Science.gov

Sample records for bicolor thysanoptera phlaeothripidae

  1. [Taxonomic revision of the Haplothrips-Karnyothrips group (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)].

    PubMed

    Retana-Salazar, Axel P; Soto-Rodríguez, Gerardo A

    2007-06-01

    The generic group ("ensemble") Haplothrips-Karnyothrips is reviewed, following the most recently published criteria for distinguishing generic characters. We establish a new diagnosis for each genus. A review of a Central American collection is included and a new genus of Phlaeothripidae is described from the Central Pacific of Costa Rica from specimens collected on Cyperaceae flowers during the dry season. The genus can be distinguished by widely separated maxillary stylets, absent maxillary bridge, pelta shape and the setae B1, which measures two thirds of the tube length. We include a key based on characters of phylogenetic importance. PMID:19069772

  2. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine. PMID:20021760

  3. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Karadjova, Olia; Krumov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. PMID:26019678

  4. A new species of Haplothrips from southern Iran (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz; Aleosfoor, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Haplothrips herajius sp. n. is described from leaves and flowers of a species of Suaeda in the south of Fars Province, Iran. This is the second Iranian species of Haplothrips with the unusual character state of extra setae on the metanotum. Information on variation in color and structure of the new species is provided. The similarities and host plant associations of this new species and Haplothrips kermanensis are discussed,as both are phytophagous on species of Chenopodiaceae. PMID:23794813

  5. Review of the spore-feeding Idolothripinae from China (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Li-Hong; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated key is provided to the 19 genera of the subfamily Idolothripinae from China, and a checklist given to 62 named species, of which six species are newly recorded from China, together with the genus Bolothrips that is represented by two un-named species. A generic diagnosis is given for each genus, along with some discussion of systematic relationship problems and species diversity. Identification keys to species of 11 genera are provided, and Megathrips antennatus Guo, Feng & Duan is considered as a new synonymof Megathrips lativentris (Heeger). PMID:24194662

  6. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Franklin H.; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E.

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard “Tres A” characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard “La Escondida” that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms. PMID:26246440

  7. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Franklin H; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard "Tres A" characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard "La Escondida" that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms. PMID:26246440

  8. Endemics and adventives: Thysanoptera (Insecta) biodiversity of Norfolk, a tiny Pacific Island.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Wells, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The thrips fauna of Norfolk Island is a curious mix of endemics and adventives, with notable absences that include one major trophic group. A brief introduction is provided to the history of human settlement and its ecological impact on this tiny land mass in the western Pacific Ocean. The Thysanoptera fauna comprises about 20% endemic and almost 50% widespread invasive species, and shows limited faunal relationships to the nearest territories, Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This fauna, comprising 66 species, includes among named species 29 Terebrantia and 33 Tubulifera, with four Tubulifera remaining undescribed. At least 12 species are endemics, of which 10 are mycophagous, and up to 10 further species are possibly native to the island. As with the thrips fauna of most Pacific islands, many species are widespread invasives. However, most of the common thrips of eastern Australia have not been found on Norfolk Island, and the complete absence of leaf-feeding Phlaeothripinae is notable. The following new taxa are described: in the Phlaeothripidae, Buffettithrips rauti gen. et sp. n. and Priesneria akestra sp. n.; and in the Thripidae, Scirtothrips araucariae sp. n. and Thrips merae sp. n. PMID:26249431

  9. Meniscus ascent by thrips (Thysanoptera).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jiménez, Victor Manuel; Arriaga-Ramirez, Sarahi; Dudley, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Meniscus climbing using a fixed body posture has been well documented for various aquatic and neustonic insects, but is not known from small flying insects that inadvertently become trapped on water surfaces. Here, we show that thrips (order Thysanoptera) can ascend a meniscus by arching their non-wetting bodies to translate head-first and upward along a water surface; if initially oriented backwards, they can turn by 180° to ascend head-first, and climb upward on a surrounding boundary. Using variable-concentration sucrose solutions, we show that translational and climbing speeds during meniscus ascent vary inversely with fluid viscosity. Becoming trapped in water is a frequent event for flying insects, and given that most of them are very small, dedicated behaviours to escape water may be commonplace among pterygotes. PMID:27624795

  10. Thysanoptera-Terebrantia of the Hawaiian Islands: an identification manual

    PubMed Central

    Mound, Laurence; Nakahara, Sueo; Tsuda, Dick M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification system is presented to 99 species and 49 genera in three families recorded from the Hawaiian Islands in the Thysanoptera suborder Terebrantia. Only seven (possibly eight) of these species are considered endemic, the remainder being adventive to these islands. The only previous study of Hawaiian Thysanoptera, by Zimmerman in 1948, included 47 Terebrantia species in 21 genera. PMID:26843832

  11. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaomei; Ge, Zhengxiang; Sato, Shirley J; Clemente, Tom E

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) targeting immature embryo explants is a route to introduce transgenic alleles into the crop. The protocol requires maintenance of quality stock plants under greenhouse conditions for a constant supply of immature embryo explants. This is typically carried out by a regular sowing of seeds, minimal use of pesticides, and monitoring of plants to document pollen dispersal and bagging of heads. The time frame from explant inoculation to establishment of a primary transgenic event in the greenhouse typically ranges from 4 to 6 months. Seed set in the primary transformants is comparable to greenhouse-grown stock plants, with the majority of the transgenic alleles being inherited as a single functional locus. PMID:25300840

  12. A Trichodorus (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) nematode from thrips (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thrips insect Caliothrips sp. (Thysanoptera: Panchaetothripinae) from persimmon fruit (Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.) from an unknown origin, possibly Asia, was intercepted in a passenger bag in November 2012 at the Peace Arch Border Crossing from Surrey, British Columbia to Blaine, Washington by an AP...

  13. Genetic transformation of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Girijashankar, V; Swathisree, V

    2009-10-01

    Great millet (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated across the world for food and fodder. It is typically grown in semiarid regions that are not suitable for cultivation of other major cereals. Sexual incompatibility and shortage of available genes in germplasm to combat biotic and abiotic stresses resulted in marginalized yields of this crop. Genetic modification of sorghum with agronomically useful genes can address this problem. Here, we tried to review and summarize the key aspects of sorghum transformation work being carried out so far by various research groups across the world. The approaches used and the obstacles in generating transgenic sorghum are also pointed out and discussed. PMID:23572939

  14. Thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) of Iran: a revised and updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555

  15. Characterization of Transposable Elements in Laccaria bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TE-specific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copies elements distributed within 172 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs are ancient except some terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TEs expansion in L. bicolor; the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 500,000 years ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, contributes to genome assembly and to a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution, and provides a valuable resource for the ongoing Laccaria Pan-Genome project supported by the U.S.-DOE Joint Genome Institute.

  16. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  17. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  18. Estimating bacterial diversity in Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) via next generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The last two decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as ...

  19. An overview of chilli thrips. Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) biology, distribution and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the insect order Thysanoptera, the genus Scirtothrips Shull contains more than 100 thrips species, among which 10 species have been reported as serious pests of agricultural crops. Within this genus, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is an emerging pest of various economically important host crops in th...

  20. Toxicity of selected insecticides to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) using a glass-vial bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are important pests that are primarily controlled with insecticides on both onions and cotton in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Resistance to various insecticides has been reported so data are needed on toxicity of insecticides r...

  1. Induced Chromosome Doubling of Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum propinquum Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (2n=2x=20) and S. propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc. (2n=2x=20) have a significantly higher degree of interfertility than S. bicolor and S. halepense (L.) Pers. (2n=4x=40), which occurs rarely and results in largely sterile triploids (2n=3x=30). Interspecific hybridization betwe...

  2. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kae Shin; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  3. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  4. MOROKOSHI: Transcriptome Database in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Yuko; Shimada, Setsuko; Kawashima, Mika; Kondou-Kuriyama, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-01-01

    In transcriptome analysis, accurate annotation of each transcriptional unit and its expression profile is essential. A full-length cDNA (FL-cDNA) collection facilitates the refinement of transcriptional annotation, and accurate transcription start sites help to unravel transcriptional regulation. We constructed a normalized FL-cDNA library from eight growth stages of aerial tissues in Sorghum bicolor and isolated 37,607 clones. These clones were Sanger sequenced from the 5′ and/or 3′ ends and in total 38,981 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained. About one-third of the transcripts of known genes were captured as FL-cDNA clone resources. In addition to these, we also annotated 272 novel genes, 323 antisense transcripts and 1,672 candidate isoforms. These clones are available from the RIKEN Bioresource Center. After obtaining accurate annotation of transcriptional units, we performed expression profile analysis. We carried out spikelet-, seed- and stem-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis and confirmed the expression of 70.6% of the newly identified genes. We also downloaded 23 sorghum RNA-Seq samples that are publicly available and these are shown on a genome browser together with our original FL-cDNA and RNA-Seq data. Using our original and publicly available data, we made an expression profile of each gene and identified the top 20 genes with the most similar expression. In addition, we visualized their relationships in gene co-expression networks. Users can access and compare various transcriptome data from S, bicolor at http://sorghum.riken.jp. PMID:25505007

  5. Genome-wide survey of Alternative Splicing in Sorghum Bicolor.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Bahman; Abbaszadeh, Bahram; Taghizadeghan, Mehdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a member of grass family which is an attractive model plant for genome study due to interesting genome features like low genome size. In this research, we performed comprehensive investigation of Alternative Splicing and ontology aspects of genes those have undergone these events in sorghum bicolor. We used homology based alignments between gene rich transcripts, represented by tentative consensus (TC) transcript sequences, and genomic scaffolds to deduce the structure of genes and identify alternatively spliced transcripts in sorghum. Using homology mapping of assembled expressed sequence tags with genomics data, we identified 2,137 Alternative Splicing events in S. bicolor. Our study showed that complex events and intron retention are the main types of Alternative Splicing events in S. bicolor and highlights the prevalence of splicing site recognition for definition of introns in this plant. Annotations of the alternatively spliced genes revealed that they represent diverse biological process and molecular functions, suggesting a fundamental role for Alternative Splicing in affecting the development and physiology of S. bicolor. PMID:25049459

  6. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  7. Genetic recombination in Sorghum bicolor x S. macrospermum interspecific hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum has been improved by public and private breeding programs utilizing germplasm mostly from within the species Sorghum bicolor. Until recently, cross-incompatibilities have prevented its hybridization with most species within the genus Sorghum. Utilizing germplasm homozygous for the iap alle...

  8. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fiber and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the 730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing 98% of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, phy...

  9. Genotype dependent interspecific hybridization of Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Australian Sorghum species which are a tertiary gene pool to grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] are of interest to sorghum breeders because they are resistant to important insects and pathogens. However, strong reproductive barriers have prevented hybridization between sorghum and th...

  10. One new species and two new records of the genus Aeolothrips from Iran (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Aeolothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Jalil; Awal, Mehdi Modarres; Fekrat, Lida; Minaei, Kambiz; Manzari, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aeolothrips gundeliae sp. n. is described, and two bicolored species of the same genus, Aeolothrips ericae Bagnall and Aeolothrips albithorax Pelikan are newly reported from northeast of Iran. Diagnostic characters are provided for each species as well as illustrations to distinguish these species. PMID:26884701

  11. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

  12. ESTIMATING BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) VIA NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Aaron M; Trease, Andrew J; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert G; Mckenzie, Cindy L; Davis, Paul H; Osborne, Lance S

    2014-06-01

    The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

  13. Night of the living thrips: an unusual outbreak of Thysanoptera dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Carness, Jeffrey M; Winchester, Jonathan C; Oras, Michael J; Arora, Navin S

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the etiology of a cutaneous eruption in the setting of an acute cluster outbreak is of utmost importance due to the inherent potential public health impact. The differential diagnosis ranges from innocuous arthropod bites to more concerning causes such as infection, medication reaction, and environmental exposure. We report the simultaneous presentation of 15 US Marines who presented with numerous discrete papular skin eruptions. Subsequent thorough patient evaluation and history, literature review, immunization status reconciliation, entomological assessment, site survey, and skin biopsy were performed. This case series is one of the largest reported to date of a cluster outbreak of a papular dermatitis secondary to bites from thrips (ie, insects of the order Thysanoptera). PMID:27023090

  14. ESTIMATING BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) VIA NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Aaron M.; Trease, Andrew J.; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K.; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J. Kent; Shatters, Robert G.; Mckenzie, Cindy L.; Davis, Paul H.; Osborne, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

  15. Impact of straw mulch on populations of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Plate, J; Nault, B A; Shelton, A M

    2008-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), populations in onion (Allium spp.) fields and the incidence of the T. tabaci transmitted Iris yellow spot virus have stimulated interest in evaluating alternative management tactics. Effects of straw mulch applied in commercial onion fields in muck areas of western New York were assessed in 2006 and 2007 as a possible onion thrips management strategy. In trials in which no insecticides were applied for thrips control, straw mulch-treated plots supported significantly lower T. tabaci populations compared with control plots. In both years, the action thresholds of one or three larvae per leaf were reached in straw mulch treatments between 7 and 14 d later than in the control. Ground predatory fauna, as evaluated by pitfall trapping, was not increased by straw mulch in 2006; however, populations of the common predatory thrips Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) were significantly lower in straw mulch plots in both years. Interference of straw mulch in the pupation and emergence of T. tabaci was investigated in the lab and their emergence was reduced by 54% compared with bare soil. In the field the overall yield of onions was not affected by the straw mulch treatment; however, the presence of jumbo grade onions (>77 mm) was increased in 2006, but not in 2007. These results indicate that populations of T. tabaci adults and larvae can be significantly reduced by the use of straw mulch without compromising overall onion yield. The use of this cultural practice in an onion integrated pest management program seems promising. PMID:18767742

  16. [Gemology characterization and identification of beryllium diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires from Changle City, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Ming-xing

    2012-03-01

    Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires (blue and yellow) from Changle City, Shandong Province, China were studied by using standard gemological methods, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain the spectra characterization, and to suggest identification methods for them. Only Fe(3+)-Fe3+ absorption bands formed in ultraviolet region appear in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire, which is especially strong at 377 nm. In IR absorption spectra, absorption peak at 3 310 cm(-1) appears in heated and untreated bicolor sapphires, while it disappears in Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. Therefore, UV-Vis and IR absorption spectra can be used to identify Be-diffused, heated and untreated bicolor sapphires. On the other hand, methylene iodide immersion observation also can be used to identify Be-diffused bicolor sapphire. PMID:22582625

  17. Transformation of the mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Minna J; Pardo, Alejandro G

    2011-01-01

    Most boreal and temperate forest trees form a mutualistic symbiosis with soil borne fungi called ectomycorrhiza (ECM). In this association both partners benefit due to nutrient exchange at the symbiotic interface. Laccaria bicolor is the first mycorrhizal fungus with its genome sequenced thus making possible for the first time to analyze genome scale gene expression profiles of a mutualistic fungus. However, in order to be able to take full advantage of the genome sequence, reverse genetic tools are needed. Among them a high throughput transformation system is crucial. Herein we present a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of L. bicolor by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with emphasis on critical steps affecting the success and efficiency of the approach. PMID:21636986

  18. Ultrastructure of the ducts of the reproductive tract of males of Melipona bicolor bicolor lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apinae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Dallacqua, R P; da Cruz-Landim, C

    2003-10-01

    The present paper describes the ultrastructural features of seminal vesicle, post-vesicular vas deferens and ejaculatory duct of Melipona bicolor bicolor from newly emerged and mature males. Although the results do not show very consistent morphological signs of secretory activity by the epithelium of these organs, lipidic droplets and lamellar granules present in mature males' seminal vesicles and the vacuoles present in post-vesicular vas deferens are probably secretion. Besides, the spermatozoa in the lumen are immersed in a material of characteristic structure, which must be produced in superior regions of the reproductive system of immature males, not studied here. The presence of sperm cells, apparently in cytoplasm vesicles of seminal vesicle and post-vesicular vas deferens, suggests spermiophagy by their epithelium. PMID:12969027

  19. Intergeneric pollen tube growth in Poaceae utilizing the Iap allele in Sorghum bicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of hybridization in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) has long served as a tool utilized by breeders to increase and exploit genetic variation within the species. Recent interspecific hybridization of S. bicolor has produced diversity not previously seen within Sorghum species. A sorghum access...

  20. Early-generation germplasm introgression from Sorghum macrospermum into sorghum (S. bicolor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most genetic improvements of sorghum (S. bicolor [L.] Moench) have resulted from public and private breeding efforts reliant on intra-specific crosses. Recent inter-specific hybridization of the Australian species S. macrospermum and S. bicolor and the definition of their respective genomic relatio...

  1. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D; Brun, A; Danchin, E; Duchaussoy, F; Gibon, J; Kohler, A; Lindquist, E; Pereda, V; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, HJ; Wuyts, J; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M; Brokstein, P; Canbeck, B; Cohen, D; Courty, PE; Coutinho, PM; Delaruelle, C; Detter, J C; Deveau, A; DiFazio, Stephen P; Duplessis, S; Fraissinet-Tachet, L; Lucic, E; Frey-Klett, P; Fourrey, C; Feussner, I; Gay, G; Grimwood, Jane; Hoegger, P J; Jain, P; Kilaru, S; Labbe, J; Lin, Y C; Legue, V; Le Tacon, F; Marmeisse, R; Melayah, D; Montanini, B; Muratet, M; Nehls, U; Niculita-Hirzel, H; Oudot-Le Secq, M P; Peter, M; Quesneville, H; Rajashekar, B; Reich, M; Rouhler, N; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yin, Tongming; Tuskan, Gerald A; Chalot, M; Henrissat, B; Kues, U; Lucas, S; Van de Peer, Y; Podila, G; Polle, A; Pukkila, P J; Richardson, P M; Rouze, P; Sanders, I R; Stajich, J E; Tunlid, A; Grigoriev, I.

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants1,2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  2. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D.; Brun, A.; Danchin, E. G. J.; Duchaussoy, F.; Gibon, J.; Kohler, A.; Lindquist, E.; Peresa, V.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H. J.; Wuyts, J.; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M.; Brokstein, P.; Canback, B.; Cohen, D.; Courty, P. E.; Coutinho, P. M.; Delaruelle, C.; Detter, J. C.; Deveau, A.; DiFazio, S.; Duplessis, S.; Fraissinet-Tachet, L.; Lucic, E.; Frey-Klett, P.; Fourrey, C.; Feussner, I.; Gay, G.; Grimwood, J.; Hoegger, P. J.; Jain, P.; Kilaru, S.; Labbe, J.; Lin, Y. C.; Legue, V.; Le Tacon, F.; Marmeisse, R.; Melayah, D.; Montanini, B.; Muratet, M.; Nehls, U.; Niculita-Hirzel, H.; Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le; Peter, M.; Quesneville, H.; Rajashekar, B.; Reich, M.; Rouhier, N.; Schmutz, J.; Yin, T.; Chalot, M.; Henrissat, B.; Kues, U.; Lucas, S.; Van de Peer, Y.; Podila, G. K.; Polle, A.; Pukkila, P. J.; Richardson, P. M.; Rouze, P.; Sanders, I. R.; Stajich, J. E.; Tunlid, A.; Tuskan, G.; Grigoriev, I. V.

    2007-08-10

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants 1, 2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  3. Dhurrin-6'-glucoside, a cyanogenic diglucoside from Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Selmar, D; Irandoost, Z; Wray, V

    1996-10-01

    A novel cyanogenic diglucoside has been isolated from methanolic extracts of young seedlings of Sorghum bicolor. Its structure was established as dhurrin-6-glucoside from NMR, mass spectrometry and enzymatic hydrolysis data. Compared with dhurrin, which is the major cyanogenic glucoside in sorghum leaves, dhurrin-6-glucoside occurs only in low concentrations. In contrast, however, the diglucoside is present in significant amounts in guttation droplets of young Sorghum seedlings. The presence of the diglucoside and its occurrence in apoplasmic exudates supports the hypothesis that diglucosides represent metabolites of cyanogenic monoglucosides which can be translocated within the plant. PMID:8987580

  4. The impact of a parasitic nematode Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) on the feeding behavior and vector competence of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least seven thrips species reported to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipp...

  5. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed. PMID:18767744

  6. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Fail, József; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    During the past two decades, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a global pest of increasing concern in commercial onion (Allium cepa L.), because of its development of resistance to insecticides, ability to transmit plant pathogens, and frequency of producing more generations at high temperatures. T. tabaci feeds directly on leaves, causing blotches and premature senescence as well as distorted and undersized bulbs. T. tabaci can cause yield loss > 50% but can be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). IYSV was identified in 1981 in Brazil and has spread to many important onion-producing regions of the world, including several U.S. states. IYSV symptoms include straw-colored, dry, tan, spindle- or diamond-shaped lesions on the leaves and scapes of onion plants and can cause yield loss up to 100%. Here, we review the biology and ecology of T. tabaci and discuss current management strategies based on chemical, biological, and cultural control as well as host resistance. Future directions for research in integrated pest management are examined and discussed. PMID:21404832

  7. Effects of Bt cotton on Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its predator, Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rishi; Tian, Jun-Ce; Naranjo, Steven E; Shelton, Anthony M

    2014-06-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate tritrophic transfer of insecticidal Cry proteins from transgenic cotton to an herbivore and its predator, and to examine effects of these proteins on the predator's development, survival, and reproduction. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced in Bollgard-II (BG-II, Event 15985) cotton plants were acquired by Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important sucking pest of cotton, and its generalist predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The average protein titers in BG-II cotton leaves were 1,256 and 43,637 ng Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab per gram fresh leaf tissue, respectively. At the second trophic level, larvae of T. tabaci reared on BG-II cotton for 48-96 h had 22.1 and 2.1% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab levels expressed in leaves, respectively. At the third trophic level, O. insidiosus that fed on T. tabaci larvae had 4.4 and 0.3% of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab protein levels, respectively, expressed in BG-II plants. O. insidiosus survivorship, time of nymphal development, adult weight, preoviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and adult longevity were not adversely affected owing to consumption of T. tabaci larvae that had fed on BG-II cotton compared with non-Bt cotton. Our results indicate that O. insidiosus, a common predator of T. tabaci, is not harmed by BG-II cotton when exposed to Bt proteins through its prey. Thus, O. insidiosus can continue to provide important biological control services in the cotton ecosystem when BG-II cotton is used to control primary lepidopteran pests. PMID:25026649

  8. Dissecting the mode of maize chlorotic mottle virus transmission (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) by Frankliniella williamsi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Cabanas, D; Watanabe, S; Higashi, C H V; Bressan, A

    2013-02-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) has been recorded in Hawaii (Kauai Island) since the early 1990s and has since become one of the most widespread corn viruses in the Hawaiian Islands. In the United States Mainland, MCMV has been reported to be transmitted by six different species of chrysomelid beetles, including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. However, none of these beetle species have been reported in Hawaii where the corn thrips, Frankliniella williamsi Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has been identified to be the main vector. In this study, we developed leaf disk transmission assays and real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine the mode of MCMV transmission by the corn thrips. We showed that thrips transmitted the virus with no evidence for latent periods. Both larvae and adults transmitted the virus for up to 6 d after acquisition, with decreasing rates of transmission as time progressed. There was no evidence that adult thrips that acquired the virus as larvae were competent vectors. Real time reverse-transcription polomerase chain reaction assays showed that viral load was depleted from the vector's body after thrips had access to healthy plant tissue. Depletion of viral load was also observed when thrips matured from larvae to adults. Thrips were able to transmit MCMV after acquisition and inoculation access periods of 3 h. However, transmission efficiency increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods. Taken altogether our data suggests that corn thrips transmit MCMV in a semipersistent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first work reporting evidence of a plant virus transmitted semipersistently by thrips. PMID:23448010

  9. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis. PMID:26470219

  10. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV. PMID:20568640

  11. Variations in the polarized leaf reflectance of Sorghum bicolor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Lois; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1987-01-01

    The polarized reflectance factor, Rq, of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) leaves from field-grown plants was measured in situ in the summers of 1983 and 1984. In 1983, three leaves of two randomly selected plants were measured at 2-week intervals. The value of Rq varied, depending on leaf and day of measurement. Measured values of Rq for the adaxial leaf surface ranged from 16 to 53; for the abaxial leaf surface the values ranged from 28 to 69. In 1984, measurements consisted of repeated observations made on the same leaf at biweekly intervals. The values of Rq from the adaxial leaf surface ranged from 26 to 38. Values of Rq from the abaxial leaf surface increased throughout the season, from 16 to 45. Differences in Rq were attributed to changes in surface details of the leaf.

  12. Phyllomedusa bicolor skin secretion and the Kambô ritual

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ritual of Kambô or Sapo is a type of voluntary envenomation. During this purification ritual a shaman healer, from various South American countries, deliberately burns the right shoulder with a glowing stick from a fireplace. Excretions of Phyllomedusa bicolor (or Giant Leaf Frog, Kambô or Sapo) are then applied to these fresh wounds. This ritual is used as a means of purification of the body, supposedly brings luck to hunters, increases stamina and enhances physical and sexual strength. All the peripheral and most of the central effects of the secretion can be ascribed to the exceptionally high content of active peptides, easily absorbed through burned skin. This article describes the ritual and the bio-active peptides from the secretion. PMID:26413084

  13. Dinoflagellate-Related Amphidinolides from the Brazilian Octocoral Stragulum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Gomes, Bruno A; Luongo, Elvira; Torres, Maria C M; Santos, Evelyne A; Cutignano, Adele; Pessoa, Otília D L; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Fontana, Angelo

    2016-07-22

    Benthic cnidarians are colonial marine animals that host a rich population of associated and symbiotic microorganisms. In a recent paper we described for the first time the isolation of amphidinolide P (1) from the Brazilian octocoral Stragulum bicolor. Amphidinolides and similar compounds had been previously reported only from dinoflagellates of the genus Amphidinium; thus the presence of 1 in the invertebrate opens intriguing questions on the role and occurrence of these molecules in marine ecosystems. Here we report the identification of four further amphidinolides from the same soft coral, including the known amphidinolide T1 (2) and the new analogues here named amphidinolides C4 (3), B8 (4), and B9 (5). The chemical structures have been elucidated mainly by extensive study of spectroscopic data. Cytotoxic activities of 3 and 4 were evaluated against the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116. PMID:27400333

  14. Jejunal pseudodiverticulosis in a swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor).

    PubMed

    Haist, V; von Dörnberg, K; Jacobsen, B

    2012-11-01

    Necropsy examination of an 8-year-old female swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) from a zoological garden revealed four intestinal diverticular outpouchings at the mesenteric border of the jejunum, which were partly ruptured causing a fatal peritonitis. Microscopically, affected small intestinal segments were characterized by an abrupt gap in the muscular layer with subsequent herniation of respective mucosal and submucosal layers, interpreted as acquired pseudodiverticula. Multifocal perforations of these diverticula were associated with prominent fibrinosuppurative serositis with leakage of ingesta. In addition, there was intestinal nematodal endoparasitism with accompanying neutrophilic to eosinophilic enteritis. Small intestinal pseudodiverticula resembling human colonic diverticulosis are rare in animals and can lead to fatal peritonitis by faecal impaction, subsequent transmural inflammation and eventual perforation. PMID:22717131

  15. Mimicking bicolor by changing the reflectance of the substrate in a one-dimensional periodic structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Ye, Yong-Hong; Yang, Li

    2013-11-01

    In nature, some beetles can display bicolor on their elytra. In order to explore the bicolor mechanism, we experimentally studied the optical and structural properties of the Carabus lafossei beetle. We found a multilayer structure in the cuticle of the beetle. Due to the different multilayer thicknesses in different areas, the beetle displayed bicolor. Here, we provide another approach to fabricate bicolor by depositing the same multilayer stack on a substrate with different reflectances at different areas. In this paper, the substrate with different reflectances is achieved by prefabricating sculpted hexagons (SU-8) on a silicon substrate. By coating a (ZnS/MgF2)3.5 multilayer, the sculpted structure displays green color at the ridges (SU-8/silicon area) and yellow color at the basins (silicon area). PMID:24216662

  16. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  17. Botanical insecticides in controlling Kelly's citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on organic grapefruits.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-12-01

    Kelly's citrus thrips, Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was first recorded in Cyprus in 1996 and became an economic citrus pest. In Cyprus, Kelly's citrus thrips larvae cause feeding damage mainly on immature lemon and grapefruit fruits. Use of botanical insecticides is considered an alternative tool compared with synthetic chemicals, in offering solutions for healthy and sustainable citrus production. During 2008-2010, the efficacy of the botanical insecticides azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W and Oikos 10 EC), garlic extract (Alsa), and pyrethrins (Vioryl 5%SC) was evaluated in field trials against Kelly's citrus thrips larval stage I and II aiming at controlling the pest's population and damage to organic grapefruit fruits. In each of the trial years treatments with pyrethrins and azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W) were the most effective against Kelly's citrus thrips compared with the untreated control (for 2008: P < 0.018; for 2009: P < 0.000; for 2010: P < 0.008). In 2008, the mean number of damaged fruits in treatments with pyrethrins and Neemex was 9.6 (19.2%) and 9.7 (19.5%) respectively, compared with 12.2 (24.3%) in the untreated control. In 2009, the mean number of damaged fruits in treatment with pyrethrins was 3.7 (7.3%) and 3.9 (7.8%) in treatment with Neemex compared with 8.6 (17.3%) in the untreated control, while in 2010 the mean damaged fruits in these treatments was recorded at 18.7 (37.5%) and 19.6 (39.2), respectively, compared with 29.6 fruits (59.2%) in the control. Oikos 10 EC showed significant effect only in 2009 and 2010. In these years, the mean number of damaged fruits was recorded at 5.5 and 21.2 compared with 8.6 and 29.6 fruits in the untreated control, respectively. Garlic extract showed the lowest effect from all the botanicals used compared with the untreated control. PMID:22299360

  18. Investigating alternatives to traditional insecticides: effectiveness of entomopathogenic fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis against citrus thrips and avocado thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zahn, Deane K; Morse, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips citri (Moulton) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a plant-feeding pest most widely recognized for causing damage to citrus (Citrus spp. L. [Rutaceae]) and mango (Mangifera indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruits. This insect has recently broadened its known host range to become a significant pest of California grown blueberries. Avocado thrips, Scirtothrips. perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a recent, invasive pest of California avocados, Persea americana Mill. (Laurales: Lauraceae). Effective alternatives to traditional pesticides are desirable for both pests to reduce impacts on natural enemies and broaden control options in an effort to minimize pesticide resistance via rotation of control materials. We evaluated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. israelensis proteins (Cyt 1A and Cry 11A, activated and inactivated) and multiple strains (GHA, 1741ss, SFBb1, S44ss, NI1ss, and 3769ss) of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against both species. Avocado thrips and citrus thrips were not susceptible to either Bt protein tested, regardless of activation status. All strains of B. bassiana were able to infect both avocado thrips and citrus thrips. However, the commercially available GHA strain was the most effective strain against both species and had a faster rate of infection then the other strains tested. Citrus thrips were more susceptible than avocado thrips to all B. bassiana strains (LC50 and LC95 of 8.6 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(6) conidia per ml for citrus thrips, respectively). Investigation of citrus thrips field control using the GHA strain of B. bassiana is therefore justified. PMID:23448016

  19. The First Record of Female Maturation of the Short-finned Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, in the Coastal Waters of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Tongnunui, Prasert; Yoknoi, Nuengruetai; Pechnoi, Pimwipa; Yamada, Hideaki; Kon, Koetsu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide reproductive biological information on the gonadal development of the short-finned eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, which inhabits the coastal waters of Thailand. Short-finned eels were collected from three coastal areas of Trang Province, southern Thailand, from September 2011 to December 2013. The gonads of 151 specimens were subjected to a histological analysis. The histological observations found both immature and maturing females. Based on the advanced oocytes within an entire ovarian section, the ovaries of the studied specimens were classified into three maturity phases: 1) the immature phase was defined by ovaries that showed oogonia and primary growth oocytes, 2) the developing phase was defined by ovaries that contained early vitellogenic-stage oocytes with some oogonia present along with cortical alveolar oocytes and many adipocytes, and 3) the late vitellogenic phase refers to ovaries that contained nearly entirely late-vitellogenic oocytes. The density of oocytes in juxtaposition to an adipose matrix is considered to represent the degree of gonadal development. The results of this study may be applicable in further defining the general spawning area of A. bicolor bicolor in regions of the Indian Ocean. PMID:27019687

  20. The First Record of Female Maturation of the Short-finned Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, in the Coastal Waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tongnunui, Prasert; Yoknoi, Nuengruetai; Pechnoi, Pimwipa; Yamada, Hideaki; Kon, Koetsu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide reproductive biological information on the gonadal development of the short-finned eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, which inhabits the coastal waters of Thailand. Short-finned eels were collected from three coastal areas of Trang Province, southern Thailand, from September 2011 to December 2013. The gonads of 151 specimens were subjected to a histological analysis. The histological observations found both immature and maturing females. Based on the advanced oocytes within an entire ovarian section, the ovaries of the studied specimens were classified into three maturity phases: 1) the immature phase was defined by ovaries that showed oogonia and primary growth oocytes, 2) the developing phase was defined by ovaries that contained early vitellogenic-stage oocytes with some oogonia present along with cortical alveolar oocytes and many adipocytes, and 3) the late vitellogenic phase refers to ovaries that contained nearly entirely late-vitellogenic oocytes. The density of oocytes in juxtaposition to an adipose matrix is considered to represent the degree of gonadal development. The results of this study may be applicable in further defining the general spawning area of A. bicolor bicolor in regions of the Indian Ocean. PMID:27019687

  1. Characterization of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench) for biomass utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Increased utilization of novel biomass sources for energy conversion schemes has become a significant portion of energy related research and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is often considered a viable potential resource. Plant breeding efforts to improve sorghum are limited in part by a poor definition of quality traits and their inheritance. To address these concerns, six diverse sorghums were compared and then combined to produce a full F/sub 1/ diallel with reciprocal crosses and genetic analysis. Fourteen agronomic, composition or quality traits were measured using chemical, biological and microscopic techniques. The six parental genotypes were grown at College Station and Weslaco, Texas in 1982 and 1983 while the diallel was grown at College Station in 1983. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, correlation and the Jinks-Hayman methods of diallel analysis. A significant genotype x environment interaction occurred for Brix % and yield per plant, but height and maturity did not display a significant effect. Through the diallel analysis, it was determined that additive genetic variance was a significant factor for total sugars, cell wall %, IVDMD, hemicellulose and starch. However, partial dominance was indicated for several traits as well. Reciprocal effects were not a major factor for the traits evaluated. The results together indicate that a breeding program should continue to develop improved male and female lines for use in hybrids.

  2. Phytoremediation using microbially mediated metal accumulation in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Phieler, René; Merten, Dirk; Roth, Martin; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    Reclaiming land that has been anthropogenically contaminated with multiple heavy metal elements, e.g., during mining operations, is a growing challenge worldwide. The use of phytoremediation has been discussed with varying success. Here, we show that a careful examination of options of microbial determination of plant performance is a key element in providing a multielement remediation option for such landscapes. We used both (a) mycorrhiza with Rhizophagus irregularis and (b) bacterial amendments with Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and Streptomyces tendae F4 to mediate plant-promoting and metal-accumulating properties to Sorghum bicolor. In pot experiments, the effects on plant growth and metal uptake were scored, and in a field trial at a former uranium leaching heap site near Ronneburg, Germany, we could show the efficacy under field conditions. Different metals could be extracted at the same time, with varying microbial inoculation and soil amendment scenarios possible when a certain metal is the focus of interest. Especially, manganese was extracted at very high levels which might be useful even for phytomining approaches. PMID:25874434

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers. PMID:27257604

  4. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  5. Turnover of dhurrin in green sorghum seedlings. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, S.R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with {sup 14}C-tyrosine and ({sup 14}C)shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

  6. Studies on the seed oils of Parkia biglobosa and Parkia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Aiyelaagbe, O O; Ajaiyeoba, E O; Ekundayo, O

    1996-04-01

    The seed oils of Parkia biglobosa and Parkia bicolor (Mimosaceae) have been analysed for their possible edible utility and to provide some physical data on both oils. The fatty acid composition of the oils was identified. Six major fatty acids were identified in the oil of P. bicolor while five were identified in that of P. biglobosa by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The two oils contained five similar fatty acids in almost the same ratios. Arachidic acid was the most abundant fatty acids (greater than forty per cent) in both oils. Other fatty acids in the oils were behenic, stearic, palmitic and linoleic acids. The sixth fatty acid in P. bicolor was an odd number of carbon atom and un unsaturated fatty acid (C20H37COOH) named bicolargic acid. The oils were also found to be non toxic. PMID:8865332

  7. Histological Features of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Wild Indonesian Shortfin Eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), Captured in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nasruddin, Nurrul Shaqinah; Azmai, Mohammad Noor Amal; Ismail, Ahmad; Saad, Mohd Zamri; Daud, Hassan Mohd; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to record the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of wild Indonesian shortfin eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor (McClelland, 1844), captured in Peninsular Malaysia. The gastrointestinal tract was segmented into the oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. Then, the oesophagus was divided into five (first to fifth), the stomach into two (cardiac and pyloric), and the intestine into four segments (anterior, intermediate, posterior, and rectum) for histological examinations. The stomach had significantly taller villi and thicker inner circular muscles compared to the intestine and oesophagus. The lamina propria was thickest in stomach, significantly when compared with oesophagus, but not with the intestine. However, the intestine showed significantly thicker outer longitudinal muscle while gastric glands were observed only in the stomach. The histological features were closely associated with the functions of the different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, the histological features of the gastrointestinal tract of A. b. bicolor are consistent with the feeding habit of a carnivorous fish. PMID:25587561

  8. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines For Sorghum Bicolor x Perennial S. Propinquum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From an annual S. bicolor x perennial S. propinquum F2 population used in early-generation genetic analysis, we have produced and describe here a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes that segregates for rhizomatousness and many other traits. The genetic map of the recombinant...

  9. Elimination of a reproductive barrier facilitates intergeneric hybridization of Sorghum bicolor and Saccharum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing interest in bioenergy production has increased efforts to breed for greater biomass through intra- and inter-generic hybridization. Both sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are now being bred to enhance the quantity and quality of biomass while maintaining or improving ...

  10. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brown midrib mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), with a high biomass yield and excellent tolerance to drought and low nutrition, has been recommended as one of the most competitive bioenergy crops. Brown midrib (bmr) mutant sorghum with reduced lignin content showed a high potential for the improvement of bioethanol ...

  11. Expanding and vetting Sorghum bicolor gene annotations through transcriptome and methylome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the emergence and subsequent advancement of next generation sequence technology, detailed structural and functional characterization of genomes is readily attainable. Here, we have sampled the Sorghum bicolor methylome by shallow sequencing of bisulfite treated DNA derived from root samples. W...

  12. Modulation of kernel storage proteins in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) ranks fifth among the cereals world-wide with respect to its importance for food and feed applications. The grain is approximately 13% protein, of which the kafirins comprise over 80% of the protein component of the grain endosperm. The kafirins are cate...

  13. Genetic Diversity among Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench Benotypes as Revealed by Prolamines and SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a leading cereal in the arid and semi-arid regions and ranks fifth in importance among the world’s grain crops. Given its importance as a staple food crop, a livestock feed crop and potentially a bioenergy crop, there is a constant need for its genetic improvem...

  14. Elimination of a reproductive barrier facilitates intergeneric hybridization of Sorghum bicolor and Saccharum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are now being bred to enhance the quantity and quality of biomass while maintaining or improving biotic and abiotic stress tolerances. Introgression of complementary traits between sorghum and sugarcane may be an important tool for breeders, ...

  15. In vitro activity of Sorghum bicolor extracts, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Abugri, Daniel A; Witola, William H; Jaynes, Jesse M; Toufic, Nashar

    2016-05-01

    We investigated dried red leaf extracts of Sorghum bicolor for activity against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. S. bicolor red leaf extracts were obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation using ethanol and ethyl acetate as solvents. Analysis of the crude and fractionated extracts from S. bicolor using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that they contained significant amounts of apigeninidin, luteolinidin, 7-methoxyapigeninidin, 5-methoxyapigeninidin, 5-methoxyluteolinidin, 7-methoxyluteolinidin 5,7-dimethoxyapigeninidin or 5,7-dimethoxyluteolinidin, based on mass per charge (m/z). When tested in vitro, the IC50s for inhibitory activity against T. gondii tachyzoites' growth of the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were 2.3- and 4-fold, respectively, lower than their cytotoxic IC50s in mammalian cells. Ethyl acetate extracts fractionated in chloroform-methanol and chloroform had IC50s against T. gondii that were 56.1- and 3-fold lower than their respective cytotoxic IC50s in mammalian cells. These antiparasitic activities were found to be consistent with those of the respective pure 3-deoxyanthocyanidin compounds identified to be contained in the fractions in significant amounts. Further, we observed that, the position and number of methoxy groups possessed by the 3-deoyanthocyanidins influenced their antiparasitic activity. Together, our findings indicate that S. bicolor red-leaf 3-deoxyanthocyanidins-rich extracts have potent in vitro inhibitory activity against the proliferative stage of T. gondii parasites. PMID:26855040

  16. Antiparasitic activity of plumericin & isoplumericin isolated from Plumeria bicolor against Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Umakant; Singh, Dharmendra; Kumar, Parveen; Dobhal, M. P.; Singh, Sarman

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The severe toxicity, exorbitant cost and emerging resistance of Leishmania species against most of the currently used drugs underscores the urgent need for the alternative drugs. The present study evaluates in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of Plumeria bicolor and its isolated compounds. Methods: The in vitro anti-parasitic activity of chloroform extract of Plumeria bicolor, plumericin and isoplumericin were tested alongwith appropriate controls against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania donovani using 96 well microtiter plate. The concentration used for assessing the anti-leishmanial activity of extract of Plumeria bicolor and both isolated compounds were 100 μg/ml and 15 μM, respectively. The viability of the cells was assessed by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was performed against J774G8 murine macrophage cells lines at the concentration of 30 μM. Results: The Plumeria bicolor extract showed activity with the IC50 of 21±2.2 and 14±1.6 μg/ml against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. donovani, respectively. Plumericin consistently showed high activity with the IC50 of 3.17±0.12 and 1.41±0.03 μM whereas isoplumericin showed the IC50 of 7.2±0.08 μM and 4.1±0.02 μM against promastigote and amastigote forms, respectively. Cytotoxic effect of the chloroform extract of P. bicolor, plumericin and isoplumericin was evaluated in murine macrophage (J774G8) model with CC50 value of 75±5.3 μg/ml, 20.6±0.5 and 24±0.7 μM, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicated that plumericin showed more potent activity than isoplumericin and might be a promising anti-leishmanial agent against L. donovani. PMID:22199112

  17. Prediction of social structure and genetic relatedness in colonies of the facultative polygynous stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Evelyze Pinheiro; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Stingless bee colonies typically consist of one single-mated mother queen and her worker offspring. The stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae) shows facultative polygyny, which makes this species particularly suitable for testing theoretical expectations concerning social behavior. In this study, we investigated the social structure and genetic relatedness among workers from eight natural and six manipulated colonies of M. bicolor over a period of one year. The populations of M. bicolor contained monogynous and polygynous colonies. The estimated genetic relatedness among workers from monogynous and polygynous colonies was 0.75 ± 0.12 and 0.53 ± 0.16 (mean ± SEM), respectively. Although the parental genotypes had significant effects on genetic relatedness in monogynous and polygynous colonies, polygyny markedly decreased the relatedness among nestmate workers. Our findings also demonstrate that polygyny in M. bicolor may arise from the adoption of related or unrelated queens. PMID:21734839

  18. [Vegetable resources with agroindustrial potential from Guatemala. Chemical characterization of the pulp and of the seeds of Theobroma bicolor].

    PubMed

    Furlán, A L; Bressani, R

    1999-12-01

    T. bicolor grows wild in certain regions of Guatemala. The fruit is utilized by the rural population for the preparation of drinks from the pulp and the seed, replacing cocoa (T. cocoa). The fruit of T. bicolor used in the present study, measured on the average, 15 cm long and had an average weight, of 752 g. The pulp, the shell, and the seed represented 23.8, 62.5, and 13.7%, respectively, of the fruit weight. The pulp contained on the average, 38 seeds/fruit, which weighted on the average, 1.11 g and were 2.4 cm long. T. cacao seeds weighted 0.62 g and were 1.6 cm long. The protein content (24.42%) and fiber content (30.86%) of the T. bicolor seeds, was greater than those from T. cacao, although fat content was lower (25.48%). The fat of the seeds of T. bicolor has different physicochemical characteristics than the fat of the seeds of T. cacao, such as melting point, iodine value, and saponification number. The seeds of both, T. cacao and T. bicolor, were used for the preparation of a local drink using toasted corn flour, sugar, and anatto flour in equal preparations, with and without toasted whole soybean flours (6.25%). Through a sensory ranking trial, it is established that the drink from T. bicolor and soybeans, was preferred over other preparations with T. cacao. The pulp of T. bicolor with an interesting chemical composition, yielded an aromatic pleasant drink, and from T. bicolor, is an interesting resource for industrialization and for genetic characteristics for T. cacao improvement. PMID:10883304

  19. Potential new insecticides for the control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on sweet pepper, tomato, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Broughton, S; Herron, G A

    2009-04-01

    New pesticides are required to maintain effective resistance management strategies for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). We tested the efficacy of acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam, two neonicotinoids that represent a newer class of insecticides for the control of thrips. We also tested chlorfenapyr, a pyrrol compound, and a lower than registered rate of the biopesticide spinosad. Laboratory bioassays were used to predict the relative efficacy of insecticides against F. occidentalis and to forecast likely field rates. Two doses within the calculated LC99.99 range were used to predict field rates and trial rates of 0.5 g and 1.0 active ingredient (AI)/liter acetamiprid, 0.025 and 0.05 g (AI)/liter chlorfenapyr, 0.3 and 0.6 g (AI)/liter thiamethoxam, and 0.01 g (AI)/ liter spinosad were tested in the greenhouse against pepper, lettuce, and tomato. With the exception of acetamiprid, field trial doses predicted from laboratory bioassay translated to effective field efficacy. All products controlled F. occidentalis at the rates trialed and so have potential to augment current chemical controls. Increasing mortality correlated with increasing acetamiprid concentration in a greenhouse lettuce trial, suggesting that the higher trial rate (1.0 g [AI]/liter) may be required in some lettuce crops. The lower than registered (0.01 g [AI]/liter) rate of spinosad also significantly reduced F. occidentalis numbers and is a viable control option that may be useful in specific integrated pest management programs. The implications of introducing neonicotinoids into existing insecticide resistance management strategies for F. occidentalis are discussed. PMID:19449645

  20. Temporal dynamics of iris yellow spot virus and its vector, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in seeded and transplanted onion fields.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A; Fuchs, Marc; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2010-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), can reduce onion bulb yield and transmit iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus), which can cause additional yield losses. In New York, onions are planted using seeds and imported transplants. IYSV is not seed transmitted, but infected transplants have been found in other U.S. states. Transplants are also larger than seeded onions early in the season, and thrips, some of which may be viruliferous, may preferentially colonize larger plants. Limited information is available on the temporal dynamics of IYSV and its vector in onion fields. In 2007 and 2008, T. tabaci and IYSV levels were monitored in six seeded and six transplanted fields. We found significantly more thrips in transplanted fields early in the season, but by the end of the season seeded fields had higher levels of IYSV. The percentage of sample sites with IYSV-infected plants remained low (<12%) until August, when infection levels increased dramatically in some fields. The densities of adult and larval thrips in August and September were better predictors of final IYSV levels than early season thrips densities. For 2007 and 2008, the time onions were harvested may have been more important in determining IYSV levels than whether the onions were seeded or transplanted. Viruliferous thrips emigrating from harvested onion fields into nonharvested ones may be increasing the primary spread of IYSV in late-harvested onions. Managing T. tabaci populations before harvest, and manipulating the spatial arrangement of fields based on harvest date could mitigate the spread of IYSV. PMID:20388253

  1. Overwintering locations and hosts for onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the onion cropping ecosystem in New York.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Shelton, A M; Musser, F R; Nault, B A; Plate, J

    2007-08-01

    Identifying locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently disperse is important for designing control strategies. In upstate New York from 2003 through 2006, potential overwintering sites in the commercial onion, Allium cepa L., cropping system were investigated early in the spring before onion seedling emergence and again late in the season after onions were harvested. Onion thrips adults were sampled directly from the soil and indirectly from the soil by using emergence cages. Sampling locations included onion field interiors and edges and areas outside of these fields, including woods. Host material sampled included onion culls; volunteer onions, which sprout from cull onions left behind after harvest; and weeds. Onion thrips adults were found in all sections of onion fields and in locations outside of onion fields, with the fewest emerging from woods. Emergence began in early May and extended into June. Peak emergence occurred during the last half of May, at which time 50-75% of the population had emerged. Adults colonized volunteer onions as early as late March and as late as mid-November. No adults were found overwintering in onion cull piles. Adults also colonized several weed species, especially pigweed, Amaranthus hybridis L., and lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L., late in the fall. Our results indicate that onion thrips adults overwinter in the soil within and near onion fields and that they probably colonize volunteer onion plants before subsequent generations infest the onion crop in the spring. Volunteer onions and weeds also provide onion thrips with a host after onions are harvested. Consequently, onion thrips management strategies should include tactics that reduce volunteer onion and weed abundance. PMID:17849870

  2. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. PMID:27329626

  3. Development of the Poplar-Laccaria bicolor Ectomycorrhiza Modifies Root Auxin Metabolism, Signaling, and Response.

    PubMed

    Vayssières, Alice; Pěnčík, Ales; Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Ljung, Karin; Martin, Francis; Legué, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Root systems of host trees are known to establish ectomycorrhizae (ECM) interactions with rhizospheric fungi. This mutualistic association leads to dramatic developmental modifications in root architecture, with the formation of numerous short and swollen lateral roots ensheathed by a fungal mantle. Knowing that auxin plays a crucial role in root development, we investigated how auxin metabolism, signaling, and response are affected in poplar (Populus spp.)-Laccaria bicolor ECM roots. The plant-fungus interaction leads to the arrest of lateral root growth with simultaneous attenuation of the synthetic auxin response element DR5. Measurement of auxin-related metabolites in the free-living partners revealed that the mycelium of L. bicolor produces high concentrations of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Metabolic profiling showed an accumulation of IAA and changes in the indol-3-pyruvic acid-dependent IAA biosynthesis and IAA conjugation and degradation pathways during ECM formation. The global analysis of auxin response gene expression and the regulation of AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN5, AUXIN/IAA, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR expression in ECM roots suggested that symbiosis-dependent auxin signaling is activated during the colonization by L. bicolor. Taking all this evidence into account, we propose a model in which auxin signaling plays a crucial role in the modification of root growth during ECM formation. PMID:26084921

  4. Development of chloroplast microsatellite markers for the endangered Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.)1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hana; Kim, Changkyun; Lee, You-Mi; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ten polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and characterized in an endemic and endangered herb, Maianthemum bicolor (Asparagaceae s.l.), for use in conservation genetics. Methods and Results: Primer sets flanking each of the 10 cpSSR loci in noncoding regions of the chloroplast genome of M. bicolor were designed. These cpSSR markers were tested on a total of 33 adult individuals from three natural populations in South Korea. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to three. The unbiased haplotype diversity per locus ranged from 0.061 to 0.682. All markers were successfully transferred to the congeneric species M. japonicum, M. bifolium, and M. dilatatum with polymorphisms among the species. Conclusions: The developed cpSSR markers will be useful in assessing the genetic diversity and population structure of M. bicolor and will help to infer its molecular identification, thereby providing a basis for conservation. PMID:27610276

  5. Sympatry and allopatry in two desert ant sister species: how do Cataglyphis bicolor and C. savignyi coexist?

    PubMed

    Dietrich, B; Wehner, R

    2003-06-01

    Two extremely morphologically similar sister species of desert ants, Cataglyphis bicolor and C. savignyi, exhibit broadly overlapping distributional ranges within Tunisia. In order to analyse the microhabitats of C. bicolor and C. savignyi within the sympatric and allopatric areas of both ant species, the plant species located at 113 different nest sites of the two ant species were determined. In the sympatric area, the two species exhibit a clear-cut nest site segregation. This is not the case in the allopatric areas. Hence the two species differentiate their microhabitat only when they are sympatric. The plant species associated mainly with the nest sites of C. bicolor indicate that this species prefers a type of vegetation that needs irrigation. This is in contrast to the nest sites of C. savignyi, which are usually found around plants that characterize typical dry steppe areas. As the ants' foraging paths recorded in the sympatric area reveal, C. bicolor performs significantly shorter foraging runs with respect to both length and time, and covers a much smaller foraging range than C. savignyi does. This result reflects the fact that the microhabitat occupied by the colonies of C. bicolor is richer in food abundance. When direct interspecific interactions were investigated by placing a bait midway between two heterospecific nests, C. bicolor foragers dominated over those of C. savignyi. The same dominance of C. bicolor over C. savignyi occurred in laboratory experiments. These results suggest that the dominant species drives the subordinate one out of the high quality microhabitats, and that the subordinate species is forced to survive in the less lucrative habitats. In conclusion, coexistence seems to be maintained by the asymmetric competitive relationship between the two species and the fact that the subordinate species has the ability to endure in the less favourable microhabitat. PMID:12720085

  6. Phytochemical investigation of Gynura bicolor leaves and cytotoxicity evaluation of the chemical constituents against HCT 116 cells.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Tan, Hooi Poay; Ling, Sui Kiong; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Sim, Kae Shin

    2016-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells. PMID:25738869

  7. Effects of different carbon dioxide and LED lighting levels on the anti-oxidative capabilities of Gynura bicolor DC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jin; Guo, Shuangsheng; Xu, Chunlan; Yang, Chengjia; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Qin, Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Gynura bicolor DC is not only an edible plant but also a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine. G. bicolor DC grown in controlled environmental chambers under 3 CO2 concentrations [450 (ambient), 1500 (elevated), 8000 (super-elevated) μmol mol-1] and 3 LED lighting conditions [white (WL), 85% red + 15% blue (RB15), 70% red + 30% blue (RB30) ] were investigated to reveal plausible antioxidant anabolic responses to CO2 enrichment and LED light quality. Under ambient and elevated CO2 levels, blue light increasing from 15% to 30% was conducive to the accumulation of anthocyanins and total flavonoids, and the antioxidant activity of extract was also increased, but plant biomass was decreased. These results demonstrated that the reinforcement of blue light could induce more antioxidant of secondary metabolites, but depress the effective growth of G. bicolor DC under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. In addition, compared with the ambient and elevated CO2 levels, the increased anthocyanins, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant enzyme activities of G. bicolor DC under super-elevated CO2 level could serve as important components of antioxidative defense mechanism against CO2 stress. Hence, G. bicolor DC might have higher tolerance to CO2 stress.

  8. Population dynamics of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and other thrips species on two ornamental host plant species in Southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Catharine M; Derksen, Andrew I; Seal, Dakshina R; Osborne, Lance S; Martin, Cliff G

    2014-08-01

    Since its 2005 introduction into the United States, chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a problematic pest of agronomic, vegetable, fruit, and ornamental plants. Knowledge of its population dynamics may help managers better monitor and control S. dorsalis. Population estimates were recorded for S. dorsalis and other thrips species on Knock-Out rose (Rosa 'Radrazz') and green buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) from July 2007 to September 2008 in two field plots (one per plant species) in Homestead, FL. Yellow sticky card traps and samples of terminals, flowers, buds, and leaves were collected. S. dorsalis accounted for 95% of all thrips individuals collected from plants and 84% from traps with the remainder including at least 18 other thrips species. More thrips were caught on or flying near rose plants (47,438) than on or near buttonwoods (5,898), and on-plant densities of S. dorsalis appeared higher for rose than for buttonwood. Compared with rose leaves, rose buds, terminals, and flowers each had higher numbers of S. dorsalis, and buds and terminals had higher densities. On each host plant species, S. dorsalis density fluctuated over time with peaks in the late spring, summer, and fall, but populations were consistently low in the late winter and early spring. On roses, increased plant damage ratings correlated with reduced numbers of flowers and buds, reduced mean flower areas, and increased on-plant number and density of S. dorsalis. There were positive correlations over time between S. dorsalis density and plant damage rating for rose flowers (R = 0.78; P = 0.0003) and for buttonwood terminals (R = 0.90; P = 0.0001). Yellow sticky card traps were effective for monitoring S. dorsalis and may be especially useful and economically justified for the most susceptible hosts, but they also work well for less susceptible hosts. A good S. dorsalis scouting program should hence consider trap catches and symptoms such as leaf

  9. A new gene, bic, with pleiotropic effects (with T P V) for bicolor flowers and dark olive brown seed coat in common bean.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Painted Lady’ (Phaseolus coccineus L.) has bicolor flowers with vermilion banner petal and white wing petals. This flower color pattern is not known in common bean (P. vulgaris L.). The bicolor trait was backcrossed into common bean and its inheritance was investigated, including allelism tests w...

  10. Photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system of Gynura Bicolor DC grown at different elevated CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO _{2}] will increase in the future and will affect global climate and ecosystem productivity. However, this is not clearly an area that requires further study on the most appropriate [CO _{2}] selection for plant growth and quality in a closed, controlled environment. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant status under five CO _{2} concentration (400, 800, 1200, 2000 and 3000 umol mol (-1) ) on the leaf of Gynura bicolor DC. Here the results show that net photosynthetic rate(Pn), Chl content, edible biomass(EB), leaf blade width(LBW), root weight(RW), fructose(Fru) and sucrose(Suc) of Gynura bicolor DC increased under elevated [CO _{2}] of 800 umol mol (-1) , 1200 umol mol (-1) and 2000 umol mol (-1) . On the contrary, photosynthesis and biomass production declined significantly at 3000 umol mol (-1) CO _{2}, While Lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H _{2}O _{2}) achieved the highest levels. Furthermore, the contents of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C (VC), and vitamin E (VE), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) reached the highest level at 2000 umol mol ({-1) }CO _{2}. Results imply that a significant increase in growth and antioxidant defense system of Gynura bicolor DC occurred under 800-2000 umol mol (-1) of CO _{2} concentration provided a theoretical basis for the application for plants selection in Bioregeneration Life Support System (BLSS) and a closed controlled environment.

  11. Sunlight decreased genotoxicity of azadirachtin on root tip cells of Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor.

    PubMed

    Kwankua, W; Sengsai, S; Kuleung, C; Euawong, N

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) extract for pest control in agriculture has raised concerns over contamination by the residues to the environment. Such residues, particularly azadirachtin (Aza), may cause deleterious effect to non-target organisms. This investigation was conducted to find out if Aza could be inactivated through exposures to sunlight. Activity of Aza was assessed as its ability to cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the forms of nuclei abnormality and chromosome aberration as measured by mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration (MA). Varying concentrations of Aza were tested on Allium cepa and Eucrosia bicolor. It was found that the MI of all root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa and E. bicolor treated with 0.00005%, 0.00010%, 0.00015%, and 0.00020% (w/v) Aza-containing neem extract for 24h, were significantly lower than the controls. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the Aza-treated groups showed higher MA levels in all cases investigated. Furthermore, the decreasing levels of MI and the increasing levels of MA related well with the increasing concentration of Aza. Microscopic examination of root tip meristematic cells revealed that the anomaly found most often were mitotic disturbances and chromosomal bridges. Exposures of 0.00020% (w/v) Aza to sunlight for 3 days and 7 days decreased Aza ability to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, both in terms of MI and MA, to root tip meristematic cells in A. cepa and E. bicolor. Photodegradation of Aza upon exposure to direct sunlight was confirmed by HPLC. The study implicates that Aza would unlikely cause long term deleterious effects to the environment since it would be inactivated by sunlight. PMID:20452021

  12. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Laccaria bicolor CAZome reveals insights into polysaccharides remodelling during symbiosis establishment.

    PubMed

    Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Commun, Carine; Kohler, Annegret; Morin, Emmanuelle; Balestrini, Raffaella; Plett, Jonathan; Danchin, Etienne; Coutinho, Pedro; Wiebenga, Ad; de Vries, Ronald P; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, living in soil forests, are required microorganisms to sustain tree growth and productivity. The establishment of mutualistic interaction with roots to form ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is not well known at the molecular level. In particular, how fungal and plant cell walls are rearranged to establish a fully functional ectomycorrhiza is poorly understood. Nevertheless, it is likely that Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZyme) produced by the fungus participate in this process. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling during ECM development was used to examine how the CAZome of Laccaria bicolor is regulated during symbiosis establishment. CAZymes active on fungal cell wall were upregulated during ECM development in particular after 4weeks of contact when the hyphae are surrounding the root cells and start to colonize the apoplast. We demonstrated that one expansin-like protein, whose expression is specific to symbiotic tissues, localizes within fungal cell wall. Whereas L. bicolor genome contained a constricted repertoire of CAZymes active on cellulose and hemicellulose, these CAZymes were expressed during the first steps of root cells colonization. L. bicolor retained the ability to use homogalacturonan, a pectin-derived substrate, as carbon source. CAZymes likely involved in pectin hydrolysis were mainly expressed at the stage of a fully mature ECM. All together, our data suggest an active remodelling of fungal cell wall with a possible involvement of expansin during ECM development. By contrast, a soft remodelling of the plant cell wall likely occurs through the loosening of the cellulose microfibrils by AA9 or GH12 CAZymes and middle lamella smooth remodelling through pectin (homogalacturonan) hydrolysis likely by GH28, GH12 CAZymes. PMID:25173823

  13. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

  14. A potential anti-inflammation activity and depigmentation effect of Lespedeza bicolor extract and its fractions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jin; Hossaine, M.D. Akil; Park, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is an acquire hypermelanosis after cutaneous inflammation and injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a natural ingredient with the anti-inflammatory and depigmentation activities into possible applications of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Methanol extracts of Lespedeza bicolor and its various fractions inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. In particular, the ethyl acetate fraction was shown to be inhibition of NO production (89%) and down-regulation of iNOS mRNA without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction significantly attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation (P < 0.05), indicating the anti-inflammatory activity due to NF-κB inhibition. Moreover, extracts, mainly ethyl acetate fraction, exhibited not only DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50, 112.45 μg/mL) with 4 times lower activity than ascorbic acid, but also anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50, 1 μg/mL) with a similar activity to arbutin showing a competitive inhibitor. Furthermore, vitexin and haginins A, B and C were identified through LC–MS analysis as potential compounds responsible for these effects. These results suggest that L. bicolor extract have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities and tyrosinase inhibitory effect and it might be used in the management of postinflammatory pigmentation through inhibition of pathogenic process involved in hyperpigmentation. PMID:26858533

  15. Genetic diversity among different physiological traits of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of subtropical origin.

    PubMed

    Bafeel, S O

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Saudi locally growing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars has not been thoroughly characterized. To understand the genomic patterns of diversification in Saudi sorghum cultivars (N = 7), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used as a rapid, inexpensive method for providing information regarding genomic variability below the species level. Six commercially available primers were initially used to select a single primer based on availability, universality, and its use with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. PCR-amplified molecular markers were reproducibly detected in Saudi cultivars. The single primer 2 produced clear bands and revealed variability among the cultivars. Seven tested cultivars were categorized into 2 major groups, indicating 2 genomogroups for the Saudi-cultivars. Five cultivars (S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6) showed identical banding patterns and were grouped in the same clade, although their panicles varied in size, shape, and color. Two cultivars (S1 and S7) showed different banding patterns. In this study, a single primer (P2) was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of genotype detection among sorghum cultivars. This is the first report describing genetic variation among S. bicolor cultivars in Saudi Arabia. The commercial primer (P2) and PCR reaction mixture used in this study are readily available and can be used in sorghum improvement programs. PMID:26345933

  16. Antioxidant Potential in Different Parts and Callus of Gynura procumbens and Different Parts of Gynura bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vijendren; Ahmad, Syahida; Mahmood, Maziah

    2015-01-01

    Plants from Gynura family was used in this study, namely, Gynura procumbens and Gynura bicolor. Gynura procumbens is well known for its various medicinal properties such as antihyperglycaemic, antihyperlipidaemic, and antiulcerogenic; meanwhile, G. bicolor remains unexploited. Several nonenzymatic antioxidants methods were utilized to study the antioxidant capacity, which include ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and ascorbic acid content determination. DPPH assay reveals G. procumbens shoot as the lowest (66.885%) and G. procumbens root as the highest (93.499%) DPPH radical inhibitor. In FRAP assay, reducing power was not detected in G. procumbens leaf callus (0.000 TEAC mg/g FW) whereby G. procumbens root exhibits the highest (1.103 TEAC mg/g FW) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content exhibited similar trend for both the intact plants analysed. In all antioxidant assays, G. procumbens callus culture exhibits very low antioxidant activity. However, G. procumbens root exhibited highest phenolic content, flavonoid content, and ascorbic acid content with 4.957 TEAC mg/g FW, 543.529 QE µg/g FW, and 54.723 µg/g FW, respectively. This study reveals that G. procumbens root extract is a good source of natural antioxidant. PMID:26491654

  17. Antioxidant Potential in Different Parts and Callus of Gynura procumbens and Different Parts of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vijendren; Ahmad, Syahida; Mahmood, Maziah

    2015-01-01

    Plants from Gynura family was used in this study, namely, Gynura procumbens and Gynura bicolor. Gynura procumbens is well known for its various medicinal properties such as antihyperglycaemic, antihyperlipidaemic, and antiulcerogenic; meanwhile, G. bicolor remains unexploited. Several nonenzymatic antioxidants methods were utilized to study the antioxidant capacity, which include ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and ascorbic acid content determination. DPPH assay reveals G. procumbens shoot as the lowest (66.885%) and G. procumbens root as the highest (93.499%) DPPH radical inhibitor. In FRAP assay, reducing power was not detected in G. procumbens leaf callus (0.000 TEAC mg/g FW) whereby G. procumbens root exhibits the highest (1.103 TEAC mg/g FW) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content exhibited similar trend for both the intact plants analysed. In all antioxidant assays, G. procumbens callus culture exhibits very low antioxidant activity. However, G. procumbens root exhibited highest phenolic content, flavonoid content, and ascorbic acid content with 4.957 TEAC mg/g FW, 543.529 QE µg/g FW, and 54.723 µg/g FW, respectively. This study reveals that G. procumbens root extract is a good source of natural antioxidant. PMID:26491654

  18. A potential anti-inflammation activity and depigmentation effect of Lespedeza bicolor extract and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jin; Hossaine, M D Akil; Park, Seung Chun

    2016-01-01

    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is an acquire hypermelanosis after cutaneous inflammation and injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a natural ingredient with the anti-inflammatory and depigmentation activities into possible applications of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Methanol extracts of Lespedeza bicolor and its various fractions inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. In particular, the ethyl acetate fraction was shown to be inhibition of NO production (89%) and down-regulation of iNOS mRNA without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction significantly attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation (P < 0.05), indicating the anti-inflammatory activity due to NF-κB inhibition. Moreover, extracts, mainly ethyl acetate fraction, exhibited not only DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50, 112.45 μg/mL) with 4 times lower activity than ascorbic acid, but also anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50, 1 μg/mL) with a similar activity to arbutin showing a competitive inhibitor. Furthermore, vitexin and haginins A, B and C were identified through LC-MS analysis as potential compounds responsible for these effects. These results suggest that L. bicolor extract have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities and tyrosinase inhibitory effect and it might be used in the management of postinflammatory pigmentation through inhibition of pathogenic process involved in hyperpigmentation. PMID:26858533

  19. Hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin transcription in roots of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Cooke, Janice E K; Kemppainen, Minna; Pardo, Alejandro G; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2016-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi have been reported to increase root hydraulic conductivity (L pr) by altering apoplastic and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP)-mediated cell-to-cell water transport pathways in associated roots, or to have little effect on root water transport, depending on the interacting species and imposed stresses. In this study, we investigated the water transport properties and PIP transcription in roots of aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by the wild-type strain of Laccaria bicolor and by strains overexpressing a major fungal water-transporting aquaporin JQ585595. Inoculation of aspen seedlings with L. bicolor resulted in about 30 % colonization rate of root tips, which developed dense mantle and the Hartig net that was restricted in the modified root epidermis. Transcript abundance of the aspen aquaporins PIP1;2, PIP2;1, and PIP2;2 decreased in colonized root tips. Root colonization by JQ585595-overexpressing strains had no significant impact on seedling shoot water potentials, gas exchange, or dry mass; however, it led to further decrease in transcript abundance of PIP1;2 and PIP2;3 and the significantly lower L pr than in non-inoculated roots. These results, taken together with our previous study that showed enhanced root water hydraulics of L. bicolor-colonized white spruce (Picea glauca), suggest that the impact of L. bicolor on root hydraulics varies by the ectomycorrhiza-associated tree species. PMID:26861480

  20. Field damage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) with reduced lignin levels by naturally occurring insect pests and pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutant lines of sorghum with low levels of lignin are potentially useful for bioenergy production, but may have problems with insects or disease. Field grown normal and low lignin bmr6 and bmr12 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were examined for insect and disease damage in the field, and insect damage in ...

  1. Gene Space Dynamics during the Evolution of Aegilops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine different regions totaling 9.7 Mb of the 4.02 Gb Aegilops tauschii genome were sequenced using the Sanger sequencing technology and compared with orthologous Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa (rice) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) genomic sequences. The ancestral gene content in these regio...

  2. Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a diverse, representative collection of the C4 model plant, Sorghum bicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 14,739 SNPs. The SNPs were produced using a highly multiplexed g...

  3. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly. PMID:25964378

  4. Uptake, translocation, and metabolism of oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and their influence on metolachlor metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yenne, S.P.; Hatzios, K.K.; Meredith, S.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The uptake, translocation, and metabolism of the oxime ether safeners oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, var. Funk G-522-DR) were investigated. Following application of ({sup 14}C)oxabetrinil and ({sup 14}C)CGA-133205 to imbibed seeds, it appears that the safeners are conferring protection to grain sorghum by increasing the rate of metolachlor metabolism.

  5. Alkylresorcinol Synthases Expressed in Sorghum Bicolor Root Hairs Play an Essential Role in the Biosynthesis of the Allelopathic Benzoquinone Sorgoleone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bicolor is considered to be an allelopathic crop species, producing phytotoxins such as the lipid benzoquinone sorgoleone, which likely accounts for many of the allelopathic properties of Sorghum spp. Current evidence suggests that sorgoleone biosynthesis occurs exclusively in root hair cel...

  6. Registration of the IS3620C/BTx623 recombinant inbred mapping population of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench.])

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BTx623 x IS3620C sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] mapping population (Reg. No. _______, NSL ____, [represented as BTx623/IS3620C]), is a set of 430 F7 to F9 recombinant inbred lines [RILs](USDA-ARS Germplasm Information Network (GRIN) PI 658758 through PI 659060 and PI 659144 through PI 65...

  7. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  8. [Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra) Shoemaker: Species associated to folial spot in pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in Brazil.].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morejón, K; Kimati, H; Fancelli, M I

    1998-03-01

    One species of hiphomycetos group, belonging to the genus Bipolaris Shoemaker that was identified like Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra) Shoemaker is recorded for the first time on pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) from Brazil. The comparison with other close species reported like pathogenic folial spot in genus Arecaceae is made. Its morphological and cultural characteristics are described. PMID:17655408

  9. Discovery of a dhurrin QTL in sorghum bicolor: colocalization of dhurrin biosynthesis and a novel stay-green QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin [(S)-p-hydroxymandelonitrile-ß-D-glucopyranoside] is a cyanogenic glucoside produced by (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and is generally considered a natural defense compound capable of producing the toxin hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to deter animal herbivory. Recently, high levels of leaf dhurrin h...

  10. Gene knockdown by ihpRNA-triggering in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus Laccaria bicolor.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Minna J; Pardo, Alejandro G

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is a mutualistic association between fungi and the roots of the vast majority of trees. These include numerous ecologically and economically relevant species and the participating fungal symbionts are predominantly filamentous basidiomycetes. In natural ecosystems the plant nutrient uptake from soil takes place via the extraradical mycelia of these ECM mycosimbionts as a trade for plant photosyntates. The symbiotic phase in the life cycle of ECM basidiomycetes is the dikaryotic hyphae. Therefore, studies on symbiotic relevant gene functions require the inactivation of both gene copies in these dikaryotic fungi. RNA silencing is a eukaryotic sequence homology-dependent degradation of target RNAs which is believed to have evolved as a protection mechanism against invading nucleic acids. In different eukaryotic organisms, including fungi, the RNA silencing pathway can be artificially triggered to target and degrade gene transcripts of interest, resulting in gene knock-down. Most importantly, RNA silencing can act at the cytosolic level affecting mRNAs originating from several gene copies and different nuclei thus offering an efficient means of altering gene expression in dikaryotic organisms. Therefore, the pHg/pSILBAγ silencing vector was constructed for efficient RNA silencing triggering in the model mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor. This cloning vector carries the Agaricus bisporus gpdII-promoter, two multiple cloning sites separated by a L. bicolor nitrate reductase intron and the Aspergillus nidulans trpC terminator. pSILBAγ allows an easy two-step PCR-cloning of hairpin sequences to be expressed in basidiomycetes. With one further cloning step into pHg, a pCAMBIA1300-based binary vector carrying a hygromycin resistance cassette, makes the pHg/pSILBAγ plasmid compatible with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The pHg/pSILBAγ-system results in predominantly single integrations of RNA silencing triggering T-DNAs in the fungal genome

  11. Reproductive effort reduces long-term immune function in breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    PubMed Central

    Ardia, Daniel R; Schat, Karel A; Winkler, David W

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether strategies of reproductive allocation may reduce long-term immunocompetence through the effects of manipulated effort on secondary or acquired immunity. We tested whether increased reproductive effort leads to reduced immune function and survival by manipulating brood size in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and exposing breeding females to a primary and secondary exposure of sheep red blood cells to elicit a humoral immune response. Females raising enlarged broods produced fewer secondary antibodies than did females raising control or reduced broods. Most importantly, individuals with high secondary responses were more likely to survive to breed 3 years after brood manipulations, suggesting that differences in disease susceptibility may be caused by trade-offs in reproductive allocation. We also found that individual quality, measured by clutch initiation date, mediated the effects of brood manipulations, with higher-quality birds showing a greater ability to deal with increases in effort. PMID:12964994

  12. Bioactive and nutritive compounds in Sorghum bicolor (Guinea corn) red leaves and their health implication.

    PubMed

    Abugri, D A; Tiimob, B J; Apalangya, V A; Pritchett, G; McElhenney, W H

    2013-05-01

    Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Naga Red) red leaves is an ingredient used in rice and beans that is known as "waakye" in the Hausa language in some African countries. Little is known about its benefits aside from its colourant properties. We studied its bioactive, nutritive compounds and the effectiveness of four organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether) in isolation of these compounds to gain information regarding its health benefits to consumers. Of the compounds evaluated, the leaves consisted primarily of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids with small amounts of chlorophyll (a and b), lycopene and β-carotene. The fatty acid profiles of the leaves revealed palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid as predominant with each having greater than 5% of the total fatty acid identified. The nutritional implication of these findings is that the consumption of diets prepared with the leaves provides natural antioxidant and essential fatty acids that could fight cardiovascular related diseases. PMID:23265545

  13. Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Cohen, R.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Residues of 6 organochlorine compds. were detected in adult carcasses, 4 in eggs, 2 in brains, and one in nestlings of Colorado tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). DDE [72-55-9]accounted for 91% of total organochlorine compound residue in each of the 4 sample types. DDE was detected in 30 samples (94%) and DDT [50-29-3] in 2 samples (6%). Carcasses of breeding females and egg clutches had residues of 6 organochlorine compds. not found in nestling samples. Only residues of DDE were found in nestlings. DDT and DDE were the only organochlorine compds. recovered in brain samples. Measurements of tree swallow eggshells showed that unattended eggs were not significantly different from those of attended or historical eggs. The implications of the observed organochlorine compound contamination are discussed.

  14. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Woo, S S; Jiang, J; Gill, B S; Paterson, A H; Wing, R A

    1994-01-01

    The construction of representative large insert DNA libraries is critical for the analysis of complex genomes. The predominant vector system for such work is the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) system. Despite the success of YACs, many problems have been described including: chimerism, tedious steps in library construction and low yields of YAC insert DNA. Recently a new E.coli based system has been developed, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system, which offers many potential advantages over YACs. We tested the BAC system in plants by constructing an ordered 13,440 clone sorghum BAC library. The library has a combined average insert size, from single and double size selections, of 157 kb. Sorghum inserts of up to 315 kb were isolated and shown to be stable when grown for over 100 generations in liquid media. No chimeric clones were detected as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization of ten BAC clones to metaphase and interphase S.bicolor nuclei. The library was screened with six sorghum probes and three maize probes and all but one sorghum probe hybridized to at least one BAC clone in the library. To facilitate chromosome walking with the BAC system, methods were developed to isolate the proximal ends of restriction fragments inserted into the BAC vector and used to isolate both the left and right ends of six randomly selected BAC clones. These results demonstrate that the S. bicolor BAC library will be useful for several physical mapping and map-based cloning applications not only in sorghum but other related cereal genomes, such as maize. Furthermore, we conclude that the BAC system is suitable for most large genome applications, is more 'user friendly' than the YAC system, and will likely lead to rapid progress in cloning biologically significant genes from plants. Images PMID:7800481

  15. Population Dynamics of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and the Predator Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) as Influenced by Flower Color of Lagerstroemia (Lythraceae).

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Charles; Funderburk, Joe; Tyler-Julian, Kara; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Knox, Gary; Andersen, Peter; Adkins, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Crapemyrtle is a common landscape planting that is a resource subsidy for beneficial insects. Field studies were conducted to determine the influence of crapemyrtle flower color on the population abundances and predator-prey dynamics of the herbivorous Frankliniella species and the predator Orius insidiosus. Adults and immatures of predator and prey were highly anthophilous, preferring white 'Acoma' flowers compared with lavender 'Apalachee', red 'Carolina Beauty', and pink 'Choctaw'. The predator was aggregated with its prey in a density-dependent manner: the adults by preferring the crapemyrtle clones also preferred by the thrips and the nymphs by direct tracking or as a function of increased prey and fecundity. Acoma was best for preference and buildup of O. insidiosus populations, and it was the only clone where there was no buildup in thrips populations. Two species of Karnyothrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaoethripidae), predators of small insects, were common in Tillandsia usneoides, an epiphyte on the crapemyrtle. Crapemyrtle is a bridge to enhance populations of O. insidiosus during summer months when there are few other hosts in the southern USA. PMID:26313973

  16. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and non-treated trap plants for the management of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in greenhouse ornamentals.

    PubMed

    Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Shipp, J Les; Jandricic, Sarah; Murphy, Graeme; Short, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The effectiveness of trap cropping as an integrated control strategy against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), was explored in potted chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora (Tzvelev), greenhouse crops. The efficacy of flowering chrysanthemum trap plants, either treated with the insecticide spinosad or untreated, to regulate F. occidentalis populations was tested at different spatial scales (small cage, large cage and commercial greenhouse) and for different time periods (1 or 4 weeks). It was demonstrated that flowering chrysanthemums as trap plants lower the number of adult F. occidentalis in a vegetative chrysanthemum crop and, as a result, reduce crop damage. In the 4 week large-cage trial and the commercial trial, significant differences between the control and the trap plant treatments started to appear in the third week of the experiment. Larvae were only significantly reduced by the presence of trap plants in the 1 week small-cage trials. There were no significant differences between treatments with spinosad-treated and untreated trap plants in the number of F. occidentalis on the crop. This suggests that there was minimal movement of adult F. occidentalis back and forth between the trap plants and the crop to feed and oviposit. It is concluded that the trap plant strategy is a useful tool for integrated pest management against F. occidentalis in greenhouses. PMID:17659537

  17. The Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor Stimulates Lateral Root Formation in Poplar and Arabidopsis through Auxin Transport and Signaling1[W

    PubMed Central

    Felten, Judith; Kohler, Annegret; Morin, Emmanuelle; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Palme, Klaus; Martin, Francis; Ditengou, Franck A.; Legué, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    The early phase of the interaction between tree roots and ectomycorrhizal fungi, prior to symbiosis establishment, is accompanied by a stimulation of lateral root (LR) development. We aimed to identify gene networks that regulate LR development during the early signal exchanges between poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor with a focus on auxin transport and signaling pathways. Our data demonstrated that increased LR development in poplar and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interacting with L. bicolor is not dependent on the ability of the plant to form ectomycorrhizae. LR stimulation paralleled an increase in auxin accumulation at root apices. Blocking plant polar auxin transport with 1-naphthylphthalamic acid inhibited LR development and auxin accumulation. An oligoarray-based transcript profile of poplar roots exposed to molecules released by L. bicolor revealed the differential expression of 2,945 genes, including several components of polar auxin transport (PtaPIN and PtaAUX genes), auxin conjugation (PtaGH3 genes), and auxin signaling (PtaIAA genes). Transcripts of PtaPIN9, the homolog of Arabidopsis AtPIN2, and several PtaIAAs accumulated specifically during the early interaction phase. Expression of these rapidly induced genes was repressed by 1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Accordingly, LR stimulation upon contact with L. bicolor in Arabidopsis transgenic plants defective in homologs of these genes was decreased or absent. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis pin2, the root apical auxin increase during contact with the fungus was modified. We propose a model in which fungus-induced auxin accumulation at the root apex stimulates LR formation through a mechanism involving PtaPIN9-dependent auxin redistribution together with PtaIAA-based auxin signaling. PMID:19854859

  18. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    PubMed

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots. PMID:23543110

  19. The aquaporin gene family of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor: lessons for symbiotic functions.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Sandra; von Bülow, Julia; Beitz, Eric; Nehls, Uwe

    2011-06-01

    Soil humidity and bulk water transport are essential for nutrient mobilization. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, bridging soil and fine roots of woody plants, are capable of modulating both by being integrated into water movement driven by plant transpiration and the nocturnal hydraulic lift. Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins that function as gradient-driven water and/or solute channels. Seven aquaporins were identified in the genome of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor and their role in fungal transfer processes was analyzed. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed relevant water permeabilities for three aquaporins. In fungal mycelia, expression of the corresponding genes was high compared with other members of the gene family, indicating the significance of the respective proteins for plasma membrane water permeability. As growth temperature and ectomycorrhiza formation modified gene expression profiles of these water-conducting aquaporins, specific roles in those aspects of fungal physiology are suggested. Two aquaporins, which were highly expressed in ectomycorrhizas, conferred plasma membrane ammonia permeability in yeast. This indicates that these proteins are an integral part of ectomycorrhizal fungus-based plant nitrogen nutrition in symbiosis. PMID:21352231

  20. Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) calling and risk-sensitive foraging in the face of threat.

    PubMed

    Freeberg, Todd M; Krama, Tatjana; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Krams, Indriķis; Kullberg, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, a songbird that uses chick-a-dee calls in a variety of social contexts. In two studies, a human observer wore an animal mask that either faced or faced away from the focal bird(s). In Study 1, focal birds were individual titmice captured in a walk-in trap, and the observer stood near the trapped bird. In Study 2, focal birds were titmouse flocks utilizing a feeding station and the observer stood near the station. In both studies, calling behavior was affected by mask orientation. In Study 2, foraging and agonistic behavior were also affected. Titmice can therefore perceive the facial orientation of a potential threat, and this perception affects different behavioral systems, including calling. Our results indicate sensitivity of titmice to the facial orientation of a potential predator in two quite different motivational contexts. This work suggests the possibility of strategic signaling by prey species depending upon the perceptual space of a detected predator. PMID:24929843

  1. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in pre-fledgling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, M.L. )

    1989-09-01

    Wetlands in urbanized areas are frequently degraded by human activity. The Hackensack River Estuary in Northeastern New Jersey is no exception. This estuary contains over 1,600 acres of landfill, and receives various levels of treated effluent from seven different sewage treatment plants. Heavy metals are a common pollutant in the Hackensack River Basin. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in birds is a well documented phenomenon. Studies have shown that near shore predatory birds have higher mercury levels in their feathers than do pelagic predatory birds. Other studies have shown that insectivorous pied flycatcher nestlings and black-crowned night heron pre-fledglings show heavy metal body burdens that correlate well with the distance of their nests from a heavy metal source. The tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) is a common summer resident in the Hackensack Meadowlands. This species readily nests in man-made nest boxes, and has used boxes erected for this purpose in the Hackensack Meadowlands District (HMD). The swallows feed primarily on adult midges (Chironomus decorus) which are prevalent in the region. This relationship makes the tree swallows and midges an ideal model for food chain bioaccumulation studies.

  2. Bi-color near infrared thermoreflectometry: a method for true temperature field measurement.

    PubMed

    Sentenac, Thierry; Gilblas, Rémi; Hernandez, Daniel; Le Maoult, Yannick

    2012-12-01

    In a context of radiative temperature field measurement, this paper deals with an innovative method, called bicolor near infrared thermoreflectometry, for the measurement of true temperature fields without prior knowledge of the emissivity field of an opaque material. This method is achieved by a simultaneous measurement, in the near infrared spectral band, of the radiance temperature fields and of the emissivity fields measured indirectly by reflectometry. The theoretical framework of the method is introduced and the principle of the measurements at two wavelengths is detailed. The crucial features of the indirect measurement of emissivity are the measurement of bidirectional reflectivities in a single direction and the introduction of an unknown variable, called the "diffusion factor." Radiance temperature and bidirectional reflectivities are then merged into a bichromatic system based on Kirchhoff's laws. The assumption of the system, based on the invariance of the diffusion factor for two near wavelengths, and the value of the chosen wavelengths, are then discussed in relation to a database of several material properties. A thermoreflectometer prototype was developed, dimensioned, and evaluated. Experiments were carried out to outline its trueness in challenging cases. First, experiments were performed on a metallic sample with a high emissivity value. The bidirectional reflectivity was then measured from low signals. The results on erbium oxide demonstrate the power of the method with materials with high emissivity variations in near infrared spectral band. PMID:23278013

  3. Embryonic development of the skull of the Andean lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Jaimes, Carlos; Jerez, Adriana; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The study of cranial design and development in Gymnophthalmidae is important to understand the ontogenetic processes behind the morphological diversity of the group and to examine the possible effects of microhabitat use and other ecological parameters, as well as phylogenetic constraints, on skull anatomy. Complete morphological descriptions of embryonic skull development within Gymnophthalmidae are non-existent. Likewise, very little is known about the complete chondrocranium of the family. Herein, the development of the skull of the semi-fossorial lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor is described along with an examination of the chondrocranium of other gymnophthalmid taxa and the teiid Cnemidophorus lemniscatus. Cranial chondrification begins with early condensations in the ethmoid, orbitotemporal and occipital regions of the chondrocranium as well as the viscerocranium. Ossification of the skull starts with elements of the dermatocranium (pterygoid, prefrontal, maxilla and jugal). The orbitosphenoid is the last chondral bone to appear. At birth, the skull is almost completely ossified and exhibits a large frontoparietal fontanelle. In general terms, the chondrocranium of the gymnophthalmids studied is characteristic of lacertiform terrestrial lizards, in spite of their life habits, and resembles the chondrocranium of C. lemniscatus in many aspects. However, the gymnophthalmids show great variation in the orbitosphenoid and a complex nasal capsule. The latter exhibits greater development of some nasal cartilages, which make it more complex than in C. lemniscatus. These characteristics might be related to microhabitat use and the well-developed olfactory and vomeronasal systems observed within this clade. PMID:22881276

  4. Reproductive success and contaminants in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding at a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Dods, Patti L; Birmingham, Erinn M; Williams, Tony D; Ikonomou, Michael G; Bennie, Donald T; Elliott, John E

    2005-12-01

    The uptake and effects of contaminants were measured in the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) at a wastewater treatment site. The study examined reproductive, immunological, and growth endpoints in tree swallows exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and to 4-nonylphenol in wastewater lagoons at the Iona Wastewater Treatment Plant, Vancouver (BC, Canada). Clutch size was significantly lower in tree swallows breeding at Iona Island in 2000 and 2001 compared to the reference site. In 2000, fledging success was significantly lower and mean mass of nestling livers was significantly higher in the tree swallows breeding at the Iona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant. Additional factors that may influence reproductive success, such as parental provisioning and diet composition, did not differ significantly between sites. Levels of 4-nonylphenol detected in sediment and insects were elevated at the Iona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (2000: lagoon sediment 82,000 ng/g dry wt, insects 310 ng/g wet wt; 2001: lagoon sediment 383,900 ng/g dry wt, insects 156 ng/g wet wt) compared to the reference site (2000: pond sediment 1,100 ng/g dry wt, insects not sampled; 2001: pond sediment 642 ng/g dry wt, insects 98 ng/g wet wt). These results indicate that tree swallows might be a useful indicator species for exposure to 4-nonylphenol at wastewater treatment sites: however, further work is necessary to determine the extent of uptake and effects of 4-nonylphenol in riparian insectivorous birds. PMID:16445092

  5. Shedding of Infectious Borna Disease Virus-1 in Living Bicolored White-Toothed Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Nobach, Daniel; Bourg, Manon; Herzog, Sibylle; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Encarnação, Jorge A.; Eickmann, Markus; Herden, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Background Many RNA viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. The bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1). Principal Findings Six out of eleven wild living bicoloured white-toothed shrews were trapped and revealed to be naturally infected with BoDV-1. All shrews were monitored in captivity in a long-term study over a time period up to 600 days that differed between the individual shrews. Interestingly, all six animals showed an asymptomatic course of infection despite virus shedding via various routes indicating a highly adapted host-pathogen interaction. Infectious virus and viral RNA were demonstrated in saliva, urine, skin swabs, lacrimal fluid and faeces, both during the first 8 weeks of the investigation period and for long time shedding after more than 250 days in captivity. Conclusions The various ways of shedding ensure successful virus maintenance in the reservoir population but also transmission to accidental hosts such as horses and sheep. Naturally BoDV-1-infected living shrews serve as excellent tool to unravel host and pathogen factors responsible for persistent viral co-existence in reservoir species while maintaining their physiological integrity despite high viral load in many organ systems. PMID:26313904

  6. Aspects of sucrose transport in stem parenchyma of sweet sorghum. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Lingle, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sucrose-storing crop with a storage tissue anatomically similar to that of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). However, recent evidence suggests that sweet sorghum may be biochemically different from sugarcane. /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake was studied in excised tissue discs from fully-elongated internodes of Rio sweet sorghum. Washout studies gave results consistent with a 3 compartment system. After 3 hours of uptake, most of the /sup 14/C was found in the vacuole compartment, and was determined by HPLC to be sucrose. Total sucrose uptake consisted of a PCMBS-sensitive (active) and a PCMBS-insensitive (passive) component. Active sucrose uptake had a pH optimum of 4.5. Total sucrose uptake was negatively correlated with the internal sucrose content of the tissue. Fructosyl-labelled /sup 14/C-sucrose was not randomized during uptake, suggesting that sucrose cleavage is not a requirement for sucrose uptake in sweet sorghum. This data suggests that in sweet sorghum, sucrose is transported intact by a specific carrier, as opposed to the sucrose-cleavage-and-resynthesis transport system that apparently operates in sugarcane.

  7. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  8. MSH1-Induced Non-Genetic Variation Provides a Source of Phenotypic Diversity in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guomei; Nino-Liu, David O.; Kundariya, Hardik; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Dweikat, Ismail; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    MutS Homolog 1 (MSH1) encodes a plant-specific protein that functions in mitochondria and chloroplasts. We showed previously that disruption or suppression of the MSH1 gene results in a process of developmental reprogramming that is heritable and non-genetic in subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, this developmental reprogramming process is accompanied by striking changes in gene expression of organellar and stress response genes. This developmentally reprogrammed state, when used in crossing, results in a range of variation for plant growth potential. Here we investigate the implications of MSH1 modulation in a crop species. We found that MSH1-mediated phenotypic variation in Sorghum bicolor is heritable and potentially valuable for crop breeding. We observed phenotypic variation for grain yield, plant height, flowering time, panicle architecture, and above-ground biomass. Focusing on grain yield and plant height, we found some lines that appeared to respond to selection. Based on amenability of this system to implementation in a range of crops, and the scope of phenotypic variation that is derived, our results suggest that MSH1 suppression provides a novel approach for breeding in crops. PMID:25347794

  9. Reproductive ecology of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with high levels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.P.; Secord, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    Tree swallows(Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB-contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. Related work has shown that PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994, reproductive success at PCB-contaminated sites was significantly impaired relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely due to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. In 1995, reproductive output was normal, but higher than expected rates of abandonment and supernormal clutches persisted. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Given the levels of contamination in this population, the success of most Hudson River tree swallows reinforces the importance of understanding interspecific differences in the effects of contaminants.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of multiple Dof genes of Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shubhra; Arya, Gulab C; Malviya, Neha; Bisht, Naveen C; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins represent a family of plant specific transcription factors associated with diverse biological processes, such as seed maturation and germination, phytohormone and light mediated regulation, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, a total of 21 Dof genes from Sorghum bicolor were cloned, sequenced and in silico characterized for homology search, revealing their identity to Dof like proteins. The expression profiling of SbDof genes using quantitative RT-PCR in different tissue types and also under drought and salt stresses was attempted. The SbDof genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth condition. Two of the SbDof genes namely SbDof8 and SbDof12 showed comparatively high level of transcript abundance in all the tissue types tested; whereas some of the SbDof genes showed a distinct tissue specific expression pattern. Further a total of 13 SbDof genes showed differential expression when subjected to either of the abiotic stress i.e. drought or salinity. Three of the SbDof genes namely SbDof12, SbDof19 and SbDof24 were found to be up-regulated in response to drought and salt stress. Comparative analysis of SbDof genes expression revealed existence of a complex transcriptional and functional diversity across plant growth and developmental stages. PMID:27230576

  11. Genome-wide Scanning and Characterization of Sorghum bicolor L. Heat Shock Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, M; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kumar, S Anil; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Kishor, P B Kavi; Rao, D Manohar

    2015-08-01

    A genome-wide scanning of Sorghum bicolor resulted in the identification of 25 SbHsf genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows the ortholog genes that are clustered with only rice, representing a common ancestor. Promoter analysis revealed the identification of different cis-acting elements that are responsible for abiotic as well as biotic stresses. Hsf domains like DBD, NLS, NES, and AHA have been analyzed for their sequence similarity and functional characterization. Tissue specific expression patterns of Hsfs in different tissues like mature embryo, seedling, root, and panicle were studied using real-time PCR. While Hsfs4 and 22 are highly expressed in panicle, 4 and 9 are expressed in seedlings. Sorghum plants were exposed to different abiotic stress treatments but no expression of any Hsf was observed when seedlings were treated with ABA. High level expression of Hsf1 was noticed during high temperature as well as cold stresses, 4 and 6 during salt and 5, 6, 10, 13, 19, 23 and 25 during drought stress. This comprehensive analysis of SbHsf genes will provide an insight on how these genes are regulated in different tissues and also under different abiotic stresses and help to determine the functions of Hsfs during drought and temperature stress tolerance. PMID:27006630

  12. Genome-wide Scanning and Characterization of Sorghum bicolor L. Heat Shock Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, M.; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Kumar, S. Anil; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Kishor, P. B. Kavi; Rao, D. Manohar

    2015-01-01

    A genome-wide scanning of Sorghum bicolor resulted in the identification of 25 SbHsf genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows the ortholog genes that are clustered with only rice, representing a common ancestor. Promoter analysis revealed the identification of different cis-acting elements that are responsible for abiotic as well as biotic stresses. Hsf domains like DBD, NLS, NES, and AHA have been analyzed for their sequence similarity and functional characterization. Tissue specific expression patterns of Hsfs in different tissues like mature embryo, seedling, root, and panicle were studied using real-time PCR. While Hsfs4 and 22 are highly expressed in panicle, 4 and 9 are expressed in seedlings. Sorghum plants were exposed to different abiotic stress treatments but no expression of any Hsf was observed when seedlings were treated with ABA. High level expression of Hsf1 was noticed during high temperature as well as cold stresses, 4 and 6 during salt and 5, 6, 10, 13, 19, 23 and 25 during drought stress. This comprehensive analysis of SbHsf genes will provide an insight on how these genes are regulated in different tissues and also under different abiotic stresses and help to determine the functions of Hsfs during drought and temperature stress tolerance. PMID:27006630

  13. Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

  14. Drought tolerance strategies highlighted by two Sorghum bicolor races in a dry-down experiment.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Alessandra; Trindade, Luisa; Amaducci, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects more and more frequently plant growth and productivity due to the current climate change scenario. Unravelling the physiological mechanism underlying the response of plants to water stress and discover traits related to drought tolerance provide new and powerful tools for the selection in breeding programmes. Four genotypes of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were screened in a dry-down experiment using different approaches to discover physiological and molecular indicators of drought tolerance. Different strategies were identified in response to drought among the four genotypes and the two Sorghum race allowing to state the tolerance of durra race compared to the caudatum one and, within the durra race, the drought tolerance of the genotype IS22330. It retained high biomass production and high tolerance index, it had a low threshold of fraction of transpirable soil water and high capacity to recover leaf apparatus after drought stress. Furthermore in this study, the expression levels of four genes highlighted that they could be used as proxy for drought tolerance. Dehdrine (DHN) could be used for screening drought tolerance both in durra and in caudatum races. NADP-Malic Enzyme, Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) and Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein (PIP2-5), being up-regulated by drought stress only in durra race, have a more limited, though nonetheless useful application. In the tolerant durra genotype IS22330 in particular, the regulation of stomatal openings was strongly related to NADP-Malic Enzyme expression. PMID:26624226

  15. Within-tree and temporal distribution of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) nymphs in citrus canopies and their influence on premature fruit abscission.

    PubMed

    Planes, Laura; Catalan, Jose; Urbaneja, Alberto; Tena, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has recently become a pest of citrus whose nymphs feed on the surface of young fruitlets. This feeding habit causes patches or rings of tissue scar around the apex as fruit mature. Currently, little is known about the distribution of P. kellyanus nymphs. Further knowledge would allow the development of an appropriate sampling protocol and targeted pesticide application. In our first experiment, the abundance of first- and second-generation P. kellyanus nymphs was surveyed in a citrus orchard at different times of day to characterize their spatial and temporal distributions. The distribution of damaged fruit was also measured at harvest. Our results showed that P. kellyanus nymphs tended to be present in the upper half of the canopy and mainly damaged the fruit located in this area of the canopy. However, P. kellyanus nymphs were uniformly distributed among the four cardinal directions of the canopy and throughout the day. Consequently, cardinal direction and time of the day seem to be less important when developing a sampling plan or in improving targeting or timing of insecticidal spray applications. In our second experiment, we tracked the presence of P. kellyanus nymphs in labeled fruit daily. These data were used to determine how many days the nymphs occupied a fruit and to relate occupancy and premature fruit abscission. The nymphs of P. kellyanus remained on the same fruit for only 1 d. The rate of fruit abscission in June was significantly higher in fruit occupied by first-generation P. kellyanus nymphs than in nonoccupied fruit. PMID:24874156

  16. Thiamethoxam resistance selected in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): cross-resistance patterns, possible biochemical mechanisms and fitness costs analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cong-Fen; Ma, Shao-Zhi; Shan, Cai-Hui; Wu, Shun-Fan

    2014-09-01

    The western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important pest of various crops in the world, has invaded China since 2003. To understand the risks and to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam in WFT, a resistant strain was selected under the laboratory conditions. Cross-resistance and the possible biochemical resistance mechanisms were investigated in this study. A 15.1-fold thiamethoxam-resistant WFT strain (TH-R) was established after selection for 55 generations. Compared with the susceptible strain (TH-S), the selected TH-R strain showed extremely high level cross-resistance to imidaclothiz (392.1-fold) and low level cross-resistance to dinotefuran (5.7-fold), acetamiprid (2.9-fold) and emamectin benzoate (2.1-fold), respectively. No cross-resistance to other fourteen insecticides was detected. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) produced a high synergism of thiamethoxam effects in the TH-R strain (2.6- and 2.6-fold respectively). However, diethyl maleate (DEM) did not act synergistically with thiamethoxam. Biochemical assays showed that mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities and carboxylesterase (CarE) activity of the TH-R strain were 2.8- and 1.5-fold higher than that of the TH-S strain, respectively. When compared with the TH-S strain, the TH-R strain had a relative fitness of 0.64. The results show that WFT develops resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous application and thiamethoxam resistance had considerable fitness costs in the WFT. It appears that enhanced metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and CarE was a major mechanism for thiamethoxam resistance in the WFT. The use of cross-resistance insecticides, including imidaclothiz and dinotefuran, should be avoided for sustainable resistance management. PMID:25175655

  17. Impact of insecticide efficacy on developing action thresholds for pest management: a case study of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-08-01

    An action threshold (AT) is one of the most important decision-making elements in integrated pest management. Unlike economic thresholds, ATs are not typically derived from an economic injury level model, but they are more commonly used. ATs may be identified from research-based, pest-crop relationships, but they also may be based on experience. ATs may be adjusted depending on, e.g., weather and plant variety, but modifying ATs to accommodate differences in insecticide efficacy has received little attention. To examine this point, several combinations of ATs and insecticides were evaluated against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.). Studies were conducted in New York onion fields from 2006 to 2008 by using registered insecticides for T. tabaci on onions. We hypothesized that the most efficacious insecticides would provide acceptable control of thrips populations regardless of AT (one, three, and five thrips per leaf), whereas less effective products would only control populations using the lowest AT (one thrips per leaf). Results indicated that T. tabaci infestations were managed effectively when spinetoram was applied after a three larvae per leaf threshold, but not when using lambda-cyhalothrin, methomyl or formetanate hydrochloride. However, T. tabaci infestations were managed well when methomyl and formetanate hydrochloride were applied after a one larva per leaf threshold. T. tabaci infestations were never controlled using lambda-cyhalothrin, regardless of the AT used. None of the products reduced T. tabaci populations to an acceptable level when applied at a five larvae per leaf threshold. Implications of adjusting ATs based on efficacy of different insecticides are discussed. PMID:20857743

  18. Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other

  19. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as influenced by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) developmental stage and host plant stage.

    PubMed

    Buitenhuis, R; Shipp, J L

    2005-10-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes were investigated as an alternative biological control strategy for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in ornamental greenhouse crops, by using potted chrysanthemum as a model crop. The susceptibility of various life stages of F. occidentalis to different concentrations of the nematode Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was investigated in petri dish bioassays. This was followed with trials using potted chrysanthemums comparing the efficacy of nematode application to plants in vegetative (exposed habitat) versus flowering (cryptic habitat) stages. In both trials, the effect of the wetting agent Agral 90 (nonylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol), which is used in combination with the nematode spray, on F. occidentalis mortality was assessed. In petri dish trials, the prepupae and pupae were the most susceptible developmental stages of F. occidentalis to infection by S. feltiae. First and second instars were killed by very high rates of nematodes (> or =20,000 infective juveniles per milliliter), but corrected mortality was only approximately 28-37%. No significant mortality was observed for adult thrips. Results from the petri dish trials were confirmed on chrysanthemum plants. Foliar application of S. feltiae did not result in significant mortality in larvae or adults. No significant differences in efficacy were detected by application of nematodes on vegetative versus flowering chrysanthemum. Agral 90 had a significant impact on mortality on the first stage larvae and prepupae in the petri dish trials but not in the plant trials. Thrips control by S. feltiae in greenhouses may be partly or completely due to prepupal and pupal mortality. PMID:16334313

  20. The Bicolored White-Toothed Shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) Is an Indigenous Host of Mammalian Borna Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV. PMID:24699636

  1. Growth Properties and Biomass Production in the Hybrid C4 Crop Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Youshi; Sazuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Miki; Saito, Chieko; Ikeuchi, Masahiro; Kanno, Keiichi; Kojima, Soichi; Hirano, Ko; Kitano, Hideki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Endo, Tsuyoshi; Fukuda, Hiroo; Makino, Amane

    2016-05-01

    Hybrid vigor (heterosis) has been used as a breeding technique for crop improvement to achieve enhanced biomass production, but the physiological mechanisms underlying heterosis remain poorly understood. In this study, to find a clue to the enhancement of biomass production by heterosis, we systemically evaluated the effect of heterosis on the growth rate and photosynthetic efficiency in sorghum hybrid [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. Tentaka] and its parental lines (restorer line and maintainer line). The final biomass of Tentaka was 10-14 times greater than that of the parental lines grown in an experimental field, but the relative growth rate during the vegetative growth stage did not differ. Tentaka exhibited a relatively enlarged leaf area with lower leaf nitrogen content per leaf area (Narea). When the plants were grown hydroponically at different N levels, daily CO2 assimilation per leaf area (A) increased with Narea, and the ratio of A to Narea (N-use efficiency) was higher in the plants grown at low N levels but not different between Tentaka and the parental lines. The relationships between the CO2 assimilation rate, the amounts of photosynthetic enzymes, including ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase, Chl and Narea did not differ between Tentaka and the parental lines. Thus, Tentaka tended to exhibit enlargement of leaf area with lower N content, leading to a higher N-use efficiency for CO2 assimilation, but the photosynthetic properties did not differ. The greater biomass in Tentaka was mainly due to the prolonged vegetative growth period. PMID:26508521

  2. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance loci in Sorghum bicolor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Felderhoff, Tery J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance locimore » present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Lastly, further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.« less

  3. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Felderhoff, Terry J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance locimore » present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. In addition, genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.« less

  4. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    J. Felderhoff, Terry; M. McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. PMID:27194807

  5. Adult tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Housatonic River, Massachusetts, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Dummer, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were captured and banded at six sites that differed in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination levels in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, from 2000 through 2004 to test the prediction that apparent survival rates of females in more contaminated areas were lower than those from less contaminated areas. We also tested whether plumage coloration affected over-winter survival and whether concentrations of PCBs in eggs differed between birds that did and that did not return the following year. Apparent survival rates were calculated using mark?recapture methods and compared using Akaike's Information Criterion. Model-adjusted survival rates ranged from 0.365 to 0.467 for PCB-contaminated females and between 0.404 and 0.476 for reference females. Models with either survival or capture probability modeled as functions of treatment (degree of PCB contamination), year, and age received some support. The model-averaged parameter estimate reflecting a treatment effect for high-PCB birds was negative ( = -0.046, SE() = 0.0939). Fifty-four percent of the total model weights involved models in which survival was a function of PCB treatment. Eggs were collected for contaminant analyses from a random sample of females that did and that did not return the following year. Concentrations of total PCBs were the same or higher in the eggs of females that returned compared to the eggs of those that did not return at both the highly and the moderately contaminated PCB sites. This may have resulted from higher-quality females with higher lipid reserves being more likely than lower-quality females to return the following year. Percentage lipid was positively correlated with total PCBs in eggs. Survival rates were similar among swallows with brown versus blue plumage.

  6. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    J Felderhoff, Terry; M McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. PMID:27194807

  7. The Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeoyl-CoA O-Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alexander M; Sattler, Steven A; Regner, Matt; Jones, Jeffrey P; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2016-09-01

    Caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase responsible for methylation of the meta-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) on the pathway to monolignols, with their ring methoxylation status characteristic of guaiacyl or syringyl units in lignin. In order to better understand the unique class of type 2 O-methyltransferases from monocots, we have characterized CCoAOMT from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCCoAOMT), including the SAM binary complex crystal structure and steady-state enzyme kinetics. Key amino acid residues were validated with site-directed mutagenesis. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicated a sequential binding mechanism for SbCCoAOMT, wherein SAM binds prior to caffeoyl-CoA, and the enzyme showed allosteric behavior with respect to it. 5-Hydroxyferuloyl-CoA was not a substrate for SbCCoAOMT. We propose a catalytic mechanism in which lysine-180 acts as a catalytic base and deprotonates the reactive hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-CoA. This deprotonation is facilitated by the coordination of the reactive hydroxyl group by Ca(2+) in the active site, lowering the pKa of the 3'-OH group. Collectively, these data give a new perspective on the catalytic mechanism of CCoAOMTs and provide a basis for the functional diversity exhibited by type 2 plant OMTs that contain a unique insertion loop (residues 208-231) conferring affinity for phenylpropanoid-CoA thioesters. The structural model of SbCCoAOMT can serve as the basis for protein engineering approaches to enhance the nutritional, agronomic, and industrially relevant properties of sorghum. PMID:27457122

  8. Evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl remediation at a superfund site using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) as indicators.

    PubMed

    Spears, Brian L; Brown, Michael W; Hester, Cyrus M

    2008-12-01

    We studied tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at the Sangamo National Priorities List (NPL) site and a reference area (Little Grassy) within Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois, USA, to evaluate the bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the NPL site following remediation. Tree swallow eggs and 12- to 17-d-old chicks were collected from April to June 2004 and 2005. Total egg PCB concentrations in eggs did not differ between years at Sangamo; mean concentrations at Sangamo in 2004 to 2005 (4,452 ng/g) were higher than those from Little Grassy in 2004 (351 ng/g; p = 0.002) and 2005 (705 ng/g; p = 0.007). A positive PCB dilution in chicks is equivalent to relatively large amounts of exposure and absorption. Total PCB daily dilution in chicks in 2004 and 2005 averaged 92.4 and -203 ng/g/d at Sangamo and -21.8 and -42.7 ng/g/d at Little Grassy. Dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) in eggs in 2004 and 2005 were 1,844 and 676 pg/g at Sangamo and 165 and 128 pg/g at Little Grassy. Mean TEQs in chicks in 2004 and 2005 were 117 and 23.8 pg/g body weight at Sangamo and 0.8 and 0.7 pg/g body weight at Little Grassy. Total PCB concentrations in eggs and chicks at Sangamo and Little Grassy appeared to be comparable to other PCB-contaminated and reference sites. Our data demonstrate that tree swallows using the Sangamo site continue to accumulate significant quantities of PCBs seven years after remedial actions. These findings prompted a reevaluation of remediation at the site and underscore the importance of postremediation monitoring of ecological receptors, particularly in cases involving persistent environmental contaminants. PMID:18699698

  9. Using deep RNA sequencing for the structural annotation of the laccaria bicolor mycorrhizal transcriptome.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, P. E.; Trivedi, G.; Sreedasyam, A.; Lu, V.; Podila, G. K.; Collart, F. R.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Alabama

    2010-07-06

    Accurate structural annotation is important for prediction of function and required for in vitro approaches to characterize or validate the gene expression products. Despite significant efforts in the field, determination of the gene structure from genomic data alone is a challenging and inaccurate process. The ease of acquisition of transcriptomic sequence provides a direct route to identify expressed sequences and determine the correct gene structure. We developed methods to utilize RNA-seq data to correct errors in the structural annotation and extend the boundaries of current gene models using assembly approaches. The methods were validated with a transcriptomic data set derived from the fungus Laccaria bicolor, which develops a mycorrhizal symbiotic association with the roots of many tree species. Our analysis focused on the subset of 1501 gene models that are differentially expressed in the free living vs. mycorrhizal transcriptome and are expected to be important elements related to carbon metabolism, membrane permeability and transport, and intracellular signaling. Of the set of 1501 gene models, 1439 (96%) successfully generated modified gene models in which all error flags were successfully resolved and the sequences aligned to the genomic sequence. The remaining 4% (62 gene models) either had deviations from transcriptomic data that could not be spanned or generated sequence that did not align to genomic sequence. The outcome of this process is a set of high confidence gene models that can be reliably used for experimental characterization of protein function. 69% of expressed mycorrhizal JGI 'best' gene models deviated from the transcript sequence derived by this method. The transcriptomic sequence enabled correction of a majority of the structural inconsistencies and resulted in a set of validated models for 96% of the mycorrhizal genes. The method described here can be applied to improve gene structural annotation in other species, provided that there

  10. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Tillitt, D.E.; Nichols, J.W.; Secord, A.L.; McCarty, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  11. Reproduction in male swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor): puberty and the effects of season

    PubMed Central

    Paplinska, Justyna Zofia; Moyle, Richard L C; Wreford, Nigel G; Temple-Smith, Peter D M; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2007-01-01

    This study describes pubertal changes in testes and epididymides and seasonal changes in the adult male reproductive organs and plasma androgen concentrations of the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor). Pre-pubescent males had testes with solid seminiferous cords and spermatogenesis only to the stage of gonocytes. Their epididymides had empty lumina along their entire length. The testes of three males undergoing puberty had some lumen formation and mitotic activity. Their epididymides were similar in appearance to those of adult males but were entirely devoid of any cells within the lumen of the duct. Three other pubescent males showed full lumen formation in the testes and spermatogenesis up to the elongating spermatid stage. Their epididymides were similar in appearance to those of adult males but with no spermatozoa in the duct. However, cells of testicular origin were found in the lumen of the duct in all regions suggesting that testicular fluids and immature germ cells shed into the rete testes flow through the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis before the release of mature testicular spermatozoa. The weights of testes and epididymides of adult males showed no change throughout the year but prostate weight and plasma androgen concentrations varied significantly with season, with maximums in spring and summer and minimums in winter. The volume fraction of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules was significantly lower in winter than in summer; but, despite this, maturing spermatozoa were found in the testes throughout the year. Females in the area conceived year-round, suggesting that seasonal changes in the male reproductive tract did not prevent at least some males from breeding throughout the year. PMID:17764525

  12. Adult tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Housatonic River, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Hines, James E; Nichols, James D; Dummer, Paul M

    2007-05-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were captured and banded at six sites that differed in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination levels in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, from 2000 through 2004 to test the prediction that apparent survival rates of females in more contaminated areas were lower than those from less contaminated areas. We also tested whether plumage coloration affected over-winter survival and whether concentrations of PCBs in eggs differed between birds that did and that did not return the following year. Apparent survival rates were calculated using mark-recapture methods and compared using Akaike's Information Criterion. Model-adjusted survival rates ranged from 0.365 to 0.467 for PCB-contaminated females and between 0.404 and 0.476 for reference females. Models with either survival or capture probability modeled as functions of treatment (degree of PCB contamination), year, and age received some support. The model-averaged parameter estimate reflecting a treatment effect for high-PCB birds was negative (beta = -0.046, SE(beta) = 0.0939). Fifty-four percent of the total model weights involved models in which survival was a function of PCB treatment. Eggs were collected for contaminant analyses from a random sample of females that did and that did not return the following year. Concentrations of total PCBs were the same or higher in the eggs of females that returned compared to the eggs of those that did not return at both the highly and the moderately contaminated PCB sites. This may have resulted from higher-quality females with higher lipid reserves being more likely than lower-quality females to return the following year. Percentage lipid was positively correlated with total PCBs in eggs. Survival rates were similar among swallows with brown versus blue plumage. PMID:17521155

  13. Involvement of Cytochrome P-450 in the Biosynthesis of Dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench 1

    PubMed Central

    Halkier, Barbara Ann; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    1991-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the tyrosine-derived cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin involves N-hydroxytyrosine, (E)- and (Z)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime, p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and p-hydroxymandelonitrile as intermediates and has been studied in vitro using a microsomal enzyme system obtained from etiolated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) seedlings. The biosynthesis is inhibited by carbon monoxide and the inhibition is reversed by 450 nm light demonstrating the involvement of cytochrome P-450. The combined use of two differently prepared microsomal enzyme systems and of tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime, and p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile as substrates identify two cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases: the N-hydroxylase which converts tyrosine into N-hydroxytyrosine and the C-hydroxylase converting p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile into p-hydroxymandelonitrile. The inhibitory effect of a number of putative cytochrome P-450 inhibitors confirms the involvement of cytochrome P-450. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies raised toward NADPH-cytochrome P-450-reductase isolated from sorghum inhibits the same metabolic conversions as carbon monoxide. No cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase catalyzing an N-hydroxylation reaction has previously been reported in plants. The metabolism of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime is completely dependent on the presence of NADPH and oxygen and results in the production of p-hydroxymandelonitrile with no accumulation of the intermediate p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile in the reaction mixture. The apparent NADPH and oxygen requirements of the oxime-metabolizing enzyme are identical to those of the succeeding C-hydroxylase converting p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile to p-hydroxymandelonitrile. Due to the complex kinetics of the microsomal enzyme system, these requirements may not appertain to the oxime-metabolizing enzyme, which may convert p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime to p-hydroxyacetonitrile by a simple dehydration. Images

  14. Macropodicoptes mironovi n. g., n. sp. (Acariformes: Sarcoptidae), a new mange mite from Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest) (Diprotodonia: Macropodidae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V

    2012-09-01

    A new mange mite species, Macropodicoptes mironovi n. g., n. sp. (Acariformes: Sarcoptidae), is described from Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest) (Diprotodontia: Macropodidae) from the Taronga Western Plains Zoo at Dubbo, NSW, Australia. This is the fourth species and third genus allocated to the sarcoptid subfamily Diabolicoptinae, whose representatives exclusively parasitise marsupials. The new genus differs from Diabolicoptes Fain & Domrow, 1974, in both sexes, by the proportions of the gnathosoma, the shape of many hysterosomal setae and the absence of setae e1, pRII-II, sRIII and solenidion ω3I; and, in males, by the lack of fusion of coxal apodemes I. PMID:22890378

  15. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    PubMed

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size. PMID:19554765

  16. Genetic variation within and among species of Cloacina (Strongyloidea: Cloacinine) from the swamp wallaby, Wallabia bicolor (Marsupialia: Macropodidae).

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, Mary A; Beveridge, Ian; Chilton, Neil B; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-12-01

    This study examined genetic variation within and among species of Cloacina found in the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) collected at different localities along the eastern coast of Australia, and evaluated geographical distance as a potential driver for genetic variation. The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to characterize individuals of 11 morphospecies of Cloacina that parasitize W. bicolor. The results of the molecular analyses revealed multiple genotypes for the nine morphospecies of Cloacina (i.e. Cloacina annulata, Cloacina edwardsi, Cloacina eos, Cloacina gallardi, Cloacina mawsonae, Cloacina papillata, Cloacina papillatissima, Cloacina pollux, and Cloacina wallabiae) for which multiple individuals were available for analysis. However, phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data revealed that for each morphospecies, there was no subdivision of individuals into distinct clades based on geographical region from which they were collected. Additional studies are needed to determine the drivers of genetic variation in cloacinid nematodes, and hence increase our understanding of the diversity of parasitic nematodes in macropodid marsupials. PMID:25281208

  17. Ethylene and jasmonic acid act as negative modulators during mutualistic symbiosis between Laccaria bicolor and Populus roots.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Khachane, Amit; Ouassou, Malika; Sundberg, Björn; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis

    2014-04-01

    The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid have interconnecting roles during the response of plant tissues to mutualistic and pathogenic symbionts. We used morphological studies of transgenic- or hormone-treated Populus roots as well as whole-genome oligoarrays to examine how these hormones affect root colonization by the mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N. We found that genes regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were regulated in the late stages of the interaction between L. bicolor and poplar. Both ethylene and jasmonic acid treatments were found to impede fungal colonization of roots, and this effect was correlated to an increase in the expression of certain transcription factors (e.g. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1) and a decrease in the expression of genes associated with microbial perception and cell wall modification. Further, we found that ethylene and jasmonic acid showed extensive transcriptional cross-talk, cross-talk that was opposed by salicylic acid signaling. We conclude that ethylene and jasmonic acid pathways are induced late in the colonization of root tissues in order to limit fungal growth within roots. This induction is probably an adaptive response by the plant such that its growth and vigor are not compromised by the fungus. PMID:24383411

  18. Differential protein profiles of postharvest Gynura bicolor D.C leaf treated by 1-methylcyclopropene and ethephon.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Kang, Ruoyi; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Juan; Yu, Zhifang

    2015-06-01

    Proteins were extracted from G. bicolor that had been treated with 1-methylcyclopropene and ethephon and then stored at room temperature for 1, 3 and 7days. More than 300 protein spots were detected by 2-DE and 38 differentially abundant spots (P<0.05) were excised and analysed by using MALDI-TOF/TOF. Thirty-three proteins were finally confidently identified. According to the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins, the proteins identified were classified into those responsible for metabolism (75.8%), information storage and processing (9.1%) and cellular processes and signaling (12.1%). Compared with ethephon and control treatments, 1-methylcyclopropene specifically increased the abundances of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, carbonic anhydrase, nucleoside diphosphate kinases, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, RuBisCO and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase. 1-Methylcyclopropene protected leaf chloroplast and cells by enhancing stress response and defense, and delayed senescence by inhibiting substance and energy metabolisms. Therefore, 1-methylcyclopropene allowed better self-defense and delayed senescence of G. bicolor leaf. PMID:25624203

  19. Anatomical and hydraulic properties of sorghum roots exposed to water deficit. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, R.T.; Jordan, W.R.; Drew, M.C. )

    1991-05-01

    The effects of a severe water stress in the upper 0-0.15 m rooting zone on development of the exodermis, endodermis and xylem and on radial (Lp) and axial (Ls) hydraulic conductances were studied for Sorghum bicolor. Lp and Lx were based on water flow rates obtained by applying a negative hydrostatic pressure to the proximal xylem ends of excised roots placed in aerated nutrient solution. The same roots were stained with fluorescent berberine and acid phloroglucinol to describe the development of the exodermal and endodermal cell walls from formation of the Casparian band (State I), to deposition of suberin lamellae (State II), and lignification (State III). Lp of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 80% lower in stressed roots than in unstressed controls. At 0.01 and 0.07 m from the root apex, stressed roots were in State III while control roots were in States I and II, respectively. SEM-image analysis for stressed roots indicated that in the exodermis a greater proportion of the cross sectional area was occupied by lignified walls than in the endodermis. Cellufluor, an apoplastic tracer, was blocked at the lignified exodermis even at 0.01 m from the apex in stressed roots. Uranin, a symplastic tracer, was taken up only in the apical region in stressed roots but farther from the apex in the controls. Lx of 7.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}m{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}MPa{sup {minus}1} was 90% lower in stressed roots compared with the controls. Cellufluor test and image analysis showed that although the protoxylem and early metaxylem were conductive in both treatments, stress caused more than a 50% reduction in the diameter of the xylem elements. Results suggest that lignification of the exodermis and endodermis to a large extent decreased apoplastic and symplastic flows and hence Lp in stressed roots. The low Lx in stressed roots was due to a decrease in the diameters of the conductive xylem elements.

  20. A new species of Centruroides Marx (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Panama and new distribution records for Centruroides bicolor (Pocock, 1898) and Centruroides granosus (Thorell, 1876).

    PubMed

    Arias, Diomedes Quintero; Esposito, Lauren A

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Centruroides panamensis n. sp., from the foothills of Volcán Barú in the Province of Chiriquí, Panama is described with a extremely narrow distributional range. New distribution records of Centruroides bicolor (Pocock, 1898) are also presented. PMID:24870482

  1. Determination of the structure and catalytic mechanism of Sorghum bicolor caffeic acid O-methyltransferase and the structural impact of three brown midrib12 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) acting as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from Sorghum bicolor (SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, to form sinapaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the red...

  2. Antifungal activity of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm. and Gasteria bicolor Haw. against opportunistic fungi associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Otang, Wilfred M.; Grierson, Donald S.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In South Africa where many patients are immunocompromised as a result of the AIDS pandemic, opportunistic fungal infections such as candidiasis caused mainly by Candida albicans are common. Arctotis arctotoides and Gasteria bicolor are two plants which are frequently and commonly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of HIV patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of A. arctotoides and G. bicolor against opportunistic fungi common in HIV/AIDS patients. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antifungal activities of the medicinal plant extracts against 10 opportunistic fungi. Results: All the hexane and acetone extracts were active against at least one of the fungi with zones of inhibition varying from 8 to 32 mm, while none of the aqueous extracts was active against any of the fungi. The inhibitory activity of the active extracts, based on the overall mean inhibition diameters, was in the order: A. arctotoides (hexane) > A. arctotoides (acetone) > G. bicolor (hexane) > G. bicolor (acetone). The most susceptible fungi, based on the overall mean diameter of growth inhibition, were Candida glabrata, C. krusei, and Microsporum canis, while Cyptococcus neoformans, Trycophyton tonsurans, and Microsporum gypseum were not susceptible to any of the extracts even at 5 mg/ml which was the highest concentration used. Conclusion: This study validates the use of these plants in traditional medicine in the treatment of secondary fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:22701287

  3. Targeted mapping of quantitative trait locus regions for rhizomatousness in chromosome SBI-01 and analysis of overwintering in a Sorghum bicolor x S. propinquum population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While rhizome formation is intimately associated with perennialism and the derived benefit of sustainability, the introduction of this trait into temperate-zone adapted sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivars warrants precise knowledge of the genetics conditioning this trait in order to mini...

  4. PCBs and DDE in Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) Eggs and Nestlings from an Estuarine PCB Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess the transfer of breeding ground contaminants from an estuarine system. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes locat...

  5. New commercially viable processing technologies for the production of sugar feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) for manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) has been widely recognized as a promising sugar feedstock crop because it: (i) is among the plants giving the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare; (ii) is easily cultivated from seed; (iii) has low input requirements and wide geographic suitability; a...

  6. Elucidation of the structure and reaction mechanism of Sorghum bicolor hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and its structural relationship to other CoA-dependent transferases and synthases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (SbHCT) from Sorghum bicolor participates in an early step of the phenylpropanoid pathway, exchanging CoA esterified to p-coumaric acid with shikimic or quinic acid, as intermediates in the biosynthesis of the monolignols coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. In order to...

  7. Nutritional status and ion uptake response of Gynura bicolor DC. between Porous-tube and traditional hydroponic growth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System (PTNDS) also offer high control of the root environment which is designed to provide a means for accurate environmental control and to allow for two-phase flow separation in microgravity. This study compared the effects of PTNDS and traditional hydroponic cultures on biomass yield, nutritional composition and antioxidant defense system (T-AOC, GSH, H2O2 and MDA) of G. bicolor, and ionic concentration (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2 PO4-, SO42-) of nutrient solution during planting period in controlled environment chambers. The results indicated that the biomass production and yield of G. bicolor grown in PTNDS were higher than in hydroponic culture, although Relative water content (RWC), leaf length and shoot height were not significantly different. PTNDS cultivation enhanced calories from 139.5 to 182.3 kJ/100 g dry matter, and carbohydrate from 4.8 to 7.3 g/100 g dry matter and reduced the amount of protein from 7.3 to 4.8 g/100 g dry matter and ash from 1.4 to1.0 g/100 g dry matter, compared with hydroponic culture. PTNDS cultivation accumulated the nutrition elements of Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn, and reduced Na concentration. T-AOC and GSH contents were significantly lower in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture in the first harvest. After the first harvest, the contents of MDA and H2O2 were significantly higher in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture. However, the activity of T-AOC and GSH and H2O2 and MDA contents had no significant differences under both cultures after the second and third harvest. Higher concentrations of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were found in nutrient solution of plants grown in hydroponics culture compared to PTNDS, wherein lower concentrations of NO3-, H2 PO4- and SO42- occurred. Our results demonstrate that PTNDS culture has more

  8. Effect of sward surface height and level of herbage depletion on bite features of cattle grazing Sorghum bicolor swards.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, L; Carvalho, P C F; Mezzalira, J C; Bremm, C; Galli, J R; Gregorini, P

    2013-09-01

    To maximize herbage DMI, pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) and level of herbage depletion (HD) must be such that variables determining short-term herbage intake such as bite mass (BM) and bite rate (BR) are optimized. The objective of this study was to determine a SSH target and the level of HD as a proportion of the SSH that optimizes BM and BR of beef heifers grazing Sorghum bicolor swards. Two experiments were conducted using 2 S. bicolor swards and 4 beef heifers (25 mo old; 322 kg BW). Experiment 1 compared the effect of 6 pregrazing SSH, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 cm, on BM, BR, and jaw movements. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of HD level as a proportion of SSH (0.17, 0.34, 0.50, 0.67 and 0.84) on BM, BR, and jaw movements using the optimal pregrazing SSH defined in Exp. 1. Short-term herbage DMI was estimated using a double-weighing technique and corrected for insensible BW loss. Herbage DMI was subsequently used to calculate the BM. Net eating time and jaw movements for apprehension and manipulation + mastication during grazing as well as total jaw movements were determined using the IGER (Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research) behavior recorders. Bite rate and the number of total jaw movements per gram herbage DMI were derived from jaw movement count and measurements of herbage DMI. The results of Exp. 1 showed low and high SSH constraint the ease of herbage harvesting. Greater BM are maintained until a SSH of 50 cm is reached (P < 0.05) and then decline at greater SSH due to herbage dispersion. The nonbiting jaw movement rate increased at greater SSH whereas BR decreased (P < 0.05). For both variables, the turning point was close to a SSH of 50 cm. Experiment 2 showed that such an optimization of BM and BR was maintained until an HD level of 0.34 was reached (P < 0.05). There was a linear increase in both the total jaw movements per unit herbage DMI and the nonbiting jaw movements rate (manipulation + mastication) subsequent to levels

  9. Mercury and other element exposure to tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting on Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Johnson, K.M.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in water were reported in the prairie wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, ND. In order to determine whether wildlife associated with these wetlands was exposed to and then accumulated higher mercury concentrations than wildlife living near more permanent wetlands (e.g. lakes), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from nests near seasonal wetlands, semi-permanent wetlands, and lakes. Mercury concentrations in eggs collected near seasonal wetlands were higher than those collected near semi-permanent wetlands or lakes. In contrast, mercury concentrations in nestling livers did not differ among wetland types. Mercury and other element concentrations in tree swallow eggs and nestlings collected from all wetlands were low. As suspected from these low concentrations, mercury concentrations in sample eggs were not a significant factor explaining the hatching success of the remaining eggs in each clutch.

  10. Mercury and other element exposure to tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting on Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Johnson, Kevin M; Hoffman, David J

    2008-09-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in water were reported in the prairie wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, ND. In order to determine whether wildlife associated with these wetlands was exposed to and then accumulated higher mercury concentrations than wildlife living near more permanent wetlands (e.g. lakes), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from nests near seasonal wetlands, semi-permanent wetlands, and lakes. Mercury concentrations in eggs collected near seasonal wetlands were higher than those collected near semi-permanent wetlands or lakes. In contrast, mercury concentrations in nestling livers did not differ among wetland types. Mercury and other element concentrations in tree swallow eggs and nestlings collected from all wetlands were low. As suspected from these low concentrations, mercury concentrations in sample eggs were not a significant factor explaining the hatching success of the remaining eggs in each clutch. PMID:18207620

  11. Unique diversity of the venom peptides from the scorpion Androctonus bicolor revealed by transcriptomic and proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shi, Wanxia; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Ge, Feng; Yang, Mingkun; Nie, Yao; Bao, Aorigele; Wu, Shifen; E, Guoji

    2015-10-14

    Androctonus bicolor is one of the most poisonous scorpion species in the world. However, little has been known about the venom composition of the scorpion. To better understand the molecular diversity and medical significance of the venom from the scorpion, we systematically analyzed the venom components by combining transcriptomic and proteomic surveys. Random sequencing of 1000 clones from a cDNA library prepared from the venom glands of the scorpion revealed that 70% of the total transcripts code for venom peptide precursors. Our efforts led to a discovery of 103 novel putative venom peptides. These peptides include NaTx-like, KTx-like and CaTx-like peptides, putative antimicrobial peptides, defensin-like peptides, BPP-like peptides, BmKa2-like peptides, Kunitz-type toxins and some new-type venom peptides without disulfide bridges, as well as many new-type venom peptides that are cross-linked with one, two, three, five or six disulfide bridges, respectively. We also identified three peptides that are identical to known toxins from scorpions. The venom was also analyzed using a proteomic technique. The presence of a total of 16 different venom peptides was confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The discovery of a wide range of new and new-type venom peptides highlights the unique diversity of the venom peptides from A. bicolor. These data also provide a series of novel templates for the development of therapeutic drugs for treating ion channel-associated diseases and infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and offer molecular probes for the exploration of structures and functions of various ion channels. PMID:26254009

  12. Bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals for white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bo; Dai, Qian; Zhang, Huichao; Liao, Chen; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu; Zhuo, Ningze; Jiang, Qingsong; Shi, Fenghua; Wang, Haibo

    2014-09-07

    We synthesized bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2} (CIS)/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs), in which Mn{sup 2+} ions and the CIS core were separated with a ZnS layer, and both Mn{sup 2+} ions and CIS cores could emit simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the epitaxial growth of ZnS shell on the CuInS{sub 2} core, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum indicated that Mn{sup 2+} ions were on the lattice points of ZnS shell. By integrating these bicolor NCs with commercial InGaN-based blue-emitting diodes, tricolor white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 83 were obtained.

  13. Tandemly arranged chalcone synthase A genes contribute to the spatially regulated expression of siRNA and the natural bicolor floral phenotype in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasumasa; Saito, Ryoko; Ban, Yusuke; Tanikawa, Natsu; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Ando, Toshio; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Habu, Yoshiki; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    The natural bicolor floral traits of the horticultural petunia (Petunia hybrida) cultivars Picotee and Star are caused by the spatial repression of the chalcone synthase A (CHS-A) gene, which encodes an anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme. Here we show that Picotee and Star petunias carry the same short interfering RNA (siRNA)-producing locus, consisting of two intact CHS-A copies, PhCHS-A1 and PhCHS-A2, in a tandem head-to-tail orientation. The precursor CHS mRNAs are transcribed from the two CHS-A copies throughout the bicolored petals, but the mature CHS mRNAs are not found in the white tissues. An analysis of small RNAs revealed the accumulation of siRNAs of 21 nucleotides that originated from the exon 2 region of both CHS-A copies. This accumulation is closely correlated with the disappearance of the CHS mRNAs, indicating that the bicolor floral phenotype is caused by the spatially regulated post-transcriptional silencing of both CHS-A genes. Linkage between the tandemly arranged CHS-A allele and the bicolor floral trait indicates that the CHS-A allele is a necessary factor to confer the trait. We suppose that the spatially regulated production of siRNAs in Picotee and Star flowers is triggered by another putative regulatory locus, and that the silencing mechanism in this case may be different from other known mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants. A sequence analysis of wild Petunia species indicated that these tandem CHS-A genes originated from Petunia integrifolia and/or Petunia inflata, the parental species of P. hybrida, as a result of a chromosomal rearrangement rather than a gene duplication event. PMID:22288551

  14. Can't take the heat: Temperature-enhanced toxicity in the mayfly Isonychia bicolor exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Camp, A A; Buchwalter, D B

    2016-09-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticide usage has increased globally in recent decades. Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are potent insect neurotoxicants that may pose a threat to non-target aquatic organisms, such as aquatic insects. In nature, insects typically live in thermally fluctuating conditions, which may significantly alter both contaminant exposures and affects. Here we investigate the relationship between temperature and time-to-effect for imidacloprid toxicity with the aquatic insect Isonychia bicolor, a lotic mayfly. Additionally, we examined the mechanisms driving temperature-enhanced toxicity including metabolic rate, imidacloprid uptake rate, and tissue bioconcentration. Experiments included acute toxicity tests utilizing sublethal endpoints and mortality, as well as respirometry and radiotracer assays with [(14)C] imidacloprid. Further, we conducted additional uptake experiments with a suite of aquatic invertebrates (including I. bicolor, Neocloeon triangulifer, Macaffertium modestum, Pteronarcys proteus, Acroneuria carolinensis, and Pleuroceridae sp) to confirm and contextualize our findings from initial experiments. The 96h EC50 (immobility) for I. bicolor at 15°C was 5.81μg/L which was approximately 3.2 fold lower than concentrations associated with 50% mortality. Assays examining the impact of temperature were conducted at 15, 18, 21, and 24°C and demonstrated that time-to-effect for sublethal impairment and immobility was significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Uptake experiments with [(14)C] imidacloprid revealed that initial uptake rates were significantly increased with increasing temperature for I. bicolor, as were oxygen consumption rates. Further, in the separate experiment with multiple species across temperatures 15, 20, and 25°C, we found that all the aquatic insects tested had significantly increased imidacloprid uptake with increasing temperatures, with N. triangulifer accumulating the most imidacloprid on a mass

  15. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families. PMID:26546227

  16. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Nadia; Ziegler, Greg; Dilkes, Brian P; Brenton, Zachary; Boyles, Richard; Connolly, Erin L; Kresovich, Stephen; Baxter, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  17. Comparative population genetics of the panicoid grasses: sequence polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium and selection in a diverse sample of sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Martha T; Mitchell, Sharon E; White, Gemma M; Gallego, Javier; Kukatla, Rakesh; Wing, Rod A; Paterson, Andrew H; Kresovich, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Levels of genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are critical factors in association mapping methods as well as in identification of loci that have been targets of selection. Maize, an outcrosser, has a high level of sequence variation and a limited extent of LD. Sorghum, a closely related but largely self-pollinating panicoid grass, is expected to have higher levels of LD. As a first step in estimation of population genetic parameters in sorghum, we surveyed 27 diverse S. bicolor accessions for sequence variation at a total of 29,186 bp in 95 short regions derived from genetically mapped RFLPs located throughout the genome. Consistent with its higher level of inbreeding, the extent of LD is at least severalfold greater in sorghum than in maize. Total sequence variation in sorghum is about fourfold lower than that in maize, while synonymous variation is fivefold lower, suggesting a smaller effective population size in sorghum. Because we surveyed a species-wide sample, the mating system, which primarily affects population-level diversity, may not be primarily responsible for this difference. Comparisons of polymorphism and divergence suggest that both directional and diversifying selection have played important roles in shaping variation in the sorghum genome. PMID:15166170

  18. Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Strom, Sean M.; Patnode, Kathleen A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33–8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A similar pattern of declining exposure was present in the 2010s as well. Although exposure to PCBs in eggs along the Sheboygan River at sites downstream of Sheboygan Falls has declined by ~60 % since the mid-1990s (8.69 down to 3.27 μg/g) there still seems to be residual pockets of contamination that are exposing some individuals (~25 %) to PCB contamination, similar to exposure found in the 1990s. The exposure patterns in eggs and nestlings among sites, and the changes between the two decades, are further validated by accumulation rate information.

  19. Influence of malting conditions on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as a raw material for fermented beverages.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Ahmed; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    There has been recently increased interest in sorghum to substitute the gluten containing cereals in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. The response surface methodology was used to determine the influence of malting parameters (degree of steeping, germination temperature and time) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Each parameter was varied at three levels. Malting attributes, considered important to produce high quality malt for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages, were analyzed. The optimized conditions were: degree of steeping 41%, germination temperature 27℃ after 7 days of germination. Under these conditions, the following values of the studied attributes can be obtained: α-amylase 139 U/g, β-amylase 60 U/g, extract 83.8%, free amino nitrogen 117.8 mg/100 g, Kolbach index 26.6%, water-extractable arabinoxylan 0.3 g/L and vitamin B2 114.9 µg/L. Among the tested parameters, the germination time had the highest effect on malting attributes. Although the activity of amylolytic enzymes α- and β-amylase were low, the value of extract was high and comparable to that of barley malt. The obtained results showed that sorghum malt is a promising raw material for the production of lactic acid fermented beverages. PMID:23751551

  20. Most photorespiratory genes are preferentially expressed in the bundle sheath cells of the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Florian; Streubel, Monika; Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of C4 plants is the division of labor between two different photosynthetic cell types, the mesophyll and the bundle sheath cells. C4 plants are of polyphyletic origin and, during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis, the expression of thousands of genes was altered and many genes acquired a cell type-specific or preferential expression pattern. Several lines of evidence, including computational modeling and physiological and phylogenetic analyses, indicate that alterations in the expression of a key photorespiration-related gene, encoding the glycine decarboxylase P subunit, was an early and important step during C4 evolution. Restricting the expression of this gene to the bundle sheath led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. We were interested in whether the expression of genes related to photorespiration remains bundle sheath specific in a fully optimized C4 species. Therefore we analyzed the expression of photorespiratory and C4 cycle genes using RNA in situ hybridization and transcriptome analysis of isolated mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor. It turns out that the C4 metabolism of Sorghum is based solely on the NADP-dependent malic enzyme pathway. The majority of photorespiratory gene expression, with some important exceptions, is restricted to the bundle sheath. PMID:26976818

  1. Tissue Distributions of Dhurrin and of Enzymes Involved in Its Metabolism in Leaves of Sorghum bicolor1

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Mineo; Poulton, Jonathan E.; Thayer, Susan S.; Conn, Eric E.

    1979-01-01

    The tissue distributions of dhurrin [p-hydroxy-(S)-mandelonitrile-β-d-glucoside] and of enzymes involved in its metabolism have been investigated in leaf blades of light-grown Sorghum bicolor seedlings. Enzymic digestion of these leaves using cellulase has enabled preparations of epidermal and mesophyll protoplasts and bundle sheath strands to be isolated with only minor cross-contamination. Dhurrin was located entirely in the epidermal layers of the leaf blade, whereas the two enzymes responsible for its catabolism, namely dhurrin β-glucosidase and hydroxynitrile lyase, resided almost exclusively in the mesophyll tissue. The final enzyme of dhurrin biosynthesis, uridine diphosphate glucose:p-hydroxymandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, was found in both mesophyll (32% of the total activity of the leaf blade) and epidermal (68%) tissues. The bundle sheath strands did not contain significant amounts of dhurrin or of these enzymes. It was concluded that the separation of dhurrin and its catabolic enzymes in different tissues prevents its large scale hydrolysis under normal physiological conditions. The well documented production of HCN (cyanogenesis), which occurs rapidly on crushing Sorghum leaves, would be expected to proceed when the contents of the ruptured epidermal and mesophyll cells are allowed to mix. Images PMID:16660850

  2. Association analysis of photoperiodic flowering time genes in west and central African sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Photoperiod-sensitive flowering is a key adaptive trait for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in West and Central Africa. In this study we performed an association analysis to investigate the effect of polymorphisms within the genes putatively related to variation in flowering time on photoperiod-sensitive flowering in sorghum. For this purpose a genetically characterized panel of 219 sorghum accessions from West and Central Africa was evaluated for their photoperiod response index (PRI) based on two sowing dates under field conditions. Results Sorghum accessions used in our study were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes putatively involved in the photoperiodic control of flowering time. Applying a mixed model approach and previously-determined population structure parameters to these candidate genes, we found significant associations between several SNPs with PRI for the genes CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1-b1) and GIGANTEA (GI). Conclusions The negative values of Tajima's D, found for the genes of our study, suggested that purifying selection has acted on genes involved in photoperiodic control of flowering time in sorghum. The SNP markers of our study that showed significant associations with PRI can be used to create functional markers to serve as important tools for marker-assisted selection of photoperiod-sensitive cultivars in sorghum. PMID:22394582

  3. Analysis of genetic variation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes with various agronomical traits using SPAR methods.

    PubMed

    Satish, Lakkakula; Shilpha, Jayabalan; Pandian, Subramani; Rency, Arockiam Sagina; Rathinapriya, Periyasamy; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Largia, Muthiah Joe Virgin; Kumar, Are Ashok; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2016-01-15

    Genetic variation among 45 genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) representing seven subpopulations was assessed using three single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods viz., inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and directed amplification of minisatellite-region DNA (DAMD). Totally 15 ISSR, 8 RAPD and 7 DAMD primers generated 263 amplification products, accounting for 84.6% polymorphism across all the genotypes. The Mantel's test of correlation revealed the best correlation between ISSR and cumulative data with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.84. Assessment of population diversity indicated that the maximum intra population genetic diversity was recorded among high FeZn lines (HFL) having maximum values of Nei's genetic diversity (h) (0.244), Shannon information index (I) (0.368) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) (72.65%) while the corresponding lowest values of 0.074, 0.109 and 17.95% respectively were observed among the members of MDT subpopulation. The mean coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) and the gene flow (Nm) between populations were observed to be 0.396 and 0.7680 respectively. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that maximum genetic variation exists within populations (95%) than among populations (5%). Thus the information obtained from this study could be utilized in sorghum breeding programmes for the development of varieties with improved nutrition and agronomic values in future. PMID:26515517

  4. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families. PMID:26546227

  5. Chromosomal damage and EROD induction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) along the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Bigorgne, Emilie; Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Erickson, Richard A; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schultz, Sandra; Custer, Christine M; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Matson, Cole W

    2015-07-01

    The health of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) was assessed in 2010 and 2011 using biomarkers at six sites downriver of Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area, a tributary into the UMR, and a nearby lake. Chromosomal damage was evaluated in nestling blood by measuring the coefficient of variation of DNA content (DNA CV) using flow cytometry. Cytochrome P450 1A activity in nestling liver was measured using the ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) assay, and oxidative stress was estimated in nestling livers via determination of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio GSSG/GSH, total sulfhydryl, and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH). A multilevel regression model (DNA CV) and simple regressions (EROD and oxidative stress) were used to evaluate biomarker responses for each location. Chromosomal damage was significantly elevated at two sites on the UMR (Pigs Eye and Pool 2) relative to the Green Mountain Lake reference site, while the induction of EROD activity was only observed at Pigs Eye. No measures of oxidative stress differed among sites. Multivariate analysis confirmed an increased DNA CV at Pigs Eye and Pool 2, and elevated EROD activity at Pigs Eye. These results suggest that the health of tree swallows has been altered at the DNA level at Pigs Eye and Pool 2 sites, and at the physiological level at Pigs Eye site only. PMID:25777616

  6. Expression Pattern of the Alpha-Kafirin Promoter Coupled with a Signal Peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Norazlina; Sant, Rajnesh; Bokan, Milovan; Steadman, Kathryn J.; Godwin, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss) were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP. PMID:22315514

  7. Integration of Experiments across Diverse Environments Identifies the Genetic Determinants of Variation in Sorghum bicolor Seed Element Composition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment and seed nutritional quality require the sequestration of sufficient element nutrients. The identification of genes and alleles that modify element content in the grains of cereals, including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is fundamental to developing breeding and selection methods aimed at increasing bioavailable element content and improving crop growth. We have developed a high-throughput work flow for the simultaneous measurement of multiple elements in sorghum seeds. We measured seed element levels in the genotyped Sorghum Association Panel, representing all major cultivated sorghum races from diverse geographic and climatic regions, and mapped alleles contributing to seed element variation across three environments by genome-wide association. We observed significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between several elements across multiple years and diverse environments. The power of combining high-precision measurements with genome-wide association was demonstrated by implementing rank transformation and a multilocus mixed model to map alleles controlling 20 element traits, identifying 255 loci affecting the sorghum seed ionome. Sequence similarity to genes characterized in previous studies identified likely causative genes for the accumulation of zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium, and cadmium in sorghum seeds. In addition to strong candidates for these five elements, we provide a list of candidate loci for several other elements. Our approach enabled the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with causative polymorphisms that can be evaluated in targeted selection strategies for plant breeding and improvement. PMID:26896393

  8. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using TPS1 gene for enhancing tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Yellisetty, Varalaxmi; Reddy, L A; Mandapaka, Maheswari

    2015-09-01

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the transgene is integrated into the cells of already differentiated tissues, the T 0 plants were chimeric and stable integration was observed in T1 generation. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression in the seedlings and spikelets of emerging cob was the first indication of transformability in T0 generation which was further confirmed by PCR analysis using hpt and TPS1 gene-specific primers. Screening on 25 mg/L hygromycin combined with PCR analysis was used for selection of transformants in the T1 generation. Transformation efficiencies ranged between 34-38% and 26-34% using pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1, respectively. Molecular characterization of the T2 transgenics using PCR, RT-PCR and Southern blot analyses further revealed the integration, expression and inheritance of the transgene. These results indicate the feasibility of the method to generate transgenics with pCAM-BIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1. The abiotic stress tolerance of TPS1 transgenics developed in the present study was evident by the ability of the transformants to tolerate 200 mM NaCl as well as higher root growth and biomass. PMID:26440081

  9. Highly efficient de novo mutant identification in a Sorghum bicolor TILLING population using the ComSeq approach.

    PubMed

    Nida, Habte; Blum, Shula; Zielinski, Dina; Srivastava, Dhruv A; Elbaum, Rivka; Xin, Zhanguo; Erlich, Yaniv; Fridman, Eyal; Shental, Noam

    2016-05-01

    Screening large populations for carriers of known or de novo rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is required both in Targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) experiments in plants and in screening of human populations. We previously suggested an approach that combines the mathematical field of compressed sensing with next-generation sequencing to allow such large-scale screening. Based on pooled measurements, this method identifies multiple carriers of heterozygous or homozygous rare alleles while using only a small fraction of resources. Its rigorous mathematical foundations allow scalable and robust detection, and provide error correction and resilience to experimental noise. Here we present a large-scale experimental demonstration of our computational approach, in which we targeted a TILLING population of 1024 Sorghum bicolor lines to detect carriers of de novo SNPs whose frequency was less than 0.1%, using only 48 pools. Subsequent validation confirmed that all detected lines were indeed carriers of the predicted mutations. This novel approach provides a highly cost-effective and robust tool for biologists and breeders to allow identification of novel alleles and subsequent functional analysis. PMID:26959378

  10. Chromosomal damage and EROD induction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) along the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emilie Bigorgne; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Erickson, Richard A.; Karouna, Natalie; Schultz, Sandra; Custer, Christine M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Cole W. Matson

    2015-01-01

    The health of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) was assessed in 2010 and 2011 using biomarkers at six sites downriver of Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area, a tributary into the UMR, and a nearby lake. Chromosomal damage was evaluated in nestling blood by measuring the coefficient of variation of DNA content (DNA CV) using flow cytometry. Cytochrome P450 1A activity in nestling liver was measured using the ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) assay, and oxidative stress was estimated in nestling livers via determination of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio GSSG/GSH, total sulfhydryl, and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH). A multilevel regression model (DNA CV) and simple regressions (EROD and oxidative stress) were used to evaluate biomarker responses for each location. Chromosomal damage was significantly elevated at two sites on the UMR (Pigs Eye and Pool 2) relative to the Green Mountain Lake reference site, while the induction of EROD activity was only observed at Pigs Eye. No measures of oxidative stress differed among sites. Multivariate analysis confirmed an increased DNA CV at Pigs Eye and Pool 2, and elevated EROD activity at Pigs Eye. These results suggest that the health of tree swallows has been altered at the DNA level at Pigs Eye and Pool 2 sites, and at the physiological level at Pigs Eye site only.

  11. Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Strom, Sean M; Patnode, Kathleen A; Christian Franson, J

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33-8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A similar pattern of declining exposure was present in the 2010s as well. Although exposure to PCBs in eggs along the Sheboygan River at sites downstream of Sheboygan Falls has declined by ~60 % since the mid-1990s (8.69 down to 3.27 μg/g) there still seems to be residual pockets of contamination that are exposing some individuals (~25 %) to PCB contamination, similar to exposure found in the 1990s. The exposure patterns in eggs and nestlings among sites, and the changes between the two decades, are further validated by accumulation rate information. PMID:25056798

  12. Most photorespiratory genes are preferentially expressed in the bundle sheath cells of the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Döring, Florian; Streubel, Monika; Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo

    2016-05-01

    One of the hallmarks of C4 plants is the division of labor between two different photosynthetic cell types, the mesophyll and the bundle sheath cells. C4 plants are of polyphyletic origin and, during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis, the expression of thousands of genes was altered and many genes acquired a cell type-specific or preferential expression pattern. Several lines of evidence, including computational modeling and physiological and phylogenetic analyses, indicate that alterations in the expression of a key photorespiration-related gene, encoding the glycine decarboxylase P subunit, was an early and important step during C4 evolution. Restricting the expression of this gene to the bundle sheath led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. We were interested in whether the expression of genes related to photorespiration remains bundle sheath specific in a fully optimized C4 species. Therefore we analyzed the expression of photorespiratory and C4 cycle genes using RNA in situ hybridization and transcriptome analysis of isolated mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in the C4 grass Sorghum bicolor It turns out that the C4 metabolism of Sorghum is based solely on the NADP-dependent malic enzyme pathway. The majority of photorespiratory gene expression, with some important exceptions, is restricted to the bundle sheath. PMID:26976818

  13. Overexpression of SbMyb60 impacts phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and alters secondary cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Sarath, Gautam; Palmer, Nathan A; Baird, Lisa; Serapiglia, Michelle J; Dien, Bruce S; Boateng, Akwasi A; Ge, Zhengxiang; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Twigg, Paul; Clemente, Thomas E; Sattler, Scott E

    2016-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway that generates lignin subunits represents a significant target for altering the abundance and composition of lignin. The global regulators of phenylpropanoid metabolism may include MYB transcription factors, whose expression levels have been correlated with changes in secondary cell wall composition and the levels of several other aromatic compounds, including anthocyanins and flavonoids. While transcription factors correlated with downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway have been identified in several grass species, few transcription factors linked to activation of this pathway have been identified in C4 grasses, some of which are being developed as dedicated bioenergy feedstocks. In this study we investigated the role of SbMyb60 in lignin biosynthesis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which is a drought-tolerant, high-yielding biomass crop. Ectopic expression of this transcription factor in sorghum was associated with higher expression levels of genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and led to higher abundances of syringyl lignin, significant compositional changes to the lignin polymer and increased lignin concentration in biomass. Moreover, transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing SbMyb60 also displayed ectopic lignification in leaf midribs and elevated concentrations of soluble phenolic compounds in biomass. Results indicate that overexpression of SbMyb60 is associated with activation of monolignol biosynthesis in sorghum. SbMyb60 represents a target for modification of plant cell wall composition, with the potential to improve biomass for renewable uses. PMID:26712107

  14. Impact of metagenomic DNA extraction procedures on the identifiable endophytic bacterial diversity in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Maropola, Mapula Kgomotso Annah; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Trindade, Marla

    2015-05-01

    Culture-independent studies rely on the quantity and quality of the extracted environmental metagenomic DNA (mDNA). To fully access the plant tissue microbiome, the extracted plant mDNA should allow optimal PCR applications and the genetic content must be representative of the total microbial diversity. In this study, we evaluated the endophytic bacterial diversity retrieved using different mDNA extraction procedures. Metagenomic DNA from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stem and root tissues were extracted using two classical DNA extraction protocols (CTAB- and SDS-based) and five commercial kits. The mDNA yields and quality as well as the reproducibility were compared. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) was used to assess the impact on endophytic bacterial community structures observed. Generally, the classical protocols obtained high mDNA yields from sorghum tissues; however, they were less reproducible than the commercial kits. Commercial kits retrieved higher quality mDNA, but with lower endophytic bacterial diversities compared to classical protocols. The SDS-based protocol enabled access to the highest sorghum endophytic diversities. Therefore, "SDS-extracted" sorghum root and stem microbiome diversities were analysed via 454 pyrosequencing, and this revealed that the two tissues harbour significantly different endophytic communities. Nevertheless, both communities are dominated by agriculturally important genera such as Microbacterium, Agrobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas; which have previously been shown to play a role in plant growth promotion. This study shows that DNA extraction protocols introduce biases in culture-independent studies of environmental microbial communities by influencing the mDNA quality, which impacts the microbial diversity analyses and evaluation. Using the broad-spectrum SDS-based DNA extraction protocol allows the recovery of the most

  15. Genetic structure of juvenile cohorts of bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) along the Mesoamerican barrier reef: chaos through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, R. I.; Sale, P. F.; Dixon, B.; Heath, Daniel D.

    2009-03-01

    Dispersal in marine systems is a critical component of the ecology, evolution, and conservation of such systems; however, estimating dispersal is logistically difficult, especially in coral reef fish. Juvenile bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) were sampled at 13 sites along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS), the barrier reefs on the east coast of Central America extending from the Yucatan, Mexico to Honduras, to evaluate genetic structure among recently settled cohorts. Using genotype data at eight microsatellite loci genetic structure was estimated at large and small spatial scales using exact tests for allele frequency differences and hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Isolation-by-distance models of divergence were assessed at both spatial scales. Results showed genetic homogeneity of recently settled S. partitus at large geographic scales with subtle, but significant, genetic structure at smaller geographic scales. Genetic temporal stability was tested for using archived juvenile S. partitus collected earlier in the same year (nine sites), and in the previous year (six sites). The temporal analyses indicated that allele frequency differences among sites were not generally conserved over time, nor were pairwise genetic distances correlated through time, indicative of temporal instability. These results indicate that S. partitus larvae undergo high levels of dispersal along the MBRS, and that the structure detected at smaller spatial scales is likely driven by stochastic effects on dispersal coupled with microgeographic effects. Temporal variation in juvenile cohort genetic signature may be a fundamental characteristic of connectivity patterns in coral reef fishes, with various species and populations differing only in the magnitude of that instability. Such a scenario provides a basis for the reconciliation of conflicting views regarding levels of genetic structuring in S. partitus and possibly other coral reef fish species.

  16. The synergistic effect of drought and light stresses in sorghum and pearl millet. [Pennisetum glaucum; Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Masojidek, M.; Trivedi, S.; Halshaw, L.; Alexiou, A.; Hall, D.O. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought stress and high irradiance and their combination were studied under laboratory conditions using young plants of a very drought-resistant variety, ICMH 451, of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and three varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) - one drought-resistant from India, one drought-tolerant from Texas, and one drought-sensitive variety from France. CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and photosystem II fluorescence in leaves were analyzed in parallel with photosynthetic electron transport, photosystem II fluorescence, and chlorophyll-protein composition in chloroplasts isolated from these leaves. High irradiance slightly increased CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and electron transport activities of irrigated plants but not fluorescence. Drought stress (less than {minus}1 megapascal) depressed CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effect of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport activities and fluorescence in chloroplasts (but not photosystem I activity). The synergistic or distinctive effect of drought and high irradiance is discussed. The experiments with pearl millet and three varieties of sorghum showed that different responses of plants to drought and light stresses can be monitored by plant physiological and biochemical techniques. Some of these techniques may have a potential for selection of stress-resistant varieties using seedlings.

  17. Genetic Regulation of Development in Sorghum bicolor: VI. The ma(3) Allele Results in Abnormal Phytochrome Physiology.

    PubMed

    Childs, K L; Pratt, L H; Morgan, P W

    1991-10-01

    Physiological processes controlled by phytochrome were examined in three near-isogenic genotypes of Sorghum bicolor, differing at the allele of the third maturity gene locus. Seedlings of 58M (ma(3) (R)ma(3) (R)) did not show phytochrome control of anthocyanin synthesis. In contrast, seedlings of 90M (ma(3)ma(3)) and 100M (Ma(3)Ma(3)) demonstrated reduced anthocyanin synthesis after treatment with far red and reversal of the far red effect by red. De-etiolation of 48-hour-old 90M and 100M dark-grown seedlings occurred with 48 hours of continuous red. Dark-grown 58M seedlings did not de-etiolate with continuous red treatment. Treatment of seedlings with gibberellic acid or tetcyclacis, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, did not alter anthocyanin synthesis. Levels of chlorophyll and anthocyanin were lower in light-grown 58M seedlings than in 90M and 100M. Etiolated seedlings of all three genotypes have similar amounts of photoreversible phytochrome. Crude protein extracts from etiolated seedlings were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. Phytochrome was visualized with Pea-25, a monoclonal antibody directed to phytochrome from etiolated peas. The samples from all three genotypes contained approximately equivalent amounts of a prominent, immunostaining band at 126 kD. However, the sample from 58M did not show a fainter, secondary band at 123 kD that was present in 90M and 100M. The identity and importance of this secondary band at 123 kD is unknown. We propose that 58M is a phytochrome-related mutant that contains normal amounts of photoreversible phytochrome and normal phytochrome protein when grown in the dark. PMID:16668457

  18. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  19. Management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosae) and NPK fertilizer levels.

    PubMed

    Isah, K M; Kumar, Niranjan; Lagoke, S T O; Atayese, M O

    2013-11-15

    Trials were conducted in the screen house of Niger State College of Agriculture, Mokwa (09 degrees 18'N; 05 degrees 04'E) in the Southern Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria during October-December, 2008 and January-March, 2009. The objective was to evaluate the effect of management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and NPK fertilizer levels. The trials were laid out in split-split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. The main-plot treatments consisted of three sorghum varieties; SAMSORG 3, ICSVIII and SAMSORG 14 while the sub-plot treatments consisted of inoculations; Striga mixed with Glomus, Striga only and Glomus only as well as no inoculation control. The sub-sub-plot treatments were made up of NPK fertilizer levels; (100 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)), (50 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 50 kg K2O ha(-1)) and (0 kg N, 0 kg P2O5, 0 kg K2O ha(-1)). The result obtained showed that sorghum variety SAMSORG 3 were taller, having more vigour and lower reaction to Striga parasitism which resulted in the crop producing higher dry matter compared to the other two varieties. The plots inoculated with Striga only supported shorter plants of sorghum varieties, higher vigour and lower reaction score to Striga compared to Striga mixed with Glomus. It is obvious in this study that the crop performance increases with increase in the rates of NPK fertilizer applied. PMID:24511701

  20. Heterotic Trait Locus (HTL) Mapping Identifies Intra-Locus Interactions That Underlie Reproductive Hybrid Vigor in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis. PMID:22761720

  1. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  2. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV

  3. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. I. Immunological parameters.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Boermans, H J; Ng, P; Campbell, G D; Struger, J

    1998-12-25

    The degree of pesticide exposure and its effects on the immune system and its development were determined in 16-d-old tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) chicks from 4 sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, during 1994-1995. Persistent contaminant residues were measured in tree swallow eggs and in each chick hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity; body, immune organ, and liver masses; lymphocyte blastogenesis response; respiratory burst and phagocytic responses; hemarological evaluation; and histological development of thymus, bursa of fabricius, and spleen were determined. Chemicals sprayed on apple orchards were mainly ethylene bisdithiocarbamate and myclobutanil fungicides and organophosphorus, carbamate, and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. During the period between oviposition of the first egg in each nest to d 16 after hatching, individual nests in orchards were exposed to between 4 and 11 individual chemical applications and up to 3 mixtures of pesticide sprays. Concentrations of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead and arsenic residues in tree swallow eggs and liver were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE, which was as high as 2.29 microg/g wet weight in eggs. EROD activity was not different among sites. Organochlorine and trace metal residues and EROD activity were not correlated with any immune parameter. In sprayed birds, we found a significantly increased blastogenic response to pokeweed mitogen (12.5 microg/ml). However, nests were initiated over a period of several weeks and we also found changes in other tree swallow immune parameters that were related to the date of chick collection. Hematological parameters, bursal and thymic masses, phagocytic response, and thymic development were all correlated with the day the chicks were 16 d of age. After accounting for the collection date of birds from each nest, we found cell proliferation in the cortex and delayed thymic

  4. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  5. Map-Based Cloning of Sbbmc, a Major Locus Controlling the Profuse Wax Trait of Sorghum: a Case Study in Unlocking the Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Sorghum bicolor via Integrated Physiological and Genomic Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most valuable “fail safe” cereal crop species and is a rich repository of genes for abiotic stress tolerance that await discovery. As an example, Sorghum exhibits cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (bloom) on sheaths and leaves that serves as key...

  6. Examining the efficacy of a genotyping-by-sequencing technique for population genetic analysis of the mushroom Laccaria bicolor and evaluating whether a reference genome is necessary to assess homology

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew W.; Wickett, Norman J.; Grabowski, Paul; Fant, Jeremie; Borevitz, Justin; Mueller, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the diversity and ecological importance of Fungi, there is a lack of population genetic research on these organisms. The reason for this can partially be explained by their cryptic nature and difficulty in identifying genets. Additionally, the difficulty (relative to plants and animals) in developing molecular markers for fungal population genetics contributes to the lack of research in this area. This study examines the ability of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to generate SNPs in Laccaria bicolor. Eighteen samples of morphologically identified L. bicolor from the United States and Europe were selected for this project. The RAD sequencing method produced anywhere from 290 K to over three million reads. Mapping these reads to the genome of L. bicolor resulted in 84 K to 940 K unique reads from individual samples. Results indicate that incorporation of non-L. bicolor taxa into the analysis resulted in a precipitous drop in shared loci among samples., suggests the potential of these methods to identify cryptic species. F-statistics were easily calculated, although an observable “noise” was detected when using the “All Loci” treatment versus filtering loci to those present in at least 50% of the individuals. The data were analyzed using tests of Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, population genetic statistics (FIS and FST), and population structure analysis using the program STRUCTURE. The results provide encouraging feedback regarding the potential utility of these methods and their data for population genetic analysis. We were unable to draw conclusions of life history of L. bicolor populations from this data set, given the small sample size. The results of this study indicate the potential of these methods to address population genetics and general life history questions in the Agaricales. Further research is necessary to explore the specific application of these methods in the Agaricales or other fungal groups. PMID:25361831

  7. A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. Results A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R 2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 μg.mgDW-1.h-1. Conclusions This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall

  8. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e.g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community. PMID:24456189

  9. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    SciTech Connect

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  10. Alkylresorcinol Synthases Expressed in Sorghum bicolor Root Hairs Play an Essential Role in the Biosynthesis of the Allelopathic Benzoquinone Sorgoleone[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel; Rimando, Agnes M.; Clemente, Thomas E.; Schröder, Joachim; Dayan, Franck E.; Nanayakkara, N.P. Dhammika; Pan, Zhiqiang; Noonan, Brice P.; Fishbein, Mark; Abe, Ikuro; Duke, Stephen O.; Baerson, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is considered to be an allelopathic crop species, producing phytotoxins such as the lipid benzoquinone sorgoleone, which likely accounts for many of the allelopathic properties of Sorghum spp. Current evidence suggests that sorgoleone biosynthesis occurs exclusively in root hair cells and involves the production of an alkylresorcinolic intermediate (5-[(Z,Z)-8′,11′,14′-pentadecatrienyl]resorcinol) derived from an unusual 16:3Δ9,12,15 fatty acyl-CoA starter unit. This led to the suggestion of the involvement of one or more alkylresorcinol synthases (ARSs), type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) that produce 5-alkylresorcinols using medium to long-chain fatty acyl-CoA starter units via iterative condensations with malonyl-CoA. In an effort to characterize the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the pentadecyl resorcinol intermediate, a previously described expressed sequence tag database prepared from isolated S. bicolor (genotype BTx623) root hairs was first mined for all PKS-like sequences. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that three of these sequences were preferentially expressed in root hairs, two of which (designated ARS1 and ARS2) were found to encode ARS enzymes capable of accepting a variety of fatty acyl-CoA starter units in recombinant enzyme studies. Furthermore, RNA interference experiments directed against ARS1 and ARS2 resulted in the generation of multiple independent transformant events exhibiting dramatically reduced sorgoleone levels. Thus, both ARS1 and ARS2 are likely to participate in the biosynthesis of sorgoleone in planta. The sequences of ARS1 and ARS2 were also used to identify several rice (Oryza sativa) genes encoding ARSs, which are likely involved in the production of defense-related alkylresorcinols. PMID:20348430

  11. Genetic Divergence in Northern Benin Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Landraces as Revealed by Agromorphological Traits and Selection of Candidate Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dossou-Aminon, Innocent; Loko, Laura Yêyinou; Adjatin, Arlette; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B. K.; Dansi, Alexandre; Rakshit, Sujay; Cissé, Ndiaga; Patil, Jagannath Vishnu; Agbangla, Clément; Sanni, Ambaliou; Akoègninou, Akpovi; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72–10.57 tons/ha), panicle weight (15–215.95 g), days to 50% flowering (57–200 days), and plant height (153.27–636.5 cm) were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight (r = 0.901,  P = 0.000) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.247,  P = 0.000). UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering), high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha), and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm). The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin. PMID:25729773

  12. Effects of metals and sediment particle size on the species composition of the epifauna of Pinna bicolor near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Trevor J.; Young, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Pinna bicolor (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) were transplanted between four sites near a lead smelter. The species composition of their epifauna (sessile and mobile) was examined in relation to characteristics of both sediments and seston at the sites. Seventy-two taxa were distinguished in the epifaunal community. Substantial differences were found in the short-term sensitivity of some of the species to concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in sediments and to sediment particle size. The short-term sensitivity of many species to metals or sediment particle size explained their long-term distribution pattern. Twenty-three taxa were identified as significantly characterizing the faunal differences. Of these, eleven (four molluscs, four bryozoans, two barnacles and one ascidian) were affected by both sediment metal concentration and particle size, and eight (four molluscs, one bryozoan, one polychaete, one hydroid and one barnacle) were affected by metal contamination but not particle size. Of all fauna examined, the Bryozoa were the most metal-sensitive. Four species, Smittina raigii (Bryozoa), Galeolaria sp. 1 (Polychaeta), Epopella simplex (Cirripedia) and Monia ione (Pelecypoda) were identified by their short- and long-term sensitivity to metal contamination, and absence of sensitivity to sediment particle size, as suitable species for monitoring the effects of metal contamination on the epifauna. The implications of the results for toxicity-testing are discussed.

  13. Exposure and effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Rosiu, C.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River northwest of Providence (RI, USA) in 2000 and 2001 were some of the highest ever reported in avian tissues. Mean concentrations in eggs ranged from 300 to >1,000 pg/g wet weight at the two most contaminated ponds, Allendale and Lyman. Mean egg concentrations at Greystone, the upstream reference pond, were 12 and 29 pg/g. Positive accumulation rates and concentrations in diet samples from 12-day-old nestlings indicated that the contamination was accumulated locally. Concentrations in diet of between 71 and 219 pg/g wet weight were more than 6 and 18 times higher than concentrations considered safe for birds (10?12 pg/g). Hatching success was negatively associated with concentration of TCDD in eggs. Only about half the eggs hatched at Allendale compared with >77% at Greystone. The national average for hatching success in successful nests is 85%. No other contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury, were present in any sample at concentrations known to affect avian reproduction. Three bioindicators, half-peak coefficient of geometric variation, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, and brain asymmetry were assessed relative to TCDD contamination.

  14. PCBs and DDE in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from an estuarine PCB superfund site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayaraman, Saro; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise M.; Pruell, Richard J.; Rocha, Kenneth J.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Cantwell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess contaminant bioaccumulation from estuarine breeding grounds into these aerial insectivores. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated estuary, the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site (NBH, Massachusetts, USA), and a reference salt marsh, Fox Hill (FH, Jamestown, Rhode Island, USA). Sediments, eggs, and nestlings were compared on a ng g−1 wet weight basis for total PCBs and DDE (1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene), metabolite of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). NBH samples contained high concentrations of PCBs compared to FH for sediment (36,500 and 0.2), eggs (11,200 and 323), and nestlings (16,800 and 26). PCB homologue patterns linked tree swallow contamination to NBH sediment. NBH samples were also contaminated with DDE compared to FH for sediment (207 and 0.9) and nestlings (235 and 30) but not for eggs (526 and 488), suggesting both NBH and nonbreeding ground sources for DDE. The relationships between sediment and tree swallow egg and nestling PCBs were similar to those reported for freshwater sites. Like some highly contaminated freshwater sites, NBH PCB bioaccumulation had little apparent effect on reproductive success.

  15. New method for visualization of silica phytoliths in Sorghum bicolor roots by fluorescence microscopy revealed silicate concentration-dependent phytolith formation.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Milan; Martinka, Michal; Cigáň, Marek; Ravaszová, Frederika; Lux, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Silica phytoliths are microscopic structures of amorphous hydrated silica (SiO2 · nH2O) formed by specialized plant cells. Besides their biological roles, physical, chemical, and structural properties of biogenic silica offer a wide spectrum of applications in many fields of industry and technology. Therefore, processes involved in their formation recently become a very interesting topic to study. However, optical transparency and microscopic sizes of silica phytoliths do not allow their visualization and localization by classical light microscopy methods. Their observation thus requires phytolith isolation, technically difficult or lengthy sample preparation procedures, or a work with toxic chemicals. In this paper we are proposing a novel method for visualization of silica phytoliths in Sorghum bicolor root endodermal cells by fluorescence microscopy using alkali mounting solution (pH 12). This method offers an easy and quick preparation of the samples and high contrast imaging. Based on our results we can assume that the proposed fluorescent method for silica phytolith investigation allows observation of multiple samples in relatively short time period and thus might be applicable also for high-throughput screenings. Using this method we found out that after a 3-day cultivation of sorghum plants the minimal needed concentration of sodium silicate, limiting the formation of silica phytoliths in the root endodermis, was 25 µmol dm(-3). The positive correlation of sodium silicate concentration in the substrate with the phytolith diameter was also observed. PMID:25262423

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, using a novel statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Read, Lorraine B

    2006-07-01

    A novel application of a commonly used statistical approach was used to examine differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns among locations and sample matrices in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed in western Massachusetts, USA. The most prevalent PCB congeners in tree swallow tissue samples from the Housatonic River watershed were Ballsmitter Zell numbers 153, 138, 180, 187, 149, 101, and 170. These congeners were seven of the eight most prevalent congeners in Aroclor 1260, the PCB mixture that was the primary source of contamination in the Housatonic River system. Using paired-Euclidean distances and tolerance limits, it was demonstrated that congener patterns in swallow tissues from sites on the main stem of the Housatonic River were more similar to one another than to two sites upstream of the contamination or from a nearby reference area. The congener patterns also differed between the reference area and the two upstream tributaries and between the two tributaries. These pattern differences were the same in both pipper (eggs or just hatched nestlings) and 12-day-old nestling samples. Lower-chlorinated congeners appeared to be metabolized in nestlings and pippers compared to diet, and metabolized more in pippers compared to nestlings. Euclidean distances and tolerance limits provide a simple and statistically valid method to compare PCB congener patterns among groups. PMID:16377044

  17. Investigations of potential endocrine disruption and sexual dimorphism in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with a range of PCB body burdens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Bakst, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) elicit endocrine disruptive effects in many species, including birds. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied at eight sites, located in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York, with a range of PCB contamination to determine effects on gender and gonadal development of nestling offipring. Blood samples were collected from nestlings and genetic sex was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of sex chromatin in nucleated red blood cells. Gonads were excised and fixed for subsequent gross and histologic examination. PCB analyses of twelve-day old nestlings indicated that residue concentrations varied considerably among the eight sites. Of the 145 nestlings examined anatomically, the phenotypic sex ratio was 53% female and 47% male. No intersexes were observed. Histological observations revealed some variation such as numbers of spermatogonia and stages of follicular development among individuals. Genotypic evaluation of the 145 nestlings revealed complete concordance with phenotypic observations. Although there were significant differences in PCB exposure among study sites, there was no evidence of abnormal gonadal development or anatomical gender alteration in nestling Tree swallows.

  18. Evidence for the involvement of hydraulic root or shoot adjustments as mechanisms underlying water deficit tolerance in two Sorghum bicolor genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sutka, Moira R; Manzur, Milena E; Vitali, Victoria A; Micheletto, Sandra; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-03-15

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is an ancient drought-tolerant crop with potential to sustain high yields even in those environments where water is limiting. Understanding the performance of this species in early phenological stages could be a useful tool for future yield improvement programs. The aim of this work was to study the response of Sorghum seedlings under water deficit conditions in two genotypes (RedLandB2 and IS9530) that are currently employed in Argentina. Morphological and physiological traits were studied to present an integrated analysis of the shoot and root responses. Although both genotypes initially developed a conserved and indistinguishable response in terms of drought tolerance parameters (growth rate, biomass reallocation, etc.), water regulation displayed different underlying strategies. To avoid water loss, both genotypes adjusted their plant hydraulic resistance at different levels: RedLandB2 regulated shoot resistance through stomata (isohydric strategy), while IS9530 controlled root resistance (anisohydric strategy). Moreover, only in IS9530 was root hydraulic conductance restricted in the presence of HgCl2, in agreement with water movement through cell-to-cell pathways and aquaporins activity. The different responses between genotypes suggest a distinct strategy at the seedling stage and add new information that should be considered when evaluating Sorghum phenotypic plasticity in changing environments. PMID:26803215

  19. Analysis of the Optimal Duration of Behavioral Observations Based on an Automated Continuous Monitoring System in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor): Is One Hour Good Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Lendvai, Ádám Z.; Akçay, Çağlar; Ouyang, Jenny Q.; Dakin, Roslyn; Domalik, Alice D.; St John, Prianka S.; Stanback, Mark; Moore, Ignacio T.; Bonier, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior often rely on human observation, which introduces a number of limitations on sampling. Recent developments in automated logging of behaviors make it possible to circumvent some of these problems. Once verified for efficacy and accuracy, these automated systems can be used to determine optimal sampling regimes for behavioral studies. Here, we used a radio-frequency identification (RFID) system to quantify parental effort in a bi-parental songbird species: the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). We found that the accuracy of the RFID monitoring system was similar to that of video-recorded behavioral observations for quantifying parental visits. Using RFID monitoring, we also quantified the optimum duration of sampling periods for male and female parental effort by looking at the relationship between nest visit rates estimated from sampling periods with different durations and the total visit numbers for the day. The optimum sampling duration (the shortest observation time that explained the most variation in total daily visits per unit time) was 1h for both sexes. These results show that RFID and other automated technologies can be used to quantify behavior when human observation is constrained, and the information from these monitoring technologies can be useful for evaluating the efficacy of human observation methods. PMID:26559407

  20. Organic amendments impact the availability of heavy metal(loid)s in mine-impacted soil and their phytoremediation by Penisitum americanum and Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Huang, Qing

    2016-02-01

    The amendment of contaminated soil with organic materials is considered to be an environmentally friendly technique to immobilize heavy metal(loid)s and minimize their subsequent bioaccumulation in plants. This study focuses on the effects of different amendment techniques, such as the use of activated carbons (granulated or powder) and farmyard manure at various application rates (2 and 5 %). These techniques were applied on heavy metal(loid)s such as Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, and Al that were present in mine-impacted soil and caused bioaccumulation in cultivated plants. The results showed that, compared with the control, almost all the techniques significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in the amended soil. The bioaccumulation of heavy metal(loid)s in Penisitum americanum and Sorghum bicolor was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced with all techniques, while Zn and Cd concentrations increased with the use of farmyard manure. Also compared with the control, plant growth was significantly decreased with the use of activated carbons, particularly with powder activated carbons, while farmyard manure (at 5 %) significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased plant growth. Among the amendment techniques, powdered activated carbons (at 5 %) were best at reducing the bioavailability of heavy metal(loid)s in soil and plant accumulation. However, it negatively affected the growth of selected plant species. PMID:26411451

  1. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.A.; Koster, M.D.; Chek, A.A.; Hussell, D.J.T.; Jock, K.

    1995-03-01

    In 1991, the authors collected red-winged blackbird (Agelauis phoeniceus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings, and sediment samples from 2 wetland sites in the Great lakes and St. Lawrence River basin. They analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and total mercury and found that biota contained contaminant concentrations which were one to two orders of magnitude above those in sediments. Maximum concentrations of contaminants were found in Akwesasne, St. Lawrence river (PCBs = 18,558.8 ng/g in red-winged blackbird eggs, oxychlordane = 58.8/g and mirex = 40.1 ng/g in tree swallow eggs); Mud Creek, Lake Erie and Cootes Paradise. Despite the migratory habits of red-winged blackbirds and tree swallows, agreement among biota and sediment in geographic variation of contaminant concentrations supports the use of these animals as biomonitors of persistent chemicals. Although chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in red-winged blackbird eggs were significantly correlated with sediment contamination, the local nature of the tree swallow chick diet suggests that nestlings would be the best indicator of local contaminant trends.

  2. Do Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) attend to the head or body orientation of a perched avian predator?

    PubMed

    Kyle, Steven C; Freeberg, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Individuals of many prey species adjust their foraging behavior in response to the presence of a predator. Responding to predators takes time away from searching for and exploiting food resources. To balance between the need to avoid predation and the need to forage, individuals should attend to cues from predators that indicate risk. Two such cues might be the predator's head orientation (where it might be looking) and body orientation (where it might be moving). In the current study, flocks of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis, and tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, were presented with perched hawk and owl models. Predator model head and body orientation were independently manipulated relative to a feeding station birds were using. Chickadees and titmice avoided the feeders more when the heads of the models were facing toward the feeders compared to facing away from the feeders. Calling behavior of birds was also affected by head orientation of the models. No effect of predator body orientation on chickadee and titmouse behavior was detected. The results indicate that when chickadees and titmice detect a perched avian predator, they assess risk primarily based upon its head orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27195595

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, using a novel statistical approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Read, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    A novel application of a commonly used statistical approach was used to examine differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener Patterns among locations and sample matrices in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed in western Massachusetts. USA. The most prevalent PCB congeners in tree swallow tissue samples from the Housatonic River watershed were Ballsmitter Zell numbers 153. 138 180, 187 149, 101, and 170. These congeners were seven of the eight most prevalent congeners in Aroclor (R) 1260, the PCB mixture that was the primary source of contamination in the Housatonic River system. Using paired-Euclidean distances and tolerance limits, it was demonstrated that conuener patterns in swallow tissues from sites on the main stem of the Housatonic River were more similar to one another than to two sites upstream of the contamination or from a nearby reference area. The congener patterns also differed between the reference area and the two upstream tributaries and between the two tributaries. These pattern differences were the same in both pipper (eggs or just hatched nestlings) and 12-day-old nestling samples. Lower-chlorinated congeners appeared to be metabolized in nestlings and pippers compared to diet. and metabolized more in pippers compared to nestlings. Euclidean distances and tolerance limits provide a simple and statistically valid method to compare PCB congener patterns among groups. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Development of genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers using whole-genome shotgun sequences of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).

    PubMed

    Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Ando, Tsuyu; Mizubayashi, Tatsumi; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with a high degree of polymorphism contribute to the molecular dissection of agriculturally important traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). We designed 5599 non-redundant SSR markers, including regions flanking the SSRs, in whole-genome shotgun sequences of sorghum line ATx623. (AT/TA)n repeats constituted 26.1% of all SSRs, followed by (AG/TC)n at 20.5%, (AC/TG)n at 13.7% and (CG/GC)n at 11.8%. The chromosomal locations of 5012 SSR markers were determined by comparing the locations identified by means of electronic PCR with the predicted positions of 34 008 gene loci. Most SSR markers had a similar distribution to the gene loci. Among 970 markers validated by fragment analysis, 67.8% (658 of 970) markers successfully provided PCR amplification in sorghum line BTx623, with a mean polymorphism rate of 45.1% (297 of 658) for all SSR loci in combinations of 11 sorghum lines and one sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf) line. The product of 5012 and 0.678 suggests that approximately 3400 SSR markers could be used to detect SSR polymorphisms and that more than 1500 (45.1% of 3400) markers could reveal SSR polymorphisms in combinations of Sorghum lines. PMID:19363056

  5. Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucoside Dhurrin in Seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and Partial Purification of the Enzyme System Involved 1

    PubMed Central

    Halkier, Barbara Ann; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    1989-01-01

    The cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin is rapidly synthesized in etiolated seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The dhurrin content of the seedlings increases sigmoidally with the germination time. Shoots of 10 centimeters height contain 850 nanomoles of dhurrin per shoot corresponding to 6% of the dry weight. The biosynthetic activity sharply rises upon germination and reaches a maximum level of 10 nanomoles dhurrin/(hour × shoot) after 48 hours when the shoots are 3 centimeters high. This maximum level is followed by a sharp decline in activity when germination time exceeds 65 hours. Dhurrin and the dhurrin-synthesizing enzyme system are primarily located in the upper part of the etiolated shoot where both are evenly distributed between the coleoptile, the primary leaves and the upper 0.5 centimeter of the first internode including the shoot apex. Dhurrin constitutes 30% of the dry weight of the upper 1.2 centimeter of 10 centimeter high shoots. The seed and root contain neither dhurrin nor the dhurrin-synthesizing enzyme system. The codistribution of dhurrin and the enzyme system throughout the seedling indicates that production and storage sites are located within the same cell. Purification of the dhurrin-synthesizing enzyme by gel filtration or by sucrose gradient centrifugations results in a tenfold increase in specific activity. Further purification is accompained by a decline in specific activity due to loss of essential components as demonstrated by reconstitution experiments. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666964

  6. Exposure and effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Rosiu, Cornell J; Melancon, Mark J; Bickham, John W; Matson, Cole W

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River northwest of Providence (RI, USA) in 2000 and 2001 were some of the highest ever reported in avian tissues. Mean concentrations in eggs ranged from 300 to >1,000 pg/g wet weight at the two most contaminated ponds, Allendale and Lyman. Mean egg concentrations at Greystone, the upstream reference pond, were 12 and 29 pg/g. Positive accumulation rates and concentrations in diet samples from 12-day-old nestlings indicated that the contamination was accumulated locally. Concentrations in diet of between 71 and 219 pg/g wet weight were more than 6 and 18 times higher than concentrations considered safe for birds (10-12 pg/g). Hatching success was negatively associated with concentration of TCDD in eggs. Only about half the eggs hatched at Allendale compared with >77% at Greystone. The national average for hatching success in successful nests is 85%. No other contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury, were present in any sample at concentrations known to affect avian reproduction. Three bioindicators, half-peak coefficient of geometric variation, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, and brain asymmetry were assessed relative to TCDD contamination. PMID:15683172

  7. PCBs and DDE in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from an estuarine PCB superfund site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Saro; Nacci, Diane E; Champlin, Denise M; Pruell, Richard J; Rocha, Kenneth J; Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Cantwell, Mark

    2009-11-01

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess contaminant bioaccumulation from estuarine breeding grounds into these aerial insectivores. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated estuary, the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site (NBH, Massachusetts, USA), and a reference salt marsh, Fox Hill (FH, Jamestown, Rhode Island, USA). Sediments, eggs, and nestlings were compared on a ng g(-1) wet weight basis for total PCBs and DDE (1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene), metabolite of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). NBH samples contained high concentrations of PCBs compared to FH for sediment (36,500 and 0.2), eggs (11,200 and 323), and nestlings (16,800 and 26). PCB homologue patterns linked tree swallow contamination to NBH sediment. NBH samples were also contaminated with DDE compared to FH for sediment (207 and 0.9) and nestlings (235 and 30) but not for eggs (526 and 488), suggesting both NBH and nonbreeding ground sources for DDE. The relationships between sediment and tree swallow egg and nestling PCBs were similar to those reported for freshwater sites. Like some highly contaminated freshwater sites, NBH PCB bioaccumulation had little apparent effect on reproductive success. PMID:19924974

  8. Subtle genetic connectivity between Mexican Caribbean and south-western Gulf of Mexico reefs: the case of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas Sánchez, C. A.; Pérez España, H.; Rivera Madrid, R.; Salas Monreal, D.; Arias González, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Efficient reef management strategies rely on detailed knowledge of biological exchange dynamics. At present, available connectivity information on Mexican Atlantic reefs is scarce, particularly concerning the Veracruz Reef System (VRS), which is located in the south-western Gulf of Mexico. This study used a hierarchically nested sampling design to evaluate the levels of genetic connectivity both within and between the Mexican Caribbean (MC) and VRS reef regions; all of the studied reefs are marine protected areas. Microsatellites were used as genetic markers, and bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits were used as a biological model. The paired genetic differentiation index between regions ( Fst (ENA) = 0.008) was lower than the global index ( Fst (ENA) = 0.027), suggesting that the stronger restrictions to gene flow may be located inside the regions rather than between them. The AMOVA results supported this explanation, as the differences were only non-significant between regions. In the VRS, Santiaguillo reef was associated with low genetic connectivity levels, whilst within the MC region the group formed by Chinchorro Bank and Cozumel exhibited a restriction to gene flow with Puerto Morelos, their northernmost reef. Despite their spatial separation, reefs from different regions (Puerto Morelos and Anegada de Adentro) showed the lowest, albeit significant, genetic difference, meaning that a subtle genetic connectivity exists at the regional scale. The detected composite flow pattern is likely related to self-recruitment and cohesive dispersal processes interacting with current patterns, which may favour genetic connections under specific conditions. The results presented here suggest that coral reef management in the Mexican Atlantic Ocean should consider large scale measures in addition to appropriate local actions to protect reef fish populations.

  9. The OCL3 promoter from Sorghum bicolor directs gene expression to abscission and nutrient-transfer zones at the bases of floral organs

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Krishna K.; Roche, Dominique J.; Clemente, Tom E.; Ge, Zhengxiang; Carman, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims During seed fill in cereals, nutrients are symplasmically unloaded to vascular parenchyma in ovules, but thereafter nutrient transport is less certain. In Zea mays, two mechanisms of nutrient passage through the chalaza and nucellus have been hypothesized, apoplasmic and symplasmic. In a recent study, nutrients first passed non-selectively to the chalazal apoplasm and were then selectively absorbed by the nucellus before being released to the endosperm apoplasm. This study reports that the promoter of OUTER CELL LAYER3 (PSbOCL3) from Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) directs gene expression to chalazal cells where the apoplasmic barrier is thought to form. The aims were to elucidate PSbOCL3 expression patterns in sorghum and relate them to processes of nutrient pathway development in kernels and to recognized functions of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) IV transcription factor family to which the promoter belongs. Methods PSbOCL3 was cloned and transformed into sorghum as a promoter–GUS (β-glucuronidase) construct. Plant tissues from control and transformed plants were then stained for GUS, and kernels were cleared and characterized using differential interference contrast microscopy. Key Results A symplasmic disconnect between the chalaza and nucellus during seed fill is inferred by the combination of two phenomena: differentiation of a distinct nucellar epidermis adjacent to the chalaza, and lysis of GUS-stained chalazal cells immediately proximal to the nucellar epidermis. Compression of the GUS-stained chalazal cells during kernel maturation produced the kernel abscission zone (closing layer). Conclusions The results suggest that the HD-Zip IV transcription factor SbOCL3 regulates kernel nutrition and abscission. The latter is consistent with evidence that members of this transcription factor group regulate silique abscission and dehiscence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, the findings suggest that processes of floral organ

  10. Evaluating cytochrome p450 in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) by monooxygenase activity and immunohistochemistry: Possible nonlethal assessment by skin immunohistochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Kutay, A.L.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Six-month-old lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were injected intraperitoneally with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) in corn oil or in vehicle alone. Liver samples were taken and stored at -80 degrees C until microsome preparation and monooxygenase assay. Skin samples were placed in buffered formalin for subsequent immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). Lesser scaup treated with BNF at 20 or 100 mg/kg body weight showed approximately 6- to 18-fold increases in four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase). No IHC response was observed for CYP1A in the skin of vehicle-injected ducks, whereas in the skin from BNF-treated ducks, the positive IHC response was of similar magnitude for both dose levels of BNF. Tree swallows injected with BNF at 100 mg/kg, but not at. 20 mg/kg, showed significant increases (approximately fivefold) in hepatic microsomal O-dealkylase activities. Cytochrome P4501A was undetectable by IHC response in skin from corn oil-treated swallows, but positive IHC responses were observed in the skin of one of five swallows at 20 mg/kg and four of five swallows at 100 mg/kg. Although these data do not allow construction of significant dose-response curves, the IHC responses for CYP1A in skin support the possible use of this nonlethal approach for biomonitoring contaminant exposure of birds. In addition, the CYP1A signal observed at the bases of emerging feathers suggest that these might provide less invasive sampling sites for IHC analysis of CYP1A.

  11. Determination of the Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase and the Structural Impact of Three brown midrib12 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Green, Abigail R; Lewis, Kevin M; Barr, John T; Jones, Jeffrey P; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-06-19

    Using S-adenosyl-methionine as the methyl donor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCOMT) methylates the 5-hydroxyl group of its preferred substrate, 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. In order to determine the mechanism of SbCOMT and understand the observed reduction in the lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio of three brown midrib12 mutants that carry COMT gene missense mutations, we determined the apo-form and S-adenosyl-methionine binary complex SbCOMT crystal structures and established the ternary complex structure with 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde by molecular modeling. These structures revealed many features shared with monocot ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and dicot alfalfa (Medicago sativa) COMTs. SbCOMT steady-state kinetic and calorimetric data suggest a random bi-bi mechanism. Based on our structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic results, we propose that the observed reactivity hierarchy among 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxycinnamyl (and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamyl) aldehyde, alcohol, and acid substrates arises from the ability of the aldehyde to stabilize the anionic intermediate that results from deprotonation of the 5-hydroxyl group by histidine-267. Additionally, despite the presence of other phenylpropanoid substrates in vivo, sinapaldehyde is the preferential product, as demonstrated by its low Km for 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde. Unlike its acid and alcohol substrates, the aldehydes exhibit product inhibition, and we propose that this is due to nonproductive binding of the S-cis-form of the aldehydes inhibiting productive binding of the S-trans-form. The S-cis-aldehydes most likely act only as inhibitors, because the high rotational energy barrier around the 2-propenyl bond prevents S-trans-conversion, unlike alcohol substrates, whose low 2-propenyl bond rotational energy barrier enables rapid S-cis/S-trans-interconversion. PMID:24948836

  12. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-09-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier. PMID:24879770

  13. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-01-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier. PMID:24879770

  14. Transfer of the cytochrome P450-dependent dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts for light-driven synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Karcher, Daniel; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Martens, Helle Juel; Ruf, Stephanie; Kroop, Xenia; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Pribil, Mathias; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bock, Ralph; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Plant chloroplasts are light-driven cell factories that have great potential to act as a chassis for metabolic engineering applications. Using plant chloroplasts, we demonstrate how photosynthetic reducing power can drive a metabolic pathway to synthesise a bio-active natural product. For this purpose, we stably engineered the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into the chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its synthesis from the amino acid tyrosine is catalysed by two membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble glucosyltransferase (UGT85B1), and is dependent on electron transfer from a P450 oxidoreductase. The entire pathway was introduced into the chloroplast by integrating CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 into a neutral site of the N. tabacum chloroplast genome. The two P450s and the UGT85B1 were functional when expressed in the chloroplasts and converted endogenous tyrosine into dhurrin using electrons derived directly from the photosynthetic electron transport chain, without the need for the presence of an NADPH-dependent P450 oxidoreductase. The dhurrin produced in the engineered plants amounted to 0.1–0.2% of leaf dry weight compared to 6% in sorghum. The results obtained pave the way for plant P450s involved in the synthesis of economically important compounds to be engineered into the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and demonstrate that their full catalytic cycle can be driven directly by photosynthesis-derived electrons. PMID:26969746

  15. Chitinase Genes LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor Were Successfully Expressed in Escherichia coli and Exhibit Recombinant Chitinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihua; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Rongshu; Diao, Guiping; Fan, Haijuan; Wang, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    The two chitinase genes, LbCHI31 and LbCHI32 from Limonium bicolor, were, respectively, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The intracellular recombinant chitinases, inrCHI31 and inrCHI32, and the extracellular exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 could be produced into E. coli. The exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 can be secreted into extracellular medium. The optimal reaction condition for inrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Mn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.772 U using Alternaria alternata cell wall as substrate. The optimal condition of inrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of Ba2+ at 45°C and pH 5.0 with an activity of 0.792 U using Valsa sordida cell wall as substrate. The optimal reaction condition of exrCHI31 was 5 mmol/L of Zn2+ at 40°C and pH 5.0, and the activity was 0.921 U using the A. alternata cell wall as substrate. Simultaneously, the optimal condition of exrCHI32 was 5 mmol/L of K+ at 45°C and pH 5.0, with V. sordida cell wall as the substrate, and the activity was 0.897 U. Furthermore, the activities of extracellular recombinant enzymes on fungal cell walls and compounds were generally higher than those of the intracellular recombinant enzymes. Recombinant exrCHI31 and exrCHI32 have better hydrolytic ability on cell walls of different fungi than synthetic chitins and obviously showed activity against A. alternata. PMID:24385885

  16. Transfer of the cytochrome P450-dependent dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts for light-driven synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Karcher, Daniel; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Martens, Helle Juel; Ruf, Stephanie; Kroop, Xenia; Olsen, Carl Erik; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Pribil, Mathias; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bock, Ralph; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-04-01

    Plant chloroplasts are light-driven cell factories that have great potential to act as a chassis for metabolic engineering applications. Using plant chloroplasts, we demonstrate how photosynthetic reducing power can drive a metabolic pathway to synthesise a bio-active natural product. For this purpose, we stably engineered the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into the chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its synthesis from the amino acid tyrosine is catalysed by two membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble glucosyltransferase (UGT85B1), and is dependent on electron transfer from a P450 oxidoreductase. The entire pathway was introduced into the chloroplast by integrating CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 into a neutral site of the N. tabacum chloroplast genome. The two P450s and the UGT85B1 were functional when expressed in the chloroplasts and converted endogenous tyrosine into dhurrin using electrons derived directly from the photosynthetic electron transport chain, without the need for the presence of an NADPH-dependent P450 oxidoreductase. The dhurrin produced in the engineered plants amounted to 0.1-0.2% of leaf dry weight compared to 6% in sorghum. The results obtained pave the way for plant P450s involved in the synthesis of economically important compounds to be engineered into the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, and demonstrate that their full catalytic cycle can be driven directly by photosynthesis-derived electrons. PMID:26969746

  17. Evaluation of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] Reference Genes in Various Tissues and under Abiotic Stress Conditions for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Data Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar Reddy, Palakolanu; Srinivas Reddy, Dumbala; Sivasakthi, Kaliamoorthy; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Vadez, Vincent; Sharma, Kiran K.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable gene expression data from qPCR depends on stable reference gene expression for potential gene functional analyses. In this study, 15 reference genes were selected and analyzed in various sample sets including abiotic stress treatments (salt, cold, water stress, heat, and abscisic acid) and tissues (leaves, roots, seedlings, panicle, and mature seeds). Statistical tools, including geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder, were utilized to assess the suitability of reference genes based on their stability rankings for various sample groups. For abiotic stress, PP2A and CYP were identified as the most stable genes. In contrast, EIF4α was the most stable in the tissue sample set, followed by PP2A; PP2A was the most stable in all the sample set, followed by EIF4α. GAPDH, and UBC1 were the least stably expressed in the tissue and all the sample sets. These results also indicated that the use of two candidate reference genes would be sufficient for the optimization of normalization studies. To further verify the suitability of these genes for use as reference genes, SbHSF5 and SbHSF13 gene expression levels were normalized using the most and least stable sorghum reference genes in root and water stressed-leaf tissues of five sorghum varieties. This is the first systematic study of the selection of the most stable reference genes for qPCR-related assays in Sorghum bicolor that will potentially benefit future gene expression studies in sorghum and other closely related species. PMID:27200008

  18. Concentrations and spatial patterns of organic contaminants in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at United States and binational Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 2010–2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, were sampled across the Great Lakes basin in 2010 through 2015 to provide a system-wide assessment of current exposure to organic contaminants. The results provide information identified as critical by regulators to assess the “bird or animal deformity or reproductive problems” beneficial use impairment. Eggs were collected from 69 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs), some with multiple sites, and 10 sites not listed as an AOC. Concentrations of organic contaminants in eggs were quantified and compared with background and reproductive effect thresholds. Approximately 30% of AOCs had geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at or below average background exposure (0.34 μg/g wet wt). Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was minimal, and only 3 of 27 AOCs and 1 non-AOC had geometric mean concentrations that exceeded background for tree swallows (96 ng/g wet wt). Concentrations of both PCBs and PBDEs were 10 to 20 times below the lower limit associated with impaired hatching success. In contrast, geometric mean concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) toxic equivalents (TEQs) at the Saginaw River and Bay AOC and Midland, Michigan, USA (a non-AOC site), exceeded the lower limit for hatching effects (181 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). The rest of the sites had geometric mean concentrations of PCDD-F TEQs below background levels (87 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). Other organic contaminants, including p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mirex, heptachlor, and chlordane, were at or below background or adverse effect concentrations.

  19. Proline over-accumulation alleviates salt stress and protects photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities in transgenic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Surender Reddy, P; Jogeswar, Gadi; Rasineni, Girish K; Maheswari, M; Reddy, Attipalli R; Varshney, Rajeev K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2015-09-01

    Shoot-tip derived callus cultures of Sorghum bicolor were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as well as by bombardment methods with the mutated pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CSF129A) gene encoding the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis from glutamate. The transgenics were selfed for three generations and T4 plants were examined for 100 mM NaCl stress tolerance in pot conditions. The effect of salt stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal carbon dioxide concentration, transpiration rates, intrinsic transpiration and water use efficiencies, proline content, MDA levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in 40-day-old transgenic lines and the results were compared with untransformed control plants. The results show that chlorophyll content declines by 65% in untransformed controls compared to 30-38% loss (significant at P < 0.05) in transgenics but not carotenoid levels. Photosynthetic rate (PSII activity) was reduced in untransformed controls almost completely, while it declined by 62-88% in different transgenic lines. Salinity induced ca 100% stomatal closure in untransformed plants, while stomatal conductance was decreased only by 64-81% in transgenics after 4 days. The intercellular CO2 decreased by ca 30% in individual transgenic lines. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower in transgenics compared to untransformed controls. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC1.8.1.7) were quantified in leaves exposed to 100 mM NaCl stress and found higher in transgenics. The results suggest that transgenic lines were able to cope better with salt stress than untransformed controls by protecting photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:26065619

  20. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    SciTech Connect

    P Yu

    2011-12-31

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at {approx}1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure {beta}-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH{sub 3} anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH{sub 2} anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH{sub 3} symmetric) and 2848 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 2} asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH{sub 3} to CH{sub 2} ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop

  1. RNA silencing in the model mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor: gene knock-down of nitrate reductase results in inhibition of symbiosis with Populus.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Minna; Duplessis, Sébastien; Martin, Francis; Pardo, Alejandro G

    2009-07-01

    Mycorrhizal symbioses are a rule in nature and may have been crucial in plant and fungal evolution. Ectomycorrhizas are mutualistic interactions between tree roots and soil fungi typical of temperate and boreal forests. The functional analysis of genes involved in developmental and metabolic processes, such as N nutrition, is important to understand the ontogeny of this mutualistic symbiosis. RNA silencing was accomplished in the model mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Promoter-directed expression of double-stranded RNA with a partial coding sequence of the Laccaria nitrate reductase gene resulted in fungal transgenic strains strongly affected in growth with nitrate as N source in a medium with high concentration of an utilizable C source. The phenotype correlated with a clear reduction of the target gene mRNA level and this effect was not caused by homologous recombination of the T-DNA in the nitrate reductase locus. Transformation with the hairpin sequence resulted in specific CpG methylation of both the silenced transgene and the nitrate reductase encoding gene. The methylation in the target gene was restricted to the silencing trigger sequence and did not represent the entire genomic DNA in the dikaryon suggesting that the epigenetic changes accompanying RNA silencing affected only the transformed nucleus. Mycorrhization experiments of Populus with strongly silenced fungal strains revealed a systematic inhibition of symbiosis under mycorrhization conditions (C starvation) and nitrate as N source compared with the wild type. This inhibition of mycorrhization was reversed by an organic N source only utilizable by the fungus. These observations would indicate that the plant may be capable of monitoring and detecting the nutritional status of a potential symbiont avoiding the establishment of an unsatisfactory interaction. A probable control mechanism conducted by the plant would inhibit symbiosis when the metabolic

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and multiple stressors influence the reproduction of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting at wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Tiffany T; Letcher, Robert J; Thomas, Philippe; Fernie, Kim J

    2014-02-15

    Reproductive success of birds is influenced by maternal factors, ambient temperatures, predation, food supply, and/or exposure to environmental contaminants e.g., flame retardants (FRs). Reproduction of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) was compared among waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and a reference reservoir in Ontario, Canada (2007-2010), to determine the importance of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) FRs within a complex contaminant cocktail, relative to natural and biological factors known to influence avian reproduction. The birds primarily consumed insects emerging from the reference reservoir and WWTP outflows, where effluent mixed with receiving waters. FR egg concentrations were dominated by 5 PBDE congeners (∑5PBDEs): 2,2'.4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2'4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), with much lower concentrations of decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and novel FRs. Although higher than ∑5PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) egg concentrations were unlikely to affect the swallows' reproduction. Clutch size and timing, fledging, breeding success, and predation, varied significantly among sites, generally being poorer at WWTP1 and better at WWTP2. The early reproductive stages were sensitive to some FRs at measured concentrations. The ∑5PBDEs, maternal age, and minimum ambient temperatures predicted onset of egg laying in the most parsimonious statistical model, and there were positive relationships between egg size and HBCDD or BDE-209 concentrations. However, there were no significant correlations with any reproductive measures, individual BDE congeners or low concentrations of novel FRs, in this first such report for novel FRs and wild birds. Tree swallows are passerines, and passerines may differ from birds of prey

  3. Genetic Regulation of Development in Sorghum bicolor (VIII. Shoot Growth, Tillering, Flowering, Gibberellin Biosynthesis, and Phytochrome Levels Are Differentially Affected by Dosage of the ma3R Allele.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, K. R.; Miller, F. R.; Childs, K. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1994-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] homozygous for ma3R lacks a type II, light-stable phytochrome of 123 kD and has a number of phenotypic characteristics consistent with the absence of functional phytochrome B. We have used plants heterozygous at Ma3 (Ma3/ma3R and ma3/ma3R) to determine the effect of dosage of ma3R on plant growth, flowering, gibberellin (GA) levels, and content of the 123-kD phytochrome. Both Ma3/ma3R and ma3/ma3R produced the same number of tillers per plant as their respective homozygous non-ma3R parents. Height of the heterozygotes was intermediate between the homozygous parents, although it was more similar to the non-ma3R genotypes. In both field and growth-chamber environments, the timing of floral initiation and anthesis in the heterozygotes also was intermediate, again more similar to non-ma3R plants. In Ma3/ma3R, levels of GA53, GA19, GA20, and GA1 were almost exactly intermediate between levels detected in Ma3/Ma3 and ma3R/ma3R plants. Immunoblot analysis indicated that there was less of the 123-kD phytochrome in Ma3/ma3R than in homozygous Ma3, whereas none was detected in ma3R/ma3R. The degree of dominance of Ma3 and ma3 over ma3R varies with phenotypic trait, indicating that mechanisms of activity of the 123-kD phytochrome vary among the biochemical processes involved in each phenotypic character. Although the heterozygotes were similar to homozygous Ma3 and ma3 plants in growth and flowering behavior, Ma3/ma3R contained 50% less of the bioactive GA (GA1) than non-ma3R genotypes. Thus, sensitivity to endogenous GAs also may be regulated by the 123-kD phytochrome. To fully regulate plant growth and development, two copies of Ma3 or ma3 are required to produce sufficient quantities of the light-stable, 123-kD phytochrome. PMID:12232257

  4. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. II. Sex and thyroid hormone concentrations and testes development.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Van Der Kraak, G J; Ng, P; Smits, J E; Hontela, A

    1998-12-25

    To investigate the effects of pesticides on wild birds, sex (17beta-estradiol; testosterone) and thyroid (triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentrations, body mass, and testes mass were measured and the development of testes was evaluated in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in four sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, in 1995-1996. In orchards, birds were exposed to asmany as 11 individual spray events and five sprays of mixtures of chemicals. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, lead, and arsenic concentrations were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE concentrations, which ranged from 0.36 to 2.23 microg/g wet weight in eggs. These persistent compounds were not correlated with any endocrine response measured in tree swallows. In 16-d-old male tree swallow chicks, body mass and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), testosterone, and T3 in plasma showed no significant differences between sprayed and nonsprayed groups and among sites within those groups. However, T3 concentrations were slightly elevated in the sprayed group compared to the nonsprayed group, and there was a significant and positive correlation between T3 and the number of mixtures of sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 16-d-old female chicks, there were no significant differences among spray treatments or sites and no correlations with spray exposure for testosterone, estradiol, or T3 in plasma. Body mass was correlated positively with T3 and negatively with estradiol but showed no differences among spray exposure groups or sites. Histology of testes of 16-d-old male chicks indicated there were no significant differences among sprayed and nonsprayed birds in testes mass, area, or diameter, or the presence of Leydig cells in the interstitium, the distribution of the Sertoli cells, or the occurrence of heterophils in the testicular interstitium. For the percentage of spermatogonia present on

  5. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  6. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:26198258

  7. Species-richness in Neotropical Sericothripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Lima, Élison Fabrício B; Mound, Laurence A

    2016-01-01

    Two of the three recognized genera of Sericothripinae are known from the Neotropics, and 14 new species from this area are here described in this subfamily. Illustrated keys are provided to females of seven species of Hydatothrips, and 41 species of Neohydatothrips, mainly from Brazil but including all recorded species south of the border between Mexico and USA. Plant species on which breeding has been recorded are indicated where possible, notes are provided on the few species of economic importance, and a key is appended to second instar larvae of seven species. Neohydatothrips burungae (Hood) stat. rev. and N. aztecus Johansen stat. rev. are recalled from synonymy with Neohydatothrips signifer (Priesner), and N. denigratus (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized with N. burungae. Hydatothrips williamsi (Hood) comb. n. is relocated from Neohydatothrips, and as this produces a homonym in the genus, Hydatothrips tareei nom. nov. is proposed for Hydatothrips williamsi Mound & Tree from Australia. PMID:27615957

  8. TIMING OF OVIPOSITION OF THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) IN APPLE FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult thrips were most abundant on flower clusters of apple, Malus × domestica Borkhausen, from king bloom to full bloom. Low numbers of thrips remained on the clusters after petal fall as fruit enlarged. Immature thrips peaked in numbers after densities of adults had peaked, usually by petal fall...

  9. First record of Elixothrips brevisetis (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, E F B; Milanez, J M

    2013-02-01

    Elixothrips brevisetis (Bagnall), a species exotic to Brazil, is first recorded in the country. Individuals were collected on banana fruits (Musa sp.) (Musaceae) in July 2010 in the municipality of Luís Alves, state of Santa Catarina, causing rusting on the fruit peel in several bunches of bananas. PMID:23949721

  10. Biological parameters of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on selected hosts.

    PubMed

    Seal, D R; Klassen, W; Kumar, V

    2010-10-01

    Since its establishment in Florida in 2005, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, a highly polyphagous species, has become an economically important pest of ornamental plants and a potentially significant pest of vegetable and fruit crops. Fruit and vegetable production in Florida is trending toward significant adoption of organic methods and use of widely dispersed small fields in rapidly urbanizing landscapes. Landscape plants may serve as refugia from which S. dorsalis recruits can disperse to nearby fruit and vegetable plantings. Therefore, information on this pest's biology including how it is affected by various host species is needed to develop effective integrated pest management (IPM) programs. In the greenhouse and laboratory condition, we studied the effects of various host plants, development, diel flight activity, oviposition, and demographics of S. dorsalis. The pest preferred Jalapeño pepper and Knockout rose over the other hosts, and it was most active between 1000 and 1600 hours EST. Irrespective of the host species, the duration of each of the immature stadia varied within a narrow range, and their respective sizes were quite similar. Demographic parameters quantified included gross reproduction rate (GRR), net reproductive rate (R(o)), intrinsic rate of increase per day (R(m)), finite rate of increase per day (λ), and mean generation time (T). The pest population may increase by a factor of ≈ 1.09/d, so that it may double in 8 or 9 d. The above information should be helpful in the development of sound programs to manage S. dorsalis on various crops and in the formulation of detection strategies by quarantine officers. PMID:22546433

  11. A new species of Danothrips from Southwestern China (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yajin; Xie, Yonghui; Zhang, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    Danothrips salicis sp. n. is described from young leaves of Salix sp. in Southwestern China. This species is similar to D. moundi, D. theifolii and D. trifasciatus, but can be distinguished by the colour of the fore wing, the median longitudinal split on tergite X of females, and in males by the situation of the median short thorn-like setae on tergite IX. PMID:27615912

  12. Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  13. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from agricultural and natural ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their virulence towards thrips and whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  14. An Evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Performance on Different Plant Leaves Based on Life History Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. PMID:25673049

  15. An evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) performance on different plant leaves based on life history characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. PMID:25673049

  16. Thrips domiciles protect larvae from desiccation in an arid environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Desiccation is a particular risk for small animals in arid environments. In response, many organisms “construct niches,” favorable microenvironments where they spend part or all of their life cycle. Some maintain such environments for their offspring via parental care. Insect eggs are often protected from desiccation by parentally derived gels, casings, or cocoons, but active parental protection of offspring from desiccation has never been demonstrated. Most free-living thrips (Thysanoptera) alleviate water loss via thigmotaxis (crevice seeking). In arid Australia, Acacia thrips (Phlaeothripidae) construct many kinds of niche. Some thrips induce galls; others, like Dunatothrips aneurae, live and breed within “domiciles” made from loosely glued phyllodes. The function of domiciles is unknown; like other constructed niches, they may 1) create favorable microenvironments, 2) facilitate feeding, 3) protect from enemies, or a combination. To test the first 2 alternatives experimentally, field-collected domiciles were destroyed or left intact. Seven-day survival of feeding and nonfeeding larval stages was monitored at high (70–80%) or low (8–10%, approximately ambient) humidity. Regardless of humidity, most individuals survived in intact domiciles, whereas for destroyed domiciles, survival depended on humidity, suggesting parents construct and maintain domiciles to prevent offspring desiccating. Feeding and nonfeeding larvae had similar survival patterns, suggesting the domicile’s role is not nutritional. Outside domiciles, survival at “high” humidity was intermediate, suggesting very high humidity requirements, or energetic costs of wandering outside domiciles. D. aneurae commonly cofound domiciles; cofoundresses may benefit both from shared nestbuilding costs, and from “deferred byproduct mutualism,” that is, backup parental care in case of mortality. PMID:25419084

  17. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. PMID:26503345

  18. Demonstration of bicolor slow-light channelization in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkansky, Mark; Fatemi, Fredrik K.; Reintjes, John; Dutton, Zachary; Steiner, Michael

    2007-02-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a proof-of-principle of a previously proposed 'channelization' architecture for wideband slow-light propagation in atomic vapors using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use two optical frequencies to generate a sine wave signal which is delayed in rubidium vapor. The optical frequencies were tuned near the EIT resonances of two Zeeman sublevels, which are shifted from each other well beyond the EIT linewidth by a uniform magnetic field. We varied the Zeeman shift between these two levels (relative to the optical frequency splitting) and measured the delay versus Zeeman shift. Significant delays were observed and were in agreement with a theoretical model treating each Zeeman sublevel as part of an independent three-level system. We achieved delay of a signal with a bandwidth 16 times the EIT linewidth and confirmed our earlier theoretical models that delay occurs only when the optical spectral separation slightly exceeds the Zeeman splitting.

  19. Phytochemical concentrations and biological activities of Sorghum bicolor alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Pangloli, Philipus; Jones, Lynsey; McClure, Angela; Patel, Anjali

    2016-08-10

    Sorghum is an important cereal with reported health benefits. The objectives of this study were to measure the biological activities of alcoholic extracts of ten sorghum varieties and to determine the association between the color of the extracts and their biological activities. Variation on concentrations of bioactives among sorghum varieties was observed with ethanolic extracts giving higher concentrations than methanolic extracts. The color of the extracts significantly correlated with the concentrations of bioactives and with nitric oxide scavenging activity. Freeze-dried ethanol extract is more potent than freeze-dried methanol extract and caused cytotoxicity to A27801AP and PTX-10 OVCA with ED50 values of 0.69 and 1.29 mg mL(-1), respectively. Pre-treatment of OVCA with ethanol extract led to chemosensitization to paclitaxel and the proliferation and colony formation of OVCA cells were reduced by 14.7 to 44.6% and 36.4 to 40.1%, respectively. Sorghum is a potential source of colorants with health promoting properties. This is the first report on the capability of sorghum alcoholic extracts to cause cytotoxicity and chemosensitize ovarian cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27406291

  20. Sarcoptic mange in a wild swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor).

    PubMed

    Holz, P H; Orbell, G M B; Beveridge, I

    2011-11-01

    A wild adult male swamp wallaby from Victoria was found to be infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions were confined predominantly to the head and shoulders. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in a swamp wallaby. PMID:22008126

  1. Biotic resistance limits the invasiveness of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Florida.

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles; Tyler-Julian, Kara; Srivastava, Mrittunjai

    2016-04-01

    The spread of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), has resulted in the world-wide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. It is hypothesized that frequent exposure to insecticides in intensive agriculture selected for resistant populations, which allowed invasive populations in the eastern USA to overcome biotic resistance from the native community of species. Research conducted in Florida to understand the role of biotic factors in limiting the abundance of the western flower thrips is reviewed. Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) are effective predators that suppress populations of thrips on crop and non-crop hosts in southern and northern Florida. Orius are more effective predators of the western flower thrips than the native flower thrips, F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan). The native species are competitors of the western flower thrips. Excessive fertilization and the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in crop fields further enhances populations of the western flower thrips. Interactions with native species clearly limit the abundance of western flower thrips in Florida, but populations are abundant in fertilized crop fields where application of insecticides excludes predators and competitor species. PMID:26149353

  2. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction. PMID:26375283

  3. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Rasool, Akhtar; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5ʹ (DNA barcode) region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27%) at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%). BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius) showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips. PMID:26741134

  4. Australian thrips of the Haplothrips lineage (Insecta: Thysanoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Mound, Laurence A.; Minaei, Kambiz

    2007-12-01

    Water is important and ubiquitous and surprisingly not understood. Just because is it common, does not mean its understood "Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars-mere globs of gas atoms. I too can see the stars on a desert night, and feel them. But do I see less or more? ... What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why? It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined it." - Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, 1963. (Cited in the introduction to Chapter 3 of "The Snowflake, Winter's Secret Beauty, Text by Kenneth Libbrecht, Photography by Patricia Rasmussen.) 1. Highlight the fact that water is still one of the most active and challenging research areas in chemistry and physics 2. Describe in general terms why water is unique from the point of view of its properties o Large dipole-moment o Very polarizable o Involved in is own chemistry (e.g. auto ionization defining the pH scale) • Atomic view: o Oxygen and Hydrogen. o Hydrogen is a quantum mechanical in nature. Classical physics is no good. o Water’s Charge-charge interaction described by classical physics laws (e.g. Coulomb) o The statistical mechanics of water. Why counting is important. o You need the full arsenal of theoretical methods to understand water • Waters well known bulk properties do not explain waters anomalies o Surface tension, heat capacity • Understanding the microscopic nature of water and how this gives rise to the known bulk quantities is the thrust of state-of-the-art research o Hydrogen bonding o Liquid structure o The so-called “spherical cow” model gets you no where with water o There are 10s-100s of different water models available in the scientific literature. It is a hard business • All of life takes place at the interfaces of solid, liquid, and gas o Biology takes advantage of waters varying properties in different geometries (e.g. confined, surfaces, etc. o Water behaves differently in confined environments • Water is the most abundant greenhouse gas o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of the radiation budget of the earth o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of weather.

  5. Chaetanaphothrips kiyosumianus (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) new to India with first record of the male.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas; Bhuyan, Mantu; Shandilya, Sharadha; Chanda, Sanjoy K

    2016-01-01

    The male of Chaetanaphothrips kiyosumianus Kudô is diagnosed for the first time along with the first record of this species from India. Molecular data of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (mtCOI) from specimens of this species are also generated as additional data for future studies. PMID:27515639

  6. The Sericothripinae genus Neohydatothrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) in India with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Neohydatothrips are described from India, N. chandrai and N. plumeria. The former was collected on leaves of a hedge plant in northwest India, and the latter on flowers and leaves of Plumeria sp. in eastern India. A key to the seven species of Neohydatothrips recorded from India is also provided. Partial sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (mtCOI) from the holotypes of each of these two new species were generated. PMID:27395685

  7. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In addition to the direct damage it can cause, this species is an efficien...

  8. Efficacy of pesticide mixtures against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Amy L; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2013-02-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande is a commonly encountered and economically important insect pest of greenhouses. Greenhouse producers typically apply pesticides as mixtures to mitigate western flower thrips populations; however, there is limited information available on the compatibility and efficacy of commonly used pesticide mixtures. This study assessed nine binary and three tertiary pesticide mixtures used in greenhouses which included pesticides containing abamectin, acephate, azadirachtin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, imidacloprid, novaluron, pymetrozine, and spinosad. Compatibility was determined for the binary pesticide mixtures using jar tests. In addition, the binary mixtures were applied to nine horticultural plant species to determine phytotoxicity based on visual appearance assessed 7 d after treatment. Bean-dip bioassays were performed in a laboratory using green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to determine LC50 values for each individual pesticide and the mixtures to establish whether the mixtures were synergistic, antagonistic, or there was no effect. The mortality of western flower thrips was assessed after 24 h, and LC50 values were calculated. Furthermore, semifield bioassays were performed in greenhouses for binary and tertiary mixtures to evaluate the efficacy (based on percent mortality) of the pesticide mixtures against western flower thrips. Results indicated that all binary mixtures were visibly compatible, and not phytotoxic to any of the plant species evaluated. Combination index calculations based on laboratory results indicated most of the binary mixtures were synergistic; however, the mixture containing spinosad + bifenazate appeared to be antagonistic against western flower thrips. The semifield bioassays demonstrated significantly reduced efficacy associated with mixtures containing azadirachtin, however, all binary mixtures provided approximately 80% western flower thrips mortality. PMID:23448038

  9. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Tropea Garzia, Giovanna; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  10. Temporal and spatial distribution of an invasive thrips species Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersion of a new invasive thrips species, chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, was studied on three hosts, i.e., cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in the greenhouse and under field conditions in Homestead, Florida. The study of horizo...

  11. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Rasool, Akhtar; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-01-01

    Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5' (DNA barcode) region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27%) at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%). BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius) showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips. PMID:26741134

  12. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided. PMID:27396014

  13. The first micropterous species of the southern European genus Kakothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Marullo, Rita; Ravazzi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The European genus Kakothrips Williams includes seven species (ThripsWiki 2015) that are known to be flower-living mainly on Fabaceae plants. The genus is recorded across Europe from Morocco to England, and eastwards to Syria and Iran (zur Strassen 2003). Only K. pisivorus (Westwood) is known from northern Europe, and this is the senior synonym of the type species K. robustus (Uzel) (Collins 2010). Closely related to Frankliniella, the species share with the members of that genus the character states of ctenidia present on tergite VIII anterolateral to the spiracles, and a complete row of setae on both longitudinal veins of the fore wing. Also, the pronotal anteromarginal and anteroangular setae are half as long as the posteroangular setae. The character states of the genus Kakothrips include: ocellar setae pair III arising between posterior ocelli; fore tarsus with an apical tooth, laterally; pronotal posterior margin without a pair of small setae between the major posteromarginal setae. In some of the species the males bear a pair of stout tubercles laterally on tergite VIII, and sternites III-VI or III-VII of males have a transverse pore plate. All the described species are known only from macropterae, and they are similar to each other in structure. A few distinguishing characters include colour of body, fore wings and antennal segments; the shape, length and position of the fore tarsal tooth; size of body, antennal segments, and major setae; and in males, shape of sternal pore plates, and length of setae on tergite IX. PMID:27395885

  14. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the globally invasive plant pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the highest profile thrips species to invade the U.S. in the last ten years is the chilli thrips. This thrips is difficult to identify due to few distinct morphological characters and molecular data suggest that it is actually a complex containing multiple, morphologically indistinguishable, ...

  15. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Garzia, Giovanna Tropea; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  16. Biology of Thripinema nicklewoodi (Tylenchida), an Obligate Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera) Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Judy M.; Heinz, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis, a serious pest of agricultural crops, is difficult to manage because chemical and biological control measures frequently fail to affect F. occidentalis in their preferred microhabitats. Parasitism by the host-specific, entomopathogenic nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi may provide a much-needed alternative to current control strategies. Infection does not cause death of the host; rather, the result is sterilization that leads to suppression of F. occidentalis populations. We describe a simple rearing method and the results from studies aimed at providing details on its biology-both essential first steps to examining its biological control potential. All F. occidentalis life stages are susceptible to infection, but to varying degrees (most susceptible to least susceptible): female pupae, second instar larvae, first instar larvae, male pupae, adult females, adult males. Nematodes emerge from female and male F. occidentalis for approximately 15 and 9 days, with approximately 14 and 7 nematodes emerging per day, respectively. Females and males are short-lived outside of the host, with mean survival rates ranging between 7 and 86 hours. Transmission does not occur in the soil but rather on or within plant structures that are preferred microhabitats visited by F. occidentalis. Results from a dose-response study suggest that augmentative applications of T. nicklewoodi may be useful to generate increased infection rates and subsequent suppression of F. occidentalis populations. PMID:19265952

  17. Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella from mosses and lichens in Australia and New Zealand (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2015-01-01

    Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella live in association with mosses and lichens. Their gut contents are commonly blue-green, suggesting that they possibly feed on blue-green algae. Three species of Lissothrips are known from New Zealand, of which two are here recorded from Australia together with six new species. Williamsiella is recorded from Australia for the first time, with one new species. PMID:25947697

  18. The genus Rhamphothrips in India (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with description of a new species .

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Rhamphothrips bhattii sp.n. is described from India based on specimens collected on flowers and leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Apocynaceae) in the States of West Bengal and Odisha. The pronotum of this species is longer than any other known member of the genus. A key to the six species of Rhamphothrips recorded from India is provided. PMID:25113365

  19. Detection and Localization of Wolbachia in Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Saurav, Gunjan Kumar; Daimei, Guisuibou; Rana, Vipin Singh; Popli, Sonam; Rajagopal, Raman

    2016-06-01

    Thrips palmi Karny is a globally distributed polyphagous agricultural pest. It causes huge economic loss by its biological behaviors like feeding, reproduction and transmission of tospoviruses. Since T. palmi shows close morphological similarities with other thrips species, we employed mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene as a molecular marker. BLAST analysis of this sequence helped us to identify the collected specimen as T. palmi. We observed the female to male ratio of about 3:1 from collected samples and suspected the presence of Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia was detected by PCR using genus specific primers of 16S rRNA gene. Further confirmation of Wolbachia strain was achieved by conducting PCR amplification of three ubiquitous genes ftsZ, gatB and groEL. A phylogenetic tree was constructed with concatenated sequences of ftsZ and gatB gene to assign supergroup to Wolbachia. Finally, we localized Wolbachia in abdominal region of the insect using fluorescent in situ hybridization with the help of confocal microscope. Our result confirmed the presence of Wolbachia supergroup B strain for the first time in T. palmi. PMID:27570308

  20. Host-Parasite Biology of Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Kelly; Funderburk, Joe; Boucias, Drion

    2005-01-01

    Thripinema fuscum is a natural enemy of Frankliniella fusca in peanut. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the reproductive biology of T. fuscum as affected by gender and stage of development of the host and to determine the effects of parasitism on host longevity, fecundity, and mortality. The adult females of F. fusca were the most readily parasitized (P < 0.001) in the laboratory experiments followed by the second instars, the first instars, and the adult males. One generation of T. fuscum developed within the parasitized larvae and adults, with the males and females emerging only during the adult stage of the host. Parasitism did not cause mortality of the host. Parasitism affected male longevity (P < 0.001) but not female longevity. The adult female thrips that were parasitized as first or second instars did not lay eggs, and the adult females stopped laying eggs within 3 days of being parasitized. The female-to-male sex ratio of T. fuscum emerging from parasitized male and female F. fusca was 22 and 18 to 1, respectively. More T. fuscum emerged from female hosts than from male hosts (P < 0.001). More emerged from hosts parasitized as larvae compared with hosts parasitized as adults (P < 0.05). The intrinsic capacity of increase of T. fuscum ranged between 0.29 and 0.37 when parasitizing the adult males and females and between 0.18 and 0.21 when parasitizing the larval males and females. Percent parasitism of F. fusca was estimated in peanut fields. The flowers were the primary site for aggregation of the adults of F. fusca and for the free-living females of T. fuscum to parasitize new hosts. As under laboratory conditions, field parasitism of adult males was less than parasitism of adult females in 2001 and 2002 (P < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). Our study indicates that T. fuscum is a potential biological control agent capable of suppressing F. fusca populations in peanut. PMID:19262837

  1. Systemic effects of neem on western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Thoeming, G; Borgemeister, C; Sétamou, M; Poehling, H M

    2003-06-01

    The systemic effects of neem on the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), were investigated in laboratory trials using green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in arena and microcosm experiments. In arena experiments, systemic effects of neem against western flower thrips larvae on primary bean leaves were observed with maximum corrected mortality of 50.6%. In microcosm experiments using bean seedlings, higher efficacy in the control of western flower thrips were observed with soil applications of neem on a substrate mixture (i.e., Fruhstorfer Erde, Type P, and sand) in a 1:1 ratio (93% corrected mortality) compared with application on the commercial substrate only (76% corrected mortality). However, longer persistence of neem was observed with soil application on the commercial substrate, which showed effects against thrips for up to 6 d after application. In addition to systemic effects observed on all foliage-feeding stages of western flower thrips, mortality on contact and repellent effects were observed on soil-inhabiting stages after soil applications of neem. Finally, bean seedlings grown from seeds pregerminated for 3 d in neem emulsion were also toxic to western flower thrips. PMID:12852622

  2. Detection of Gene Flow from Sexual to Asexual Lineages in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ping; Fail, Jozsef; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of Thrips tabaci are known to have two sympatric but genetically isolated reproductive modes, arrhenotoky (sexual reproduction) and thelytoky (asexual reproduction). Herein, we report behavioral, ecological and genetic studies to determine whether there is gene flow between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci. We did not detect significant preference by arrhenotokous males to mate with females of a particular reproductive mode, nor did we detect significant behavioral differences between arrhenotokous males mated with arrhenotokous or thelytokous females in their pre-copulation, copulation duration and mating frequency. Productive gene transfer resulting from the mating between the two modes was experimentally confirmed. Gene transfer from arrhenotokous T. tabaci to thelytokous T. tabaci was further validated by confirmation of the passage of the arrhenotokous male-originated nuclear gene (histone H3 gene) allele to the F2 generation. These behavioral, ecological and genetic studies confirmed gene transfer from the sexual arrhenotokous mode to the asexual thelytokous mode of T. tabaci in the laboratory. These results demonstrate that asexual T. tabaci populations may acquire genetic variability from sexual populations, which could offset the long-term disadvantage of asexual reproduction. PMID:26375283

  3. The species composition of thrips (insecta: thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau pinang, malaysia.

    PubMed

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2012-05-01

    A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided. PMID:24575225

  4. Plant genotype effects on a host specific thrips and the impact on biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A promising thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini (Phlaeothripidae) has been considered for biological control of the invasive weed Brazilian pepper Schinus terebinthifolius. This thrips was originally collected from a southern region of Brazil where it was frequently found associated with significant da...

  5. Genera of the leaf-feeding Dendrothripinae of the world (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), with new species from Australia and Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2016-01-01

    Character states used in distinguishing taxa within the Thripidae subfamily Dendrothripinae are discussed, and a key presented to the 11 genera recognized worldwide. Comments on each of these genera are provided, together with keys to the species from Australia of Dendrothrips, Ensiferothrips and Pseudodendrothrips. From Australia are described, four new species of Dendrothrips, one of Pseudodendrothrips, and a remarkable new species of Ensiferothrips that has required a re-diagnosis of that genus. Another new species of Ensiferothrips is described from Sulawesi, thus greatly extending the known geographical range of this previously Australian genus. PMID:27394887

  6. Evaluation of a push-pull strategy for the management of Frankliniella bispinosa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in bell peppers.

    PubMed

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Funderburk, Joe; Frantz, Galen; Mellinger, Charles

    2014-10-01

    A push-pull strategy for managing the anthophilous Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan) in pepper and increasing conservation biological control was evaluated. Push components of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective mulch and foliar applications of kaolin and the pull component of sunflower companion plants were evaluated in replicated field experiments in 2011 and 2012. Adult F. bispinosa rapidly colonized and reproduced in the peppers and sunflowers during early flowering, but populations declined later, as numbers of the predatory Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) increased in both hosts. Numbers of F. bispinosa were reduced by kaolin during early pepper flowering. Thrips numbers were increased on some of the later sample dates, apparently due to reduced predation that resulted from negative effects of kaolin and UV-reflective mulch on Orius populations. Numbers of thrips increased in peppers with companion plants during the first week of flowering each year, followed by declines in thrips numbers during the next 2 wk in 2011. There was little effect each year of the companion plants on the numbers of Orius in the pepper flowers. There was one date in 2011 and no dates in 2012 in which UV-reflective mulch or kaolin acted in concert with the presence of the companion plants to reduce thrips numbers in the main crop of pepper. Yield effects were not attributed to thrips damage. We conclude that sunflower companion plants did not act additively or synergistically with kaolin or UV-reflective mulch to reduce thrips and increase Orius populations in pepper. PMID:25199151

  7. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the rotation program. Therefore, by incorporating entomopathogenic organisms into insecticide rotation programs, greenhouse producers can decrease costs without affecting suppression, as well as diminish selection pressure on western flower thrips adult populations, which may avoid or delay resistance development. PMID:26470338

  8. Vertical and horizontal distribution and seasonal dynamics of an invasive thrips species, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is a newly introduced insect pest of various tropical and subtropical crops that poses a significant economic threat to U.S. agriculture and trade. Since its introduction in 2005, S. dorsalis has established in 30 counties of Florida and 8 counties of T...

  9. New tropical fruit hosts of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its relative abundance on them in South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scritothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in the southeast region of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. During scouting and sampling various hosts at different commercial nursery locations in Florida (Miami-Dade Count...

  10. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  11. Ambaeolothrips: a new genus of Neotropical Aeolothripidae (Thysanoptera), with observations on the type-species from mango trees in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence; Cavalleri, Adriano; O'donnell, Cheryle; Infante, Francisco; Ortiz, Antonio; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Ambaeolothrips gen. n. is diagnosed for three Neotropical species: the type species romanruizi Ruiz-De la Cruz et al. comb. n. from Mexico, microstriatus Hood comb. n. from Panama, and pampeanus sp. n. from southern Brazil. Variation is discussed among character states that are used in the generic classification of the family Aeolothripidae, including segmentation of the antennae and maxillary palps, sculpture of the metanotum and presence of sternal discal setae. New field observations on the biology of romanruizi indicate that this species is phytophagous in flowers and on leaves, with no evidence of predation on the larvae of other thrips. PMID:27395682

  12. In vivo rearing of Thripinema nicklewoodi (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) and prospects as a biological control agent of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Arthurs, Steven; Heinz, Kevin M

    2002-08-01

    Methods are described for the in vivo production of the nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi (Siddiqi), an obligate parasite and potential biological control agent of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Nematode infection is not lethal but causes sterilization of adult female hosts. Both fertilization and horizontal transmission of T. nicklewoodi is achieved in 1.5-ml microcentrifuge tubes (infection arenas), in the presence of 100% humidity, a temporary food source and preferably a damp substrate. Following exposure to infection arenas, F. occidentalis are reared on excised bean leaves Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in polypropylene containers for 2 wk at 25 degrees C to allow the reproduction and development of a single generation of nematodes within infected hosts's abdominal cavity. To identify infected hosts after this incubation period, thrips are isolated in microcentrifuge tubes and monitored for free-living nematodes being released along with frass. Infected thrips are reintroduced back into infection arenas to inoculate further thrips to maintain the culture. We documented the output of the rearing procedure using a standard method and following simple manipulation of several individual parameters of the infection technique. The standard method was the most efficient, and resulted in an increased (output/input) ratio of infected thrips of approximately 2; i.e., the number of infected thrips approximately doubles each generation. Monitoring infected thrips revealed that nematodes were first released between 12-14 d postinfection and for an average of 7.9 d at 25 degrees C; highlighting the potential to reuse infective thrips between infection arenas. The possibility of using T. nicklewoodi as an inoculative agent against F. occidentalis infesting floricultural crops is discussed. PMID:12216805

  13. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a common pest on grapes and other fresh commodities in the United States, but a quarantined pest in Taiwan. Methyl bromide fumigation has been used to control the thrips on U.S. exported fresh commodities, including organic table grap...

  14. Genera of the Scirtothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) with a new species of Siamothrips from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

    2015-01-01

    The Scirtothrips genus-group is here considered to comprise 11 genera, and an identification key to these is presented. These genera are Ajothrips Bhatti, Anascirtothrips Bhatti, Biltothrips Bhatti, Cercyothrips Morgan, Drepanothrips Uzel, Ephedrothrips zur Strassen, Kenyattathrips Mound, Parascirtothrips Masumoto & Okajima, Scirtidothrips Hood, Scirtothrips Shull and Siamothrips Okajima. One genus, Sericopsothrips Hood, is considered a new synonym of Scirtothrips, with the only species now referred to as Scirtothrips palloris (Hood) comb.n. A second species in the genus Siamothrips is described from Malaysia as Siamothrips initium sp.n. PMID:26624136

  15. A new record of Holarctic genus Odontothrips (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from India with a new species.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Kaomud; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The Holarctic genus Odontothrips of Megalurothrips genus-group was established by Amyot & Serville in 1843 with type species Thrips phaleratus Haliday (Mound & Palmer 1981, Mirab-balou & Chen 2011). This genus is known by 32 species from the Palearctic and Nearctic regions (ThripsWiki 2015), and these species are flower-living and mainly associated with flowers of family Fabaceae (Xie et al. 2010). The pest status of Odontothrips species is uncertain, but some species are reported to cause superficial damage to the flowers on which they feed. O. confusus Priesner is reported as a pest on lucerne in France and Czech Republic (Pitkin 1972), and also on legumes in Romania (Pustai et al. 2015). O. loti (Haliday) is reported as a major pest on Alfalfa in north China, where it feeds on tender leaves and causes leaf curling, whitening and withering (Kou et al. 2011). PMID:27395891

  16. Sublethal and Transgenerational Effects of Abamectin on the Biological Performance of the Predatory Thrips Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2015-04-01

    Determination of sublethal and transgenerational effects of pesticides on natural enemies is necessary for successful implementation of biocontrol in integrated pest management programs. In this study, these effects of abamectin on the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch were estimated under laboratory conditions in which adult predators were exposed to pesticide residues on bean leaves. The estimated values of LC50 for female and male predators were 0.091 and 0.067 µg a.i./ml, respectively. Low-lethal concentrations (LC10, LC20 and LC30) of abamectin severely affected fecundity and longevity of treated females of S. longicornis. In addition, transgenerational effects on reproductive and life table parameters of the subsequent generation were observed. The results from this research can be used to develop guidelines for the use of abamectin to minimize the impact on S. longicornis. PMID:26470166

  17. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  18. Management of chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peppers by Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Orius indidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, recently established in southeast of the United States, poses an economic threat to a wide-range of ornamental and vegetable plants. In this study, we examined biological control of chilli thrips with a predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, an...

  19. Evaluation of sampling methodology for determining the population dynamics of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ontario onion fields.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre-Allen, J K; Scott-Dupree, C D; Tolman, J H; Harris, C R

    2005-12-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, are an economic pest of alliums worldwide. In Ontario onion-growing regions, seasonal abundance and population trends of onion thrips are not well known. The objectives of this research were to investigate onion thrips population dynamics by using both white sticky traps and plant counts, to gain insight into flight height, and to determine the genus and sex of thrips fauna present in monitored fields. Adult thrips were captured on white sticky traps placed in two commercial onion fields in the Thedford-Grand Bend Marsh region as early as mid-May in 2001, 2002, and 2003. Thrips were not recorded on onion plants in these fields until late June and early July. A comparison of sticky trap captures to plant counts revealed a strong, positive correlation, indicating that sticky traps, which consistently detected thrips earlier than plant counts, could be used instead of plant counts early in the season to monitor onion thrips populations. Pole traps placed in onion and an adjacent soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., field revealed that regardless of crop type, most thrips were captured 0.7-0.95 m above the soil surface. During this study, 70% of 137,000 thrips captured on sticky traps and 89% of 1,482 thrips captured in pan traps were female onion thrips. No male onion thrips were identified in this study: most of the remaining thrips were Frankliniella spp. PMID:16539160

  20. Prey preference of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) for species of Frankliniella flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in pepper flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine prey preference of O. insidiosus between Frankliniella occidentalis and F. tritici, and between adult and 2nd instar of F. occidentalis in pepper flowers. Corresponding studies were conducted to determine the distribution of these thrips in the absence ...

  1. A novel mitochondrial genome architecture in thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera): extreme size asymmetry among chromosomes and possible recent control region duplication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-partite mitochondrial genomes are very rare in animals but have been found previously in two insect orders with highly rearranged genomes, the Phthiraptera (parasitic lice), and the Psocoptera (booklice/barklice). We provide the first report of a multi-partite mitochondrial genome architecture...

  2. Effect of Spinosad Resistance on Transmission of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus by the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Wan, Yanran; Xie, Wen; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wei, Guoshu; Zhou, Xiaomao; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in a persistent-propagative manner. We previously observed significant results in terms of feeding behavior of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and -resistant (Spin-R) strains of F. occidentalis using electrical penetration graph. TSWV transmission by the two strains was compared in the present study. The results showed that the titer of TSWV-N RNA (a part of S RNA of TSWV and encoding the nucleocapsid protein) in Ivf03 and Spin-R strains was not significantly different after a 48-h inoculation access period. The TSWV transmission rate did not significantly differ between the two strains and was 51.0% for Ivf03 and 44.4% for Spin-R. The virus transmission rate was significantly higher for males than females of both strains. The virus transmission rate for males and females of Ivf03 was 68.1 and 33.8%, respectively; however, in case of Spin-R, it was 60 and 28.8% for males and females, respectively. Additionally, number of probes and duration of probes were generally greater for viruliferous females of Ivf03 than for viruliferous females of Spin-R but the total number and duration of noningestion probes did not significantly differ between males of the two strains. The latter finding behavior may help explain the similar transmission rates for the susceptible and resistant strains. PMID:26377766

  3. Functional annotation of the transcriptome of Sorghum bicolor in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher plants exhibit remarkable phenotypic plasticity allowing them to adapt to an extensive range of environmental conditions. Sorghum is a cereal crop that exhibits exceptional tolerance to adverse conditions, in particular, water-limiting environments. This study utilized next generation sequencing (NGS) technology to examine the transcriptome of sorghum plants challenged with osmotic stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in order to elucidate genes and gene networks that contribute to sorghum's tolerance to water-limiting environments with a long-term aim of developing strategies to improve plant productivity under drought. Results RNA-Seq results revealed transcriptional activity of 28,335 unique genes from sorghum root and shoot tissues subjected to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress or exogenous ABA. Differential gene expression analyses in response to osmotic stress and ABA revealed a strong interplay among various metabolic pathways including abscisic acid and 13-lipoxygenase, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and plant defense pathways. Transcription factor analysis indicated that groups of genes may be co-regulated by similar regulatory sequences to which the expressed transcription factors bind. We successfully exploited the data presented here in conjunction with published transcriptome analyses for rice, maize, and Arabidopsis to discover more than 50 differentially expressed, drought-responsive gene orthologs for which no function had been previously ascribed. Conclusions The present study provides an initial assemblage of sorghum genes and gene networks regulated by osmotic stress and hormonal treatment. We are providing an RNA-Seq data set and an initial collection of transcription factors, which offer a preliminary look into the cascade of global gene expression patterns that arise in a drought tolerant crop subjected to abiotic stress. These resources will allow scientists to query gene expression and functional annotation in response to drought. PMID:22008187

  4. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok Kumar; Munghate, Rajendra Sudhakar; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Polavarapu, Kavi Kishor B.; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum production is affected by a wide array of biotic constraints, of which sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata is the most important pest, which severely damages the sorghum crop during the seedling stage. Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, A. soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1's and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. The genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca) effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilized in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca) effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to specific combining ability (σ2s), dominance variance (σ2d), and lower predictability ratios than the variance due to general combining ability (σ2g) and additive variance (σ2a) for shoot fly resistance traits indicated the predominance of dominance type of gene action, whereas trichome density, leaf glossy score, and plant vigor score with high σ2g, additive variance, predictability ratio, and the ratio of general combining ability to the specific combining ability showed predominance of additive type of gene action indicating importance of heterosis breeding followed by simple selection in breeding shoot fly-resistant sorghums. Most of the traits exhibited high broadsense heritability, indicating high inheritance of shoot fly resistance traits. PMID:27200020

  5. Quantitative genetic analysis of agronomic and morphological traits in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok K; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Munghate, Rajendra S; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Sharma, Hari C

    2015-01-01

    The productivity in sorghum is low, owing to various biotic and abiotic constraints. Combining insect resistance with desirable agronomic and morphological traits is important to increase sorghum productivity. Therefore, it is important to understand the variability for various agronomic traits, their heritabilities and nature of gene action to develop appropriate strategies for crop improvement. Therefore, a full diallel set of 10 parents and their 90 crosses including reciprocals were evaluated in replicated trials during the 2013-14 rainy and postrainy seasons. The crosses between the parents with early- and late-flowering flowered early, indicating dominance of earliness for anthesis in the test material used. Association between the shoot fly resistance, morphological, and agronomic traits suggested complex interactions between shoot fly resistance and morphological traits. Significance of the mean sum of squares for GCA (general combining ability) and SCA (specific combining ability) of all the studied traits suggested the importance of both additive and non-additive components in inheritance of these traits. The GCA/SCA, and the predictability ratios indicated predominance of additive gene effects for majority of the traits studied. High broad-sense and narrow-sense heritability estimates were observed for most of the morphological and agronomic traits. The significance of reciprocal combining ability effects for days to 50% flowering, plant height and 100 seed weight, suggested maternal effects for inheritance of these traits. Plant height and grain yield across seasons, days to 50% flowering, inflorescence exsertion, and panicle shape in the postrainy season showed greater specific combining ability variance, indicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action/epistatic interactions in controlling the expression of these traits. Additive gene action in the rainy season, and dominance in the postrainy season for days to 50% flowering and plant height suggested G X E interactions for these traits. PMID:26579183

  6. Modulation of kernel storage proteins in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tejinder; Dweikat, Ismail; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Chen, Han; Elthon, Tom; Bean, Scott; Ioerger, Brian P; Tilley, Mike; Clemente, Tom

    2012-06-01

    Sorghum prolamins, termed kafirins, are categorized into subgroups α, β, and γ. The kafirins are co-translationally translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled into discrete protein bodies that tend to be poorly digestible with low functionality in food and feed applications. As a means to address the issues surrounding functionality and digestibility in sorghum, we employed a biotechnology approach that is designed to alter protein body structure, with the concomitant synthesis of a co-protein in the endosperm fraction of the grain. Wherein perturbation of protein body architecture may provide a route to impact digestibility by reducing disulphide bonds about the periphery of the body, while synthesis of a co-protein, with known functionality attributes, theoretically could impact structure of the protein body through direct association and/or augment end-use applications of sorghum flour by stabilizing ß-sheet formation of the kafirins in sorghum dough preparations. This in turn may improve viscoelasticity of sorghum dough. To this end, we report here on the molecular and phenotypic characterizations of transgenic sorghum events that are down-regulated in γ- and the 29-kDa α-kafirins and the expression of a wheat Dy10/Dx 5 hybrid high-molecular weight glutenin protein. The results demonstrate that down-regulation of γ-kafirin alone does not alter protein body formation or impacts protein digestibility of cooked flour samples. However, reduction in accumulation of a predicted 29-kDa α-kafirin alters the morphology of protein body and enhances protein digestibility in both raw and cooked samples. PMID:22353344

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) residing at eight locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve-day-old Tree Swallow nestlings were studied at eight sites exhibiting a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In addition to determining PCB concentrations in eggs, nestlings, and food items, hepatic cytochromes P450-associated monooxygenase activity quantified as a biomarker of exposure. Nestlings from several of the sites exhibited elevated PCB concentrations and P450 induction compared to a reference site, Furthermore, cytochromes P450 were correlated with PCB concentrations in nestling. Our findings indicate that likely routes of exposure include the direct materna! deposition of PCBs into the egg and the delivery of contaminated emerging aquatic insects to nestlings. We also examined reproductive and morphological parameters to determine if PCB exposure was adversely affecting swallows at these sites. Hatching success did not differ among sites. There were no dramatic effects on gross and histological gonadal morphology of nestlings, and there was complete concordance between phenotypic sex (gonadal morphology) and genotypic sex (as determined by PCR amplification of the sex chromosome). However, where nestling PCB exposure was substantial, clutch size and body weight differed from a reference site. Despite evidence of PCB exposure, only modest effects were observed in nestling swallows.

  8. Functional annotation of the transcriptome of Sorghum bicolor in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher plants exhibit remarkable phenotypic plasticity allowing them to adapt to an extensive range of environmental conditions, and the range of adaptation exhibited by a plant species determines its utility in agriculture. Sorghum is a cereal crop that exhibits unusual tolerance to adverse condit...

  9. Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to the greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) in Sorghum bicolor (Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a worldwide important cereal crop and widely cultivated for grain and forage production. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is one of the major insect pests of sorghum and can cause serious damage to sorghum plants, particularly in the US Great Plains. Identification of chromosomal...

  10. Formulation of a liquid fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using vermicompost leachate.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; García-Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Rincón Rosales, Reiner; Abud-Archila, Miguel; María Angela, Oliva Llaven; Cruz, Marcos Joaquín Guillen; Dendooven, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Leachate from vermicomposting contains large amounts of plant nutrients and can be used as liquid fertilizer, but normally diluted to avoid plant damage. The amount of nutrients applied is thus reduced so that an additional fertilizer is required. We investigated how dilution of vermicompost leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected sorghum plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m(-1), contained 834 mg K(+) l(-1), 247 mg NO(3)(-)l(-1) and 168 mg PO(4)(3-) l(-1), was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65 % germination index. Vermicompost leachate can be used as liquid fertilizer for the cultivation of sorghum without dilution and mixed with 140-170 g l(-1) of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and 2-3 ml(-1) of dispersant and 0-1 ml l(-1) adherent. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth. PMID:18304806

  11. Visual orientation performances of desert ants (Cataglyphis bicolor) toward astromenotactic directions and horizon landmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, R.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental data, on the visual orientation of desert ants toward astromenotactic courses and horizon landmarks involving the cooperation of different direction finding systems, are given. Attempts were made to: (1) determine if the ants choose a compromise direction between astromenotactic angles and the direction toward horizon landmarks when both angles compete with each other or whether they decide alternatively; (2) analyze adaptations of the visual system to the special demands of direction finding by astromenotactic orientation or pattern recognition; and (3) determine parameters of visual learning behavior. Results show separate orientation mechanisms are responsible for the orientation of the ant toward astromenotactic angles and horizon landmarks. If both systems compete with each other, the ants switch over from one system to the other and do not perform a compromise direction.

  12. Estimating hydrogen cyanide in forage sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fox, Glen P; O'Donnell, Natalie H; Stewart, Peter N; Gleadow, Roslyn M

    2012-06-20

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a toxic chemical that can potentially cause mild to severe reactions in animals when grazing forage sorghum. Developing technologies to monitor the level of HCN in the growing crop would benefit graziers, so that they can move cattle into paddocks with acceptable levels of HCN. In this study, we developed near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to estimate HCN in forage sorghum and hay. The full spectral NIRS range (400-2498 nm) was used as well as specific spectral ranges within the full spectral range, i.e., visible (400-750 nm), shortwave (800-1100 nm) and near-infrared (NIR) (1100-2498 nm). Using the full spectrum approach and partial least-squares (PLS), the calibration produced a coefficient of determination (R(2)) = 0.838 and standard error of cross-validation (SECV) = 0.040%, while the validation set had a R(2) = 0.824 with a low standard error of prediction (SEP = 0.047%). When using a multiple linear regression (MLR) approach, the best model (NIR spectra) produced a R(2) = 0.847 and standard error of calibration (SEC) = 0.050% and a R(2) = 0.829 and SEP = 0.057% for the validation set. The MLR models built from these spectral regions all used nine wavelengths. Two specific wavelengths 2034 and 2458 nm were of interest, with the former associated with C═O carbonyl stretch and the latter associated with C-N-C stretching. The most accurate PLS and MLR models produced a ratio of standard error of prediction to standard deviation of 3.4 and 3.0, respectively, suggesting that the calibrations could be used for screening breeding material. The results indicated that it should be feasible to develop calibrations using PLS or MLR models for a number of users, including breeding programs to screen for genotypes with low HCN, as well as graziers to monitor crop status to help with grazing efficiency. PMID:22594883

  13. Developing new markers and QTL mapping for greenbug resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenbug is a major damaging insect to sorghum production in the United States. Among various virulent greenbug biotypes, biotype I is the most predominant and severe for sorghum. To combat with the damaging pest, greenbug resistant sources were obtained from screening sorghum germplasm collection...

  14. MicroRNA expression profiles in response to drought stress in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Nada Babiker; Sharma, Neha; Tripathi, Anita; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti

    2016-03-01

    The regulatory role of small non-coding RNAs that are 20-24 nucleotides in length has become the foremost area of research for biologists. A major class of small RNAs represented by the microRNAs (miRNAs), has been implicated in various aspects of plant development including leaf pattering, meristem function, root patterning etc. Recent findings support that miRNAs are regulated by drought and other abiotic stresses in various plant species. In this study, were report the expression profiling of 8 known abiotic stress deregulated miRNAs in 11 elite sorghum genotypes, under watered and drought conditions. Significant deregulation was observed with miR396, miR393, miR397-5p, miR166, miR167 and miR168. Among these, the expression levels of sbi-miR396 and sbi-miR398 were the highest in all the genotypes. The expression of sbi-miR396 was maximum in the grain sorghum HSD3226 under well-watered conditions and the profile shifted towards HSD3221 under drought stress. Forage accessions, N98 and Atlas, showed an opposite behavior in expression patterns of miR397-5p in drought physiologies. Such dynamic expression patterns could be indicative of prevailing drought tolerant mechanisms present in these sorghum accessions. This data provides insights into sorghum miRNAs which may have potential use in improving drought tolerance in sorghum and other cereal crops. PMID:26772909

  15. Mapping of QTLs underlying flowering time in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    El Mannai, Yousra; Shehzad, Tariq; Okuno, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Due to its critical importance in crop yield, the photoperiodic regulation of flowering time is considered an important trait in sorghum breeding programs. In this study, quantitative trait loci for flowering time were detected using an F2 population derived from a cross between Kikuchi Zairai, a late-flowering cultivar originating from Japan and SC112, an early-flowering cultivar originating from Ethiopia. F2 plants were grown with their parents under a natural day length and a 12 h day length. Two linkage maps were constructed using 213 simple sequence repeats markers. Nine quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time were identified in F2 plants grown under a natural day length, whereas 7 QTLs were identified under a 12 h day length. Five QTLs controlling flowering time were shared under both of the day length conditions. PMID:23136526

  16. Accelerating Seed Germination and seedling development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) through hydro-priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembele, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Mali, a West Africa Sahelian country, is characterized by a strong dependence on rain-fed agriculture and a low adaptive capacity, making it one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change worldwide. Moreover, although with high uncertainties, most climate models used for the region recognize a growing uncertainty in the onset of the rainy season, which demands urgent adaptation measures. Early-season drought limits crops germination, and hence growth, and yield during rainfed depending production as is common now in Mali, West Africa. Crops germination and establishment could be improved by using seed priming, a process that dry seeds take up water to initiate the primary stages of germination, but the amount of water added is not enough for completing germination. The effects of hydro-priming (distilled, tap, rain, river and well water) were evaluated for three priming durations (4, 8 and 12 hour) in 2014 and 2015. Monitored were seed germination and seedling development of nine sorghum genotypes. Preliminary results showed that hydro-priming significantly improved germination rate, germination speed, number of seminal root, rate of survival and seedling vigour index, compared to non-primed seed treatments. However, seedling length, root length, shoot length and seedling dry weight did not differ significantly. Four out of the nine genotypes evaluated were attributed good seed quality and good response to hydro-priming. The priming with different sources of water resulted in higher seed germination (90%) and seedling development with well and river water, compared to the others. Seed germination rate, uniformity and speed were also enhanced by hydro-priming. It is argued that hydro-priming is a simple but effective method for improving seed germination and seedling development of sorghum. In addition hydro-priming is a safe, simple and inexpensive method to enhance germination. The most promising genotypes have consequently been included in consequent pot and field trials for further investigation. Keywords: Hydro-priming, tolerant, germination, Sorghum, West Africa, climate change adaption, early season drought. Keywords: Hydro-priming, tolerant, germination, Sorghum, West Africa, climate change adaption, early season drought.

  17. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seedling growth in marginal soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has ...

  18. Conversion of lower lignin mutants of Sorghum bicolor (L.) to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Government has targeted aggressive development of ethanol as one route for decreasing oil dependence and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Achieving future production targets depends on expanding feedstock sources beyond corn and towards lignocellulose. This is expected to inclu...

  19. Ethanol Fermentation Performance of Grain Sorghums (Sorghum bicolor) with Modified Endosperm Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.; Jampala, B; Robbins, A; Hays, D; Yan, S; Xu, F; Rooney, W; Peterson, G; Shi, Y; Wang, D

    2010-01-01

    We tested 13 sorghum entries (lines and hybrids) with different endosperm matrices for ethanol production using a laboratory dry grind process. Waxy and heterowaxy samples had the highest efficiencies. Free amino nitrogen (FAN) contents in sorghum samples were positively related to the fermentation rate during fermentation (R{sup 2} = 0.8618). Dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) from different sorghums had significantly different crude protein and crude fat contents. Residual starch content in DDGS ranged from 0.60% for the most efficient sample to 2.66% for the least efficient sample. This study showed that the HD lines (TX1, TX3, TX5, TX7, and TX9) with modified endosperm protein matrix have several attributes desirable for ethanol production: easily pasted starch granules, significantly higher FAN content in finished mashes, 30-45% faster ethanol fermentation rate during early stages, and 50-60% higher lysine content in DDGS.

  20. ACCUMULATION OF PCB CONGENERS IN NESTLING TREE SWALLOWS (TACHYCINETA BICOLOR) ON THE HUDSON RIVER, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Together, these two papers establish a quantitative linkage between PCB concentrations in nestling tree swallows and in the insects that they consume. As such, these papers provide strong support for the use of nestling swallows as a biomonitoring species for exposure assessment ...

  1. Quantitative genetic analysis of agronomic and morphological traits in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok K.; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Munghate, Rajendra S.; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B.; Sharma, Hari C.

    2015-01-01

    The productivity in sorghum is low, owing to various biotic and abiotic constraints. Combining insect resistance with desirable agronomic and morphological traits is important to increase sorghum productivity. Therefore, it is important to understand the variability for various agronomic traits, their heritabilities and nature of gene action to develop appropriate strategies for crop improvement. Therefore, a full diallel set of 10 parents and their 90 crosses including reciprocals were evaluated in replicated trials during the 2013–14 rainy and postrainy seasons. The crosses between the parents with early- and late-flowering flowered early, indicating dominance of earliness for anthesis in the test material used. Association between the shoot fly resistance, morphological, and agronomic traits suggested complex interactions between shoot fly resistance and morphological traits. Significance of the mean sum of squares for GCA (general combining ability) and SCA (specific combining ability) of all the studied traits suggested the importance of both additive and non-additive components in inheritance of these traits. The GCA/SCA, and the predictability ratios indicated predominance of additive gene effects for majority of the traits studied. High broad-sense and narrow-sense heritability estimates were observed for most of the morphological and agronomic traits. The significance of reciprocal combining ability effects for days to 50% flowering, plant height and 100 seed weight, suggested maternal effects for inheritance of these traits. Plant height and grain yield across seasons, days to 50% flowering, inflorescence exsertion, and panicle shape in the postrainy season showed greater specific combining ability variance, indicating the predominance of non-additive type of gene action/epistatic interactions in controlling the expression of these traits. Additive gene action in the rainy season, and dominance in the postrainy season for days to 50% flowering and plant height suggested G X E interactions for these traits. PMID:26579183

  2. Thermal stability of alpha-amylase from malted jowar (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Siva Sai; Singh, Sridevi Annapurna; Rao, A G Appu

    2005-08-24

    Malted cereals are rich sources of alpha-amylase, which catalyzes the random hydrolysis of internal alpha-(1-4)-glycosidic bonds of starch, leading to liquefaction. Amylases play a role in the predigestion of starch, leading to a reduction in the water absorption capacity of the cereal. Among the three cereal amylases (barley, ragi, and jowar), jowar amylase is found to be the most thermostable. The major amylase from malted jowar, a 47 kDa alpha-amylase, purified to homogeneity, is rich in beta structure ( approximately 60%) like other cereal amylases. T(m), the midpoint of thermal inactivation, is found to be 69.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Thermal inactivation is found to follow first-order kinetics at pH 4.8, the pH optimum of the enzyme. Activation energy, E(a), is found to be 45.3 +/- 0.2 kcal mol(-)(1). The activation enthalpy (DeltaH), entropy (DeltaS*), and free energy change (DeltaG) are calculated to be 44.6 +/- 0.2 kcal mol(-)(1), 57.1 +/- 0.3 cal mol(-)(1) K(-)(1), and 25.2 +/- 0.2 kcal mol(-)(1), respectively. The thermal stability of the enzyme in the presence of the commonly used food additives NaCl and sucrose has been studied. T(m) is found to decrease to 66.3 +/- 0.3, 58.1 +/- 0.2, and 48.1 +/- 0.5 degrees C, corresponding to the presence of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 M NaCl, respectively. Sucrose acts as a stabilizer; the T(m) value is found to be 77.3 +/- 0.3 degrees C compared to 69.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C in the control. PMID:16104815

  3. Natural variation in synthesis and catabolism genes influences dhurrin content in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanogenic glucosides are natural compounds found in over 1,000 species of angiosperms that produce HCN and are deemed undesirable for agricultural use. However, these compounds are important components of primary defensive mechanisms of many plant species. One of the best-studied cyanogenic glucos...

  4. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) seedling growth in marginal soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has b...

  5. Phenotypic characterization and molecular mapping of a twin seeded trait of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally occurring mutants which produce two seeds per fertile floret known as “twin-seeded” have been reported for many years in sorghum. However, details about the morphological and molecular nature of the trait are limited. To better understand twin-seeded trait and its subsequent role in grai...

  6. Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; da Silva, Letícia Linhares; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Tardin, Flávio Dessaune; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2015-04-01

    The content and stability (retention) to dry heat in a conventional oven (DHCO) and extrusion of tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum genotypes were evaluated. One hundred sorghum genotypes showed high variability in tocochromanol content (280.7-2962.4 μg/100g in wet basis) and 23% of the genotypes were classified as source of vitamin E. The total carotenoid varied from 2.12 to 85.46 μg/100g in one hundred sorghum genotypes. According to the genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols, the 100 genotypes were grouped into 7 groups. The retention of the total tocochromanols and α-tocopherol equivalent decreased after extrusion (69.1-84.8% and 52.4-85.0%, respectively) but increased after DHCO (106.8-114.7% and 109.9-115.8%, respectively). Sorghum carotenoids were sensitive to extrusion (30.7-37.1%) and DHCO (58.6-79.2%). In conclusion, the tocochromanols profile in sorghum varied widely and the genotypes presented high genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols. Sorghum was a source of tocochromanols, which increased after DHCO and decreased after extrusion. The carotenoid content in sorghum decreased after DHCO and extrusion. PMID:25442636

  7. Occurrence of the western flower thrips, Franklliniella occidentalis, and potential predators on host plants in near-orchard habitats of Washington and Oregon (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred thirty species of native and introduced plants growing in uncultivated land adjacent to apple and pear orchards of central Washington and northern Oregon were sampled for the presence of the western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), 1895 and potential thrips pred...

  8. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  9. Low temperature–scanning electron microscopy to evaluate morphology and predation of Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae: Tetranychus species)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper evaluates the potential usefulness of low temperature-scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) to evaluate morphology and predation behavior of the six-spotted thrips (Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande) against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)). Morphological features...

  10. Two years research on efficiency of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory, to reduce damage caused by onion thrips(Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on leek.

    PubMed

    Gombac, P; Trdan, S

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and 2011, a field experiment was carried out at the Laboratory Field at the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the aim to investigate suitability of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L) and summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), for reducing damage caused by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) on leek (Allium porrum L.). Four leek cultivars--'Columbus', 'Forrest', 'Lancelot' and 'Lincoln'--were used in the research (Bejo Zaden B.V., Netherlands). In both years, the mean index of damage caused by feeding of the pest on the leek leaves increased from the first evaluation (13 July 2009 and 18 June 2011) in both treatments with intercrops and in control treatment (without intercrop). Leek grown with birdsfoot trefoil as intercrop was in both years statistically the least damaged from thrips. Also summer savory was efficient in the same context in comparison with control treatment. In year 2009 cultivar 'Lancelot' was the least damaged in all treatments, and in year 2011 'Lancelot' and 'Forrest'. In both years intercrop and cultivar also had a significant influence on the yield of leek. The highest yield was obtained on the control plots, meanwhile birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory were pretty competitive and yield of leek grown with them as intercrops was therefore significantly lower. PMID:23885428

  11. Investigation on the optimal term of one-fold insecticide application for decreasing onion thrips ( Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) damage on early white cabbage.

    PubMed

    Trdan, S; Valic, N; Bogataj, A; Znidarcic, D

    2004-01-01

    An impact of the term of one-fold insecticide application to reduce the damage of the onion thrips in early white cabbage was established. During the growing season plants were treated with insecticide (abamectin) in three different terms (treatment 1: 9 June, treatment 2: 16 June, treatment 3: 23 June, and treatment 4: untreated). On the exterior leaves of cabbage heads, treated with the insecticide, statistically significantly lower mean index of damage was determined as compared to the untreated plants. No significant differences were found between three different terms of application. The majority of the economically important damages in all of the treatments was found between the 3rd and 6th exterior leaf in the head. The highest mean weight of heads (1517.3 g) and mean net weight of heads I = mean weight of heads - weight of damaged and removed leavesl (1166.3 g) were established in plants which were treated the last. These parameters were the lowest in untreated plants (1083.3 g / 805.6 g). The yield loss due to damaged leaves removal amounted from 22.9% (treatment 2) to 25.6% (treatment 4). Based on the results obtained in this research we concluded that yield loss due to onion thrips attack in plants with one-fold insecticide application is not substantially lower as in untreated plants (though statistically significant differences between them were established), because insecticide cannot reach the interior leaves in the head. Substantial differences in the total and net weight of heads between the treatments and especially between the treated and untreated plants are explained by the fact that feeding of numerous thrips populations in the heads and on the exterior cabbage leaves negatively affects plant physiology and yield. The highest average yield in plants which were treated the last indicates a possibility that insecticide also inhibits plant growth and development to a certain extent. PMID:15759423

  12. Investigating the effect of invasion characteristics on onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations in onions with a temperature-driven process model.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Stevens, Mark; Liu, De Li; Herron, Grant

    2009-12-01

    A temperature-driven process model was developed to describe the seasonal patterns of populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, in onions. The model used daily cohorts (individuals of the same developmental stage and daily age) as the population unit. Stage transitions were modeled as a logistic function of accumulated degree-days to account for variability in development rate among individuals. Daily survival was modeled as a logistic function of daily mean temperature. Parameters for development, survival, and fecundity were estimated from published data. A single invasion event was used to initiate the population process, starting at 1-100 d after onion emergence (DAE) for 10-100 d at the daily rate of 0.001-0.9 adults/plant/d. The model was validated against five observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations from two unsprayed sites in the Riverina, New South Wales, Australia, during 2003-2006. Performance of the model was measured by a fit index based on the proportion of variations in observed data explained by the model (R (2)) and the differences in total thrips-days between observed and predicted populations. Satisfactory matching between simulated and observed seasonal patterns was obtained within the ranges of invasion parameters tested. Model best-fit was obtained at invasion starting dates of 6-98 DAE with a daily invasion rate of 0.002-0.2 adults/plant/d and an invasion duration of 30-100 d. Under the best-fit invasion scenarios, the model closely reproduced the observed seasonal patterns, explaining 73-95% of variability in adult and larval densities during population increase periods. The results showed that small invasions of adult thrips followed by a gradual population build-up of thrips within onion crops were sufficient to bring about the observed seasonal patterns of onion thrips populations in onion. Implications of the model on timing of chemical controls are discussed. PMID:20021751

  13. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new insect pest in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  14. Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  15. Incidence and characterization of resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides in Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion fields in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, A; Khajehali, J; Van Leeuwen, T

    2016-05-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is the main pest of onion-growing fields in Isfahan and is mainly controlled by frequently spraying several insecticides. To investigate the resistance status and mechanisms, the susceptibility of ten field populations collected from Isfahan onion-growing regions were tested to several currently used pesticides. Resistance to the tested insecticides was observed in most populations when compared with the susceptible reference population. Enhanced detoxification, implicated by the use of inhibitors of major metabolic detoxification enzymes, was observed in the populations resistant to profenofos and chlorpyrifos. In the deltamethrin resistant populations, the amino acid substitution T929I was detected in the voltage gated sodium channel, which is known to confer pyrethroid resistance. These data are a first step towards more efficient resistance management tactics through early detection of resistant onion thrips in Iran. PMID:27017878

  16. Genetic and host-associated differentiation within Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its links to Tomato spotted wilt virus-vector competence.

    PubMed

    Westmore, G C; Poke, F S; Allen, G R; Wilson, C R

    2013-09-01

    Of eight thelytokous populations of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) collected from potato (three populations), onion (four) or Chrysanthemum (one) hosts from various regions of Australia, only those from potato were capable of transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in controlled transmission experiments. Genetic differentiation of seven of these eight populations, and nine others not tested for TSWV vector competence, was examined by comparison of the DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. All Australian populations of T. tabaci grouped within the European 'L2' clade of Brunner et al. (2004). Within this clade the seven populations from potato, the three from onion, and the four from other hosts (Chrysanthemum, Impatiens, lucerne, blackberry nightshade) clustered as three distinct sub-groupings characterised by source host. Geographical source of thrips populations had no influence on genetic diversity. These results link genetic differentiation of thelytokous T. tabaci to source host and to TSWV vector capacity for the first time. PMID:23632893

  17. Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Beauveria bassiana strains were evaluated for control of western flower thrips. Strain RSB was the most virulent, causing 69-96% mortality at concentrations of 1×104 – 1×107 conidia mL-1, 10 days after inoculation of first instars. In greenhouse trials, RSB applied to broccoli foliage signifi...

  18. The morphology and biology of the entomophilic Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae), and the histopathologic effects of parasitism on the host Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thripinema fuscum is a natural enemy capable of reducing local populations of Frankliniella fusca and reducing transmission of plant diseases vectored by F. fusca. We used light and electron microscopy to detail the in vivo life cycle of the nematode and to determine the effects of parasitism on th...

  19. Long-Distance Dispersal Potential for Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus (Bunyaviridae: Tospovirus) in an Onion Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erik A; Fuchs, M; Shields, E J; Nault, B A

    2015-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a worldwide pest of onion whose feeding damage and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) may reduce onion yields. Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of T. tabaci dispersal, the distance of dispersal, or the movement of thrips infected with IYSV during the onion-growing season. To address these questions, T. tabaci adults were collected using transparent sticky card traps in commercial onion fields three times during the onion-growing season (June, July, and late August) at varying heights above the canopy (0.5-6 m above soil surface) and with trap-equipped unmanned aircraft (UAVs) flying 50-60 m above onion fields during August sampling periods in 2012 and 2013. Randomly selected subsamples of captured T. tabaci were tested for IYSV using RT-PCR. Most T. tabaci adults were captured in late August and near the onion canopy (<2 m) throughout the season. However, 4% of T. tabaci adults captured on sticky cards were at altitudes ≥2 m, and T. tabaci were also captured on UAV-mounted traps. These data strongly suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs. More T. tabaci captured on sticky cards tested positive for IYSV in August (53.6%) than earlier in the season (2.3 to 21.5% in June and July, respectively), and 20 and 15% of T. tabaci captured on UAV-mounted traps tested positive for IYSV in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our results indicate that T. tabaci adults, including viruliferous individuals, engage in long-distance dispersal late in the season and likely contribute to the spread of IYSV. PMID:26314037

  20. Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitism reduces both the feeding of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peanut and the transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) is the predominant thrips species found inhabiting and reproducing in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and is one of at least nine thrips species to transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The entomogenous nematode Thripinema fuscum Tipping & Nguyen, a natural enemy of F....

  1. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. PMID:26500338

  2. Evaluation of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as biological control agents of Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood poses a significant risk to many food and ornamental crops in the Caribbean, Florida and Texas. We evaluated two species of phytoseiid mite as predators of S. dorsalis. In leaf disc assays, gravid females of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius s...

  3. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...

  4. Resolving cryptic species with morphology and DNA; thrips as a potential biocontrol agent of Brazilian peppertree, with a new species and overview of Pseudophilothrips (Thysanoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular and morphological evidence is presented to support the description of a second species of Pseudophilothrips in Brazil in association with Schinus terebinthifolius, an invasive weedy tree in North America. Pseudophilothrips is here recognized as a weakly defined genus comprising 13 describe...

  5. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Cotton in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas: Species Composition, Seasonal Population Dynamics, Damage and Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species composition, population dynamics of thrips on cotton, and their predaceous natural enemies, damage and control, were determined at two different sites during three consecutive seasons from 2005 to 2007 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas. We observed seven different species of th...

  6. Spatial-temporal analysis of zinc homeostasis reveals the response mechanisms to acute zinc deficiency in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulong; Zhang, Yuan; Shi, Dongqing; Liu, Xiaojing; Qin, Jun; Ge, Qing; Xu, Longhua; Pan, Xiangliang; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yiyong; Xu, Jin

    2013-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient in plants. The activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CSD) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) correlate with differences in Zn efficiency in plants; therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize the existence of a Zn economy model that saves Zn for these essential Zn proteins during Zn deficiency. However, up to this point, direct evidence for the idea that CSD and/or CA might be priorities for Zn delivery has been lacking. Here, we investigated the spatial-temporal effects of acute Zn depletion and resupply by integrating physiological studies and molecular analyses using hydroponically grown Sorghum. The elevated expression of miR398 repressed CSD expression in roots, whereas the reduced expression of miR528 resulted in a relatively stable level of CSD expression in Sorghum leaves under Zn depletion. Spatial-temporal analysis after Zn resupply to previously depleted plants revealed that the expression and activity of CA were the first to recover after Zn addition, whereas the recovery of the activities of CSD and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was delayed, suggesting that CA receives priority in Zn delivery over CSD and ADH. Our results also indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of the response of Zn deficiency in plants. PMID:23915383

  7. Development of basal endosperm transfer cells in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench and its relationship with caryopsis growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Hui; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Feng; Gu, Yun-Jie; Liu, Zhi

    2012-04-01

    During sorghum caryopsis development, endosperm epidermal cells near the basal main vascular bundle are specialized by depositing wall ingrowths, differentiating into basal endosperm transfer cells (BETCs). All the BETCs together compose the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL). BETCs are the first cell type to become histologically differentiated during endosperm development. The initiation and subsequent development of BETCs shows the pattern of temporal and spatial gradient. The developmental process of BETL can be divided into four stages: initiation, differentiation, functional, and apoptosis stage. A placental sac full of nutrient solutions would emerge, enlarge, and eventually disappear between the outmost layer of BETL and nucellar cells during caryopsis development. BETCs have dense cytoplasm rich in mitochondria, lamellar rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, and their secretory vesicles. They show a series of typical characteristics of senescence such as nuclei distortion and subcellular organelle deterioration during their specialization. BETCs probably play an active role in nutrient transfer into the starchy endosperm and embryo. The occurrence, development, and apoptosis of BETCs are in close relation to the caryopsis growth and maturation especially the enrichment of endosperm and the growth of embryo. The timing when BETL is fully developed, composed of three to four layers in radial direction and 70 to 80 rows in tangential direction, consists with the timing when average daily gain of caryopsis dry weight reaches its maximum. It is conceivable that measures that delay the senescence and death of BETCs would help to increase the crop yield. PMID:21647822

  8. Effects of egg order on organic and inorganic element concentrations and egg characteristics in tree swallows, tachycineta bicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.; Custer, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    The laying order of tree swallow eggs was identified from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA, and eggs were chemically analyzed individually to document possible effects of laying order on organic contaminant and inorganic element concentrations. Effects of laying order on other parameters such as egg weight, size, and lipid and moisture content also were assessed. Some effects of egg order on total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected, but the effect was not uniform across individual females or between years. In 2004, clutches with higher total PCBs tended to have concentrations decline across egg order, whereas clutches with lower concentrations of PCBs tended to increase across egg order. In contrast, in 2005, there was a tendency for concentrations to increase across egg order. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were highly variable within and among clutches in both years. The directionality of egg order associations (i.e., slopes) for trace elements was element dependent, was positive for Mn and Zn, was negative for B, and had no slope for Cr. Whole egg weight increased across egg order. Percentage lipid was variable within a clutch, with no pattern common across all females. Percentage lipid was also correlated with organic contaminant concentration. In highly contaminated environments, higher lipid content could have the unanticipated corollary of having higher concentrations of lipophilic contaminants such as PCBs. To reduce the effect of high variation within a clutch when assessing contamination exposure, it is recommended that two eggs per clutch be collected and pooled for chemical analysis. We further recommend that, as long as the two eggs are randomly collected, the additional effort needed to identify and collect specific eggs is not warranted. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  9. Genome-wide survey and characterization of greenbug induced NAC transcription factors in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an important crop grown world-wide because of its diverse uses as food, forage, and bioenergy feedstock and its wide range of adaption even under the poor nutritional environments. Greenbug can cause severe damage to sorghum plants and economic loss by sucking nutrients from the host whi...

  10. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Daffalla, Hussien M; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0-15%) during conditioning or (0-25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  11. Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol Induces Physiological Changes in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Seedlings under Suboptimal Soil Moisture Environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Jialin; Johnston, Christopher R; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhu, Kai; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    Osmopriming with PEG has potential to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment, especially under stress conditions. This research investigated germination performance, seedling establishment, and effects of osmopriming with PEG on physiology in sorghum seedlings and their association with post-priming stress tolerance under various soil moisture stress conditions. Results showed that seed priming increased the environmental range suitable for sorghum germination and has potential to provide more uniform and synchronous emergence. Physiologically, seed priming strengthened the antioxidant activities of APX, CAT, POD, and SOD, as well as compatible solutes including free amino acid, reducing sugar, proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein contents. As a result, seed priming reduced lipid peroxidation and stabilized the cell membrane, resulting in increased stress tolerance under drought or excessive soil moisture environments. Overall, results suggested that seed priming with PEG was effective in improving seed germination and seedling establishment of sorghum under adverse soil moisture conditions. Osmopriming effectively strengthened the antioxidant system and increased osmotic adjustment, likely resulting in increased stress tolerance. PMID:26469084

  12. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench): A new approach in ethnobiology

    PubMed Central

    Mekbib, Firew

    2009-01-01

    Background Sorghum is one of the main staple crops for the world's poorest and most food insecure people. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for thousands of years and hence the heritage of the crop is expected to be rich. Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage has not been done before. Methods In order to assess the bioecocultural heritage of sorghum by folksongs various research methods were employed. These included focus group discussions with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 120 farmers, and key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents. Relevant secondary data was also collected from the museum curators and historians. Results The crop is intimately associated with the life of the farmers. The association of sorghum with the farmers from seed selection to utilization is presented using folksongs. These include both tune and textual (ballad stories or poems) types. Folksongs described how farmers maintain a number of varieties on-farm for many biological, socio-economic, ecological, ethnological and cultural reasons. Farmers describe sorghum as follows: Leaf number is less than twenty; Panicle hold a thousand seeds; a clever farmer takes hold of it. In addition, they described the various farmers' varieties ethnobotanically by songs. The relative importance of sorghum vis-à-vis others crops is similarly explained in folksong terms. Conclusion The qualitative description of farmers' characterisation of the crop systems based on folksongs is a new system of appraising farmers' bioecocultural heritage. Hence, researchers, in addition to formal and quantitative descriptions, should use the folksong system for enhanced characterisation and utilization of bioecocultural heritages. In general, the salient characteristics of the folksongs used in describing the bioecocultural heritages are their oral traditions, varied function, communal or individual recreation and message transmissions. PMID:19575802

  13. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins from Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Bran

    PubMed Central

    Devi, P. Suganya; Kumar, M. Saravana; Das, S. Mohan

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in natural food colorants like carotenoids and anthocyanins with functional properties. Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content (4.7 mg/g of sorghum bran) followed by methanol (1.95 mg/g) and acetone (1 mg/g). Similarly, the highest total flavonoids (143 mg/g) and total phenolic contents (0.93 mg/g) were obtained in acidified methanol extracts than methanol and acetone extracts. To study the health benefits of anthocyanin from red sorghum bran, the total antioxidant activity was evaluated by biochemical and molecular methods. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acidified methanol extracts of anthocyanin in dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of the red sorghum bran was directly related to the total anthocyanin found in red sorghum bran. PMID:22400119

  14. Mapping QTL for grain yield and other agronomic traits in post-rainy sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    PubMed

    Nagaraja Reddy, R; Madhusudhana, R; Murali Mohan, S; Chakravarthi, D V N; Mehtre, S P; Seetharama, N; Patil, J V

    2013-08-01

    Sorghum, a cereal of economic importance ensures food and fodder security for millions of rural families in the semi-arid tropics. The objective of the present study was to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain yield and other agronomic traits using replicated phenotypic data sets from three post-rainy dry sorghum crop seasons involving a mapping population with 245 F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross of M35-1 × B35. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 237 markers consisting of 174 genomic, 60 genic and 3 morphological markers. The QTL analysis for 11 traits following composite interval mapping identified 91 QTL with 5-12 QTL for each trait. QTL detected in the population individually explained phenotypic variation between 2.5 and 30.3 % for a given trait and six major genomic regions with QTL effect on multiple traits were identified. Stable QTL across seasons were identified. Of the 60 genic markers mapped, 21 were found at QTL peak or tightly linked with QTL. A gene-based marker XnhsbSFCILP67 (Sb03g028240) on SBI-03, encoding indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.5, was found to be involved in QTL for seven traits. The QTL-linked markers identified for 11 agronomic traits may assist in fine mapping, map-based gene isolation and also for improving post-rainy sorghum through marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23649648

  15. Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near isogenic lines evaluated were: wild-type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12...

  16. Genetic mapping of QTLs for sugar-related traits in a RIL population of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.

    PubMed

    Shiringani, Amukelani Lacrecia; Frisch, Matthias; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    The productivity of sorghum is mainly determined by quantitative traits such as grain yield and stem sugar-related characteristics. Substantial crop improvement has been achieved by breeding in the last decades. Today, genetic mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is considered a valuable tool for trait enhancement. We have investigated QTL associated with the sugar components (Brix, glucose, sucrose, and total sugar content) and sugar-related agronomic traits (flowering date, plant height, stem diameter, tiller number per plant, fresh panicle weight, and estimated juice weight) in four different environments (two locations) using a population of 188 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between grain (M71) and sweet sorghum (SS79). A genetic map with 157 AFLP, SSR, and EST-SSR markers was constructed, and several QTLs were detected using composite interval mapping (CIM). Further, additive x additive interaction and QTL x environmental interaction were estimated. CIM identified more than five additive QTLs in most traits explaining a range of 6.0-26.1% of the phenotypic variation. A total of 24 digenic epistatic locus pairs were identified in seven traits, supporting the hypothesis that QTL analysis without considering epistasis can result in biased estimates. QTLs showing multiple effects were identified, where the major QTL on SBI-06 was significantly associated with most of the traits, i.e., flowering date, plant height, Brix, sucrose, and sugar content. Four out of ten traits studied showed a significant QTL x environmental interaction. Our results are an important step toward marker-assisted selection for sugar-related traits and biofuel yield in sorghum. PMID:20229249

  17. Effect of Seed Priming on Early Development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Daffalla, Hussien M.; Hassan, Mohammed Mahgoub; Osman, Magdoleen G.; Eltayeb, Amani Hamad; Dagash, Yassin Ibrahim; Abdel Gani, Migdam E.

    2014-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an obligate, root parasite, that limits cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful control depends on eliminating its seed reserves in soil, thereby preventing parasitism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica. The experiments were conducted in a factorial arrangement on the basis of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications. In the first experiment, sorghum height, leaf area, and shoot and root dry weights were examined. The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. In the second experiment, Striga germination and haustorium initiation percentages were examined. Among all salts, C2H4O2·NH3 inhibited Striga germination (0–15%) during conditioning or (0–25%) at germination compared to the control (75%). However, salt MgSO4·7H2O improved germination during conditioning up to 70%, while during germination CH3COONa·3H2O recorded 65% germination. Regarding haustoria initiation, results showed that C2H4O2·NH3 at all concentrations inhibits haustorium formation by 100%, while CH3COONa·3H2O at 10 µM improved haustorium formation up to 64% but still below the control (70%). Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of the parasitic weed. PMID:27350968

  18. Seed Priming with Polyethylene Glycol Induces Physiological Changes in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Seedlings under Suboptimal Soil Moisture Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Yu, Jialin; Johnston, Christopher R.; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhu, Kai; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zou, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    Osmopriming with PEG has potential to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment, especially under stress conditions. This research investigated germination performance, seedling establishment, and effects of osmopriming with PEG on physiology in sorghum seedlings and their association with post-priming stress tolerance under various soil moisture stress conditions. Results showed that seed priming increased the environmental range suitable for sorghum germination and has potential to provide more uniform and synchronous emergence. Physiologically, seed priming strengthened the antioxidant activities of APX, CAT, POD, and SOD, as well as compatible solutes including free amino acid, reducing sugar, proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein contents. As a result, seed priming reduced lipid peroxidation and stabilized the cell membrane, resulting in increased stress tolerance under drought or excessive soil moisture environments. Overall, results suggested that seed priming with PEG was effective in improving seed germination and seedling establishment of sorghum under adverse soil moisture conditions. Osmopriming effectively strengthened the antioxidant system and increased osmotic adjustment, likely resulting in increased stress tolerance. PMID:26469084

  19. Digestibility of Protein and Starch from Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)is Linked to Biochemical and Structural Features of Grain Endosperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although a principal source of energy and protein for millions of the world’s poorest people, the nutritional value of sorghum is diminished because of low digestibility of grain protein. To address this problem, we analyzed the properties of two lines of sorghum with a common pedigree that differ i...

  20. Highly efficient de novo mutant identification in a sorghum bicolor tilling population using the ComSeq approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening large populations for carriers of known or de novo rare SNPs is required both in Targeting induced local lesions IN genomes (TILLING) experiments in plants and analogously in screening human populations. We formerly suggested an approach that combines the celebrated mathematical field of c...

  1. Evaluation of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines and hybrids for cold tolerance under field and controlled environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season cold tolerance in sorghum contributes to emergence, seedling establishment, early vegetative growth, and reduces damping-off diseases under chilling conditions. The objectives of this study were to identify cold tolerant sources and to evaluate and optimize rapid screening techniques un...

  2. Effects of egg order on organic and inorganic element concentrations and egg characteristics in tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Gray, Brian R; Custer, Thomas W

    2010-04-01

    The laying order of tree swallow eggs was identified from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA, and eggs were chemically analyzed individually to document possible effects of laying order on organic contaminant and inorganic element concentrations. Effects of laying order on other parameters such as egg weight, size, and lipid and moisture content also were assessed. Some effects of egg order on total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected, but the effect was not uniform across individual females or between years. In 2004, clutches with higher total PCBs tended to have concentrations decline across egg order, whereas clutches with lower concentrations of PCBs tended to increase across egg order. In contrast, in 2005, there was a tendency for concentrations to increase across egg order. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were highly variable within and among clutches in both years. The directionality of egg order associations (i.e., slopes) for trace elements was element dependent, was positive for Mn and Zn, was negative for B, and had no slope for Cr. Whole egg weight increased across egg order. Percentage lipid was variable within a clutch, with no pattern common across all females. Percentage lipid was also correlated with organic contaminant concentration. In highly contaminated environments, higher lipid content could have the unanticipated corollary of having higher concentrations of lipophilic contaminants such as PCBs. To reduce the effect of high variation within a clutch when assessing contamination exposure, it is recommended that two eggs per clutch be collected and pooled for chemical analysis. We further recommend that, as long as the two eggs are randomly collected, the additional effort needed to identify and collect specific eggs is not warranted. PMID:20821521

  3. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  4. Influence of diet conditions on predation response of a predatory mite to a polyphagous insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive polyphagous species, is an economically important pest. A modified standard petri dish assay method was employed to examine the functional response and predation capacity of predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-...

  5. Analyzing predation of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Mediterranean lettuce crops using molecular techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hoverflies are generalist predators of a great variety of primary pests. Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are two common pests in Mediterranean lettuce crops, where they occur alongside alternative prey (e.g., Collembola). ...

  6. Evaluation of toxicity of selected insecticides against thrips on cotton in laboratory bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult vial technique (AVT) and spray table bioassays were conducted to evaluate toxicity of selected insecticides against immature and adult Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In AVT, technical insecticides comprising of organophosphates (d...

  7. Molecular differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene and development of a species-specific marker for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and melon thrips, T. palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), vectors of tospoviruses (Bunyaviridae).

    PubMed

    Asokan, R; Krishna Kumar, N K; Kumar, Vikas; Ranganath, H R

    2007-10-01

    A quick and developmental-stage non-limiting method of the identification of vectors of tospoviruses, such as Thrips tabaci and T. palmi, is important in the study of vector transmission, insecticide resistance, biological control, etc. Morphological identification of these thrips vectors is often a stumbling block in the absence of a specialist and limited by polymorphism, sex, stage of development, etc. Molecular identification, on the other hand, is not hampered by the above factors and can easily be followed by a non-specialist with a little training. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) exhibits reliable inter-species variations as compared to the other markers. In this communication, we present the differences in the mtCOI partial sequence of morphologically identified specimens of T. tabaci and T. palmi collected from onion and watermelon, respectively. Species-specific markers, identified in this study, could successfully determine T. tabaci and T. palmi, which corroborated the morphological identification. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both T. tabaci and T. palmi formed different clades as compared to the other NCBI accessions. The implication of these variations in vector efficiency has to be investigated further. The result of this investigation is useful in the quick identification of T. tabaci and T. palmi, a critical factor in understanding the epidemiology of the tospoviruses, their management and also in quarantine. PMID:17916265

  8. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  9. Molecular mapping and candidate gene identification of the Rf2 gene for pollen fertility restoration in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The A1 cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility system in sorghum is used almost exclusively for the production of commercial hybrid seed and thus, the dominant genes that restore male fertility in F1 hybrids are of critical importance to commercial seed production. The genetics of fertility restoration ...

  10. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour. PMID:23744121

  11. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Cell Wall Related Genes in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a Food, Fodder, and Biofuel Crop

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Krishan M.; Thu, Sandi W.; Balasubramanian, Vimal K.; Cobos, Christopher J.; Disasa, Tesfaye; Mendu, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation. Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Chromosomal localization analysis of these genes revealed that about 65% of cell wall related genes were confined to four chromosomes (Chr. 1–4). Further, 56 tandem duplication events involving 169 genes were identified in these gene families which could be associated with expansion of genes within families in sorghum. Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. Expression analysis showed tissue specificity as well as differential expression under abiotic stress conditions. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches.

  12. Exposure and effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Rosiu, C.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8 -tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in tree swallows (Tachycineta hicolor) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River northwest of Providence (RI, USA) in 2000 and 2001 were some of the highest ever reported in avian tissues. Mean concentrations in eggs ranged from 300 to > 1,000 pg/g wet weight at the two most contaminated ponds, Allendale and Lyman. Mean egg concentrations at Greystone, the upstream reference pond, were 12 and 29 pg/g. Positive accumulation rates and concentrations in diet samples from 12-day-old nestlings indicated that the contamination was accumulated locally. Concentrations in diet of between 71 and 219 pg/g wet weight were more than 6 and 18 times higher than concentrations considered safe for birds (10- 12 pg/g). Hatching success was negatively associated with concentration of TCDD in eggs. Only about half the eggs hatched at Allendale compared with >77% at Greystone. The national average for hatching success in successful nests is 85%. No other contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury, were present in any sample at concentrations known to affect avian reproduction. Three bioindicators, half-peak coefficient of geometric variation, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, and brain asymmetry were assessed relative to TCDD contamination.

  13. Molecular mapping and characterization of BLMC, a locus for profuse wax (bloom) and enhanced cuticular features of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum exhibits a distinct cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (EW) flakes (or bloom) on sheaths and leaves which is considered as a key morphological trait contributing to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, information on the molecular nature of the trait is lacki...

  14. Genetic structure and relationships within and between cultivated and wild sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in Kenya as revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Mutegi, E; Sagnard, F; Semagn, K; Deu, M; Muraya, M; Kanyenji, B; de Villiers, S; Kiambi, D; Herselman, L; Labuschagne, M

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the extent and partitioning of diversity within and among crop landraces and their wild/weedy relatives constitutes the first step in conserving and unlocking their genetic potential. This study aimed to characterize the genetic structure and relationships within and between cultivated and wild sorghum at country scale in Kenya, and to elucidate some of the underlying evolutionary mechanisms. We analyzed at total of 439 individuals comprising 329 cultivated and 110 wild sorghums using 24 microsatellite markers. We observed a total of 295 alleles across all loci and individuals, with 257 different alleles being detected in the cultivated sorghum gene pool and 238 alleles in the wild sorghum gene pool. We found that the wild sorghum gene pool harbored significantly more genetic diversity than its domesticated counterpart, a reflection that domestication of sorghum was accompanied by a genetic bottleneck. Overall, our study found close genetic proximity between cultivated sorghum and its wild progenitor, with the extent of crop-wild divergence varying among cultivation regions. The observed genetic proximity may have arisen primarily due to historical and/or contemporary gene flow between the two congeners, with differences in farmers' practices explaining inter-regional gene flow differences. This suggests that deployment of transgenic sorghum in Kenya may lead to escape of transgenes into wild-weedy sorghum relatives. In both cultivated and wild sorghum, genetic diversity was found to be structured more along geographical level than agro-climatic level. This indicated that gene flow and genetic drift contributed to shaping the contemporary genetic structure in the two congeners. Spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed a strong spatial genetic structure in both cultivated and wild sorghums at the country scale, which could be explained by medium- to long-distance seed movement. PMID:21153801

  15. Metabolic consequences of knocking out UGT85B1, the gene encoding the glucosyltransferase required for synthesis of dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Cecilia K; O'Donnell, Natalie H; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Neale, Alan D; Hamill, John D; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Gleadow, Roslyn M

    2016-02-01

    Many important food crops produce cyanogenic glucosides as natural defense compounds to protect against herbivory or pathogen attack. It has also been suggested that these nitrogen-based secondary metabolites act as storage reserves of nitrogen. In sorghum, three key genes, CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and UGT85B1, encode two Cytochrome P450s and a glycosyltransferase, respectively, the enzymes essential for synthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Here, we report the use of targeted induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) to identify a line with a mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the N-terminal region of UGT85B1. Plants homozygous for this mutation do not produce dhurrin and are designated tcd2 (totally cyanide deficient 2) mutants. They have reduced vigor, being dwarfed, with poor root development and low fertility. Analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) shows that tcd2 mutants accumulate numerous dhurrin pathway-derived metabolites, some of which are similar to those observed in transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 genes. Our results demonstrate that UGT85B1 is essential for formation of dhurrin in sorghum with no co-expressed endogenous UDP-glucosyltransferases able to replace it. The tcd2 mutant suffers from self-intoxication because sorghum does not have a feedback mechanism to inhibit the initial steps of dhurrin biosynthesis when the glucosyltransferase activity required to complete the synthesis of dhurrin is lacking. The LC-MS analyses also revealed the presence of metabolites in the tcd2 mutant which have been suggested to be derived from dhurrin via endogenous pathways for nitrogen recovery, thus indicating which enzymes may be involved in such pathways. PMID:26493517

  16. Potential infection of Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  17. Disease severity and susceptibility of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] to infection by Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  18. Identification of novel drought-responsive microRNAs and trans-acting siRNAs from Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench by high-throughput sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Amit; Smita, Shuchi; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar K.; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Pandey, Dev M.; Bansal, Kailash C.

    2015-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) namely microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs) play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and thus the control plant development and stress responses. In order to identify drought-responsive miRNAs and tasi-RNAs in sorghum, we constructed small RNA libraries from a drought tolerant (M35-1) and susceptible (C43) sorghum genotypes grown under control and drought stress conditions, and sequenced by Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Ninety seven conserved and 526 novel miRNAs representing 472 unique miRNA families were identified from sorghum. Ninety-six unique miRNAs were found to be regulated by drought stress, of which 32 were up- and 49 were down-regulated (fold change ≥ 2 or ≤ −2) at least in one genotype, while the remaining 15 miRNAs showed contrasting drought-regulated expression pattern between genotypes. A maximum of 17 and 18 miRNAs was differentially regulated under drought stress condition in the sensitive and tolerant genotypes, respectively. These results suggest that genotype dependent stress responsive regulation of miRNAs may contribute, at least in part, to the differential drought tolerance of sorghum genotypes. We also identified two miR390-directed TAS3 gene homologs and the auxin response factors as tasi-RNA targets. We predicted more than 1300 unique target genes for the novel and conserved miRNAs. These target genes were predicted to be involved in different cellular, metabolic, response to stimulus, biological regulation, and developmental processes. Genome-wide identification of stress-responsive miRNAs, tasi-RNAs and their targets identified in this study will be useful in unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying drought stress responses and genetic improvement of biomass production and stress tolerance in sorghum. PMID:26236318

  19. Effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crude extracts on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (Rs) contents of porridges.

    PubMed

    Lemlioglu-Austin, Dilek; Turner, Nancy D; McDonough, Cassandra M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-01-01

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content. PMID:22986923

  20. Analysis of the cell-wall xylan component of brown midrib mutants of Sorghum bicolor L. by LC-MS^n^

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum stalks and leaves are a potential renewable source of lignocellulosic biomass for conversion to liquid biofuels. The plant cell wall is a composite of primarily cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Lignin poses a particular challenge for enzymatic conversion as it acts as a barrier to hyd...

  1. A meta-analysis of relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and performance across studies of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    PubMed

    Bonier, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Habitats worldwide are increasingly being degraded by human activities, with environmental pollution representing a significant threat to species and ecosystems. The presence of persistent organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), has generated concern. Captive experiments and field studies have reported some evidence for detrimental effects of PCB exposure, but also significant variation across studies and species. Here, I use a meta-analytical approach to combine findings across 10 studies investigating effects of PCBs on performance (e.g. reproductive success, offspring growth) in free-ranging tree swallows, a common bioindicator species that accumulates high levels of PCBs at some contaminated sites. Contrary to predictions, five complementary analyses revealed no significant negative association between PCB exposure and performance in tree swallows. In fact, in one analysis, increased PCB exposure was associated with improved reproductive success. Possible explanations for these findings include several limitations of field studies, variation in the toxicity of different PCB congener mixtures found across sites included in the analysis, and variation in the degree of tolerance of PCB exposure among species (with high tolerance found in tree swallows). At this point, the available evidence from field studies does not demonstrate negative impacts of PCB exposure on tree swallow performance. PMID:27152205

  2. The effect of row spacing and seeding rate on biomass production and plant stand characteristics of non-irrigated photoperiod-sensitive sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of row spacing and seeding rate on yield and plant stand characteristics of high-biomass sorghum, a photoperiod-sensitive sorghum cultivar was sown at three different row spacings and seeding rates for four site-years from 2009 to 2010 in Alabama and Arkansas, USA. Measurement...

  3. Diversidad genetica de aislamientos de cornezuelo (Claviceps africana fredrickson, mantle, y de milliano) de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.] en Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, in which pathogenicity of two isolates of ergot (Claviceps africana) obtained from the same two locations, were evaluated on six hybrids and three male sterile sorghum lines. Also, a genetic variance indicated signif...

  4. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum. PMID:20528920

  5. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water. PMID:26341252

  6. Morpho-physiological characterization of cold-and pre-flowering drought tolerance in grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) inbreds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: The relationships between early-season cold temperature germination and preflowering drought stress in eight grain sorghum inbreds were assessed using morphophysiological traits. Study Design: Field was laid out in a randomized complete block design. Place and Duration: The experiment was condu...

  7. A meta-analysis of relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and performance across studies of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Bonier, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Habitats worldwide are increasingly being degraded by human activities, with environmental pollution representing a significant threat to species and ecosystems. The presence of persistent organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), has generated concern. Captive experiments and field studies have reported some evidence for detrimental effects of PCB exposure, but also significant variation across studies and species. Here, I use a meta-analytical approach to combine findings across 10 studies investigating effects of PCBs on performance (e.g. reproductive success, offspring growth) in free-ranging tree swallows, a common bioindicator species that accumulates high levels of PCBs at some contaminated sites. Contrary to predictions, five complementary analyses revealed no significant negative association between PCB exposure and performance in tree swallows. In fact, in one analysis, increased PCB exposure was associated with improved reproductive success. Possible explanations for these findings include several limitations of field studies, variation in the toxicity of different PCB congener mixtures found across sites included in the analysis, and variation in the degree of tolerance of PCB exposure among species (with high tolerance found in tree swallows). At this point, the available evidence from field studies does not demonstrate negative impacts of PCB exposure on tree swallow performance. PMID:27152205

  8. Lateral root stimulation in the early interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor: is fungal auxin the trigger?

    PubMed

    Felten, Judith; Legué, Valérie; Ditengou, Franck Anicet

    2010-07-01

    Lateral root (LR) stimulation during early signal exchange between plant roots and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi has recently been shown to be achieved by modulation of auxin gradients. We suggested that this modulation could occur through altered polar auxin transport (PAT) and through activation of auxin signalling pathways in the root. However, it remains unclear, which fungal molecules alter auxin pathways inside the plant partner. It has been suggested in previous studies that auxin released by the fungus could trigger observed plant responses during early signal exchange and later on during root colonization. Here we focus on the early interaction and we provide evidence for an alternative mechanism. Indeed, LR stimulation by the fungus in A. thaliana followed a totally different timing than with exogenously applied auxin. Furthermore, experimental conditions that excluded the exchange of soluble molecules while allowing exchange of volatile(s) between the plant and the fungus were sufficient for LR induction, therefore questioning the role of secreted fungal auxin. These data suggest that volatiles released by the fungus and sensed by the plant may act upstream of altered auxin signalling in the plant. PMID:20448463

  9. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains. PMID:26616952

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] germplasm collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity and population structure present in the Ethiopia sorghum collection maintained by the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS-NPGS) is unknown. In addition, passport information is absent for 83% of these accessions which limit its evaluation and utility. Therefor...

  11. Mapping and characterization of Rf5: A new gene conditioning pollen fertility restoration in A1 and A2 cytoplasm in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an aim to further characterize the cytoplasmic male sterility-fertility restoration system in sorghum, a major fertility restoration gene was mapped, along with a second locus capable of partial restoration of pollen fertility. The major fertility restoration gene, Rf5, was located on sorghum ...

  12. FINE MAPPING OF A GENE CONTROLLING THE REACTION TO A FUNGAL PATHOGEN AND ITS HOST-SELECTIVE TOXIN, THE PC LOCUS OF SORGHUM BICOLOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milo disease in sorghum is caused by isolates of the soil-borne fungus Periconia circinata that produce PC-toxin. Susceptibility to milo disease is conditioned by a single, semi-dominant gene, termed Pc. The susceptible allele (Pc) converts to a resistant form (pc) spontaneously at a gametic frequen...

  13. Rate of shattercane x sorghum hybridization in situ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench subsp. bicolor] can interbreed with a feral weedy relative shattercane [S. bicolor nothosubsp. drummondii (Steud.) de Wet ex Davidse]. Traits introduced from cultivated sorghum could contribute to the invasiveness of a shattercane population. An experi...

  14. 2-Nitro-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionate and aci-1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane, two intermediates in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench

    SciTech Connect

    Halkier, B.A.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Moller, B.L. )

    1991-01-15

    The biosynthetic pathway for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin derived from tyrosine has been studied in vitro by using ({sup 18}O)oxygen and a microsomal enzyme system obtained from etiolated sorghum seedlings. The products formed were purified by HPLC and TLC, and the incorporation of ({sup 18}O)oxygen was monitored by mass spectrometry. In the presence of NADPH and ({sup 18}O)dioxygen, L-tyrosine is converted to (E)- and (Z)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldhyde oxime with quantitative incorporation of an ({sup 18}O)oxygen atom into the oxime function. These data demonstrate that the conversion of N-hydroxytyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime involves additional N-hydroxylation and N-oxidation reactions giving rise to the formation of 2-nitro-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, which by decarboxylation produces aci-1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane. Both compounds are additional intermediates in the pathway. The two ({sup 18}O)oxygen atoms introduced by the N-hydroxylations are enzymatically distinguishable as demonstrated by the specific loss of the oxygen atom introduced by the first N-hydroxylation reaction in the subsequent conversion of aci-1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane to (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. A high flux of intermediates through the microsomal enzyme system is obtained with N-hydroxytyrosine as a substrate. This renders the conversion of the aci-nitro compound rate limiting and results in its release from the active site of the enzyme system and accumulation of the tautomeric nitro compound.

  15. The biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in higher plants. Identification of three hydroxylation steps in the biosynthesis of dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench and the involvement of 1-ACI-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane as an intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Halkier, B.A.; Moller, B.L. )

    1990-12-05

    N-Hydroxytyrosine, (E)- and (Z)-p-hydroxyphenyl-acetaldehyde oxime, p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and p-hydroxymandelonitrile are established intermediates in the biosynthesis of the tyrosine-derived cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and biosynthetic activity using a microsomal enzyme system isolated from etiolated sorghum seedlings demonstrate a requirement for three oxygen molecules in the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile. Two oxygen molecules are consumed in the conversion of tyrosine to (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime, indicating the existence of a previously undetected hydroxylation step in addition to that resulting in the formation of N-hydroxytyrosine. Radioactively labeled 1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane was chemically synthesized and tested as a possible intermediate. Biosynthetic experiments demonstrate that the microsomal enzyme system metabolizes the nitro compound to the subsequent intermediates in dhurrin synthesis (Km = 0.05 mM; Vmax = 14 nmol/mg of protein/h). Low amounts of 1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane are produced in the microsomal reaction mixtures when tyrosine is used as substrate. These data support the involvement of 1-nitro-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane or more likely its aci-nitro tautomer as an intermediate between N-hydroxytyrosine and p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. The conversion of (E)-p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehydeoxime to p-hydroxymandelonitrile requires a single oxygen molecule. The oxygen molecule is utilized for hydroxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile into p-hydroxymandelonitrile. This indicates that the conversion of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime into p-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile proceeds by a simple dehydration reaction.

  16. The biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in higher plants. The (E)- and (Z)-isomers of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime as intermediates in the biosynthesis of dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench

    SciTech Connect

    Halkier, B.A.; Olsen, C.E.; Moller, B.L. )

    1989-11-25

    The biosynthesis of the tyrosine-derived cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin has been studied with a microsomal preparation obtained from etiolated seedlings of sorghum. The biosynthetic pathway involves tyrosine, N-hydroxytyrosine, and p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime as early intermediates. The use of deuterium-labeled tyrosine and mass spectrometric analyses demonstrate that the alpha-hydrogen atom of tyrosine is retained in the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. This excludes p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid oxime as intermediate in the pathway. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was developed to separate the (E)- and (Z)-isomers of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. The microsomal enzyme system was found to produce initially the (E)-isomer of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime. An isomerase then converts the (E)-isomer to the (Z)-isomer, which is the isomer preferentially utilized by the microsomal enzyme system in the subsequent biosynthetic reactions. The (E)-isomer produced in situ is more efficiently converted to the (Z)-isomer than exogenously added (E)-isomer and may thus be metabolically channeled.

  17. Assessment of molecular diversity and population structure of the Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] germplasm collection maintained by the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity and population structure present in the Ethiopian sorghum collection maintained at the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has not been studied. In addition, 83% of the accessions in the Ethiopian collection lack passport information which has constrained their eval...

  18. Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Postharvest Control of Western Flower Thrips on Head Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were subjected to ULO treatments with different combinations of oxygen level, temperature, and treatment duration in plastic jars. Oxygen levels used ranged from 0.0015% to 0.01%. Temperatures ranged from 1 to 10°C. Treatme...

  19. Variation Within and Between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant ...

  20. Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  1. Host regulation by Thripinema fuscum and effects on Frankliniella fusca population dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tobacco thrips Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a polyphagous insect pest of numerous fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crops. Significantly, F. fusca is known to cause extensive economic damage in various cropping systems by transmitting Tomato spotted wilt virus (Bunyavi...

  2. Management strategies for western flower thrips and the role of insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most significant agricultural pests globally because of the damage it is able to inflict on a wide range of crops. Adults and larvae feed by piercing plant tissues with their needle-shape...

  3. Non-flowering Sorghum spp. hybrids: Perennial, sterile, high-biomass feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Sorghum spp. hybrids such as Columbusgrass (Sorghum almum Parodi; S. bicolor [L.] Moench x S. halepense [L.] Pers.) and the reciprocal hybridization (S. halepense x S. bicolor; e.g. Cv 'Krish') are high-biomass forage feedstocks. Utilization of such hybrids is limited, however, by both th...

  4. Pollen tube growth after intergeneric pollinations of iap-homozygous Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization within Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench has been the primary means of creating genetic diversity for improvement. While considerable variation exists within S. bicolor, there are traits that could be improved if secondary and tertiary germplasm pools were accessible through hybridization. ...

  5. Insect pests and diseases in bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and other grassy crops (e.g., grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, and hybrids involving sugarcane; sorghum; sudangrass, Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) de Wet and Harlan, and others) with potential for bioenergy production are susceptible...

  6. Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera. PMID:25704094

  7. RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS DISTINGUISH ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basidiomycetous fungi, two saprophytes and three mycorrhizal, were used to assess the specificity of DNA hybridization for distinguishing genera from one another. nterspecific comparisons were done with several isolates of mycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria bicolor and L. laccata, colle...

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet and potato crops. Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Eschscholtz) are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particula...

  9. POLYCHLORINATED BYPHENOLS AND P,P'-DDE IN TREE SWALLOW EGGS AND NESTLINGS FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed biologically available contaminant concentrations in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from a marine Superfund site. Tree swallows are used widely to assess and monitor aquatic contamination due to their preference for nesting near water an...

  10. Effect of sorghum seedlings and previous crop, on soil fluorescent pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The hypotheses that sorghum seedlings [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varying in sorgoleone production will differentially modify soil microorganisms and will effect subsequent planting of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings were tested. Methods: Wheat cultivar Lewjain, and sorghum genotypes ...

  11. Factors affecting the alkaline cooking performance of selected corn and sorghum hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dent corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) sample sets representative of commonly grown hybrids and diverse physical attributes were analyzed for nixtamalization performance. The influence of kernel characteristics including hardness, density, starch properties (thermal, pasting...

  12. Purity assessment of condensed tannin fractions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unambiguous investigation of condensed tannin (CT) structure-activity relationships in biological systems requires the use of highly enriched CT fractions of defined chemical purity. Purification of CTs from Sorghum bicolor, Trifolium repens, Theobroma cacao, Lespedeza cuneata, Lotus pedunculatus, a...

  13. INOCULATION STRATEGIES TO ASSESS BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FUSARIUM AND ALTERNARIA SPECIES INFECTING SORGHUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three bioassays were assessed for experimental utility to either characterize fungal species potentially pathogenic to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] or to screen germplasm for advancement in breeding programs. Isolates of species commonly associated with sorghum, Alternaria alternata, Fusari...

  14. Investigation of the volatile constituents of different Gynura species from two Chinese origins by SPME/GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Adams, An; Mangelinckx, Sven; Ren, Bing-Ru; Li, Wei-lin; Wang, Zheng-tao; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-05-01

    GC-MS analyses of the volatile constituents obtained by solid phase microextraction (SPME) of two Gynura species, i.e., G. divaricata and G. bicolor, collected from Nanjing and Nanping areas in the east of China, enabled the identification of more than 50 different components. Generally, a higher contents of sesquiterpene compounds such as beta-caryophyllene, alpha-caryophyllene and alpha-copaene were found in G. bicolor than in G. divaricata, regardless of their origin. Qualitatively, the detected major volatiles of G. bicolor and G. divaricata originating from Nanjing were the same, i.e., beta-caryophyllene, alpha-caryophyllene, alpha-copaene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. The volatile profile of a third species, G. medica, also originating from Nanjing was different with sesquiterpenes gamma-cadinene, beta-caryophyllene, elixene and monoterpene limonene as the major components. The volatile profiles of G. bicolor and G. divaricata originating from Nanping were more diverse. For both species beta-caryophyllene, alpha-copaene and limonene were the major volatiles, but G. bicolor also produced gamma-caryophyllene and carvone as major constituents, whereas for G. divariata o-cymene was detected. Overall, these results indicate that the biosynthesis of volatiles by Gynura species is not only species related, but is also possibly influenced by the local environmental conditions of growth. PMID:22799100

  15. Range dynamics, rather than convergent selection, explain the mosaic distribution of red-winged blackbird phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dufort, Matthew J; Keith Barker, F

    2013-01-01

    Geographic distributions of genetic and phenotypic characters can illuminate historical evolutionary processes. In particular, mosaic distributions of phenotypically similar populations can arise from parallel evolution or from irregular patterns of dispersal and colonization by divergent forms. Two phenotypically divergent forms of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) show a mosaic phenotypic distribution, with a “bicolored” form occurring disjunctly in California and Mexico. We analyzed the relationships among these bicolored populations and neighboring typical populations, using ∼600 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence data and 10 nuclear short tandem repeat loci. We find that bicolored populations, although separated by ∼3000 km, are genetically more similar to one other than they are to typical populations separated by ∼400 km. We also find evidence of ongoing gene flow among populations, including some evidence of asymmetric gene flow. We conclude that the current distribution of bicolored forms represents incomplete speciation, where recent asymmetric hybridization with typical A. phoeniceus is dividing the range of a formerly widespread bicolored form. This hypothesis predicts that bicolored forms may suffer extinction by hybridization. Future work will use fine-scaled geographical sampling and nuclear sequence data to test for hybrid origins of currently typical populations and to more precisely quantify the directionality of gene flow. PMID:24455125

  16. Impact of factitious foods and prey on the oviposition of the predatory mites Gaeolaelaps aculeifer and Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Campos, C; Wäckers, F L; Pekas, A

    2016-09-01

    The soil-dwelling predatory mites Gaeolaelaps aculeifer and Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) are important biocontrol agents of several pests (Astigmata, Thysanoptera, Diptera). There is little information regarding the use of factitious foods that potentially improve their mass rearing and population development once released in the field. Here we tested the suitability of several types of factitious food and prey for G. aculeifer and S. scimitus. Factitious foods included eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), hydrated encapsulated cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Anostraca: Artemiidae), two species of saprophytic nematodes (Panagrellus redivivus and Panagrellus sp.) (Nematoda: Panagrolaimidae) and pollen of cattail Typha angustifolia (Poales: Typhaceae). Parameters tested were oviposition over a 3-day period compared with controls provided with either second instars of the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or a mix of instars of the commercially used prey mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmatina: Acaridae) or the absence of food. Compared to the standard prey mite T. putrescentiae, G. aculeifer showed elevated oviposition when fed thrips larvae, E. kuehniella eggs, Artemia sp. cysts or the saprophytic P. redivivus. Oviposition by S. scimitus was high when provided with thrips larvae and P. redivivus, but not significantly different from oviposition on T. putrescentiae. Oviposition for both predatory mite species was very low or zero when provided with T. angustifolia pollen. Finally, G. aculeifer consumed significantly more thrips larvae than S. scimitus. The implication of these results for the mass-rearing of G. aculeifer and S. scimitus are discussed. PMID:27388446

  17. Synergistic effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in bioremediation of iron contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vartika; Gupta, Antriksh; Kaur, Parvinder; Singh, Simranjeet; Singh, Nasib; Gehlot, Praveen; Singh, Joginder

    2016-07-01

    Three Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from Glomus, Acaulospora and Scutellospora, and four plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolates related to genera Streptomyces, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus were found to be effective in phytoremediation of Fe(3+) contaminated soil where Pennisetum glaucum and Sorghum bicolor were growing as host plants. Co-inoculation of AMF and PGPR showed better results in comparison to either, AMF and PGPR under pot conditions. Both AMF and PGPR were able to produce siderophores. AMF and PGPR associated to P. glaucum and S. bicolor plants increased the extent of iron absorption. AMF and PGPR combination exhibited superior (p < 0.01) phytoremediation efficiency with P. glaucum compared to S. bicolor. These findings warrant further investigations of these synergistic interactions and large-scale in situ studies for bioremediation of iron-contaminated soils. PMID:26682583

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Sorghum based on combined sequence data from cpDNA regions and ITS generate well-supported trees with two major lineages

    PubMed Central

    Ng'uni, Dickson; Geleta, Mulatu; Fatih, Moneim; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Wild Sorghum species provide novel traits for both biotic and abiotic stress resistance and yield for the improvement of cultivated sorghum. A better understanding of the phylogeny in the genus Sorghum will enhance use of the valuable agronomic traits found in wild sorghum. Methods Four regions of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA; psbZ-trnG, trnY-trnD, trnY-psbM and trnT-trnL) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to analyse the phylogeny of sorghum based on maximum-parsimony analyses. Key Results Parsimony analyses of the ITS and cpDNA regions as separate or combined sequence datasets formed trees with strong bootstrap support with two lineages: the Eu-sorghum species S. laxiflorum and S. macrospermum in one and Stiposorghum and Para-sorghum in the other. Within Eu-sorghum, S. bicolor-3, -11 and -14 originating from southern Africa form a distinct clade. S. bicolor-2, originally from Yemen, is distantly related to other S. bicolor accessions. Conclusions Eu-sorghum species are more closely related to S. macrospermum and S. laxiflorum than to any other Australian wild Sorghum species. S. macrospermum and S. laxiflorum are so closely related that it is inappropriate to classify them in separate sections. S. almum is closely associated with S. bicolor, suggesting that the latter is the maternal parent of the former given that cpDNA is maternally inherited in angiosperms. S. bicolor-3, -11 and -14, from southern Africa, are closely related to each other but distantly related to S. bicolor-2. PMID:20061309

  19. Registration of N641 and N642 waxy Grain Sorghum Genetic Stocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss-of-function mutations in the granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) gene result in an endosperm with a waxy appearance and a near absence of amylose starch. waxy grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines, AN641, BN641, and RN642 (PI 672150 to PI 672152) were developed jointly by the USDA...

  20. A new cryptic species of Diatraea (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Crambinae) feeding on eastern gama grass and a novel host association with a braconid (Hymenoptera) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Diatraea currently consists of seven species in the United States, including Diatraea crambidoides (Grote), an economic pest of corn. Larvae of D. crambidoides are also reported to feed on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), sugar cane (Sacc...

  1. Long-term conventional and no-tillage management, crop growth, and field hydrology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S. Southern High Plains wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are grown using a three year wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation. Crop yield levels have been stabilized with stubblemulch-tillage (SM) or increased with no-tillage (NT) because of increased...

  2. Evapotranspiration of deficit irrigated sorghum and winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deficit irrigation commonly is used in regions with reduced or limited irrigation capacity to increase water use efficiency (WUE). This research measured winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) water use (ET) and yields so WUE could be determined. Two precision ...

  3. Inheritance and molecular mapping of anthracnose resistance gene present in the differential line PI533918

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose (Collectrotichum sublineolum) is considered one of the most destructive diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) because it infects all aerial tissues of the plant. The best strategy to control the disease is the incorporation of resistance genes. At present, eighteen sorghum line...

  4. Registration of a diverse collection of sorghum genetic stocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 507 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genetic stocks (Reg. No. PI66327 through PI663723), originally curated by the late Dr. Keith F. Schertz, was registered. This collection is consisting of, among others, lines with distinct morphological and physiological attributes, irradiat...

  5. Carbon allocation below ground transfers and lipid turnover in a plant-microbial association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radioactive tracers were used to study the carbon allocation to above ground, coarse- and fine-roots, plant tissues, mycorrhizal lipids, below-ground respiration, and to soil in a mycorrhizal association. Sorghum bicolor was grown in soil with a non mycorrhizal microbial inoculum with and without Gl...

  6. Registration of two allelic erect leaf mutants of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two allelic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] erect leaf (erl) mutants were isolated from an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) mutant library developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, at Lubbock, Texas. The two mutants, erl1-1 and erl1-2, were isol...

  7. Registration of sorghum germplasm Tx3408 and Tx3409 with tolerance to sugarcane aphid [Melanaphis saccari (Zehntner)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) germplasm lines Tx3408 and Tx3409 were developed and released from Texas A&M AgriLife Research and the USDA-ARS in 2015. Both of these lines were developed from intentional crosses using the pedigree method of plant breeding. The breeding crosses for these l...

  8. METHANE EMISSION BY GOATS CONSUMING DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CONDENSED TANNIN-CONTAINING LESPEDEZA AND SORGHUM-SUDANGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boer (7/8) x Spanish wethers (24; BW = 34.1 kg, SE = 1.02) were used to determine effects of dietary levels of a condensed tannin (CT)-containing forage Kobe lespedeza (Lespedeza striata; K) and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor; G) on methane emission. Treatments were K levels (DM basis) of 100,...

  9. Non-traditional Forages in a Managed Grazing System for Control of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep: Preliminary Work

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project compared lambs grazing forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) with lambs grazing brown mid-rib forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) x sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Piper) hybrid (BMR) to determine if anti-parasitic effects of chicory could be demonstrated. Lambs grazed these fo...

  10. Evaluation of interallelic waxy, heterowaxy, and wild-type grain sorghum hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four near-isogenic Wheatland × Tx430 grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] hybrids differing in allelic status at the Waxy locus were grown in yield trials to determine their potential to expand existing sources of low-amylose starch. The hypothesis tested was that agronomic performance and gr...

  11. Finger millet: An alternative forage crop for Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southern High Plains, dairies are expanding to take advantage of favorable climatic conditions. Currently corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) are the two major crops grown in the region to meet the current silage demand. Corn and sorghum have relatively large w...

  12. Toward Nutritional Enhancement of Sorghum for Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is the fifth most important cereal worldwide. Sorghum is used primarily for animal feed in the developed world but, particularly in semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia, it is a principal source of energy and protein for millions of the poorest people. While...

  13. Field screening of sweet sorghum inbred lines for pest resistance and biomass production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one of the favorable biofuel feedstocks for ethanol production. Fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is one of the most serious foliar-feeding insect pests in sorghum production in the southeastern US states. Sev...

  14. Spatial arrangement, population density and legume species effect of yield of forage sorghum-legume intercropping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a stress tolerant forage crop grown extensively in the Southern High Plains. However, sorghum forage quality is lower than that of corn. Intercropping sorghum with legumes can improve quality and productivity of forage. However, tall statured sorghum limits the resources...

  15. Finger millet: An alternative crop for the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southern High Plains, dairies are expanding to take advantage of favorable climatic conditions. Currently, corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are the two major crops grown in the region to meet silage demands for the expanding dairy industry, but they have rel...

  16. Lignin modification to improve sorghum for cellulosic and thermal bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifying lignin content and composition are major targets for bioenergy feedstock improvement for both cellulosic and thermal bioenergy conversion. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is currently being developed as a dedicated bio-energy feedstock. Our goals are to improve sorghum biomass for both biochemic...

  17. Gene Flow from Cultivated Sorghum to Weedy Relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is predominately sexually self-compatible, but may vary in extent of outcrossing due to panicle morphology and proximity to other compatible individuals. Using male-sterile lines and field designs not typical of production agriculture, previous researchers have documented t...

  18. Early season cold tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperatures at 15°C or below limit germination and seedling establishment for warm season cereal crops such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) during early season planting. To better understand the genetics of early season cold tolerance in sorghum, mapping of quantitative trait loci (...

  19. Herbicidal activity of formulated sorgoleone, a natural product of sorghum root exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The allelochemical, sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudates of Sorghum bicolor, was formulated as a wettable powder [WP] and evaluated as a natural herbicide on several weed and crop species under different growth conditions. Formulated sorgoleone suppressed germination and ...

  20. Residue and long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on simulated rain infiltration and sediment transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased precipitation storage as soil water is crucial to dryland production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] on the semiarid Southern Great Plains. At the USDA-ARS, Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, TX (35 deg 11' N, 102 deg ...

  1. An overview of CERES-Sorghum as implemented in the cropping systems model version 4.5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the fifth most important grain crop globally. It stands out for its diversity of plant types, end-uses, and roles in cropping systems. This diversity presents opportunities but also complicates evaluation of production options, especially under climate uncert...

  2. Genetic and Physiological Analysis of an Irradiated Bloomless Mutant (Epicuticular Wax Mutant) of Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L).Moench.) is one of the most drought tolerant and water efficient grass species. A distinctive feature of sorghum is the profuse deposition of epicuticular wax or bloom on the abaxial side of the leaf and sheaths which has been proposed as one of the possible trait contr...

  3. Genetic and physiological analysis of an irradiated bloomless mutant (epicuticular wax mutant) of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L).Moench.) is one of the most drought tolerant and water efficient grass species. A distinctive feature of sorghum is the profuse deposition of epicuticular wax or bloom on the abaxial side of the leaf and sheaths which has been proposed as a possible trait contributing t...

  4. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  5. Registration of BN611, A/BN612, RN613 Sorghum Genetic Stocks with Stacked bmr-6 and bmr-12 Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genetic stocks, BN611, A/BN612, and RN613, with stacked brown midrib genes bmr-6 and bmr-12 were developed jointly by the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, and were rele...

  6. Development of a sweet sorghum juice clarification method in the manufacture of industrial feedstocks for value-added products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in interest of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) for small, medium, and large-scale manufacture of renewable, biobased fuels and chemicals. New fermentation organisms hold tremendous potential for the production of biobased fuels, chemical...

  7. Registration of N614, A3N615, N616, and N617 Shattercane Genetic Stocks with cytoplasmic or nuclear male-sterility and juicy or dry midribs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four shattercane [Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud) de Wet & Harlan] genetic stocks, N614, A3N615, N616, N617 (Reg. No. XXX, PI 665683 to 665686), with A3 cytoplasmic male-sterility or nuclear male-sterility gene ms3 containing either juicy (dd) or dry (DD) culms were developed joint...

  8. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) as sentinel species. These eight sites covered a range of possible exposure pathways and ecolog...

  9. 7 CFR 810.1602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... percentage of the stung kernels. (c) Foreign material. All matter that passes through an 8/64 round-hole... inoculants; or by other nontoxic substances. (f) Sieve—8/64 round-hole sieve. A metal sieve 0.032 inch thick... green, black, brown, or bicolored seed coats. Soybeans that have green seed coats will also be green...

  10. 7 CFR 810.1602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... percentage of the stung kernels. (c) Foreign material. All matter that passes through an 8/64 round-hole... inoculants; or by other nontoxic substances. (f) Sieve—8/64 round-hole sieve. A metal sieve 0.032 inch thick... green, black, brown, or bicolored seed coats. Soybeans that have green seed coats will also be green...

  11. 7 CFR 810.1602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... percentage of the stung kernels. (c) Foreign material. All matter that passes through an 8/64 round-hole... inoculants; or by other nontoxic substances. (f) Sieve—8/64 round-hole sieve. A metal sieve 0.032 inch thick... green, black, brown, or bicolored seed coats. Soybeans that have green seed coats will also be green...

  12. Characterization of a multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum that displays significant enhancement in seed number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars and germplasm display branched inflorescence or panicle, characterized by spikelets composed of a single sessile, fertile floret that develop into viable seed and one or two adjacent sterile pedicellate florets (Monoseeded [MSD] trait). Based on total nu...

  13. Characterization of novel multi-seeded (msd) mutants of sorghum for increasing grain number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tribe Andropogoneae of the Poaceae family exhibits highly branched inflorescence known as panicle or tassel. Characteristically, each spikelet in a panicle or tassel comprise of a combination of sessile/fertile and sterile florets. In sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), the existing cultivars ...

  14. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of lignin reduces the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for forage materials and feedstock for biofuels. In C4 grasses, the brown midrib phenotype has been linked to mutations to genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. For example, the Bmr6 gene in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has b...

  15. Evaluation of selected sorghum lines and hybrids for resistance to grain mold and long smut fungi in Senegal, West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain mold in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a major worldwide problem; damage caused by this fungal disease complex includes a reduction in yield (loss of seed mass), grain density, and germination. Long smut is another important fungal disease in sorghum and potential threat to food sec...

  16. Tillage and grazing effects on yields of a dryland wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining irrigation well capacity in the U.S. Southern High Plains has increased reliance on less productive and inherently riskier dryland cropping systems. No- and stubblemulch-tillage (SM) stabilize production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grown ...

  17. Genetic dissection of early season cold tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season cold tolerance during stand establishment at soil temperature of 15C (or below) is an important agronomic trait for warm season cereal crops such as sorghum. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), generally lacks cold tolerance and is adversely affected by the stress during germination,...

  18. Genetic enhancement of cold tolerance to overcome a major limitation in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season cold tolerance during stand establishment at cool soil temperature of 54ºF to 59ºF (12 ºC to 15ºC) is a key agronomic trait for warm season cereal crops such as sorghum. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]), lacks cold tolerance and is adversely affected by cool temperatures during ger...

  19. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin ...

  20. Response of sweet sorghum lines to stalk pathogens Fusarium thapsinum and Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has potential for bioenergy. It is adapted to a variety of U.S. locations and the extracted juice can be directly fermented into ethanol. However, little research on fungal stalk rots, diseases that pose serious constraints for yield and quality of juice a...

  1. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  2. General and specific combining ability of F1-hybrid sweet sorghum in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising biofuel crop that accumulates fermentable sugar in the stalk and can be directly fermented as bioethanol. Currently, most of sweet sorghum cultivars are pure lines. However, developing high-yielding hybrids has many advantages. To date there...

  3. Pathology in practice: Peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a Shubunkin goldfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) have been detected in many fish species, including goldfish, several species of snapper, coho salmon, the bicolor damselfish, and rainbow smelt. They originate from neural crest cells and generally occur along the subcutaneous nerves. A viral etiology has bee...

  4. RELEASE OF THREE SORGHUM GENETIC STOCKS WITH STACKED BROWN MIDRIB GENES bmr-6 AND bmr-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genetic stocks, BN611, A/BN612, and RN613, with stacked brown midrib genes bmr-6 and bmr-12 were developed jointly by the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska. The genetic s...

  5. Inheritance and molecular mapping of anthracnose resistance genes present in sorghum line SC112-14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) is one of the most destructive diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) affecting all aerial tissues of the plant. The most effective strategy for its control is the incorporation of resistance genes. Therefore, the anthracnose resistance response pr...

  6. Sorghum TILLING population-A community resource for sorghum improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is ranked as the fifth most important grain crop and serves as a major food staple and fodder resource for much of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The recent surge in sorghum research is driven by its tolerance to drought/heat stresses and it...

  7. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  8. Sequencing of an Anthracnose-resistant sorghum genotype and mapping of a major QTL reveal strong candidate genes for Anthracnose resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum sublineolum Henn. ex. Sacc. and Trotter 1913, is an economically damaging disease of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in hot and humid production regions of the world. Control of anthracnose is almost exclusively through the use of genet...

  9. Early and late maturing grain sorghum under variable climatic conditions in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains, variable climatic conditions prevail between and within growing seasons. As this area continues to experience drought conditions, and water resources for irrigation become more limited, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production may become a more popular choice to sus...

  10. Enhancing water use efficiency with plant feedback irrigation control: The case for sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench L.) is a well-adapted and widely grown grain crop in the U.S. Southern High Plains and other semi-arid regions. Sorghum has several advantages over corn (Zea mays L.) in this region. Sorghum planting dates are more flexible, making it easier to plant as a compan...

  11. Grain sorghum response to irrigation scheduling with the time-temperature threshold method and deficit irrigation levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies using the Time Temperature Threshold (TTT) method for irrigation scheduling have been documented for cotton, corn, and soybean. However, there are limited studies of the irrigation management of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L.) with this plant-feedback system. In this two-year study, th...

  12. Evapotranspiration of corn and forage sorghum for silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S. Southern High Plains, dairies have expanded and have increased the regional demand for forage and silage. The objectives were to measure water use and determine crop coefficients for corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) produced for silage on the Southern ...

  13. Applying genotyping (TILLING) and phenotyping analyses to elucidate gene function in a chemically induced sorghum mutant population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is ranked as the fifth most important grain crop and serves as a major food staple and fodder resource for much of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The recent surge in sorghum research is driven by its tolerance to drought / heat stresses and ...

  14. Comparison of the Use of Gas Chromotography, Spectrophotometry, and Near Infrared Spectropscopy to Quantify Prussic Acid Potential in Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been shown to contain the cyanogenic glycoside dhurrin, which is responsible for the disorder known as prussic acid poisoning in livestock. The current standard method for estimating HCN uses spectrophotometery to measure the aglycone of the dhurrin, p-hydro...

  15. Producing sorghum cellulosic feedstock for advanced biofuels production and its impact on soil physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According Energy Policy Act of 2005, the U.S. must produce 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels in 2022. Cellulosic material is considered a renewable and environmental improved alternative source for energy production. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is considered a high cellulosic biomass producti...

  16. Reactions of Sweet Corn Hybrids to Prevalent Diseases and Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 27-year summary is of University of Illinois sweet corn nurseries from 1984 to 2010, and includes the reactions of 800 hybrids to eight diseases and three herbicides. Commercially-available and pre-commercial hybrids included 547 shrunken-2 hybrids (317 yellow, 152 bi-color, and 78 white), 117 ...

  17. Tolerance of sweet sorghum to Meloidogyne incognita and crop effect on nematode population density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a sugar-producing crop that can be used for biofuel and plastics production, and the crop could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on sweet sorghum yield and sugar content has not been reported. Beca...

  18. Prairie grasses as hosts of the northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated 27 prairie grass species thought to be among those domi-nant 200 years ago in the northern Midwest as larval hosts of the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence. Maize (Zea mays L.), spring wheat (Tritcum aestivum L.), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were includ...

  19. Argonomic practices of dryland grain sorghum maturity, yield, and test weight.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or milo, is drought tolerant, is easy to incorporate into winter wheat crop rotations, has a low cost of production compared to corn, and the late date of planting provides flexibility in early-season weed control. Grain sorghum is an important crop in so...

  20. Spectral sensing of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) density using field spectrometry and radiometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., are aphid pests of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and other cereals worldwide. Greenbug and bird cherry-oat aphid infestati...

  1. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Root Dynamics of Sorghum, Clover, and Soybean Grown Under Sustainable and Conventional Agricultural Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 (ambient + 360 ppm) on root dynamics of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum), and soybean (Glycine max) produced under conventional (tillage following winter fallow) and sustainable (no-till following clover winter cover crop) agr...

  2. Potentials and Prospects of Sorghum Allelopathy in Agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The promising allelopathic potential of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] opens a fruitful area of research to exploit this phenomenon in weed control and regulation of nutrient cycle. The data suggests that sorghum allelopathy can be exploited in different cropping practices such as cover crop,...

  3. Drought-induced changes in nitrogen partitioning between cyanide and nitrate in leaves and stems in sorghum grown at elevated CO2 are age dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench] is the world’s fifth most important crop, grown for forage, grain, and as a biofuel. Fast growing and drought tolerant, it is considered a climate-change-ready crop. Two free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at Maricopa, Arizona, USA showed that, like othe...

  4. ANIMAL PERFORMANCE, CARCASS QUALITY, AND TISSUE RESIDUES WITH BEEF STEERS FED FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGES GROWN ON SOIL TREATED WITH LIQUID DIGESTED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processed sewage sludges are a renewable resource which have potential as a fertilizer material on agricultural land. Forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) silages, grown on soil treated with Pensacola liquid digested sludge (LDS) turned under prior to planting, were fed as the main i...

  5. Nitrogen rates for biomass sorghum production across tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass yields and nutrient removal across different tillage systems and nitrogen rates are not well established for forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) grown as an energy source in the Southeast. An experiment was initiated in long-term conventional and conservation tillage systems on a Comp...

  6. Biomass sorghum production and components under different irrigation/tillage systems for the southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeking renewable energy sources is necessary to reduce the US dependence on foreign oil. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) may be a reasonable alternative as an energy crop in the Southern U.S. because it is drought resistant. An experiment was developed to evaluate several types of sorghum as bioenergy...

  7. OCCURRENCE OF THE WAXY ALLELES WXA AND WXB IN WAXY SORGHUM PLANT INTRODUCTIONS AND THEIR EFFECT ON GRAIN THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The existence of two waxy alleles, wxa associated with no detectable Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS), and wxb associated with apparently inactive GBSS was recently reported in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). In this paper, the occurrence of the wxa and wxb alleles in the USDA-ARS photoperi...

  8. Mapping and candidate genes associated with saccharification yield in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potentially high-yielding hardy energy crop to produce lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification is a process by which hydrolytic enzymes break down lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Mapping and identifying genes und...

  9. Developmental and genetic analysis of a short leaf mutant, a key resource for plant architecture modification in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modification in plant architecture have been demonstrated as one of the major contributing factors that ushered in the Green Revolution resulting in achieving dramatic increases in grain yield for wheat and rice. For sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.), possible alteration in plant architecture is ...

  10. Evapotranspiration of deficit irrigated sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deficit irrigation is used commonly in regions with reduced or limited irrigation capacity to increase water use efficiency (WUE). This research measured sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) water use (ET) and yield so WUE could be determined. Two precision weighing lysimeters were used to accurate...

  11. Nitrogen Requirements for Ethanol Production from Sweet and Photoperiod Sensitive Sorghums in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorhum bicolor L.) has high water use efficiency, and is therefore widely cultivated in the Southern High Plains (SHP). Interest in sorghums for biofuel feedstock has increased recently as ethanol demand expands. Unlike grain sorghum, little data are available on N fertilizer requirements f...

  12. Genomic selection of biomass traits in a global collection of 976 sorghum accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial genetic diversity exists in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a key lignocellulosic biofuel species in the United States. The implementation of genomic, genetic tools to select and enhance current germplasm will greatly accelerate new variety development. Our objectives in this study are to add...

  13. Agronomic factors affecting dryland grain sorghum maturity and production in northeast Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important dryland crop in southeast Colorado, but expansion into northeast Colorado is thought to be limited due to the shorter growing season. The study examined whether sorghum production could be expanded into northeast Colorado. A 2-year study ...

  14. Tillage and cattle grazing effects on soil properties and grain yields in a dryland wheat-sorghum-fallow rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are grown in a dryland three-year wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation in the U.S. Southern High Plains. Cattle- grazing has been integrated into the WSF cropping system as a means to intensify dryland production when using ...

  15. Water and radiation use efficiencies in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing crop water use efficiency (WUE), the amount of biomass produced per unit water consumed, can enhance crop productivity and yield potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting water productivity among eight sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes, whi...

  16. Phosphorus Dynamics in Amended Soils During the Growing Season: II. Ligand Exchange and Mineralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted near Bushland, TX to evaluate changes in phosphorus (P) pools in soils amended with cattle manure and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) throughout a single growing season. Unfertilized checks were included for P extractability comparisons. Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)...

  17. Crop rotation affects corn, grain sorghum, and soybean yields and nitrogen recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cropping system and fertilizer N studies are essential towards understanding production potential and yield stability of corn (Zea mays L.), grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in rain-fed environments. A no-till experiment (2007-13) was conduc...

  18. Pilot plant clarification of sweet sorghum juice and evaporation of raw and clarified juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fundamental processing areas identified by industry for the commercial, large-scale manufacture of liquid biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) is the clarification of juice to make it suitable for concentration into syrup for long-term storage, year-round...

  19. Advances in plant genomics research and their application in sorghum breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), a leading cereal crop, has the important role as staple food, animal feed, construction material, and fuels in developed and developing countries. Recently, the new use of sorghum as renewable feedstocks for biofuels has been promoting more global interest in so...

  20. Interspecific Sorghum Breeding Using S. macrospermum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been improved by public and private breeding programs utilizing germplasm mostly from within the species. Different cross-incompatibility mechanisms have prevented its hybridization with species in other sections of the genus. These incompatibilities...