donor and acceptor levels may lead to large bulk resistivity, allowing for the observation of the surface states. Additionally, the contribution of the bulk conductance may be further suppressed by nanostructuring, increasing the surface-to-volume ratio. Herein we report the synthesis of a ternary tetradymite newly confined to two dimensions. Ultra-thin large-area stable nanosheets were fabricated via evaporative thinning of a Bi2Te2.9Se0.1 original phase. Owing to vapor pressure differences, a compositional shift to a final Bi-rich phase is observed. The Se/Te ratio of the nanosheet increases tenfold, due to the higher stability of the Bi-Se bonds. Hexagonal crystal symmetry is maintained despite dramatic changes in thickness and stoichiometry. Given that small variations in stoichiometry of this ternary system can incur large changes in carrier concentration and switch majority carrier type, the large compositional shifts found in this case imply that compositional analysis of similar CVD and PVD grown materials is critical to correctly interpret topological insulator performance. Further, the characterization techniques deployed, including STEM-EDS and ToF-SIMS, serve as a case study in determining such compositional shifts in two-dimensional form.

  7. CdTe nano-structures for photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Franco, N.; Barreiros, M. A.; Sochinskii, N. V.; Alves, E.

    2013-07-01

    CdTe nano-structures with diameter of ∼100 nm and variable length (200-600 nm) were fabricated on glass substrates covered with conductive buffer layers such as NiCr, ZAO (ZnO:Al2O3 + Ta2O5) or TiPd alloys. The fabrication process consisted of the starting vapour deposition of metal catalyst dropped layer followed by the isothermal catalyst-prompted vapour growth of CdTe nano-structured layer of controllable shape and surface filling. The effect of buffer layers on the crystallographic orientation and thickness of CdTe nano-structured layers is investigated by means of IBA techniques, SEM and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the formed CdTe nano-layers have a cubic structure, mainly oriented towards the [1 1 1] crystallographic direction, except for those grown on ZAO layer where the X-ray diffraction signal is very weak to be associated to any crystallographic form. The RBS spectra recorded on different areas of each sample type showed an almost constant thickness and SEM images revealed an homogeneous and dense distribution of the structures. It was also possible to study the first stage of the nano-structures grown on the Bi2Te3 seeds.

  8. Magnetic excitations and phonons simultaneously studied by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in optimally doped Bi1.5Pb0.55Sr1.6La0.4CuO6 +δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y. Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Sala, M. Moretti; Amorese, A.; Brookes, N. B.; Dellea, G.; Lee, W.-S.; Minola, M.; Schmitt, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Zhou, K.-J.; Eisaki, H.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z.-X.; Braicovich, L.; Ghiringhelli, G.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic excitations in the optimally doped high-Tc superconductor Bi1.5Pb0.55Sr1.6La0.4CuO6 +δ (OP-Bi2201, Tc≃34 K) are investigated by Cu L3 edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS), below and above the pseudogap opening temperature. At both temperatures the broad spectral distribution disperses along the (1,0) direction up to ˜350 meV at zone boundary, similar to other hole-doped cuprates. However, above ˜0.22 reciprocal lattice units, we observe a concurrent intensity decrease for magnetic excitations and quasielastic signals with weak temperature dependence. This anomaly seems to indicate a coupling between magnetic, lattice, and charge modes in this compound. We also compare the magnetic excitation spectra near the antinodal zone boundary in the single layer OP-Bi2201 and in the bilayer optimally doped Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8 +δ (OP-Bi2212, Tc≃96 K). The strong similarities in the paramagnon dispersion and in their energy at zone boundary indicate that the strength of the superexchange interaction and the short-range magnetic correlation cannot be directly related to Tc, not even within the same family of cuprates.

  9. Synergistic effect of oxygen vacancy and nitrogen doping on enhancing the photocatalytic activity of Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets for the degradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yafei; Zhu, Gangqiang; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Gao, Jianzhi; Hao, Jing; Zhou, Jianping; Liu, Peng

    2016-05-01

    Single-crystalline bare Bi2O2CO3 (BOC) nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets and nitrogen-doped Bi2O2CO3 (NBOC) flower-like microstructures were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The nitrogen-doped Bi2O2CO3 flower-like microstructures with oxygen vacancy (UV-NBOC) were obtained by irradiating the NBOC microstructures with UV light for 2 h in ethanol. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra showed that the NBOC and UV-NBOC nanosheets exhibit an obvious red shift in light absorption band compared with the pure BOC nanosheets. Rhodamine B (RhB) was chosen as a model organic pollutant to verify the influence of oxygen vacancy and nitrogen doping on the photocatalytic activity of Bi2O2CO3 under simulated solar light irradiation. Judging from the kinetics of RhB photodegradation over the synthesized samples, a synergistic effect between oxygen vacancy and nitrogen doping was found with a remarkable increase (more than 10 and 2 times) in the photocatalytic activity of UV-NBOC compared with BOC and NBOC, respectively. Moreover, the UV-NBOC also exhibited an excellent cyclability and superior photocatalytic activity toward degradation of other organic pollutants (methylene blue, Congo red, Bisphenol A) under simulated solar light irradiation.

  10. Improved electron transfer and plasmonic effect in dye-sensitized solar cells with bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Tae; Chi, Won Seok; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-02-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles are surface-modified via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene)methacrylate (POEM), which can coordinate to the Ag precursor, i.e. silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (AgCF3SO3). Following the reduction of Ag ions, a Nb2O5 doping process and calcination at 450 °C, bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures are generated. The resulting nanostructures are characterized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the Nb-doped TiO2/Ag nanostructure photoanode with a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) as the solid polymer electrolyte shows an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.9%, which is much higher than those of neat TiO2 (4.7%) and Nb-doped TiO2 (5.4%). The enhancement of η is mostly due to the increase of current density, attributed to the improved electron transfer properties including electron injection, collection, and plasmonic effects without the negative effects of charge recombination or problems with corrosion. These properties are supported by intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements.TiO2 nanoparticles are surface-modified via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene)methacrylate (POEM), which can coordinate to the Ag precursor, i.e. silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (AgCF3SO3). Following the reduction of Ag ions, a Nb2O5 doping process and calcination at 450 °C, bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures are generated. The resulting nanostructures are characterized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the Nb-doped

  11. Effect of lanthanum doping on the structural, ferroelectric, and strain properties of Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2TiO3 lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Thi Hinh; Lee, Hyun-Young; Yoon, Chang-Ho; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Kong, Young-Min; Lee, Jae-Shin; Tran, Vu Diem Ngoc

    2013-04-01

    To clarify the effect of A-site donor doping on the phase transition and the strain enhancement, we investigated the crystal structure, as well as the piezoelectric, ferroelectric and electric-field-induced strain (EFIS) properties of La-doped Bi1/2(Na0.82K0.18)1/2TiO3 (BNKT) ceramics. Similarly to our previous studies on BNKT doped with B-site donors such as Nb and Ta, La doping was found to induce a ferroelectric-to-nonpolar (FE-NP) phase transition, leading to a large enhancement in EFIS just after the transition. The result provides strong evidence that a close relationship exists between the Goldschumidt's tolerance factor and the FE-NP transition in BNKT, which has been observed in B-site-donor or isovalent impurity-doped BNKT.

  12. Ferroelectric Properties of Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 Doped with Pb2+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Ta5+ Aurivillius Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosyidah, A.; Onggo, D.; Khairurrijal, Ismunandar

    2008-03-01

    In recent years, bismuth layer structured ferroelectrics (BLSFs) have been given much attention because some materials, such as Ba2Bi4Ti5O18, are excellent candidate materials for nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) applications. BLSFs are also better candidates because of their higher Curie points. Recently, we have carried out computer simulation in atomic scale in order to predict the energies associated with the accommodation of aliovalent and isovalent dopants (Pb2+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Ta5+) in the Aurivillius structure of Ba2Bi4Ti5O18. In this work, the predicted stable phases were synthesized using solid state reactions and their products then were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction method. The cell parameters were determined using Rietveld refinement in orthorhombic system with space group of B2cb. The cell parameters for Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 doped with Pb2+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Ta5+ were a = 5.5006(6) b = 5.4990(5) c = 50.5440(7) Å; a = 5.5012(4) b = 5.4986(8) c = 50.5449(7) Å; a = 5.5006(3) b = 5.4999(3) c = 50.5437(9) Å; a = 5.5007(4) b = 5.4989(7) c = 50.5446(6) Å; and a = 5.5000(5) b = 5.4995(8) c = 50.5436(6) Å. Results from the ferroelectric properties measurement for Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 doped with Pb2+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Ta5+ were Pr = 16.7 μC/cm2, Ec = 35.1 kV/cm; Pr = 15.9 μC/cm2, Ec = 33.8 kV/cm; Pr = 15.6 μC/cm2, Ec = 34.2 kV/cm; Pr = 15.3 μC/cm2, Ec = 34.0 kV/cm; Pr = 16.9 μC/cm2, Ec = 35.6 kV/cm.

  13. Structural, optical and transport properties of transition metals doped (A: Co, Ni and Cu) BiFe{sub 0.9}A{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Parveen, Azra Agrawal, Shraddha; Naqvi, A. H.

    2015-06-24

    Nanoparticles of pure and Transition metals doped (Co, Ni and Cu) BiFeO{sub 3} of the composition BiFe{sub 0.9}A{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} (A = Co, Ni and Cu) have been successfully synthesized by sol gel auto combustion method using citric acid as a chelating agent and calcinated at 300°C. Microstructural analyses were done by XRD, TEM and SEM techniques. The crystallite size was resolute by powder X-ray diffraction technique whereas, UV-VIS technique was used to study the optical properties and band gap (Eg) of all samples. The variation of a. c. conductivity has been studied as function of frequency. It was observed that doping causes decreases in the ac conductivity of the nanoparticles as compared with the pure nanoparticles. It was also observed that doping of Transition Metals affects the optical properties effectively and band gaps were also increased.

  14. High multi-photon visible upconversion emissions of Er{sup 3+} singly doped BiOCl microcrystals: A photon avalanche of Er{sup 3+} induced by 980 nm excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongjin; Song, Zhiguo Li, Chen; Wan, Ronghua; Qiu, Jianbei; Yang, Zhengwen; Yin, Zhaoyi; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Dacheng; Wang, Qi

    2013-12-02

    Under 980 nm excitation, high multi-photon upconversion (UC) emission from the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}/{sup 4}S{sub 3/2} (green) and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} (red) levels of Er{sup 3+} ions were observed from Er{sup 3+} singly doped BiOCl microcrystals. These high-energy excited states were populated by a three to ten photon UC process conditionally, which depended on the pump power density and the Er{sup 3+} ion doping concentration, characterizing as a hetero-looping enhanced energy transfer avalanche UC process. UC emission lifetime and Raman analysis suggest that the unusual UC phenomena are initiated by the new and intense phonon vibration modes of BiOCl lattices due to Er{sup 3+} ions doping.

  15. Multiferroic properties in Zn and Ni co-doped BiFeO3 ceramics by solution combustion method (SCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Y. A.; Singh, A.; Mahajan, C. M.; Jagtap, P. P.; Abuassaj, E. M.; Chatterjee, R.; Bendre, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    In present paper, we synthesize the multiferroic Bi1-xZnxFe1-yNiyO3 (x=y=0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1) ceramics by using solution combustion method (SCM). The room temperature ferroelectric and magnetic hysteresis loops present the co-existence of magnetism and ferroelectricity in a single phase. This ferroelectric hysteresis loops exhibit an unsaturated behavior and represents a partial reversal of polarization at room temperature. Beside, this it was found that the room temperature magnetization measurement is giving rise to the appearance of weak ferromagnetism. The Bi0.975Zn0.025Fe0.975Ni0.025O3 and Bi0.9Zn0.1Fe0.9Ni0.1O3 ceramics display the clear evidence of dielectric anomaly around 300 and 325 °C which corresponds to antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition of BiFeO3 ceramics. The structural study shows the Bi1-xZnxFe1-yNiyO3 (x=y=0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1) ceramics have rhombhohedral perovskite structure. The surface morphology of the samples was examined by SEM.

  16. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Observation of the room temperature magnetoelectric effect in Dy doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, P.; Yadav, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline Bi1-xDyxFeO3 (x = 0.0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1) ceramics have been prepared via a mixed oxide route. The effect of Dy substitution on the dielectric, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of the BiFeO3 multiferroic perovskite is studied. Experimental results suggest that in the Bi1-xDyxFeO3 system, increase of the Dy concentration leads to effective suppression of the spiral spin structure of BiFeO3, resulting in the appearance of net magnetization. An anomaly in the dielectric constant (ɛ) was observed in the vicinity of the antiferromagnetic transition temperature. All compositions show saturated polarization-field (P-E) curves. As a result, improved multiferroic properties of Bi0.9Dy0.1FeO3 ceramics with remnant polarization and magnetization (2Pr and 2Mr) of 7.98 µC cm-2 and 0.024 emu g-1, respectively, were established. An enhancement in remnant polarization after poling the samples in the magnetic field was evidence of magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature.

  17. Dielectric behavior and ac conductivity in Aurivillius Bi4Ti3O12 doped by antiferromagnetic BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. S.; Tian, Z. M.; Yuan, S. L.; Duan, H. N.; Qiu, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics were synthesized by the solid state reaction. XRD analysis shows a single phase perovskite structure with no impurities identified. Two obvious dielectric anomalies around 1007 and 1090 K were exhibited by this material, indicating that there are two phase transitions. While no peak was found in the tan δ-T curve. In addition, the conduction loss activation energies calculated at 476-639 K, 652-966 K, and 980-1095 K are 0.156, 0.262, and 0.707 eV, respectively. Polarization versus electric field hysteresis loops associated with 2Pr of 6.08 μC/cm2 and 2Ec of 59 kV/cm were obtained.

  18. Effect of divalent (Sr, Ba) doping on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, Manisha Sanghi, Sujata; Agarwal, Ashish; Jangra, Sandhaya; Singh, Ompal

    2015-06-24

    The effect of divalent substitution on the crystal structure and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} has been investigated using X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements technique. Single phase Bi{sub 0.8}A{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} (A= Sr, Ba) multiferroics have been synthesized by solid state reaction method. Rietveld analysis of the XRD patterns revealed that the prepared ceramics exhibit rhombohedral structure with space group R3c. M–H hysteresis loops were recorded at 5K revealed that Sr and Ba substitution transformed antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 into weak ferromagnetic. The enhanced magnetization with Sr and Ba addition is confirmed by the MT curve recorded at 1T. It is closely related to intrinsic structural distortion and modification of the antiparallel spin structure.

  19. Effect of divalent (Sr, Ba) doping on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangi, Manisha; Sanghi, Sujata; Agarwal, Ashish; Jangra, Sandhaya; Singh, Ompal

    2015-06-01

    The effect of divalent substitution on the crystal structure and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 has been investigated using X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements technique. Single phase Bi0.8A0.2FeO3 (A= Sr, Ba) multiferroics have been synthesized by solid state reaction method. Rietveld analysis of the XRD patterns revealed that the prepared ceramics exhibit rhombohedral structure with space group R3c. M-H hysteresis loops were recorded at 5K revealed that Sr and Ba substitution transformed antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 into weak ferromagnetic. The enhanced magnetization with Sr and Ba addition is confirmed by the MT curve recorded at 1T. It is closely related to intrinsic structural distortion and modification of the antiparallel spin structure.

  20. Rapid liquid phase sintered Mn doped BiFeO3 ceramics with enhanced polarization and weak magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, K. L.

    2007-12-01

    Single-phase BiFe1-xMnxO3 multiferroic ceramics have been synthesized by rapid liquid phase sintering method to study the influence of Mn substitution on their crystal structure, dielectric, magnetic, and ferroelectric behaviors. From XRD analysis it is seen that Mn substitution does not affect the crystal structure of the BiFe1-xMnxO3 system. An enhancement in magnetization was observed for BiFe1-xMnxO3 ceramics. However, the ferooelectric hysteresis loops were not really saturated, we observed a spontaneous polarization of 10.23μC /cm2 under the applied field of 42kV/cm and remanent polarization of 3.99μC/cm2 for x =0.3 ceramic.

  1. Resistive switching properties of Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} thin films for nonvolatile memory application

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhenhua; Zeng, Jia; Tang, Minghua Xu, Dinglin; Cheng, Chuanpin; Xiao, Yongguang; Zhou, Yichun; Xiong, Ying

    2013-12-15

    The Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BCFMO) thin films were synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using a sol-gel method. The unipolar resistive switching (URS) and bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behaviors were observed in the Pt/BCFMO/Pt device structure, which was attributed to the formation/rupture of metal filaments. The fabricated device exhibits a large R{sub OFF}/R{sub ON} ratio (>80), long retention time (>10{sup 5} s) and low programming voltages (<1.5 V). Analysis of linear fitting current-voltage curves suggests that the space charge limited leakage current (SCLC) and Schottky emission were observed as the conduction mechanisms of the devices.

  2. Resistive switching properties of Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 thin films for nonvolatile memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhenhua; Zeng, Jia; Xiong, Ying; Tang, Minghua; Xu, Dinglin; Cheng, Chuanpin; Xiao, Yongguang; Zhou, Yichun

    2013-12-01

    The Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 (BCFMO) thin films were synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using a sol-gel method. The unipolar resistive switching (URS) and bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behaviors were observed in the Pt/BCFMO/Pt device structure, which was attributed to the formation/rupture of metal filaments. The fabricated device exhibits a large ROFF/RON ratio (>80), long retention time (>105 s) and low programming voltages (<1.5 V). Analysis of linear fitting current-voltage curves suggests that the space charge limited leakage current (SCLC) and Schottky emission were observed as the conduction mechanisms of the devices.

  3. Influence of Zr{sup 4+} doping on structural and electrical properties of SrBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, P. Panigrahi, S.; Badapanda, T.

    2015-06-24

    This article reports a systematic study of doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of layer structured strontium bismuth titanate ceramic. In this study monophasic SrBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 15} with x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 ceramics were synthesized from the solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Zr-modified SBT ceramics have a pure four-layer Aurivillius phase structure. Dielectric properties revealed that the diffuseness of phase transition increases where as corresponding permittivity value decrease with increasing Zr content. Piezoelectric properties of SBTZ ceramics were improved by the modification of Zirconium ion. Moreover, the reason behind for improvement of piezoelectric properties of modified SBTZ ceramics was also discussed.

  4. 808-nm diode-pumped dual-wavelength passively Q-switched Nd:LuLiF4 laser with Bi-doped GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. X.; Li, T.; Li, D. C.; Zhao, S. Z.; Li, G. Q.; Hang, Y.; Zhang, P. X.; Li, X. Y.; Qiao, H.

    2015-09-01

    Diode-pumped CW and passively Q-switched Nd:LuLiF4 lasers with stable, synchronous dual-wavelength operations near 1047 and 1053 nm were demonstrated for the first time. The maximal CW output power of 821 mW was obtained at an incident pump power of 6.52 W. Employing high quality Bi-doped GaAs as saturable absorber, stable dual-wavelength Q-switched operation was realized. Under 6.52 W incident pump power, the minimal pulse duration of 1.5 ns, the largest single pulse energy of 11.32 μJ, and the highest peak power of 7.25 kW were achieved.

  5. Effect of tetragonal distortion on ferroelectric domain switching: A case study on La-doped BiFeO3-PbTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leist, Thorsten; Granzow, Torsten; Jo, Wook; Rödel, Jürgen

    2010-07-01

    The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of (1-x)BiFeO3-xPbTiO3 (BF-PT) ceramics were investigated as a function of tetragonal distortion. The latter was adjusted by employing La-doping (0-30 at %) while keeping the material near the morphotropic phase boundary by varying x between 0.35 and 0.46. This allows changing the c/a ratio of tetragonal BF-PT in the range from 1.10-1.01 and consequently alters the level of compatibility stresses. It was found that the c/a ratio has a significant influence on domain switching as inferred from electric field induced polarization, strain hysteresis, and Rayleigh measurements. Specifically, a threshold c/a ratio of about 1.045 was identified below which the electric field induced domain mobility increases sharply.

  6. Comparison of the low-temperature specific heat of Fe- and Co-doped Bi1.8Pb0.2Sr2Ca(Cu1-xMx)2O8 (M=Fe or Co): Anomolously enhanced electronic contribution due to Fe doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M. K.; Franck, J. P.

    1996-04-01

    Specific-heat data of Fe-doped Bi1.8Pb0.2Sr2Ca(Cu1-xFex)2O8 in the range 2-20 K are presented for x=1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 %. The data are compared with our previous measurements on Co-doped bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide superconductors of nominal composition Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (BISCO 2212). Both Fe and Co are magnetic substitutions with effective moments close to their free-ion value. In the normal state the magnetic susceptibility increases by more than a factor 2 over the doping range due to effective-mass enhancement. In the superconducting state both ions act as magnetic pair breakers. For Co doping the normal-state linear term γ is observed, enhanced due to the effective-mass increase. For Fe doping we observe a large anomalous contribution to the electronic specific heat starting near 15 K and leading at the lowest temperature to a linear term near γ0=72 mJ/mole K2 (1 mole=1 formula unit). The anomalous term is typical of heavy fermion behavior. Comparison with specific-heat data of Co-doped BISCO 2212 suggests that hybridization between 3d electrons of the dopant and the planar carriers is more effective for Fe doping than for Co doping.

  7. Fluorometric sensing of ultralow As(III) concentrations using Ag doped hollow CdS/ZnS bi-layer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Paria, Santanu

    2015-12-21

    Arsenic poisoning from drinking water has been an important global issue in recent years. Because of the high level toxicity of arsenic to human health, an easy, inexpensive, low level and highly selective detection technique is of great importance to take any early precautions. This study reports the synthesis of Ag doped hollow CdS/ZnS bi-layer (Ag-h-CdS/ZnS) nanoparticles for the easy fluorometric determination of As(iii) ions in the aqueous phase. The hollow bi-layer structures were synthesized by a sacrificial core method using AgBr as the sacrificial core and the core was removed by dissolution in an ammonium hydroxide solution. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using different instrumental techniques. A good linear relationship was obtained between fluorescence quenching intensity and As(iii) concentration in the range of 0.75-22.5 μg L(-1) at neutral pH with a limit of detection as low as 0.226 μg L(-1). PMID:26541652

  8. Anatase/rutile bi-phasic titanium dioxide nanoparticles for photocatalytic applications enhanced by nitrogen doping and platinum nano-islands.

    PubMed

    Bear, Joseph C; Gomez, Virginia; Kefallinos, Nikolaos S; McGettrick, James D; Barron, Andrew R; Dunnill, Charles W

    2015-12-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) bi-phasic powders with individual particles containing an anatase and rutile hetero-junction have been prepared using a sequential layer sol-gel deposition technique to soluble substrates. Sequential thin films of rutile and subsequently anatase TiO2 were deposited onto sodium chloride substrates yielding extremely fragile composite layered discs that fractured into "Janus-like" like powders on substrate dissolution. Nitrogen doped and platinum sputtered analogues were also prepared, and analysed for photocatalytic potential using the photodegradation of Rhodamine B, a model organic pollutant under UV and visible light irradiation. The materials were characterised using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This paper sheds light on the relationship between anatase and rutile materials when in direct contact and demonstrates a robust method for the synthesis of bi-phasic nanoparticles, ostensibly of any two materials, for photocatalytic reactions or otherwise. PMID:26313710

  9. Crystal structure and Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} doped luminescent properties of a new borate Ba{sub 3}BiB{sub 9}O{sub 18}

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, G.M.; Li, M.; Liu, J.; Jin, S.F.; Wang, W.Y.; Zheng, F.; Chen, X.L.

    2009-12-15

    Undoped and doped either by Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} bismuth borate Ba{sub 3}BiB{sub 9}O{sub 18} was structurally characterized and analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Belonging to synthetic borate member of the family Ba{sub 3}XB{sub 9}O{sub 18}, layers of planar triangular B{sub 3}O{sub 6} groups connecting with deformed BaO{sub 6} hexagons are interleaved by 9-coordinate Ba atoms, and 6-coordinate Bi atoms. Its crystal structure was determined and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data by the Rietveld method and the results showed that Ba{sub 3}BiB{sub 9}O{sub 18} belongs to space group P6{sub 3}/m with unit cell dimensions of a = 7.1999(2) A, c = 17.3567(6) A, and z = 2. Curves of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis showed that Ba{sub 3}BiB{sub 9}O{sub 18} is a congruent melting compound and chemically stable above 728 {sup o}C. Ba{sub 3}Bi{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}B{sub 9}O{sub 18} and Ba{sub 3}Bi{sub 1-x}Tb{sub x}B{sub 9}O{sub 18} form a continuous solid solution from x = 0.01 to x = 0.9. The ultraviolet excited photoluminescence intensity increased with both Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} concentration in the matrix of Ba{sub 3}BiB{sub 9}O{sub 18}. There may be an interesting correlation between spectroscopic properties and lattice structural features of doped Ba{sub 3}BiB{sub 9}O{sub 18}.

  10. Optical and electrical characterizations of highly efficient CdTe thin film solar cells prepared by close-spaced sublimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, T.; Yamada, A.; Konagai, M.

    2000-06-01

    The effects of the Cu diffusion on the optical and electrical properties of CdTe thin film solar cells prepared by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) were investigated by capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurement and low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement. C- V measurement revealed that the net acceptor concentration in the CdTe layer was independent of the heat treatment after screen printing of the Cu-doped graphite electrode for Cu diffusion into the CdTe layer, although it greatly affected the solar cell performance. Furthermore, the depth profile of PL spectrum of CdTe layer implies that the heat treatment for Cu diffusion facilitates the formation of low-resistance contact to CdTe through the formation of a heavily doped (p +) region in the CdTe adjacent to the back electrode, but Cu atoms do not act as effective acceptors in the CdTe layer except the region near the back electrode.

  11. Microstructure and electrical properties in W/Nb co-doped Aurivillius phase Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Zhihang; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Yu; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • W/Nb codoped BIT ceramics were prepared by the mixed oxides route. • High nd{sup 0} electronic configuration of W/Nb reduces the lattice distortion and T{sub C}. • Oxygen vacancy is responsible for dielectric relaxation and DC conduction process. • W/Nb additives significantly enhanced the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} value. • BWNb-10 ceramics possessed large remnant polarization and a wide sintering window. - Abstract: Aurivillius-type Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3-x}W{sub x/2}Nb{sub x/2}O{sub 12} ceramics were prepared by a conventional solid-state sintering method. The XRD patterns demonstrated that all compositions were a single three layered crystalline structure, involving a reduction of lattice distortion with an increase in W/Nb doping level. The electrical properties including dielectric, electrical conduction and piezoelectric properties were tailored by W/Nb additives. The Curie-temperature decreased, whereas the electrical resistivity drastically increased with introduction of W/Nb donor dopants. As a result, a high electric field can be applied during the poling process. The Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 2.9}W{sub 0.05}Nb{sub 0.05}O{sub 12} ceramics exhibited optimum piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33} ∼22.8 pC/N), large remnant polarization (2P{sub r} ∼26.8 μC/cm{sup 2} @ 200 °C) together with a high Curie temperature (T{sub C} ∼635 °C). Furthermore, this composition possessed a wide sintering window with outstanding piezoelectric properties. These parameters indicate that Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 2.9}W{sub 0.05}Nb{sub 0.05}O{sub 12}-based ceramic is a promising candidate for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

  12. Photorefractive properties of doped cadmium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylsma, R. B.; Bridenbaugh, P. M.; Olson, D. H.; Glass, A. M.

    1987-09-01

    The first study of the photorefractive properties of doped CdTe has demonstrated high sensitivity for optical processing applications. Of the binary II-VI and III-V semiconductors, CdTe has the highest electro-optic coefficient r41 in the infrared, some three times larger than that of GaAs and InP. Deep levels introduced into CdTe exhibit appropriate absorption and photoconductivity at 1.06 μm by doping with V and Ti impurities. Photorefractive beam coupling experiments in CdTe:V gave small signal gains of 0.7 cm-1, and diffraction efficiencies with no applied electrical field of 0.7%. Thus, CdTe appears to be superior to previously studied III-V semiconductors, in the near-infrared spectrum. Optimization of doping and trap densities is expected to result in gain which exceeds the absorption loss, thereby allowing phase conjugation with infrared injection lasers.

  13. Low Temperature Synthesis of Cubic-phase Fast-ionic Conducting Bi-doped Garnet Solid State Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanz, Derek K.; Marinero, Ernesto

    We report on the synthesis of cubic-phase fast ionic conducting garnet solid state electrolytes based on LiLaZrO (LLZO) at unprecedented low synthesis temperatures. Ionic conductivities around 1.2 x 10-4 S/cm are readily achieved. Bismuth aliovalent substitution into LLZO utilizing the Pechini processing method is successfully employed to synthesize LiLaZrBiO compounds. Cubic phase LiLaZrBiO powders are generated in the temperature range 650C to 900C in air. In contrast, in the absence of Bi and under identical synthesis conditions, the cubic phase of LiLaZrO is not formed below 750C and a transformation to the poor ionically conducting tetragonal phase is observed at 800C for the undoped compound. The critical role of Bi in lowering the formation temperature of the garnet cubic phase and the improvements in ionic conductivity are elucidated in this work through microstructural and electrochemical studies.

  14. Effect of doping by Bi and Ca on ferroelectric properties and relaxor character in the (Ba1-xCax)1-3y/2BiyTiO3 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghouene, H.; Bahri, F.; Boujelbene, M.; Khemakhem, H.; Simon, A.

    2012-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity for (Ba1-xCax)1-3y/2BiyTiO3 solid solution prepared using the solid-state reaction technique, suggests that the relaxor character in this solid solution depends strongly on the Bi than on the Ca doping percent.X-ray diffraction analysis show that Bi doping can be fully incorporated into the perovskite lattice of (Ba1-xCax)TiO3. Doping with Bi causes remarkable shift of the maximum of dielectric permittivity (Tm) at low temperatures and the evolution of ɛ‧r exhibiting strong frequency dispersion. For some compositions, we have observed a typical behavior of a well-known relaxors. On the other hand, we pointed out that the relaxor character is linked principally to the nature of the substituting element and not to the heterogeneity in general. So the Ca element does not have the same effect as the Bi one.

  15. Thickness-dependent phase boundary in Sm-doped BiFeO3 piezoelectric thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Li, Jing-Feng; Zhu, Fangyuan; Yu, Qi; Cheng, Li-Qian; Zhou, Zhen

    2015-08-14

    Sm-doped BiFeO3 thin films were fabricated on platinized silicon substrates via a sol-gel method. Sm contents and thicknesses were varied in a wide range to investigate their effects on the phase structure and piezoelectricity. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy experiments revealed a rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase transition and the co-existence of both phases in a certain compositional vicinity. It is found that the proportion of a rhombohedral phase increased with film thickness at the compositions corresponding to the phase transition boundary, indicating the influence of the film thickness on the phase structure. The phase transition phenomenon and film thickness effect on the boundary were also studied by piezoresponse force microscopy. Based on the structure analysis and piezoelectric characterization results, a phase diagram of thickness versus composition was proposed, in which the morphotropic phase boundary was located at 9% to 11% in thinner Sm-doped films and shifted towards the Sm-rich side with increasing thickness. PMID:26113368

  16. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of Eu3+-doped Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15-based ferroelectrics under blue light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xing-an; Jiang, Xiang-ping; Chen, Chao; Tu, Na; Chen, Yun-jing; Zhang, Ban-chao

    2016-03-01

    Na0.5Bi4.5- x Eu x Ti4O15 (NBT- x Eu3+) ceramics with x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.40 were prepared by conventional ceramics processing. NBT-0.25Eu3+ ceramics show the strongest red and orange emissions corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F2 (617 nm) and 5D0 → 7F1 (596 nm) transitions, respectively. The strongest excitation band around 465 nm matches well with the emission wavelength of commercial InGaN-based blue LED chip, indicating that Eu3+-doped NBT ceramics may be used as potential environmental friendly red-orange phosphor for W-LEDs application. As an inherent ferroelectric and piezoelectric material, the electrical properties of this potentially multifunctional electro-optical material have been also studied. The introduction of Eu3+ distinctly increased the Curie temperature ( T C ) of NBT- x Eu3+ ceramics from 640°C to 711°C as x ranges from 0 to 0.40. For higher temperature applications, the electrical conductivity was also investigated. The conduction of charge carriers in high-temperature range originates from the conducting electrons from the ionization of oxygen vacancies. High T C and low tan δ makes Eu3+-doped NBTceramic also suitable for high temperature piezoelectric sensor applications and electro-optical integration.

  17. Spectroscopic properties of B2O3-PbO-Bi2O3-GeO2 glass doped with Sm3+ and gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, A.; Buchner, S.; Camerini, R. V.; Jacinto, C.; Balzaretti, N. M.

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal oxide B2O3-PbO-Bi2O3-GeO2 transparent glass doped with Sm3+ was synthesized and implanted with Au+ using energy of 300 keV and fluence of 1 × 1016 cm-2. The annealing of the implanted glass at moderate temperature below the glass transition temperature induced the nucleation of gold nanoparticles, confirmed by the characteristic absorption band in the visible range and by transmission electron microscopy. Using Miés and Doylés theories for the surface plasmon resonance, the average size of the gold nanoparticles was about 4.6 nm, similar to the values observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was also observed the crystallization of a thin layer of the glass at the implanted surface after annealing, detected by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. Visible and near-infrared emission of Sm3+ was enhanced after annealing of the glass implanted with gold. Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative parameters were calculated for the glass doped with Sm3+ with and without gold nanoparticles.

  18. Electrical and optical properties of Nd3+-doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ferroelectric single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chongjun; Zhang, Yungang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Jiming; Wu, Tong; Xu, Feng; Du, Chaoling; Zhu, Kongjun; Liu, Youwen

    2013-06-01

    Sodium bismuth titanate Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) single crystal doped with Nd3+ was grown by a top-seeded solution growth method. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed a pure perovskite structure with the rhombohedral phase. We found that the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were enhanced by the Nd3+ dopant. After poling along the [1 1 1] direction, transmittance was enhanced dramatically. The Sellmeier dispersion equation and energy band gaps were obtained. The absorption band around 808 nm has high full-width at half-maximum and large absorption cross-section, which is suitable for AlGaAs diode-laser pumping. A strong emission transition band of Nd3+ at around 1066 nm was observed; a long radiation lifetime 324 µs shows a low quenching effect. These results indicate that Nd3+-doped NBT crystal could be applied in photonic or integrated optoelectronic devices as a multi-functional crystal.

  19. Topological insulator: Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/polyvinyl alcohol film-assisted multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Bo; Yao, Yong Yang, Yan-Fu; Yuan, Yi-Jun; Wang, Rui-Lai; Wang, Shu-Guang; Ren, Zhong-Hua; Yan, Bo

    2015-02-14

    We experimentally demonstrate a multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a μm-scale topological insulator: Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/Polyvinyl Alcohol film as both an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locking and a high-nonlinear medium to induce a giant third order optical nonlinear effect for mitigating the mode competition of erbium-doped fiber laser and stabilizing the multi-wavelength oscillation. By properly adjusting the pump power and the polarization state, the single-, dual-, triple-, four-wavelength mode-locking pulse could be stably initiated. For the four-wavelength operation, we obtain its pulse width of ∼22 ps and a fundamental repetition rate of 8.83 MHz. The fiber laser exhibits the maximum output power of 9.7 mW with the pulse energy of 1.1 nJ and peak power of 50 W at the pump power of 155 mW. Our study shows that the simple, stable, low-cost multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser could be applied in various potential fields, such as optical communication, biomedical research, and radar system.

  20. Upconversion emission in Er-doped and Er/Yb-codoped ferroelectric Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 and its temperature sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Peng; Luo, Laihui; Li, Weiping; Yue, Qingying

    2014-07-01

    Upconversion emissions of Er-doped and Er/Yb-codoped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 have been studied. Under 980 nm excitation, all samples exhibit strong green and red upconversion emissions, which can be seen by naked eyes. The Er/Yb-codoped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ceramic has stronger upconversion emission intensity than Er-doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ceramic. Additionally, the optical temperature sensing properties based on upconversion emissions of Er/Yb-codoped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ceramic were also investigated. The results demonstrate that the maximum sensitivity and temperature sensing resolution were 0.0031 K-1 and 0.3 K respectively, suggesting that the Er/Yb-codoped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 has potential application as optical temperature sensing materials.

  1. Improved ferroelectric polarization of V-doped Bi{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 18} thin films prepared by a chemical solution deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Song, D. P.; Yang, J. Yuan, B.; Zuo, X. Z.; Tang, X. W.; Chen, L.; Song, W. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-06-28

    We prepared V-doped Bi{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 18} thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si (100) substrates by using a chemical solution deposition route and investigated the doping effect on the microstructure, dielectric, leakage, and ferroelectric properties of Bi{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 18} thin films. The Bi{sub 5.97}Fe{sub 2}Ti{sub 2.91}V{sub 0.09}O{sub 18} thin film exhibits improved dielectric properties, leakage current, and ferroelectric properties. The incorporation of vanadium resulted in a substantially enhanced remnant polarization (2P{sub r}) over 30 μC/cm{sup 2} in Bi{sub 5.97}Fe{sub 2}Ti{sub 2.91}V{sub 0.09}O{sub 18} thin film compared with 10 μC/cm{sup 2} in Bi{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 18} thin film. It is demonstrated that the improved properties may stem from the improvement of crystallinity of the films with the contribution of suppressed oxygen vacancies and decreased mobility of oxygen vacancies caused by the V-doping. The results will provide a guidance to optimize the ferroelectric properties in Bi{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 18} thin films by chemical solution deposition, which is important to further explore single-phase multiferroics in the n = 5 Aurivillius thin films.

  2. Thermoluminescence studies of Nd doped Bi4Ge3O12 crystals irradiated by UV and beta sources.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Y; Canimoglu, A; Ekdal, E; Ayvacikli, M; Can, N; Karali, T

    2016-07-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of pure and rare earth doped bismuth germanate (BGO) were investigated under UV and beta radiation. The glow curves of pure BGO crystal present different patterns for both kinds of radiation. The TL glow curves of BGO crystals doped with Nd ions are similar to that of pure BGO under UV radiation. The kinetic parameters, kinetic order (b), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) of the TL glow curves of pure BGO crystal have been determined by peak shape method. Activation energies of 3 peaks obtained by PS were found to be 1.81, 1.15 and 1.78, respectively. PMID:27108070

  3. Upconversion Properties of the Er-Doped Y2O3, Bi2O3 and Sb2O3 Nanoparticles Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Zamiri; Hamid-Reza, Bahari-Poor; Azmi, Zakaria; Raheleh, Jorfi; Golnoush, Zamiri; Avito, Rebelo; Akrajas, Ali Omar

    2013-11-01

    Er-doped Y2O3, Bi2O3 and Sb2O3 nanoparticles are synthesized using pulsed laser ablation in a liquid. Ceramic targets of Y2O3:Er3+, Bi2O3:Er3+ and Sb2O3:Er3+ for ablation process are prepared by standard solid-state reaction technique and ablation is carried out in 5-ml distilled water using nanosecond Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The morphology and size of the fabricated nanoparticles are evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and the luminescence emission properties of the prepared samples are investigated under different excitation wavelengths.

  4. Enhanced multiferroic properties of BiFeO3 ceramics by Ba and high-valence Nb co-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. S.; Huang, Z. B.; Han, C. X.; Yuan, S. L.; Lu, C. L.; Xia, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Bi0.8Ba0.2Fe1-xNbxO3 (BBFNx) ceramics with x=0, 0.015 and 0.025 were prepared by a modified Pechini method. The formation of the desired materials was confirmed using X-ray diffraction. Nb substitution effectively suppressed the spiral spin structure and enhanced the ferromagnetic moment. Substitution with Nb also improved the ferroelectric polarization. As a result, enhanced multiferroic properties of Bi0.8Ba0.2Fe0.975Nb0.025O3 ceramics with remanent magnetization and polarization (Mr and Pr) of 3.69 emu/g and 1.34 μC/cm2, respectively, were obtained. The reduction of low-frequency dispersion in permittivity and loss due to Nb substitution in Bi0.8Ba0.2FeO3 was observed in its dielectric response curve. An anomaly in the dielectric constant was observed in the vicinity of the antiferromagnetic transition temperature. Nb Substitution was found to be helpful to reduce loss, especially at lower frequencies. In addition, an enhancement in remanent polarization after poling the samples with x=0.015 and 0.025 in the dc magnetic field was evidence of magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature.

  5. Luminescence efficiency growth in wide band gap semiconducting Bi2O3 doped Cd0.4Pb0.1B0.5 glasses and effect of γ-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzouk, M. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Hamdy, Y. M.

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium lead borate glasses together with other glasses containing different Bi2O3-doping concentrations (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt annealing method. The density and molar volume values were calculated to obtain some insight on the packing density and arrangement in the network. Also their optical and structural properties have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, luminescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Optical measurements have been used to determine the optical band gap (Eg), Urbach energy (ΔE) and the refractive index (n). The results demonstrate the effective rule of Bi2O3 on the studied glasses. The undoped and Bi2O3 doped - glass show strong extended UV-near visible absorption bands which are attributed to the collective presence of both trace iron impurities from raw materials and also the sharing of bismuth Bi+3 ions. Furthermore, the luminescence intensity strongly increases with increasing Bi2O3 content which may be attributed to transfer of energy from transitions in its energy levels. It has been revealed that the decreasing values of optical band gap and band tail can be understood and related in terms of the structural changes that are taking place in the glass samples. The infrared absorption spectra of the prepared glasses show characteristic absorption bands related to the borate network (BO3, BO4 groups) together with vibrational modes due to Bi-O groups upon the introduction of Bi2O3. The prepared samples reveal a very limited response towards of gamma irradiation which reflects its shielding behavior towards the effect of such type of irradiation.

  6. Novel Y doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst: Hydrothermal fabrication, characterization and enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B degradation and photocurrent generation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ranran; Huang, Hongwei; Tian, Na; Zhang, Yihe; Guo, Yuxi; Zhang, Tierui

    2015-03-15

    Visible-light-driven (VLD) Yttrium (Y) ion doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route. Incorporation of Y{sup 3} {sup +} into Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} lattice was successfully confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ICP analysis. The microstructure and optical property of the as-prepared samples have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic experiments indicated that the Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} showed a much higher photocatalytic activity than the pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and photocurrent (PC) generation. This enhancement should be ascribed to the slightly increased band gap and the generated defects by Y{sup 3} {sup +} doping, thus resulting in a much lower recombination rate of the photoinduced electrons and holes. Such a process was verified by the photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In addition, the active species trapping experiments indicated that holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) play important roles in the photocatalytic reaction. - Highlights: • Novel Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. • Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} exhibits a much higher photocatalytic activity than pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • Holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) are the two main active species. • Y{sup 3} {sup +} ion can result in a low recombination of photogenerated electron and hole.

  7. CdTe and si Solar Cell Performance Comparison in a New System for Solar Energy Conversion and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Sánchez, E.; González-Hernández, J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Espinoza-Beltrán, F.; Vorobiev, Y.; Morales-Acevedo, A.; Gorley, Petro; Kovalyuk, Z.; Horley, Paul

    A new system for the effective conversion and storage of solar energy using CdTe and Si based photovoltaic solar cells and the Li-Bi2Se3 rechargable batteries was created and studied. PV Solar Cells with the different types of structure and barrier were studied (Shottky. MIS with thin insulating layer, and p-n junction), employing low-temperature and high-temperature technological cycles. The influence of the technological details upon the electrical parameters as well as the efficiency and stability of their performance were analyzed, and also the condition for improving the efficiency were found. In particular, it was established that Zn-doping of CdTe and the Al alloying to Si at 800°C have a profound effect upon the PV cell characteristics. The influence of the recombination in different parts of the cell upon the cell's efficiency and the recombination dependence upon the technological features were investigated. A comparison of the performance and fabrication cost of the new systems for solar energy conversion and storage with others using conventional cells and batteries is made. It is shown that newly developed systems could provide a global efficiency close to that for traditional ones, with simpler and cheaper technology. With some modifications of the technology, we expect to get even higher efficiencies and a wider system operation temperature range. The possibilities are discussed for the creation of a hybrid energy conversion system on the basis of our cells and batteries, with an overall efficiency of transformation of solar-to-electric energy around 40%.

  8. Synthesis and Piezoelectric Properties Nd2O3-doped BaTiO3-Bi0.5(Na, K)0.5TiO3 by a Novel Composite-hydroxide-mediated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, T.; Yin, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Sasaki, A.; Tokano, Y.; Sato, T.

    2011-10-01

    High purity Nd2O3-doped (1-x)BaTiO3-xBi0.5(Na, K)0.5TiO3 (x = 0.00-0.08) were synthesized by a composite-hydroxide-mediated approach at 200°C using a hydrothermal reaction apparatus with a rolling system. The powders with an average size of 100 nm in diameter were produced and were sintered to almost full theoretical density at low temperature such as 1200°C for 2 h. Although (1--x)BaTiO3-xBi0.5(Na, K)0.5TiO3 could not be poled, Nd2O3 additive was useful to proceed the polarization of (1-x)BaTiO3-xBi0.5(Na, K)0.5TiO3 ceramics.

  9. Topological transport and atomic tunnelling–clustering dynamics for aged Cu-doped Bi2Te3 crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Taishi; Chen, Qian; Schouteden, Koen; Huang, Wenkai; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Zhe; Miao, Feng; Wang, Xinran; Li, Zhaoguo; Zhao, Bo; Li, Shaochun; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Jinlan; Wang, Baigeng; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Wang, Guanghou

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the transport contribution of surface states in topological insulators is vital if they are to be incorporated into practical devices. Such efforts have been limited by the defect behaviour of Bi2Te3 (Se3) topological materials, where the subtle bulk carrier from intrinsic defects is dominant over the surface electrons. Compensating such defect carriers is unexpectedly achieved in (Cu0.1Bi0.9)2Te3.06 crystals. Here we report the suppression of the bulk conductance of the material by four orders of magnitude by intense ageing. The weak antilocalization analysis, Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy corroborate the transport of the topological surface states. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals that Cu atoms are initially inside the quintuple layers and migrate to the layer gaps to form Cu clusters during the ageing. In combination with first-principles calculations, an atomic tunnelling–clustering picture across a diffusion barrier of 0.57 eV is proposed. PMID:25247692

  10. Effect of coalesce doping of Nd and La on structure, dielectric, and magnetic properties of BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Pragya; Satapathy, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sathe, V. G.

    2009-12-01

    Single phase Bi0.9-xLa0.1NdxFeO3 (BLNFOx) (x=0.05, 0.07, and 0.1) multiferroic ceramics were prepared to study the effect of combine substitution of La and Nd in BiFeO3 (BFO). X-ray diffraction studies revealed phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to triclinic (P1) on substitution of 05 and 07 mol % of Nd and subsequent transition to monoclinic C2/c with 10 mol % of Nd along with 10 mol % of La. These structural phase transitions and weakening of long range ferroelectric order with increasing x are also confirmed from Raman spectra. The existence of ferroelectricity and the corresponding Curie temperature for all noncentrosymmetric composition were determined using differential thermal analysis. Small remnant magnetization of 0.067 emu/g is observed in (BLNFO)x=0.07 as a result of collapse of space modulated spin structure. For pure BFO dielectric anomaly was observed at 355 °C corresponding to Neel temperature. Due to coexistence of long range ferroelectric order and canted antiferromagnetic orders in (BLNFO)x=0.05 and 0.07 the magnetoelectric effects were observed below Neel temperature at 302 and 294 °C, respectively, near which magnetoelectric coupling is obvious.

  11. Review on first-principles study of defect properties of CdTe as a solar cell absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yin, Wan-Jian; Park, Ji-Sang; Ma, Jie; Wei, Su-Huai

    2016-08-01

    CdTe is one of the leading materials for high-efficiency, low-cost, and thin-film solar cells. In this work, we review the recent first-principles study of defect properties of CdTe and present that: (1) When only intrinsic defects are present, p-type doping in CdTe is weak and the hole density is low due to the relatively deep acceptor levels of Cd vacancy. (2) When only intrinsic defects present, the dominant non-radiative recombination center in p-type CdTe is T{e}Cd2+, which limits the carrier lifetime to be around 200 ns. (3) Extrinsic p-type doping in CdTe by replacing Te with group V elements generally will be limited by the formation of AX centers. This could be overcome through a non-equilibrium cooling process and the hole density can achieve {10}17 {{{cm}}}-3. However, the long-term stability will be a challenging issue. (4) Extrinsic p-type doping by replacing Cd with alkaline group I elements is limited by alkaline interstitials and a non-equilibrium cooling process can efficiently enhance the hole density to the order of {10}17 {{{cm}}}-3. (5) Cu and Cl treatments are discussed. In bulk CdTe, Cu can enhance p-type doping, but Cl is found to be unsuitable for this. Both Cu and Cl show segregation at grain boundaries, especially at those with Te–Te wrong bonds. (6) External impurities are usually incorporated by diffusion. Therefore, the diffusion processes in CdTe are investigated. We find that cation interstitial (Nai, Cui) diffusion follows relatively simple diffusion paths, but anion diffusion (Cli, Pi) follows more complicated paths due to the degenerated defect wavefunctions.

  12. The Shubnikov-de Haas effect and thermoelectric properties of Tl-doped Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kulbachinskii, V. A. Kudryashov, A. A.; Kytin, V. G.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of doping with Tl on the Shubnikov-de Haas effect at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 38 T in p-Sb{sub 2−x}Tl{sub x}Te{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.005, 0.015, and 0.05) and n-Bi{sub 2−x}Tl{sub x}Se{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) single crystals is investigated. Extreme cross-sections of the Fermi surface in both materials decrease upon doping with Tl: the hole concentration decreases in Sb{sub 2−x}Tl{sub x}Te{sub 3} due to the donor effect of Tl and the electron concentration in n-Bi{sub 2−x}Tl{sub x}Se{sub 3} decreases due to the acceptor effect of Tl. The temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit in a temperature range of 77–300 K are measured. The thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity decrease upon doping with Tl both in p-Sb{sub 2−x}Tl{sub x}Te{sub 3} and in n-Bi{sub 2−x}Tl{sub x}Se{sub 3}. The Seebeck coefficient increases in all compositions upon an increase in doping over the entire measured temperature range. The thermoelectric figure of merit increases upon doping with Tl.

  13. Long Lifetime Hole Traps at Grain Boundaries in CdTe Thin-Film Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Mendis, B G; Gachet, D; Major, J D; Durose, K

    2015-11-20

    A novel time-resolved cathodoluminescence method, where a pulsed electron beam is generated via the photoelectric effect, is used to probe individual CdTe grain boundaries. Excitons have a short lifetime (≤100 ps) within the grains and are rapidly quenched at the grain boundary. However, a ~47 meV shallow acceptor, believed to be due to oxygen, can act as a long lifetime hole trap, even at the grain boundaries where their concentration is higher. This provides direct evidence supporting recent observations of hopping conduction across grain boundaries in highly doped CdTe at low temperature. PMID:26636877

  14. Long Lifetime Hole Traps at Grain Boundaries in CdTe Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, B. G.; Gachet, D.; Major, J. D.; Durose, K.

    2015-11-01

    A novel time-resolved cathodoluminescence method, where a pulsed electron beam is generated via the photoelectric effect, is used to probe individual CdTe grain boundaries. Excitons have a short lifetime (≤100 ps ) within the grains and are rapidly quenched at the grain boundary. However, a ˜47 meV shallow acceptor, believed to be due to oxygen, can act as a long lifetime hole trap, even at the grain boundaries where their concentration is higher. This provides direct evidence supporting recent observations of hopping conduction across grain boundaries in highly doped CdTe at low temperature.

  15. Characterization of point defects in CdTe by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsharkawy, M. R. M.; Kanda, G. S.; Abdel-Hady, E. E.; Keeble, D. J.

    2016-06-01

    Positron lifetime measurements on CdTe 0.15% Zn-doped by weight are presented, trapping to monovacancy defects is observed. At low temperatures, localization at shallow binding energy positron traps dominates. To aid defect identification density functional theory, calculated positron lifetimes and momentum distributions are obtained using relaxed geometry configurations of the monovacancy defects and the Te antisite. These calculations provide evidence that combined positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler spectroscopy measurements have the capability to identify neutral or negative charge states of the monovacancies, the Te antisite, A-centers, and divacancy defects in CdTe.

  16. Ferroelectric properties of neodymium-doped Sr 2Bi 4Ti 5O 18 thin film prepared by solgel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, L.; Hu, Y. J.

    2009-01-01

    Sr 2Bi 4Ti 5O 18 (SBTi) and Nd-modified SBTi (SBNT) thin films were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO 2/Si (1 0 0) substrates using a sol-gel method. Structure, morphology and electric properties were investigated systematically. These films were randomly oriented and composed of rod-like grains. The remanent polarization (2 P r) and coercive field ( E c) of SBNT films were 30 μC/cm 2 and 55 kV/cm, respectively. This value of 2 P r was much higher than the reported value of SBTi prepared by pulsed-laser deposition. More importantly, the SBNT films showed high fatigue resistance against continuous switching up to 3×10 9 cycles and excellent charge-retaining ability up to 3×10 4 s.

  17. Study of tellurium precipitates in CdTe crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayatirtha, H. N.; Henderson, D. O.; Burger, A.; Volz, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of tellurium precipitates was studied in medium resistivity (10 exp 3-10 exp 6 ohm cm) undoped and Cl-doped CdTe using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mid-infrared spectroscopy and the results were correlated with near-infrared microscopy photographs. When present in a significant quantity (about 0.25 wt pct), we show that Te precipitates are detectable using DSC measurements. In the mid-infrared, the contribution of the absorption by free-carriers is negligible, and therefore, the effect of the Te precipitates in these crystals can be considered uncoupled from the effects of Cd vacancies.

  18. Dramatic influence of Dy3+ doping on strain and domain structure in lead-free piezoelectric 0.935(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.065BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Q.; Yao, Q. R.; Zhang, J. Z.; Hu, Z. G.; Wang, F. F.; Liu, A. Y.; Shi, W. Z.; Chu, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    An electric-field induced giant strain response and doping level dependent domain structural variations have been studied in the dysprosium (Dy3+)-modified 0.935(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.065BaTiO3(xDy : NBBT) ceramics with the doping levels of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analyses not only demonstrates the change in ionic configurations induced by Dy3+ doping, but also shows the local crystal symmetry for x ≥ 0.5% doping levels to deviate from the idealized cubic structure. Piezoresponse force microscopy measurement exhibits the presence of an intermediate phase with orthorhombic symmetry at the critical Dy3+ doping level of 2%. Moreover, at this doping level, a giant recoverable nonlinear strain of ˜0.44% can be observed with high normalized strain (Smax/Emax) of 728 pm/V. At the same applied field, the strain exhibits a 175% increase than that of NBBT ceramic. Such a large strain stems from the varying coherence lengths of polar nanoregions (PNRs) and an unusual reversible 90° domain switching caused by the symmetry conforming property of point defects, where the restoring force is provided by unswitchable defects. The mechanism reveals a new possibility to achieve large electric-field strain effect for a wide range of ferroelectric systems, which can lead to applications in novel "on-off" actuators.

  19. Structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and electrocaloric properties of 2% Gd2O3 doping (Na0.5Bi0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, O.; Slimani, A.; Seveyrat, L.; Sebald, G.; Perrin, V.; Sassi, Z.; Khemakhem, H.; Lebrun, L.

    2016-08-01

    Structural, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties, and electrocaloric effects of pure and Gd doped ( Na0.5 Bi 0.5 ) 0.94 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 ceramics prepared by the conventional solid-solid method have been carried out. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirms a pure perovskite structure with the coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedra structures in both powders. The thermal and frequency dependences of the dielectric constants of both ceramics revealed relaxor behavior. The two compounds exhibited two phase transitions: ferroelectric/antiferroelectric (FE/AFE) transition followed by an antiferroelectric/paraelectric (AFE/PE) transition at higher temperatures. Remarkably, we noticed that the small amount of Gd doping (2%) highly enhanced the dielectric properties of the parent compound by about 71%. The phase diagram was as well influenced by the Gd doping, where the FE/AFE transition temperature rose from 90 in the parent compound to 115 °C in the doped one whereas the AFE/PE transition temperature was decreased from 320 to 270 °C, respectively. The direct electrocaloric measurements performed on both compounds showed that the ferroelectric/antiferroelectric phase transition was accompanied by a significant electrocaloric effect. The Gd3+ doping improved the electrocaloric properties of the parent compound, where a remarkable temperature variation of 1.4 K was obtained in the doped ceramic. The results of the direct electrocaloric measurements will be compared and discussed with those derived from the indirect method.

  20. Weak ferromagnetism and nanodimensional ferroelectric domain structure stabilized in the polar phase of Bi{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}FeO{sub 3} multiferroics via Ti doping

    SciTech Connect

    Khomchenko, V. A. Paixão, J. A.

    2014-04-28

    Crystal structure, microstructure, local ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of the Bi{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} samples have been investigated at room temperature to reveal the effect of Ti{sup 4+} doping on the multiferroic behavior of the lanthanide-modified compound representing a polar (space group R3c) antiferromagnetic phase of the Bi{sub 1−x}Ln{sub x}FeO{sub 3} perovskites. Ti doping results in a gradual suppression of the rhombohedral distortions, however, symmetry of the crystal structure remains the same in the entire concentration range allowing the single-phase perovskites to be obtained (x ≤ 0.08). The doping tends to reduce existing lone-pair cation-driven polar displacements, thus giving rise to a decrease of the ferroelectric polarization in the Bi{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (x→0.08) series. A drastic (from ∼10 μm for x = 0 to ∼1 μm for 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.08) decrease of the average grain size induced by the doping is accompanied by the formation of a ferroelectric domain structure with the average domain width of ∼40 nm. Finally, the doping was shown to induce an antiferromagnetic to weak ferromagnetic transformation. The maximum remanent magnetization observed in the Bi{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} series at x ∼ 0.05 coincides with the locked magnetization releasing upon the magnetic field-induced suppression of the magnetic cycloid in pure BiFeO{sub 3}.

  1. Electric-field-induced insulator to Coulomb glass transition via oxygen-vacancy migration in Ca-doped BiFe O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ji Soo; Lee, Jin Hong; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Ohkochi, Takuo; Kim, Ki-Seok; Seidel, Jan; Yang, Chan-Ho

    2016-07-01

    The multiferroic BiFe O3 (BFO) as a charge-transfer-type insulator is an interesting system in which to explore correlated electronic conduction. Here, we substitute divalent Ca ions into the parent BFO and apply an external electric field at elevated temperatures to spatially redistribute spontaneously created oxygen vacancies, thereby generating hole carriers in regions of less dense oxygen-vacancy concentrations. X-ray diffraction and photoemission spectroscopic measurement are employed to quantify a large variation of local oxygen-vacancy concentration, as much as ˜1021c m-3 , and explore the consequent evolution of electronic band structure. We find that a nonrigid polaronic band is created by hole doping as a result of a strong electron-lattice coupling. We also show strong evidence for the disorder-driven formation of a Coulomb-glass state through electronic transport measurements on a quantitative level. These spectroscopic and transport results can be combined and understood in the framework of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity of the polaronic charge density. The finding not only offers a promising platform and methodology for examining the interplay of functional defects and correlated electronic behaviors, but also suggests a unique electronic conduction mechanism applicable to systems with coexistence of strong electron correlation, electron-lattice interaction, and randomness beyond the Coulomb-glass physics in semiconductors.

  2. Sn-doped Bi1.1Sb0.9Te2S bulk crystal topological insulator with excellent properties

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, S. K.; Pletikosić, I.; Liang, T.; Gyenis, A.; Lapidus, S. H.; Tian, Yao; Zhao, He; Burch, K. S.; Lin, Jingjing; Wang, Wudi; Ji, Huiwen; Fedorov, A. V.; Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. P.; Valla, T.; Cava, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing issue in topological insulator research has been to find a bulk single crystal material that provides a high-quality platform for characterizing topological surface states without interference from bulk electronic states. This material would ideally be a bulk insulator, have a surface state Dirac point energy well isolated from the bulk valence and conduction bands, display quantum oscillations from the surface state electrons and be growable as large, high-quality bulk single crystals. Here we show that this material obstacle is overcome by bulk crystals of lightly Sn-doped Bi1.1Sb0.9Te2S grown by the vertical Bridgman method. We characterize Sn-BSTS via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy, transport studies, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering. We present this material as a high-quality topological insulator that can be reliably grown as bulk single crystals and thus studied by many researchers interested in topological surface states. PMID:27118032

  3. A photosensitive Cr3+ center in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals co-doped with chromium and phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Marinova, Vera; Vrielinck, Henk; Callens, Freddy; Goovaerts, Etienne

    2011-04-01

    A trigonal Cr3+ (3d3) defect in sillenite type Bi12SiO20 crystals co-doped with chromium and phosphorus has been identified by means of multi-frequency X-band (9.4 GHz), Q-band (35 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A consistent analysis of the observed spectra and their angular dependence was reached using an S = 3/2 spin Hamiltonian with axial symmetry around a <111> crystallographic direction, an isotropic g-value g = 1.983, and a zero field splitting parameter B20 = 0.1950 cm-1. The spectra are attributed to a chromium ion in the unusual Cr3+ valence replacing a substitutional Si4+ in tetrahedral oxygen coordination. Evidence is found that the symmetry lowering from tetrahedral to trigonal is not spontaneous but induced by an associated defect, for which a P5+ ion in a nearest-neighbor Si4+ site is the most plausible candidate. Optical excitation results in a reversible charge transfer process directly correlated with a photochromic effect: near-UV light leads to a strong reduction of the Cr3+ EPR signals, and induces a broad band at 675 nm in the absorption spectrum, and both effects are reversed under red light excitation.

  4. Fabricating photoelectrochemical aptasensor for selectively monitoring microcystin-LR residues in fish based on visible light-responsive BiOBr nanoflakes/N-doped graphene photoelectrode.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Ding; Dai, Liming; Zhou, Lei; Hao, Nan; Qian, Jing; Qiu, Baijing; Wang, Kun

    2016-07-15

    The presence of microcystins in fish has been augmenting the risk of toxicity to animal and human health. Herein, a selective and sensitive method for detecting microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in fish samples by integrating the photoelectrochemical (PEC) technique and the specific recognition ability of aptamer was developed. Specifically, as an efficient PEC transducer, the BiOBr nanoflakes/N-doped graphene p-n heterojunction electrode was utilized as the aptamer immobilization platform via the π-π stacking interaction, which would be a biosensor enabling the convenient and exquisite PEC analysis. Subsequently, the PEC response of constructed aptasensor was specific binding to MC-LR. Other isoforms did not interfere with the detection process, and thus, it could be applied for the highly selective determination of MC-LR level. Under the optimized condition, the PEC signal versus the logarithm of the MC-LR concentration was in good linear relationship ranging from 0.1pM to 100nM with detection limit about 0.03pM. The constructed method was employed to analyze fish samples collected from the local supermarket. The overall analytical recovery of MC-LR in the fish matrices ranged from 97.8 to 101.6%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.52-5.14%, implying it would have great potential in farm product analysis. PMID:26963789

  5. Sn-doped Bi1.1Sb0.9Te2S bulk crystal topological insulator with excellent properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    S. K. Kushwaha; Pletikosic, I.; Liang, T.; Gyenis, A.; Lapidus, S. H.; Tian, Y.; Zhao, H.; Burch, K. S.; Lin, Jingjing; Wang, Wudi; et al

    2016-04-27

    A long-standing issue in topological insulator research has been to find a bulk single crystal material that provides a high quality platform for characterizing topological surface states without interference from bulk electronic states. This material would ideally be a bulk insulator, have a surface state Dirac point energy well isolated from the bulk valence and conduction bands, display quantum oscillations from the surface state electrons, and be growable as large, high quality bulk single crystals. Here we show that this materials obstacle is overcome by bulk crystals of lightly Sn-doped Bi1.1Sb0.9Te2S grown by the Vertical Bridgeman method. We characterize Sn-BSTSmore » via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, transport studies, X-ray diffraction, and Raman scattering. We present this material as a high quality topological insulator that can be reliably grown as bulk single crystals and thus studied by many researchers interested in topological surface states.« less

  6. Sn-doped Bi1.1Sb0.9Te2S bulk crystal topological insulator with excellent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, S. K.; Pletikosić, I.; Liang, T.; Gyenis, A.; Lapidus, S. H.; Tian, Yao; Zhao, He; Burch, K. S.; Lin, Jingjing; Wang, Wudi; Ji, Huiwen; Fedorov, A. V.; Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. P.; Valla, T.; Cava, R. J.

    2016-04-01

    A long-standing issue in topological insulator research has been to find a bulk single crystal material that provides a high-quality platform for characterizing topological surface states without interference from bulk electronic states. This material would ideally be a bulk insulator, have a surface state Dirac point energy well isolated from the bulk valence and conduction bands, display quantum oscillations from the surface state electrons and be growable as large, high-quality bulk single crystals. Here we show that this material obstacle is overcome by bulk crystals of lightly Sn-doped Bi1.1Sb0.9Te2S grown by the vertical Bridgman method. We characterize Sn-BSTS via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy, transport studies, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering. We present this material as a high-quality topological insulator that can be reliably grown as bulk single crystals and thus studied by many researchers interested in topological surface states.

  7. Sn-doped Bi1.1Sb0.9Te2S bulk crystal topological insulator with excellent properties.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, S K; Pletikosić, I; Liang, T; Gyenis, A; Lapidus, S H; Tian, Yao; Zhao, He; Burch, K S; Lin, Jingjing; Wang, Wudi; Ji, Huiwen; Fedorov, A V; Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N P; Valla, T; Cava, R J

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing issue in topological insulator research has been to find a bulk single crystal material that provides a high-quality platform for characterizing topological surface states without interference from bulk electronic states. This material would ideally be a bulk insulator, have a surface state Dirac point energy well isolated from the bulk valence and conduction bands, display quantum oscillations from the surface state electrons and be growable as large, high-quality bulk single crystals. Here we show that this material obstacle is overcome by bulk crystals of lightly Sn-doped Bi1.1Sb0.9Te2S grown by the vertical Bridgman method. We characterize Sn-BSTS via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy, transport studies, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering. We present this material as a high-quality topological insulator that can be reliably grown as bulk single crystals and thus studied by many researchers interested in topological surface states. PMID:27118032

  8. Ferroelectric and magnetic properties of Nd-doped Bi4 − xFeTi3O12 nanoparticles prepared through the egg-white method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Multiferroic behavior of Bi4 − xNdxFeTi3O12 (0.0 ≤ × ≤ 0.25, × = 0.05) ceramic nanoparticles prepared through the egg-white method was investigated. The dielectric properties of the samples show normal behavior and are explained in the light of space charge polarization. Room temperature polarization-electric field (P-E) curves show that the samples are not saturated with maximum remanence polarization, Pr = 0.110 μC/cm2, and a relatively low coercive field, Ec = of 7.918 kV/cm, at an applied field of 1 kV/cm was observed for 5% Nd doping. The room temperature M-H hysteresis curve shows that the samples exhibit intrinsic antiferromagnetism with a weak ferromagnetism. These properties entitle the grown nanoparticles of BNFT as one of the few multiferroic materials that exhibit decent magnetization and electric polarization. PMID:22989217

  9. High-efficiency, large-area CdTe panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, S. P.; Singh, V. P.; Ackerman, B.

    1989-04-01

    This technical progress report on large-area CdTe solar panels cover work accomplished from June 1987 to May 1988. The highest-efficiency devices produced during this period measured 10.6 percent efficient on a 0.302-cm(2) cell. On 11-7/8 in. by 12 in. panels, the highest output obtained was 5.3 W over 847 cm(2), or 7.0 percent active-area efficiency. The aperture-area efficiency is presently about 12 percent lower, or 6.3 percent efficiency, because of interconnection losses. A 4-ft(2) panel was also produced. Resistivities of less than 100 ohm-cm have been observed consistently in phosphorus- or copper-doped CdTe. Surface analysis is presented for various CdTe treatments. Devices were characterized and analyzed using electron-beam-induced current, capacitance, spectral response, and I-V curves at various temperatures. A model for junction transport is presented. An encapsulation system is described, and lifetime test results are presented.

  10. Luminescence Enhancement of CdTe Nanostructures in LaF3:Ce/CdTe Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Mingzhen; Zhang, Xing; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Joly, Alan G.; Huang, Jinsong; Wang, Qingwu

    2010-11-15

    Radiation detection demands new scintillators with high quantum efficiency, high energy resolution and short luminescence lifetimes. Nanocomposites consisting of quantum dots and Ce3+ doped nanophosphors may be able to meet these requirements. Here we report the luminescence of LaF3:Ce/CdTe nanocomposites which were synthesized by a wet chemistry method. In LaF3:Ce/CdTe nanocomposites the CdTe quantum dots are converted into nanowires, while in LaF3/CdTe nanocomposites no such conversion is observed. The CdTe luminescence in LaF3:Ce/CdTe nanocomposites is enhanced about 5 times, while in LaF3/CdTe nanocomposites no enhancement was observed. Energy transfer, light-re-absorption and surface passivation are likely the reasons for the luminescence enhancement.

  11. X-ray radiation influence on photoluminescence spectra of composite thin films based on C60<CdTe>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elistratova, M. A.; Zakharova, I. B.; Romanov, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectra of composite thin films based on C60<CdTe> before and after X-ray irradiation, as well as the results of quantum-chemical calculations of corresponding molecular complexes are presented. Fullerene films doped by CdTe with various concentrations were obtained by means of vacuum co-evaporation in a Knudsen cell. Composition and surface morphology were measured by secondary electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray irradiated films were considered, and additional peaks in photoluminescence spectra were detected. These peaks appear as a result of molecular complexes formation from C60CdTe mixture and dimerization of the films. Density functional B3LYP quantum-chemical calculations for C60CdTe, molecular complexes, (C60)2 and C120O dimers were performed to elucidate some experimental results.

  12. One-Dimensional Reaction-Diffusion Simulation of Cu Migration in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain

    2014-06-13

    In this work, we report on developing 1D reaction-diffusion solver to understand the kinetics of p-type doping formation in CdTe absorbers and to shine some light on underlying causes of metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cell has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport and Poisson equation. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of Cu diffusion anneal time showing pronounced effect the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results suggest strong potential of the approach in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic device.

  13. Optimization of material/device parameters of CdTe photovoltaic for solar cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been recognized as a promising photovoltaic material for thin-film solar cell applications due to its near optimum bandgap of ~1.5 eV and high absorption coefficient. The energy gap is near optimum for a single-junction solar cell. The high absorption coefficient allows films as thin as 2.5 μm to absorb more than 98% of the above-bandgap radiation. Cells with efficiencies near 20% have been produced with poly-CdTe materials. This paper examines n/p heterostructure device architecture. The performance limitations related to doping concentrations, minority carrier lifetimes, absorber layer thickness, and surface recombination velocities at the back and front interfaces is assessed. Ultimately, the paper explores device architectures of poly- CdTe and crystalline CdTe to achieve performance comparable to gallium arsenide (GaAs).

  14. Crystal structures of LaO{sub 1−x}F{sub x}BiS{sub 2} (x∼0.23, 0.46): Effect of F doping on distortion of Bi–S plane

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Akira Nagao, Masanori; Takei, Takahiro; Watauchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Isao; Kumada, Nobuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The crystal structures of superconducting LaO{sub 1−x}F{sub x}BiS{sub 2} (x∼0.23, 0.46) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Their space group was P4/nmm. Distortion of the Bi–S plane changed when the F content was increased from 0.23 to 0.46, and a nearly flat Bi–S plane was formed at x∼0.46. Computational calculations supported this effect of F doping on distortion of Bi–S plane. LaO{sub 1−x}F{sub x}BiS{sub 2} with higher F contents were computationally predicted to be thermodynamically more unstable under ambient pressure. We discussed the bonding, conductivities, and synthetic routes of LaO{sub 1−x}F{sub x}BiS{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Distortion of the Bi–S plane in LaO{sub 1−x}F{sub x}BiS{sub 2} changed when the F content was increased from 0.23 to 0.46, and a nearly flat Bi–S plane was formed at x∼0.46 with the appearance of superconductivity. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of LaO{sub 1−x}F{sub x}BiS{sub 2} was determined by single-crystal XRD. • Doping amount of F changes the distortion of the Bi–S plane. • Nearly flat Bi–S planes were found in superconductive LaO{sub 1−x}F{sub x}BiS{sub 2} (x∼0.46). • LaO{sub 1−x}F{sub x}BiS{sub 2} with higher F contents was thermodynamically more unstable. • Bonding, superconductivities, and synthetic routes of LaO{sub 1−x}F{sub x}BiS{sub 2} were discussed.

  15. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of YPO{sub 4} activated with Tb{sup 3+} and effect of Bi{sup 3+} co-doping on the luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Angiuli, Fabio; Cavalli, Enrico; Belletti, Alessandro

    2012-08-15

    Single crystals of YPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}(1%) have been grown from Pb{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} flux and their emission dynamics have been characterized by steady state and time resolved optical spectroscopy. The investigation has then been extended to green emitting phosphors with composition Y{sub 0.95-x}Tb{sub 0.05}Bi{sub x}PO{sub 4} (x=0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025), synthesized by the Pechini sol-gel method and by solid state reaction. The former procedure has yielded higher quality materials in terms of size and morphology of the particles and of emission performance. The effect of the Bi{sup 3+} co-doping on the emission properties has been related to the Bi{sup 3+}{yields}Tb{sup 3+} energy transfer process as well as to the influence of the bismuth ions on the optical properties of the host lattice. - Graphical abstract: The intensity of the 370 nm excited luminescence increases with the Bi{sup 3+} content. A possible mechanism accounting for this behavior is proposed and discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green emitting YPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by different methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emission dynamics have been investigated under different experimental conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The co-doping with Bi{sup 3+} ions increases the emission performance of the phosphors.

  16. Phase transitions, domain structure, and pseudosymmetry in La- and Ti-doped BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khesro, Amir; Boston, Rebecca; Sterianou, Iasmi; Sinclair, Derek C.; Reaney, Ian M.

    2016-02-01

    The phase transitions and domain structure of the promising PbO-free solid solution series, (0.95-x)BiFeO3-xLaFeO3-0.05La2/3TiO3, were investigated. X ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a transition from a ferroelectric R3c to a PbZrO3-like (Pbam) antiferroelectric (AFE) structure at x = 0.15 followed by a transition to a paraelectric (PE, Pnma) phase at x > 0.30. The ferroelastic/ferroelectric twin domain width decreased to 10-20 nm with increasing x as the AFE phase boundary was approached but coherent antiphase tilted domains were an order of magnitude greater. This domain structure suggested the local symmetry (20 nm) is lower than the average structure (R3c, a-a-a-) of the tilted regions. The PE phase (x = 0.35) exhibited a dominant a-a-c+ tilt system with Pnma symmetry but diffuse reflections at ˜1/4{ooe} positions suggest that short range antipolar order is residual in the PE phase. The complex domain structure and phase assemblage of this system challenge the conventional interpretation of phase transitions based on macroscopic symmetry. Instead, it supports the notion that frustration driven by chemical distributions at the nanometric level influences the local or pseudo-symmetry as well as the domain structure, with XRD giving only the average macroscopic structure.

  17. Improved electrical characteristics of Pr-doped BiFeO3 ceramics prepared by sol–gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madolappa, Shivanand; Kundu, Swarup; Bhimireddi, Rajasekhar; Varma, K. B. R.

    2016-06-01

    Ceramics of Bi1‑x Pr x FeO3 (x = 0–0.1) were fabricated using the nanocrystalline powders obtained via sol–gel route. X-ray powder diffraction studies confirmed that these belonged to rhombohedral perovskite structure associated with R3c space group. The dielectric properties of the ceramic samples as a function of frequency (100 Hz–10 MHz) and temperature (30 °C–250 °C) were studied. The dielectric constant increased while the loss decreased with the increase of Pr content. Dielectric dispersion in these samples was found to be poly dispersive Debye type relaxation as confirmed by invoking Cole–Cole relation. Impedance spectroscopy was employed to determine the electrical parameters associated with the grain and grain boundaries. Grain and grain boundary resistances were found to decrease with the increase of temperature for all the samples under study. The activation energies for the dielectric relaxation were evaluated by electric modulus spectra and these increase with the increase of Pr dopant level. The frequency dependent conductivity at various temperatures demonstrated the involvement of correlated barrier hopping conduction mechanism. The electrical conduction in these ceramics was ascribed to long and short range migration of oxygen ion vacancies as demonstrated by temperature dependent ac conductivity studies.

  18. Structural, thermal, electrical and magnetic properties of pure and 50% La doped BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangid, S.; Barbar, S. K.; Bala, Indu; Roy, M.

    2012-09-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic samples of pure and 50% La substituted BiFeO3 have been prepared by standard solid state reaction method using high purity oxides and carbonates. The formation of the single phase compound as well as its chemical analysis has been checked by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDAX) techniques. A better agreement between observed and calculated X-ray powder diffraction patterns was obtained by performing the Rietveld refinement with a structural model using the non-centrosymmetric space group R3c. The lattice parameters in both the cases have been refined but the over-all structure remains the same. The microstructural studies have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) has been used to detect the Neel/transition temperature in the compounds. The activation energies calculated from log σ vs 1/T curve are 0.81 eV and 1.13 eV respectively. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) has been used to study the magnetic behaviour of the compounds. It has been observed that by 50% La substitution the insulating behaviour of the material has been improved and showing the antiferromagnetic to weak ferromagnetic behaviour.

  19. Interplay between Mn-acceptor state and Dirac surface states in Mn-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahani, M. R.; Pertsova, A.; Islam, M. Fhokrul; Canali, C. M.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the properties of a single substitutional Mn impurity and its associated acceptor state on the (111) surface of Bi2Se3 topological insulator. Combining ab initio calculations with microscopic tight-binding modeling, we identify the effects of inversion symmetry and time-reversal-symmetry breaking on the electronic states in the vicinity of the Dirac point. In agreement with experiments, we find evidence that the Mn ion is in the +2 valence state and introduces an acceptor in the bulk band gap. The Mn acceptor has predominantly p character and is localized mainly around the Mn impurity and its nearest-neighbor Se atoms. Its electronic structure and spin-polarization are determined by the hybridization between the Mn d levels and the p levels of surrounding Se atoms, which is strongly affected by electronic correlations at the Mn site. The opening of the gap at the Dirac point depends crucially on the quasiresonant coupling and the strong real-space overlap between the spin-chiral surface states and the midgap spin-polarized Mn-acceptor states.

  20. Development of Substrate Structure CdTe Photovoltaic Devices with Performance Exceeding 10%: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Dhere, R. G.; Duenow, J. N.; DeHart, C. M.; Li, J. V.; Kuciauskas, D.; Gessert, T. A.

    2012-08-01

    Most work on CdTe-based solar cells has focused on devices with a superstrate structure. This focus is due to the early success of the superstrate structure in producing high-efficiency cells, problems of suitable ohmic contacts for lightly doped CdTe, and the simplicity of the structure for manufacturing. The development of the CdCl2 heat treatment boosted CdTe technology and perpetuated the use of the superstrate structure. However, despite the beneficial attributes of the superstrate structure, devices with a substrate structure are attractive both commercially and scientifically. The substrate structure eliminates the need for transparent superstrates and thus allows the use of flexible metal and possibly plastic substrates. From a scientific perspective, it allows better control in forming the junction and direct access to the junction for detailed analysis. Research on such devices has been limited. The efficiency of these devices has been limited to around 8% due to low open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor. In this paper, we present our recent device development efforts at NREL on substrate-structure CdTe devices. We have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. We have worked on a variety of contact materials including Cu-doped ZnTe and CuxTe. We will present a comparative analysis of the performance of these contacts. In addition, we have studied the influence of fabrication parameters on junction properties. We will present an overview of our development work, which has led to CdTe devices with Voc values of more than 860 mV and NREL-confirmed efficiencies approaching 11%.

  1. UV durable colour pigment doped SmA liquid crystal composites for outdoor trans-reflective bi-stable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Davey, A. B.; Crossland, W. A.; Chu, D. P.

    2012-10-01

    High brightness trans-reflective bi-stable displays based on smectic A (SmA) liquid crystals (LCs) can have nearly perfect transparency in the clear state and very high reflection in the scattered state. Because the LC material in use is stable under UV radiation, this kind of displays can stand for strong day-light and therefore be ideal for outdoor applications from e-books to public signage and advertisement. However, the colour application has been limited because the traditional colourants in use are conventional dyes which are lack of UV stability and that their colours are easily photo bleached. Here we present a colour SmA display demonstrator using pigments as colourant. Mixing pigments with SmA LCs and maintain the desirable optical switching performance is not straightforward. We show here how it can be done, including how to obtain fine sized pigment nano-particles, the effects of particle size and size distribution on the display performance. Our optimized pigments/SmA compositions can be driven by a low frequency waveform (~101Hz) to a scattered state to exhibit colour while by a high frequency waveform (~103Hz) to a cleared state showing no colour. Finally, we will present its excellent UV life-time (at least <7.2 years) in comparison with that of dye composition (~2.4 years). The complex interaction of pigment nano-particles with LC molecules and the resulting effects on the LC electro-optical performances are still to be fully understood. We hope this work will not only demonstrate a new and practical approach for outdoor reflective colour displays but also provide a new material system for fundamental liquid crystal colloid research work.

  2. Wireless Solar Water Splitting Device with Robust Cobalt-Catalyzed, Dual-Doped BiVO4 Photoanode and Perovskite Solar Cell in Tandem: A Dual Absorber Artificial Leaf.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jo, Yimhyun; Kim, Ju Hun; Jang, Ji Wook; Kang, Hyun Jun; Lee, Young Hye; Kim, Dong Suk; Jun, Yongseok; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-12-22

    A stand-alone, wireless solar water splitting device without external energy supply has been realized by combining in tandem a CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite single junction solar cell with a cobalt carbonate (Co-Ci)-catalyzed, extrinsic/intrinsic dual-doped BiVO4 (hydrogen-treated and 3 at% Mo-doped). The photoanode recorded one of the highest photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity (4.8 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE) under simulated 1 sun illumination. The oxygen evolution Co-Ci co-catalyst showed similar performance to best known cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) (5.0 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE) on the same dual-doped BiVO4 photoanode, but with significantly better stability. A tandem artificial-leaf-type device produced stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen with an average solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 4.3% (wired), 3.0% (wireless) under simulated 1 sun illumination. Hence, our device based on a D4 tandem photoelectrochemical cell represents a meaningful advancement in performance and cost over the device based on a triple-junction solar cell-electrocatalyst combination. PMID:26513688

  3. The effect of CuO and NiO doping on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakroo, Sunanda; Kumar, Arvind; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, Vijay; Singh, Pramod K.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 -xCuO-yNiO (for x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) have been prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. An investigation of CuO and NiO doping in bismuth sodium titanate (BNT) and a study of the structure, morphology, and dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the NBT-CuNi system have been conducted. Phase and microstructural analysis of the (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (NBT) based ceramics has been carried out using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that inhibition of grain growth takes place with increasing Cu and Ni concentration. The results indicate that the co-doping of NiO and CuO is effective in improving the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of NBT ceramics. Temperature-dependent dielectric studies have also been carried out at room temperature to 400 °C at different frequencies. The NBT ceramics co-doped with x = 0.06 and y = 0.06 exhibited an excellent dielectric constant ɛr = 1514. The study suggests that there is enormous scope of application of such materials in the future for actuators, ultrasonic transducers and high-frequency piezoelectric devices.

  4. Research on single-crystal CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, J. M.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1987-10-01

    This report outlines two years of work on the growth and characterization of single-crystal CdTe layers, to explore their potential for high-efficiency solar cells. It was demonstrated that high-quality layers can be grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE), whose photoluminescence peak has a FWHM of 5.8 MeV, the lowest value for them yet achieved. CdTe layers were extrinsically doped both n- and p-type with indium and arsenic, respectively. The doping level achieved for p-type is the highest yet reported in the literature, achieved for the first time in an OMVPE system. A hole lifetime of 2.0 microns was measured. In the n-type material, five deep levels were isolated; their capture cross section, energy level, and concentration were determined. A thermodynamic analysis was made to identify their defect character. Both Schottky and p-n junction devices were produced on these layers. The diode characteristics were superior to those of GaAs so this is a potentially superior material for solar cells.

  5. Characterization of Highly Efficient CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells by Low-Temperature Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Matsuzaki, Yuichi; Amin, Nowshad; Yamada, Akira; Konagai, Makoto

    1998-07-01

    Highly efficient CdTe thin film solar cells prepared by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) method with a glass/ITO/CdS/CdTe/Cu-doped carbon/Ag structure were characterized by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement. A broad 1.42 eV band probably due to VCd Cl defect complexes appeared as a result of CdCl2 treatment. CdS/CdTe junction PL revealed that a CdSxTe1-x mixed crystal layer was formed at the CdS/CdTe interface region during the deposition of CdTe by CSS and that CdCl2 treatment promoted the formation of the mixed crystal layer. Furthermore, in the PL spectra of the heat-treated CdTe after screen printing of the Cu-doped carbon electrode, a neutral-acceptor bound exciton (ACu0, X) line at 1.590 eV was observed, suggesting that Cu atoms were incorporated into CdTe as effective acceptors after the heat treatment.

  6. Effect of oxygen annealing on the multiferroic properties of Ca{sup 2+} doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Tirupathi, Patri; Mandal, Satish Kumar; Chandra, Amreesh

    2014-12-28

    The high leakage current in divalent ion doped BiFeO{sub 3} systems is limiting their large scale application. It is clearly shown that the methodology of oxygen annealing will prove to be an effective procedure for suppressing the detrimental consequences that originate from the oxygen vacancies. The samples annealed under oxygen also show different particle morphologies and packing density that can help in tuning the relevant physical properties, viz., magnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric. The difference in magnetic behaviour in samples annealed in air and oxygen can be explained in terms of the modification in the Fe-O-Fe bonds, domain wall pinning centres, and crystal anisotropy. Another important observation is the stabilization of a dielectric anomaly near the magnetic transition temperature. This observation can make this multiferroic system very interesting for application in sensors where the change in the magnetic parameters can be observed by monitoring the electrical parameters. Detailed analysis of the dielectric and impedance curves indicate towards the presence of non-Debye type processes in samples obtained by annealing in air or oxygen. From the calculated activation energy values, the vacancy related relaxation mechanism is predominant in air annealed samples, while the oxygen annealed samples show the presence of two type of relaxation processes, viz., electron hopping mechanism stabilizes at low temperature while, at higher temperatures, the process associated with the diffusion of doubly ionized oxygen ions predominates. The ac-conductivity data suggests that the correlated barrier tunnelling mechanism, where single electron or two electrons hopping through neighbouring lattice sites leads to ac-conduction.

  7. Highly textured Sr, Nb co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} thin films grown on SrRuO{sub 3}/Si substrates by rf- sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ostos, C.; Raymond, O.; Siqueiros, J. M.; Suarez-Almodovar, N.; Bueno-Baques, D.; Mestres, L.

    2011-07-15

    In this study, (011)-highly oriented Sr, Nb co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films were successfully grown on SrRuO{sub 3}/Si substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering. The presence of parasite magnetic phases was ruled out based on the high resolution x-ray diffraction data. BFO films exhibited a columnar-like grain growth with rms surface roughness values of {approx_equal}5.3 nm and average grain sizes of {approx_equal}65-70 nm for samples with different thicknesses. Remanent polarization values (2P{sub r}) of 54 {mu}C cm{sup -2} at room temperature were found for the BFO films with a ferroelectric behavior characteristic of an asymmetric device structure. Analysis of the leakage mechanisms for this structure in negative bias suggests Schottky injection and a dominant Poole-Frenkel trap-limited conduction at room temperature. Oxygen vacancies and Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} trap centers are consistent with the surface chemical bonding states analysis from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data. The (011)-BFO/SrRuO{sub 3}/Si film structure exhibits a strong magnetic interaction at the interface between the multiferroic film and the substrate layer where an enhanced ferromagnetic response at 5 K was observed. Zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization curves of this film system revealed a possible spin glass behavior at spin freezing temperatures below 30 K depending on the BFO film thickness.

  8. Novel and facile synthesis of Ba-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles and enhancement of their magnetic and photocatalytic activities for complete degradation of benzene in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Tayyebeh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    In this work, Bi1-x Bax FeO3 (x=0.05, 0.1 and 0.2mol%) multiferroic materials as visible-light photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a simple and rapid sol-gel method, at a low temperature and with rapid calcination. Ba loading brought about a distorted structure of BiFeO3 magnetic nanoparticles (BFO MNPs) consisting of small, randomly oriented and non-uniform grains, leading to increased surface area and improved magnetic and photocatalytic activities. Doping of Ba(2+) into pure BFO (Bi1-x Bax FeO3, x=0.2mol%) greatly increased magnetic saturation to 3.0emu/g and significantly decreased the band-gap energy to 1.79eV, as compared to 2.1emu/g and 2.1eV, respectively, for pure BFO. Bi1-xBa xFeO3 of x=0.2mol% exhibited the greatest photocatalytic degradation effect after 60min of visible light irradiation, and reached 97% benzene removal efficiency, leading to production of a high concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), with 93% and 82% reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. The identified major intermediate products of photodegradation enabled prediction of the proposed benzene degradation pathway. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of benzene removal is due to both mechanisms, photocatalytic and photo-Fenton catalytic degradation. PMID:27232723

  9. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells: Phase I, Annual Technical Report, October 2005 - September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this project is the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin-film solar cell. CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, but the efficiency of the CdTe solar cell has been stagnant for the last few years. At the manufacturing front, the CdTe technology is fast paced and moving forward with U.S.-based First Solar LLC leading the world in CdTe module production. To support the industry efforts and continue the advancement of this technology, it will be necessary to continue improvements in solar cell efficiency. A closer look at the state-of-the-art performance levels puts the three solar cell efficiency parameters of short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and fill factor (FF) in the 24-26 mA/cm2, 844?850 mV, and 74%-76% ranges respectively. During the late 1090s, efforts to improve cell efficiency were primarily concerned with increasing JSC, simply by using thinner CdS window layers to enhance the blue response (<510 nm) of the CdTe cell. These efforts led to underscoring the important role 'buffers' (or high-resistivity transparent films) play in CdTe cells. The use of transparent bi-layers (low-p/high-p) as the front contact is becoming a 'standard' feature of the CdTe cell.

  10. Abnormal variation of band gap in Zn doped Bi{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} nanoparticles: Role of Fe-O-Fe bond angle and Fe-O bond anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xunling; Liu, Weifang E-mail: shouyu.wang@yahoo.com; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Minchen; Han, Yuling; Zhang, Chuang; Gao, Ju; Rao, Guanghui; Wang, Shouyu E-mail: shouyu.wang@yahoo.com

    2015-07-27

    Bi{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} (BLFO) and Bi{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.99}Zn{sub 0.01}O{sub 3} (BLFZO) nanoparticles were prepared via a sol-gel method. The oxygen vacancies and holes increase with Zn doping analyzed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which could contribute to the increase of leakage current density. However, with the increase of the defects (oxygen vacancies and holes), the band gap of BLFZO also is increased. To explain the abnormal phenomenon, the bandwidth of occupied and unoccupied bands was analyzed based on the structural symmetry driven by the Fe-O-Fe bond angle and Fe-O bond anisotropy.

  11. CdTe solar cells with open-circuit voltage breaking the 1 V barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burst, J. M.; Duenow, J. N.; Albin, D. S.; Colegrove, E.; Reese, M. O.; Aguiar, J. A.; Jiang, C.-S.; Patel, M. K.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Kuciauskas, D.; Swain, S.; Ablekim, T.; Lynn, K. G.; Metzger, W. K.

    2016-03-01

    CdTe solar cells have the potential to undercut the costs of electricity generated by other technologies, if the open-circuit voltage can be increased beyond 1 V without significant decreases in current. However, in the past decades, the open-circuit voltage has stagnated at around 800-900 mV. This is lower than in GaAs solar cells, even though GaAs has a smaller bandgap; this is because it is more difficult to achieve simultaneously high hole density and lifetime in II-VI materials than in III-V materials. Here, by doping the CdTe with a Group V element, we report lifetimes in single-crystal CdTe that are nearly radiatively limited and comparable to those in GaAs over a hole density range relevant for solar applications. Furthermore, the deposition on CdTe of nanocrystalline CdS layers that form non-ideal heterointerfaces with 10% lattice mismatch impart no damage to the CdTe surface and show excellent junction transport properties. These results enable the fabrication of CdTe solar cells with open-circuit voltage greater than 1 V.

  12. Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sapper, Eva; Dittmer, Robert; Rödel, Jürgen; Damjanovic, Dragan; Erdem, Emre; Keeble, David J.; Jo, Wook; Granzow, Torsten

    2014-09-14

    Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1–x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ doped with 1at.% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe{sub Ti}´-V{sub O}{sup ••}){sup •} defect complexes in the Fe-doped material.

  13. Grain-boundary-enhanced carrier collection in CdTe solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Wu, Yelong; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Pennycook, Timothy J; Paudel, Naba; Yin, Wanjian; Haigh, Sarah J; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Pennycook, Stephen J; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-04-18

    When CdTe solar cells are doped with Cl, the grain boundaries no longer act as recombination centers but actively contribute to carrier collection efficiency. The physical origin of this remarkable effect has been determined through a combination of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and first-principles theory. Cl substitutes for a large proportion of the Te atoms within a few unit cells of the grain boundaries. Density functional calculations reveal the mechanism, and further indicate the grain boundaries are inverted to n type, establishing local p-n junctions which assist electron-hole pair separation. The mechanism is electrostatic, and hence independent of the geometry of the boundary, thereby explaining the universally high collection efficiency of Cl-doped CdTe solar cells. PMID:24785058

  14. Phosphorus Diffusion Mechanisms and Deep Incorporation in Polycrystalline and Single-Crystalline CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colegrove, Eric; Harvey, Steven P.; Yang, Ji-Hui; Burst, James M.; Albin, David S.; Wei, Su-Huai; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2016-05-01

    A key challenge in cadmium-telluride (CdTe) semiconductors is obtaining stable and high hole density. Group-I elements substituting Cd can form acceptors but easily self-compensate and diffuse quickly. For example, CdTe photovoltaics have relied on copper as a dopant, but this creates stability problems and hole density that has not exceeded 1015 cm-3 . If hole density can be increased beyond 1016 cm-3 , CdTe solar technology can exceed multicrystalline silicon performance and provide levelized costs of electricity below conventional energy sources. Group-V elements substituting Te offer a solution, but they are very difficult to incorporate. Using time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, we examine bulk and grain-boundary diffusion of phosphorus (P) in CdTe in Cd-rich conditions. We find that in addition to slow bulk diffusion and fast grain-boundary diffusion, there is a critical fast bulk-diffusion component that enables deep P incorporation in CdTe. Detailed first-principle calculations indicate the slow bulk-diffusion component is caused by substitutional P diffusion through the Te sublattice, whereas the fast bulk-diffusion component is caused by P diffusing through interstitial lattice sites following the combination of a kick-out step and two rotation steps. The latter is limited in magnitude by high formation energy, but is sufficient to manipulate P incorporation. In addition to an increased physical understanding, these results open up experimental possibilities for group-V doping in CdTe applications.

  15. Calculation of the High-Temperature Point Defects Structure in Te-Rich CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shujun; Wang, Tao; Liu, Huimin; He, Yihui; Jie, Wanqi

    2016-06-01

    A thermodynamic equilibrium model for CdTe annealed under Te vapor is established, in which possible point defects and a defect reaction existing in undoped and In-doped Te-rich CdTe crystals are taken into consideration. Independent point defects, such as VCd, Cdi, and Tei, as well as defect complexes, namely TeCd-VCd (B complex), {{Te}}_{{Cd}}^{2 + } - {{V}}_{{Cd}}^{2 - } (D complex), {{In}}_{{Cd}}^{ + } - {{V}}_{{Cd}}^{ - } (A-center) and Tei-VCd (TeCd), are discussed based on the defect chemistry theory. More specially, the mass action law and quasi-chemical equations are used to calculate defects concentration and Fermi level in undoped and doped CdTe crystals with different indium concentrations. It is found that the Fermi level is controlled by a {{V}}_{{Cd}}^{2 - } , TeCd, and B/D-complex in undoped crystal. The concentration of VCd drops down in an obvious manner and that of TeCd rises for doped crystal with increasing [In].

  16. Sensitive bi-enzymatic biosensor based on polyphenoloxidases-gold nanoparticles-chitosan hybrid film-graphene doped carbon paste electrode for carbamates detection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thiago M B F; Barroso, M Fátima; Morais, Simone; Araújo, Mariana; Freire, Cristina; de Lima-Neto, Pedro; Correia, Adriana N; Oliveira, Maria B P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-08-01

    A bi-enzymatic biosensor (LACC-TYR-AuNPs-CS/GPE) for carbamates was prepared in a single step by electrodeposition of a hybrid film onto a graphene doped carbon paste electrode (GPE). Graphene and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were morphologically characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and laser Doppler velocimetry. The electrodeposited hybrid film was composed of laccase (LACC), tyrosinase (TYR) and AuNPs entrapped in a chitosan (CS) polymeric matrix. Experimental parameters, namely graphene redox state, AuNPs:CS ratio, enzymes concentration, pH and inhibition time were evaluated. LACC-TYR-AuNPs-CS/GPE exhibited an improved Michaelis-Menten kinetic constant (26.9±0.5M) when compared with LACC-AuNPs-CS/GPE (37.8±0.2M) and TYR-AuNPs-CS/GPE (52.3±0.4M). Using 4-aminophenol as substrate at pH5.5, the device presented wide linear ranges, low detection limits (1.68×10(-9)±1.18×10(-10)-2.15×10(-7)±3.41×10(-9)M), high accuracy, sensitivity (1.13×10(6)±8.11×10(4)-2.19×10(8)±2.51×10(7)%inhibitionM(-1)), repeatability (1.2-5.8% RSD), reproducibility (3.2-6.5% RSD) and stability (ca. twenty days) to determine carbaryl, formetanate hydrochloride, propoxur and ziram in citrus fruits based on their inhibitory capacity on the polyphenoloxidases activity. Recoveries at two fortified levels ranged from 93.8±0.3% (lemon) to 97.8±0.3% (orange). Glucose, citric acid and ascorbic acid do not interfere significantly in the electroanalysis. The proposed electroanalytical procedure can be a promising tool for food safety control. PMID:24642204

  17. Variable Emission Changes in Bi3+/Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) Co-doped Lutetium Vanadates (LuVO4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuhui; Hu, Jing; Deng, Surong; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Qianming

    2016-06-01

    High-purity LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) phosphors with tetragonal zircon structures were successfully synthesized. The reactions have been carried out by multiple irradiations with very high efficiency. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the phosphors had rod-like structures with average lengths of about 200 nm. The host absorption edge of LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm) shifted to the longer wavelength side. Furthermore, the red emission of Eu3+ ion and the orange emission of Sm3+ ion are remarkably enhanced by encapsulating Bi3+ in LuVO4 system, whereas in the case of LuVO4: Dy3+/Bi3+, the host absorption and the yellow emission from dysprosium have been suppressed in the presence of Bi3+. These novel findings will facilitate their use in the display field.

  18. Synthesis of Fe and N Co-doped Bi2Ti2O7 Nanofiber with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bitao; Mo, Qionghua; Zhu, Jiali; Hou, Zhupei; Peng, Lingling; Tu, Yijia; Wang, Qinyi

    2016-12-01

    A series of N-Fe-Bi2Ti2O7 nanofibers were successfully synthesized. The structure, morphology, visible light photocatalytic properties, and the degradation mechanism of N-Fe-Bi2Ti2O7 were investigated. A new phase of Bi4Ti3O7 and smaller band gap could be observed after doing Fe and N into Bi2Ti2O7. It can degrade 66 % MO and 87 % MB in 120 min under visible light irradiation, which is much more than that of pure Bi2Ti2O7. The results indicate that such unique structure could enhance the charge transfer between the nanostructure interfaces and therefore improve its photocatalytic activities. PMID:27613068

  19. Variable Emission Changes in Bi3+/Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) Co-doped Lutetium Vanadates (LuVO4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuhui; Hu, Jing; Deng, Surong; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Qianming

    2016-02-01

    High-purity LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm, Dy) phosphors with tetragonal zircon structures were successfully synthesized. The reactions have been carried out by multiple irradiations with very high efficiency. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the phosphors had rod-like structures with average lengths of about 200 nm. The host absorption edge of LuVO4: Ln3+/Bi3+ (Ln = Eu, Sm) shifted to the longer wavelength side. Furthermore, the red emission of Eu3+ ion and the orange emission of Sm3+ ion are remarkably enhanced by encapsulating Bi3+ in LuVO4 system, whereas in the case of LuVO4: Dy3+/Bi3+, the host absorption and the yellow emission from dysprosium have been suppressed in the presence of Bi3+. These novel findings will facilitate their use in the display field.

  20. Enhanced p-type dopability of P and As in CdTe using non-equilibrium thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yin, Wan-Jian; Park, Ji-Sang; Burst, James; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Gessert, Tim; Barnes, Teresa; Wei, Su-Huai

    2015-07-01

    One of the main limiting factors in CdTe solar cells is its low p-type dopability and, consequently, low open-circuit voltage (VOC). We have systematically studied P and As doping in CdTe with first-principles calculations in order to understand how to increase the hole density. We find that both P and As p-type doping are self-compensated by the formation of AX centers. More importantly, we find that although high-temperature growth is beneficial to obtain high hole density, rapid cooling is necessary to sustain the hole density and to lower the Fermi level close to the valence band maximum (VBM) at room temperature. Thermodynamic simulations suggest that by cooling CdTe from a high growth temperature to room temperature under Te-poor conditions and choosing an optimal dopant concentration of about 1018/cm3 , P and As doping can reach a hole density above 1017/cm3 at room temperature and lower the Fermi level to within ˜0.1 eV above the VBM. These results suggest a promising pathway to improve the VOC and efficiency of CdTe solar cells.

  1. Giant strain with low cycling degradation in Ta-doped [Bi1/2(Na0.8K0.2)1/2]TiO3 lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Tan, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    Non-textured polycrystalline [Bi1/2(Na0.8K0.2)1/2](Ti1-xTax)O3 ceramics are fabricated and their microstructures and electrical properties are characterized. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the coexistence of the rhombohedral R3c and tetragonal P4bm phases in the form of nanometer-sized domains in [Bi1/2(Na0.8K0.2)1/2]TiO3 with low Ta concentration. When the composition is x = 0.015, the electrostrain is found to be highly asymmetric under bipolar fields of ±50 kV/cm. A very large value of 0.62% is observed in this ceramic, corresponding to a large-signal piezoelectric coefficient d33* of 1240 pm/V (1120 pm/V under unipolar loading). These values are greater than most previously reported lead-free polycrystalline ceramics and can even be compared with some lead-free piezoelectric single crystals. Additionally, this ceramic displays low cycling degradation; its electrostrain remains above 0.55% even after undergoing 10 000 cycles of ±50 kV/cm bipolar fields at 2 Hz. Therefore, Ta-doped [Bi1/2(Na0.8K0.2)1/2]TiO3 ceramics show great potential for large displacement devices.

  2. Magnetism of MnBi-Based Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Kharel, P; Shah, VR; Skomski, R; Shield, JE; Sellmyer, DJ

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured MnBi ribbons doped with impurity elements including B, C, Fe, Hf, Sm and Tb were prepared using the arc melting and melt-spinning techniques. The melt-spun ribbons were annealed in vacuum furnace at 350 degrees C to obtain the intended hexagonal structure. The external impurity doping made a significant change in the magnetic properties of the nanostructured MnBi ribbons including a decrease in saturation magnetization (M-s) and anisotropy energy (K) and an increase in coercivity H-c. However, Hf and C co-doping showed the opposite effect with a small increase in both M-s and K. Interestingly, the anisotropy energy of the boron doped sample increased by about 15% irrespective of the small decrease in magnetization. A significant increase in H-c of MnBi ribbons was found due to Hf, Tb and Sm doping. H-c as high as 13 kOe was achieved in Hf-doped sample after the sample was aligned in a magnetic field. A thermal hysteresis was observed at the structural phase transition of MnBi, which shifts by about 5 K towards higher temperatures due to impurity doping. The observed magnetic properties of the impurity doped MnBi ribbons are explained as the consequences of the disorder and the competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions.

  3. Effect of C6+ Ion Irradiation on structural and electrical properties of Yb and Eu doped Bi1.5 Zn0.92 Nb1.5 O6.92 pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumak, Mehmet; Mergen, Ayhan; Qureshi, Anjum; Singh, N. L.

    2015-03-01

    Pyrochlore general formula of A2B2X7 where A and B are cations and X is an anion Pyrochlore compounds exhibit semiconductor, metallic or ionic conduction properties, depending on the doping, compositions/ substituting variety of cations and oxygen partial pressure. Ion beam irradiation can induce the structural disordering by mixing the cation and anion sublattices, therefore we aim to inevestigate effects of irradiation in pyrochlore compounds. In this study, Eu and Yb-doped Bi1.5Zn0.92Nb1.5O6.92 (Eu-BZN, Yb-BZN) Doping effect and single phase formation of Eu-BZN, Yb-BZN was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). Radiation-induced effect of 85 MeV C6+ ions on Eu-BZN, Yb-BZN was studied by XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and temperature dependent dielectric measurements at different fluences. XRD results revealed that the ion beam-induced structural amorphization processes in Eu-BZN and Yb-BZN structures. Our results suggested that the ion beam irradiation induced the significant change in the temprature depndent dielectric properties of Eu-BZN and Yb-BZN pyrochlores due to the increased oxygen vacancies as a result of cation and anion disordering. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Eng., Marmara University, Istanbul-81040, Turkey.

  4. Electronic tuning of the transport properties of off-stoichiometric Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}Te thermoelectric alloys by Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} doping

    SciTech Connect

    Guttmann, Gilad M.; Dadon, David; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-08-14

    The recent energy demands affected by the dilution of conventional energy resources and the growing awareness of environmental considerations had motivated many researchers to seek for novel renewable energy conversion methods. Thermoelectric direct conversion of thermal into electrical energies is such a method, in which common compositions include IV-VI semiconducting compounds (e.g., PbTe and SnTe) and their alloys. For approaching practical thermoelectric devices, the current research is focused on electronic optimization of off-stoichiometric p-type Pb{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}Te alloys by tuning of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} doping and/or SnTe alloying levels, while avoiding the less mechanically favorable Na dopant. It was shown that upon such doping/alloying, higher ZTs, compared to those of previously reported undoped Pb{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 0.5}Te alloy, were obtained at temperatures lower than 210–340 °C, depending of the exact doping/alloying level. It was demonstrated that upon optimal grading of the carrier concentration, a maximal thermoelectric efficiency enhancement of ∼38%, compared to that of an undoped material, is expected.

  5. Preliminary study of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostructures deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Marwoto, Putut; Made, D. P. Ngurah; Sugianto; Wibowo, Edy; Astuti, Santi Yuli; Aryani, Nila Prasetya; Othaman, Zulkafli

    2013-09-03

    Growth and properties of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostrucures deposited by using dc magnetron sputtering are reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphologies of the thin films. At growth conditions of 250 °C and 14 W, CdTe films did not yet evenly deposited. However, at growth temperature and plasma power of 325 °C and 43 W, both CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) have deposited on the substrates. In this condition, the morphology of the films indicate that the films have a grain-like nanostructures. Grain size diameter of about 200 nm begin to appear on top of the films. Energy Dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate chemical elements of the Cu doped CdTe film deposited. It was found that the film deposited consist of Cd, Te and Cu elements. XRD was used to investigate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the thin films deposited. The results show that CdTe:Cu(2%) thin film has better crystallographic properties than CdTe thin film. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to investigate the optical properties of thin films deposited. The transmittance spectra showed that transmittance of CdTe:Cu(2%) film is lower than CdTe film. It was found that the bandgap energy of CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) thin films of about 1.48 eV.

  6. Properties of superconducting, polycrystalline dysprosium-doped Bi{sub 1.6}Pb{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 2-x}Dy{sub x}Ca{sub 1.1}Cu{sub 2.1}O{sub 8+{delta}} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.5)

    SciTech Connect

    Sarun, P.M.; Vinu, S.; Shabna, R.; Biju, A.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2009-05-06

    The structural and superconducting properties of dysprosium (Dy) doped (Bi,Pb)-2212 superconductor have been studied. Dy concentration is varied from x = 0.0 to 0.5 in a general stoichiometry of Bi{sub 1.6}Pb{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 2-x}Dy{sub x}Ca{sub 1.1}Cu{sub 2.1}O{sub 8+{delta}}. It is found that the Dy atoms enter into the crystal structure by replacing Sr atoms and induce significant change in lattice parameter, microstructure, hole-concentration and normal state conductivity of the system. The critical temperature (T{sub C}) and critical current density (J{sub C}) at self-field of the Dy-doped samples enhance considerably at optimum doping levels. Maximum T{sub C} of 92.3 K (for x = 0.4) and J{sub C} of 1390 A/cm{sup 2} at 64 K (for x = 0.2) are observed for doped samples as against 79.4 K and 127 A/cm{sup 2}, respectively, for the pure sample. The results are discussed on the basis of the change in hole-concentration due to Dy-doping at Sr-site of (Bi,Pb)-2212 superconductor.

  7. Intense upconversion luminescence and effect of local environment for Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped novel TeO2-BiCl3 glass system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guonian; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Junjie; Wen, Lei; Yang, Jianhu; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2006-05-15

    We present the results of a study that uses theoretical and experimental methods to investigate the characteristics of the upconversion luminescence of Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped TeO2-BiCl3 glass system as a function of the BiCl3 fraction. These glasses are potentially important in the design of upconversion fiber lasers. Effect of local environment around Tm3+ on upconversion fluorescence intensity was analyzed by theoretical calculations. The structure and spectroscopic properties were investigated in the experiments by measuring the Raman spectra, IR transmission spectra, and absorption and fluorescence intensities at room temperature. The results indicate that blue luminescence quantum efficiency increases with increasing BiCl3 content from 10 to 60 mol%, which were interpreted by the increase of asymmetry of glass structure, decrease of phonon energy and removing of OH- groups. PMID:16378753

  8. Bond stretching phonon softening and angle-resolved photoemission kinks in optimally doped Bi2Sr1:6La0:4Cu2O6+sigma superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Jeff; d'Astuto, M.; Jozwiak, C.; Garcia, D.R.; Saini, N.L.; Krisch, M.; Ikeuchi, K.; Baron, A.Q.R.; Eisaki, H.; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2008-05-08

    We report the first measurement of the Cu-O bond stretching phonon dispersion in optimally doped Bi2Sr1.6La0.4Cu2O6+delta using inelastic x-ray scattering. We found a softening of this phonon at q=(0.25,0,0) from 76 to 60 meV, similar to the one reported in other cuprates. A comparison with angle-resolved photoemission data on the same sample revealed an excellent agreement in terms of energy and momentum between the angle-resolved photoemission nodal kink and the soft part of the bond stretching phonon. Indeed, we find that the momentum space where a 63+-5 meV kink is observed can be connected with a vector q=(xi,0,0) with xi>= 0.22, corresponding exactly to the soft part of the bond stretching phonon.

  9. The atomic structure and chemistry of Fe-rich steps on antiphase boundaries in Ti-doped Bi{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    MacLaren, Ian Craven, Alan J.; Schaffer, Bernhard; Wang, LiQiu; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Kalantari, Kambiz; Reaney, Ian M.

    2014-06-01

    Stepped antiphase boundaries are frequently observed in Ti-doped Bi{sub 0.85}Nd{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3}, related to the novel planar antiphase boundaries reported recently. The atomic structure and chemistry of these steps are determined by a combination of high angle annular dark field and bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging, together with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The core of these steps is found to consist of 4 edge-sharing FeO{sub 6} octahedra. The structure is confirmed by image simulations using a frozen phonon multislice approach. The steps are also found to be negatively charged and, like the planar boundaries studied previously, result in polarisation of the surrounding perovskite matrix.

  10. Enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric response in Mn-doped Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 lead-free film by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengchao; Wang, Feifei; Leung, Chung Ming; Yao, Qirong; Tang, Yanxue; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2013-10-01

    Mn-doped Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 thin film with the composition around the morphotropic phase boundary was grown on Pt-electrodized Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Highly (1 0 0)-oriented film with pure perovskite structure was obtained through carefully controlling the growth conditions. Well-defined ferroelectric P-E loop was obtained with the average remnant polarization Pr and coercive field Ec of ∼11.3 μC/cm2 and ∼6.5 kV/mm, respectively. Polycrystalline structures and multidomain states were revealed by piezoresponse force microscopy and large local strain response was obtained with the normalized strain Smax/Emax up to 92 pm/V. The excellent global electrical properties make it quite promising in environmental-friendly ferroelectric and piezoelectric devices.

  11. Growth and electric properties of (100)-oriented Mn-doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 thin film by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengchao; Wang, Feifei; Leung, Chung Ming; Tang, Yanxue; Wang, Tao; Yao, Qirong; Shi, Wangzhou

    2014-06-01

    Mn-doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 (BNBMT) thin film with the composition near the morphotropic phase boundary was grown on (La0.6Sr0.4)CoO3-electroded SrTiO3 single-crystal substrate by using pulsed laser deposition method. Ascribed to the crystal structure and lattice similarity, (100)-oriented BNBMT film with pure single-phase perovskite structure was obtained through carefully controlling the growth conditions. Enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties were obtained with large remanent polarization P r of ˜21 μC/cm2, coercive field E c of ˜7.4 kV/mm and dielectric constant of ˜750 at 1 kHz. The excellent global electrical properties of the BNBMT film are promising for environmentally friendly ferroelectric devices.

  12. Heteroepitaxial growth and multiferroic properties of Mn-doped BiFeO3 films on SrTiO3 buffered III-V semiconductor GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, G. Y.; Yang, Z. B.; Huang, W.; Zeng, H. Z.; Wang, Y.; Chan, H. L. W.; Wu, W. B.; Hao, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    Epitaxial Mn-doped BiFeO3 (MBFO) thin films were grown on GaAs (001) substrate with SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layer by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction results demonstrate that the films show pure (00l) orientation, and MBFO (100)//STO(100), whereas STO (100)//GaAs (110). Piezoresponse force microscopy images and polarization versus electric field loops indicate that the MBFO films grown on GaAs have an effective ferroelectric switching. The MBFO films exhibit good ferroelectric behavior (2Pr ˜ 92 μC/cm2 and 2EC ˜ 372 kV/cm). Ferromagnetic property with saturated magnetization of 6.5 emu/cm3 and coercive field of about 123 Oe is also found in the heterostructure at room temperature.

  13. Unification of the negative electrocaloric effect in Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-BaTiO3 solid solutions by Ba1/2Sr1/2TiO3 doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Sarir; Zheng, Guang-Ping; Iqbal, Yaseen; Ubic, Rick; Yang, Junhe

    2013-12-01

    The microscopic mechanisms of the negative electrocaloric effect (ECE) of the single-phase (1-x)(0.94Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-0.06BaTiO3)-xBa1/2Sr1/2TiO3 (BNT-BT-BST) perovskite solid solutions fabricated via the sol-gel technique are explored in this study. Dielectric and mechanical relaxation analyses are employed to investigate the ferroelectric and structural transitions of the samples. The electrocaloric properties of the samples were measured by thermodynamics Maxwell relations. The difference between the depolarization temperature (Td) and the maximum dielectric constant temperature (Tm) was found to decrease with increasing BST content. Doping with BST stabilized the ferroelectric phase along with unifying the EC temperature changes (ΔT) to only negative values. The origin of the uniform negative ECE of BNT-BT-BST is discussed.

  14. Comparison of the low-temperature specific heat of Fe- and Co-doped Bi{sub 1.8}Pb{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 2}Ca(Cu{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}{ital M}{sub {ital x}}){sub 2}O{sub 8} ({ital M}=Fe or Co): Anomolously enhanced electronic contribution due to Fe doping

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.K.; Franck, J.P.

    1996-04-01

    Specific-heat data of Fe-doped Bi{sub 1.8}Pb{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 2}Ca(Cu{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Fe{sub {ital x}}){sub 2}O{sub 8} in the range 2{endash}20 K are presented for {ital x}=1, 2, 4, 6, and 8{percent}. The data are compared with our previous measurements on Co-doped bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide superconductors of nominal composition Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BISCO 2212). Both Fe and Co are magnetic substitutions with effective moments close to their free-ion value. In the normal state the magnetic susceptibility increases by more than a factor 2 over the doping range due to effective-mass enhancement. In the superconducting state both ions act as magnetic pair breakers. For Co doping the normal-state linear term {gamma} is observed, enhanced due to the effective-mass increase. For Fe doping we observe a large anomalous contribution to the electronic specific heat starting near 15 K and leading at the lowest temperature to a linear term near {gamma}{sub 0}=72 mJ/moleK{sup 2} (1 mole=1 formula unit). The anomalous term is typical of heavy fermion behavior. Comparison with specific-heat data of Co-doped BISCO 2212 suggests that hybridization between 3{ital d} electrons of the dopant and the planar carriers is more effective for Fe doping than for Co doping. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Emission Analysis of RE{sup 3+} (= Nd{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}) Doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-LiF Glass Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Srinivasa; Buddhudu, S.

    2011-11-22

    This paper reports on the absorption and emission spectra o of RE{sup 3+} (= Nd{sup 3+} or Er{sup 3+}) doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-LiF (Bi-B-LiF) glass system. The absorption spectrum of Nd{sup 3+} doped Bi-B-LiF glass has exhibited eight absorption bands at 513 nm, 525 nm, 584 nm, 626 nm, 682 nm, 748 nm, 805 nm and 876 which correspond to the electronic transitions of ({sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}G{sub 9/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}G{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 7/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}G{sub 5/2}, {sup 2}G{sub 7/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 2}H{sub 11/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}F{sub 9/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}F{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}F{sub 5/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 9/2}) and ({sup 4}I{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}F{sub 5/2}) respectively. From Nd{sup 3+} : Bi-B-LiF glass, three NIR emission bands have been observed at 900 nm, 1075 nm and 1342 nm, which are assigned to the transitions of ({sup 4}F{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2}), ({sup 4}F{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 11/2}) and ({sup 4}F{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}) respectively with an excitation at 514.5 nm (Ar{sup +} ion laser). The Er{sup 3+} : Bi-B-LiF glass has revealed six absorption bands at 489 nm, 522 nm, 653 nm, 800 nm, 973 nm and 1531 nm which are labeled to the transitions of ({sup 4}I{sub 15/2}{yields}{sup 4}F{sub 7/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 15/2}{yields}{sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, 4G{sub 11/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 15/2}{yields}{sup 4}F{sub 9/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 15/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 7/2}), ({sup 4}I{sub 15/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 11/2}), and ({sup 4}I{sub 15/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}) respectively. From the Er{sup 3+}: Bi-B-LiF glass, an NIR emission at 1540 nm ({sup 4}I{sub 13/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}), has been observed with an excitation at 514.5 nm (Ar{sup +} ion laser).

  16. Effect of Niobium doping on structural, thermal, sintering and electrical properties of Bi{sub 4}V{sub 1.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 10.7}

    SciTech Connect

    Alga, M.; Ammar, A.; Tanouti, B.; Outzourhit, A.; Mauvy, F. . E-mail: mauvy@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr; Decourt, R.

    2005-09-15

    Doping Bi{sub 4}V{sub 1.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 10.7} with niobium has led to the formation of the Bi{sub 4}V{sub 1.8}Cu{sub 0.2-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 10.7+3x/2} solid solution. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis have shown that only the compound with x=0.05 presents a tetragonal symmetry with a {gamma}{sup '} polymorph while the other compositions are of {beta} polymorph. The influence of sintering temperature on the microstructure of the samples was investigated by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ceramics sintered at temperatures higher than 820{sup o}C present micro-craks. The evolution of the electrical conductivity with temperature and the degree of substitution has been investigated by impedance spectroscopy. Among all compositions studied the sample with x=0.05 presents the highest value of the conductivity.

  17. Crystal Structure, Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of (Li, Ce)4+, Nb5+ and Mn2+ Co-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 High-Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Deqiong; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Jiagang; Bao, Shaoming; Zhang, Wen; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    Bismuth-layered structured ceramics Ca0.85(Li,Ce)0.075Bi4Ti4- x Nb x O15-0.01MnCO3 were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The evolution of microstructure and corresponding electrical properties were studied. All the samples presented a single bismuth layered-structural phase with m = 4, indicating that (Li, Ce)4+, Nb5+ and Mn2+ adequately enter into the pseudo-perovskite structure and form solid solutions. It was found that Ca0.85(Li,Ce)0.075Bi4Ti3.98Nb0.02O15-0.01MnCO3 (CBTLCM-0.02Nb) ceramics possess the optimum electrical properties. The piezoelectric coefficient d 33, dielectric constant ɛ r, loss tan δ, planar electromechanical coupling factor k p and Curie-temperature T C of CBTLCM-0.02Nb ceramics were found to be ˜19.6 pC/N, 160, 0.16%, 8.1% and 767°C, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal depoling behavior demonstrates that the d 33 value of x = 0.02 content remains at 16.8 pC/N after annealing at 500°C. These results suggest that the (Li, Ce)4+-, Nb5+- and Mn2+-doped CBT-based ceramics are promising candidates for high-temperature piezoelectric applications.

  18. Crystal Structure, Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of (Li, Ce)4+, Nb5+ and Mn2+ Co-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 High-Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Deqiong; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Jiagang; Bao, Shaoming; Zhang, Wen; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2016-05-01

    Bismuth-layered structured ceramics Ca0.85(Li,Ce)0.075Bi4Ti4-x Nb x O15-0.01MnCO3 were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The evolution of microstructure and corresponding electrical properties were studied. All the samples presented a single bismuth layered-structural phase with m = 4, indicating that (Li, Ce)4+, Nb5+ and Mn2+ adequately enter into the pseudo-perovskite structure and form solid solutions. It was found that Ca0.85(Li,Ce)0.075Bi4Ti3.98Nb0.02O15-0.01MnCO3 (CBTLCM-0.02Nb) ceramics possess the optimum electrical properties. The piezoelectric coefficient d 33, dielectric constant ɛ r, loss tanδ, planar electromechanical coupling factor k p and Curie-temperature T C of CBTLCM-0.02Nb ceramics were found to be ˜19.6 pC/N, 160, 0.16%, 8.1% and 767°C, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal depoling behavior demonstrates that the d 33 value of x = 0.02 content remains at 16.8 pC/N after annealing at 500°C. These results suggest that the (Li, Ce)4+-, Nb5+- and Mn2+-doped CBT-based ceramics are promising candidates for high-temperature piezoelectric applications.

  19. Electric-field-temperature phase diagram of Mn-doped Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.9}K{sub 0.1}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ehara, Yoshitaka Novak, Nikola; Yasui, Shintaro; Itoh, Mitsuru; Webber, Kyle G.

    2015-12-28

    An electric field–temperature (E-T) phase diagram for a lead-free 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped Bi(Na{sub 0.1}K{sub 0.9})TiO{sub 3} ceramics was investigated. The x-ray diffraction, dielectric and polarization measurements revealed relaxor behavior and were used to characterize the stability regions of the non-ergodic relaxor, ergodic relaxor and electric field induced ferroelectric states. As indicated by the polarization–current density profiles, transformation between two electric fields, induced ferroelectric states with opposite polarization direction arise via a two-step process through an intermediate relaxor state. Interplay between the ferroelectric state conversion and intermediate relaxor state is governed by the dynamics of polarization relaxation. The presented E-T phase diagram revealed the effects of the applied electric field and temperature on stability regions. This is of special interest since the Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.1}K{sub 0.9}){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were proposed as a potential piezoceramic material.

  20. Dielectric Properties of Zr-Doped Ba0.985Bi0.01TiO3 Synthesized by Inorganic Distillation under Atmopsheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Jiang, Shenglin; Song, Linhua

    2013-02-01

    To meet the requirement of next-generation multilayer ceramic capacitors, the synthesis and characterization of Ba0.985Bi0.01TiO3-based high-k dielectric compositions are reported. Solid solutions with a nominal composition of 0.4Ba0.985Bi0.01TiO3-0.6BaTi1-xZrxO3 (x = 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.1) was synthesized by distillation method. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction patterns showed an increase and then a decrease in the tetragonality of Ba0.985Bi0.01TiO3 after modifying with BaTi1-xZrxO3. The decrement in tetragonality (c/a ratio) was accompanied by lowering of Curie temperature. 0.4Ba0.985Bi0.01TiO3-0.6BaTi0.995Zr0.005O3 was found to exhibit diffuse phase transition accompanied by an ultrahigh dielectric constant of 77,619, a loss tangent < 1 and a grain size < 1 μm.

  1. Effects of BiAlO{sub 3}-doping on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of 0.93Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–0.07BaTiO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Xiao-ming Zhao, Xu-mei; Liang, Xiao-xia; Zhou, Jian-ping; Liu, Peng

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • BiAlO{sub 3}-doped BNT-based ceramics were synthesized via a conventional solid state reaction method. • T% values are 56%, 32%, 37%, and 37% for the ceramics with x = 0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.06, respectively. • The mean grain sizes of the ceramics with x = 0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.06 are about 1.1, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7 μm, respectively. • Dielectric anomalies in the ϵ{sub r}–T curves are close related to the BiAlO{sub 3} amounts. • The ceramic with x = 0.01 shows the P{sub m} of 32.5 μC/cm{sup 2}, P{sub r} of 24.1 μC/cm{sup 2}, E{sub c} of 20.0 kV/cm and d{sub 33} of 166 pC/N. - Abstract: (1 − x)(0.93Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–0.07BaTiO{sub 3})–xBiAlO{sub 3} (BNBT-xBA, x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.06) lead-free ceramics were synthesized via a conventional solid state reaction method. Crystallite structure, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the BNBT–xBA ceramics were studied in detail. X-ray diffraction results show that all ceramics exhibit typical diffraction peaks of ABO{sub 3} perovskite structure. Scanning electron microscope images show that all samples have fine microstructures. Both Curie temperature and maximum dielectric constant vary with the change in the BiAlO{sub 3} amounts. The values of hysteresis loop squareness were calculated to be 1.26, 0.81, 0.51 and 0.36 for the ceramics with x = 0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, indicating a decreased switching behavior of polarization. The changes in dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the ceramics are also discussed.

  2. Improvement of the ab initio embedded cluster method for luminescence properties of doped materials by taking into account impurity induced distortions: The example of Y2O3:Bi3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réal, Florent; Ordejón, Belén; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Schamps, Joël

    2009-11-01

    New ab initio embedded-cluster calculations devoted to simulating the electronic spectroscopy of Bi3+ impurities in Y2O3 sesquioxide for substitutions in either S6 or C2 cationic sites have been carried out taking special care of the quality of the environment. A considerable quantitative improvement with respect to previous studies [F. Réal et al. J. Chem. Phys. 125, 174709 (2006); F. Réal et al. J. Chem. Phys. 127, 104705 (2007)] is brought by using environments of the impurities obtained via supercell techniques that allow the whole (pseudo) crystal to relax (WCR geometries) instead of environments obtained from local relaxation of the first coordination shell only (FSR geometries) within the embedded cluster approach, as was done previously. In particular the uniform 0.4 eV discrepancy of absorption energies found previously with FSR environments disappears completely when the new WCR environments of the impurities are employed. Moreover emission energies and hence Stokes shifts are in much better agreement with experiment. These decisive improvements are mainly due to a lowering of the local point-group symmetry (S6→C3 and C2→C1) when relaxing the geometry of the emitting (lowest) triplet state. This symmetry lowering was not observed in FSR embedded cluster relaxations because the crystal field of the embedding frozen at the genuine pure crystal positions seems to be a more important driving force than the interactions within the cluster, thus constraining the overall symmetry of the system. Variations of the doping rate are found to have negligible influence on the spectra. In conclusion, the use of WCR environments may be crucial to render the structural distortions occurring in a doped crystal and it may help to significantly improve the embedded-cluster methodology to reach the quantitative accuracy necessary to interpret and predict luminescence properties of doped materials of this type.

  3. Electrical characterization of CdTe grain-boundary properties from as processed CdTe/CdS solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L.M.; Robinson, G.Y.; Levi, D.H.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.; Kaydanov, V.

    1998-09-01

    An ability to liftoff or separate the thin-film polycrystalline CdTe from the CdS, without the use of chemical etches, has enabled direct electrical characterization of the as-processed CdTe near the CdTe/CdS heterointerface. The authors use this ability to understand how a back-contact, nitric-phosphoric (NP) etch affects the grain boundaries throughout the film. Quantitative determination of the grain-boundary barrier potentials and estimates of doping density near the grain perimeter are determined from theoretical fits to measurements of the current vs. temperature. Estimates of the bulk doping are determined from high-frequency resistivity measurements. The light and dark barrier potentials change after the NP etch, and the origin of this change is postulated. Also, a variable doping density within the grains of non-etched material has been determined. These results allow a semi-quantitative grain-boundary band diagram to be drawn that should aid in determining more accurate two-dimensional models for polycrystalline CdTe solar cells.

  4. The Effect of Ca–Zr mole ratio on preparation, structural and magnetic properties of Ca–Zr doped Bi-YIG

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanpour, A.; Niyaifar, M.; Faridniya, N.; Amighian, J.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ca–Zr substituted Bi-YIG has been prepared via mechanochemical processing and heat treatment. • Structural and magnetic properties were investigated. • Magnetic measurements showed the Ferrimagnetic behavior for pure garnet structure samples. • The spherical morphology of the nanoparticles was found from the SEM micrograph. - Abstract: Ca–Zr substituted (Bi-YIG) nanopowders with a nominal composition of BiY{sub 2−x}Ca{sub x}Zr{sub y}Fe{sub 5−y}O{sub 12} (x = y and x varied from 0.00 to 1.25 by the step of 0.25) were prepared by mechanochemical processing (MCP) and subsequent heat treatments. The effect of dopant mol ratios, on garnet phase formation were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The lattice constant of the samples increased by increasing Zr{sup 4+} content (for x ≤ 1). Mean crystallite size of the single-phase powders, which was evaluated by Scherrer's formula, was about 35 nm. The experimental results show that the Ca–Zr substitution Bi-YIG lowers the calcining and sintering temperatures for x < 1. The results show that the single-phase nanopowders can be obtained at temperatures below 850 °C. The measurements of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) show that the saturation magnetization of the samples increases as x increase from 0.00 to 0.25 and then decreases by increasing x to the values greater than 0.25.

  5. High Efficiency Single Crystal CdTe Solar Cells: November 19, 2009 - January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, M.; Gilmore, A.

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the program was to develop single crystal CdTe-based top cells grown on Si solar cells as a platform for the subsequent manufacture of high efficiency tandem cells for CPV applications. The keys to both the single junction and the tandem junction cell architectures are the ability to grow high quality single-crystal CdTe and CdZnTe layers on p-type Si substrates, to dope the CdTe and CdZnTe controllably, both n and p-type, and to make low resistance ohmic front and back contacts. EPIR demonstrated the consistent MBE growth of CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si having high crystalline quality despite very large lattice mismatches; epitaxial CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si consistently showed state-of-the-art electron mobilities and good hole mobilities; bulk minority carrier recombination lifetimes of unintentionally p-doped CdTe and CdZnTe grown by MBE on Si were demonstrated to be consistently of order 100 ns or longer; desired n- and p-doping levels were achieved; solar cell series specific resistances <10 ?-cm2 were achieved; A single-junction solar cell having a state-of-the-art value of Voc and a unverified 16.4% efficiency was fabricated from CdZnTe having a 1.80 eV bandgap, ideal for the top junction in a tandem cell with a Si bottom junction.

  6. Sign reversal of dielectric anisotropy of ferroelectric liquid crystals doped with cadmium telluride quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Silotia, P.; Biradar, A. M.

    2011-08-01

    A small amount of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) has been doped into various ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) to observe the modifications in the alignment and dielectric anisotropy (Δɛ) of the composites. The CdTe QDs have induced a uniform homeotropic (HMT) alignment in most of the FLC mixtures. We observed an unexpected switching (from HMT to homogeneous configuration) of CdTe QDs doped FLC CS1026 (having positive Δɛ) by the application of high dc bias. This reverse switching has been attributed to the interaction between FLC molecules and CdTe QDs which caused the sign reversal of Δɛ of FLC CS1026.

  7. Modeling the defect distribution and degradation of CdTe ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, Nima E.

    2014-12-01

    The defect distribution across an ultrathin film CdTe layer of a CdS/CdTe solar cell is modelled by solving the balance equation in steady state. The degradation of the device parameters due to the induced defects during ion implantation is considered where the degradation rate is accelerated if the defect distribution is considerable. The defect concentration is maximum at the surface of the CdTe layer where implantation is applied and it is minimum at the junction with the CdS layer. It shows that ultrathin devices degrade faster if the defect concentration is high at the junction rather than the back region (CdTe/Metal). Since the front and back contacts of the device are close in ultrathin films and the electric field is strong to drive the defects into the junction, the p-doping process might be precisely controlled during ion implantation. The modeling results presented here are in agreement with the few available experimental reports in literature about the degradation and defect configuration of the ultrathin CdTe films.

  8. Thermoelectric and mechanical properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube doped Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Wang, Hsin; Menchhofer, Paul A; Kiggans, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Since many thermoelectrics are brittle in nature with low mechanical strength, improving their mechanical properties is important in fabrication of devices such as thermoelectric power generators and coolers. In this work, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into polycrystalline Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 through powder processing, which increased the flexural strength from 32 MPa to 90 MPa. Electrical and thermal conductivities were both reduced in the CNT containing materials, leading to unchanged figure of merit. Dynamic Young s modulus and shear modulus of the composites were lower than the base material, which is likely related to the grain boundary scattering due to the CNTs.

  9. Structural and dielectric properties of erbium doped BiFeO{sub 3}−PbTiO{sub 3} solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Vandana, Singh, Anupinder Singh, Lakhwant Kaur, Anumeet; Dahyia, Sajjan; Chatterjee, Ratnamala

    2014-04-24

    Single phase Er substituted at A-site BiFeO{sub 3}−PbTiO{sub 3} solid solutions were synthesized using solid state reaction route. The calcinations at different temperature reveals that the single and pure tetragonal phase formation has been accomplished at 1000°C. The SEM micrographs did not show any distinguishable change in grain size. The dielectric studies established that the dielectric constant decreases and ferroelectric T{sub c} increases with increase in Er.

  10. Photoinduced tellurium precipitation in CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Shunji

    1991-06-01

    Tellurium precipitation in CdTe is found to be induced by photoirradiation with energy higher than the energy gap at 240 W/sq cm. It is suggested that this photoinduced precipitation is related with the strong electron-phonon interactions, possibly self-trapped excitons. This irreducible tellurium precipitation may cause a serious problem for the life of semiconductor devices.

  11. Isoelectronic co-doping

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2004-11-09

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with deep acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, N and Bi, to customize solar cells, thermal voltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers on GaP, InP, GaAs, Ge, and Si substrates. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  12. Phase transformation, dielectric and magnetic properties of Nb doped Bi0.8Sr0.2FeO3 multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reetu, Agarwal, Ashish; Sanghi, Sujata; Ashima, Ahlawat, Neetu; Monica

    2012-06-01

    Bi0.8Sr0.2Fe1-xNbxO3 (x = 0.0, 0.05, and 0.10) multiferroics were prepared by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis show that crystal structure is rhombohedral for x = 0.0, 0.05 samples and triclinic for x = 0.10 sample. These samples showed dispersion in dielectric constant (έ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) values at lower frequencies. For x = 0.05 sample, both έ and tan δ are lower than for Bi0.8Sr0.2FeO3 sample indicating its high resistivity. For x = 0.10 sample, the value of έ is enhanced which may be due to formation of stronger dipoles in triclinic structure. Temperature dependence of frequency exponent "s" of power law suggests that correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model is applicable at lower temperatures and quantum mechanical tunneling model is appropriate at higher temperatures for describing the conduction mechanism in x = 0.0 and x = 0.05 samples; while in x = 0.10 sample, CBH model is appropriate in studied temperature range. Significant enhancement observed in magnetization for x = 0.10 sample is due to the structural phase transition from rhombohedral to triclinic caused by Nb substitution. For this sample, values of remnant magnetization (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) are 0.155 emu/g and 2.695 kOe, respectively.

  13. Joining Chemical Pressure and Epitaxial Strain to Yield Y-doped BiFeO3 Thin Films with High Dielectric Response.

    PubMed

    Scarisoreanu, N D; Craciun, F; Birjega, R; Ion, V; Teodorescu, V S; Ghica, C; Negrea, R; Dinescu, M

    2016-01-01

    BiFeO3 is one of the most promising multiferroic materials but undergoes two major drawbacks: low dielectric susceptibility and high dielectric loss. Here we report high in-plane dielectric permittivity (ε' ∼2500) and low dielectric loss (tan δ < 0.01) obtained on Bi0.95Y0.05FeO3 films epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 (001) by pulsed laser deposition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and geometric phase analysis evidenced nanostripe domains with alternating compressive/tensile strain and slight lattice rotations. Nanoscale mixed phase/domain ensembles are commonly found in different complex materials with giant dielectric/electromechanical (ferroelectric/ relaxors) or magnetoresistance (manganites) response. Our work brings insight into the joined role of chemical pressure and epitaxial strain on the appearance of nanoscale stripe structure which creates conditions for easy reorientation and high dielectric response, and could be of more general relevance for the field of materials science where engineered materials with huge response to external stimuli are a highly priced target. PMID:27157090

  14. Joining Chemical Pressure and Epitaxial Strain to Yield Y-doped BiFeO3 Thin Films with High Dielectric Response

    PubMed Central

    Scarisoreanu, N. D.; Craciun, F.; Birjega, R.; Ion, V.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Ghica, C.; Negrea, R.; Dinescu, M.

    2016-01-01

    BiFeO3 is one of the most promising multiferroic materials but undergoes two major drawbacks: low dielectric susceptibility and high dielectric loss. Here we report high in-plane dielectric permittivity (ε’ ∼2500) and low dielectric loss (tan δ < 0.01) obtained on Bi0.95Y0.05FeO3 films epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 (001) by pulsed laser deposition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and geometric phase analysis evidenced nanostripe domains with alternating compressive/tensile strain and slight lattice rotations. Nanoscale mixed phase/domain ensembles are commonly found in different complex materials with giant dielectric/electromechanical (ferroelectric/ relaxors) or magnetoresistance (manganites) response. Our work brings insight into the joined role of chemical pressure and epitaxial strain on the appearance of nanoscale stripe structure which creates conditions for easy reorientation and high dielectric response, and could be of more general relevance for the field of materials science where engineered materials with huge response to external stimuli are a highly priced target. PMID:27157090

  15. Structure and magnetic/electrochemical properties of Cu-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles prepared by a simple solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajonrit, Jessada; Phumying, Santi; Maensiri, Santi

    2016-06-01

    BiFe1‑ x Cu x O3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) nanoparticles were prepared by a simple solution method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method analysis using the Barret–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) model, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Magnetization properties were obtained using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. Magnetization was clearly enhanced by increasing Cu content and decreasing particle size. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) temperature-dependent magnetization measurements showed that blocking temperature increased with increasing Cu content. Electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) method. The performance of the fabricated supercapacitor was improved for the BiFe0.95Cu0.05O3 electrode. The highest specific capacitance was 568.13 F g‑1 at 1 A g‑1 and the capacity retention was 77.13% after 500 cycles.

  16. Joining Chemical Pressure and Epitaxial Strain to Yield Y-doped BiFeO3 Thin Films with High Dielectric Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarisoreanu, N. D.; Craciun, F.; Birjega, R.; Ion, V.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Ghica, C.; Negrea, R.; Dinescu, M.

    2016-05-01

    BiFeO3 is one of the most promising multiferroic materials but undergoes two major drawbacks: low dielectric susceptibility and high dielectric loss. Here we report high in-plane dielectric permittivity (ε’ ∼2500) and low dielectric loss (tan δ < 0.01) obtained on Bi0.95Y0.05FeO3 films epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 (001) by pulsed laser deposition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and geometric phase analysis evidenced nanostripe domains with alternating compressive/tensile strain and slight lattice rotations. Nanoscale mixed phase/domain ensembles are commonly found in different complex materials with giant dielectric/electromechanical (ferroelectric/ relaxors) or magnetoresistance (manganites) response. Our work brings insight into the joined role of chemical pressure and epitaxial strain on the appearance of nanoscale stripe structure which creates conditions for easy reorientation and high dielectric response, and could be of more general relevance for the field of materials science where engineered materials with huge response to external stimuli are a highly priced target.

  17. Anomalous coercivity enhancement with temperature and tunable exchange bias in Gd and Ti co-doped BiFeO3 multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmmad, Bashir; Islam, M. Z.; Billah, Areef; Basith, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the effects of temperature on the magnetic properties of the Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3 (x  =  0.00-0.20) multiferroic system. Unexpectedly, the coercive fields (H c ) of this multiferroic system increased with increasing temperature. The coercive fields and remanent magnetization were higher over a wide range of temperatures in sample x  =  0.10, i.e. in a sample with a composition Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe0.9Ti0.1O3 than those of x  =  0.00 and 0.20 compositions. Therefore, we carried out temperature-dependent magnetization experiments extensively for sample x  =  0.10. The magnetic hysteresis loops at different temperatures exhibit an asymmetric shift towards the magnetic field axes, which indicates the presence of an exchange bias effect in this material system. The hysteresis loops were also carried out at temperatures of 150 K and 250 K by cooling down the sample from 300 K in various cooling magnetic fields ({{H}\\text{cool}} ). The exchange bias field ({{H}\\text{EB}} ) values increased with {{H}\\text{cool}} and decreased with temperature. The {{H}\\text{EB}} values were tunable by field cooling at temperatures of up to 250 K.

  18. Emitter/absorber interface of CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tao; Kanevce, Ana; Sites, James R.

    2016-06-01

    The performance of CdTe solar cells can be very sensitive to the emitter/absorber interface, especially for high-efficiency cells with high bulk lifetime. Performance losses from acceptor-type interface defects can be significant when interface defect states are located near mid-gap energies. Numerical simulations show that the emitter/absorber band alignment, the emitter doping and thickness, and the defect properties of the interface (i.e., defect density, defect type, and defect energy) can all play significant roles in the interface recombination. In particular, a type I heterojunction with small conduction-band offset (0.1 eV ≤ ΔEC ≤ 0.3 eV) can help maintain good cell efficiency in spite of high interface defect density, much like with Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) cells. The basic principle is that positive ΔEC, often referred to as a "spike," creates an absorber inversion and hence a large hole barrier adjacent to the interface. As a result, the electron-hole recombination is suppressed due to an insufficient hole supply at the interface. A large spike (ΔEC ≥ 0.4 eV), however, can impede electron transport and lead to a reduction of photocurrent and fill-factor. In contrast to the spike, a "cliff" (ΔEC < 0 eV) allows high hole concentration in the vicinity of the interface, which will assist interface recombination and result in a reduced open-circuit voltage. Another way to mitigate performance losses due to interface defects is to use a thin and highly doped emitter, which can invert the absorber and form a large hole barrier at the interface. CdS is the most common emitter material used in CdTe solar cells, but the CdS/CdTe interface is in the cliff category and is not favorable from the band-offset perspective. The ΔEC of other n-type emitter choices, such as (Mg,Zn)O, Cd(S,O), or (Cd,Mg)Te, can be tuned by varying the elemental ratio for an optimal positive value of ΔEC. These materials are predicted to yield higher voltages and would therefore be

  19. Electrocaloric effect and luminescence properties of lanthanide doped (Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} lead free materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zannen, M.; Lahmar, A. E-mail: zdravko.kutnjak@ijs.si; Asbani, B.; El Marssi, M.; Khemakhem, H.; Kutnjak, Z. E-mail: zdravko.kutnjak@ijs.si; Es Souni, M.

    2015-07-20

    Polycrystalline lead-free Sodium Bismuth Titanate (NBT) ferroelectric ceramics doped with rare earth (RE) element are prepared using solid state reaction method. Optical, ferroelectric, and electrocaloric properties were investigated. The introduction of RE{sup 3+} ions in the NBT host lattice shows different light emissions over the wavelength range from visible to near infrared region. The ferroelectric P-E hysteresis loops exhibit an antiferroelectric-like character near room temperature indicating possible existence of a morphotropic phase boundary. The enhanced electrocaloric response was observed in a broad temperature range due to nearly merged phase transitions. Coexistence of optical and electrocaloric properties is very promising for photonics or optoelectronic device applications.

  20. Enhanced open circuit voltage in photovoltaic effect of polycrystalline La and Ni co-doped BiFeO3 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zeng-Wei; Wang, Ying-Long; Liu, Bao-Ting

    2015-08-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) effect of polycrystalline Bi0.975La0.025Fe0.975Ni0.025O3 (BLFNO) film grown on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(001) substrate using sol-gel method has been investigated. The BLFNO film possesses good ferroelectric property and large twice-remanent polarization. It is found that PV response exhibited a strong dependence on the potential of top indium tin oxide (ITO) and bottom Pt electrode. The open circuit voltage is -0.67 V when the potential of ITO electrode is higher than that of Pt electrode and 0.45 V when the potential of ITO electrode is lower than that of Pt electrode. This can be interpreted by the variation of barrier heights at both ITO/BLFNO and BLFNO/Pt interfaces.