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Sample records for biebrza river valley

  1. The analysis of changes in oxbow lakes characteristics using remote sensing data. A case study from Biebrza River in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slapinska, Malgorzata; Chormanski, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    Biebrza River Valley is located in North-Eastern part of Poland. Biebrza is a river of intermediate size with almost natural character. River has numerous of oxbow lakes. Biebrza River Valley consists of three Basins: Upper, Middle and Lower, which are characterized by different geomorphological structure. Biebrza River Valley is an area of significant ecological importance, especially because it is one of the biggest wetlands in Europe. It consists of almost undisturbed floodplain marshes and fens. Biebrza river is also characterised by low contamination level and small human influence. Because of those characteristics Biebrza River can be treated as a reference area for other floodplains and fen ecosystems in Europe. Since oxbow lakes are the least known part of the river valleys there is a need for more research on them. The objective of this study is the characterisation of the oxbow lake water quality and indirectly oxbow lake state using remote sensing method. For achieving the objective two remote sensing datasets has been analysed: IKONOS and hyperspectral camera AISA. The utility of both data sources was compared and time variability of oxbow lakes was defined. The first part of the remote sensing analysis of oxbow lakes was held with the usage of the satellite images from IKONOS satellite from 20.07.2008 (images were taken from Biebrza National Park resources). All analysis were made in ArcGIS 10.0 and ENVI 5.0. The second part of the image analysis was conducted with the data gained from airborne hyperspectral camera AISA Eagle in August 2013. The oxbow lakes have been described on: state of the habitat, transparency, state of overgrowing, connectivity with the river, maximum area and maximum length. The general method of describing oxbow lakes is visual habitat state, related with natural succession. Three main habitat states of oxbow lakes were designated: privileged (described as 'good'), eutrophic and disappearing. The results confirm the fact that

  2. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  3. Synthetic River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  4. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  5. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  6. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  7. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  8. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  9. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  10. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  11. 4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  12. 3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  13. Red River Valley. Selected Readings. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Sixteen readings dating from 1854 through 1969, many of which are primary materials excerpted from dated Minnesota newspapers, are intended for fifth grade students. Five themes describe past and present conditions in the Red River Valley: 1) show the importance of fur trade and describe the wooden carts in the train that carried the trade; 2)…

  14. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  15. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Red River Valley archeological project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  17. Raptor ecology of Raft River Valley, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Thurow, T.L.; White, C.M.; Howard, R.P.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-09-01

    Raptor data were gathered in the 988-km/sup 2/ Raft River Valley in southcentral Idaho while conducting a tolerance study on the nesting Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) near the Department of Energy's Raft River Geothermal Site. Prior research from 1972 to 1977 on the nesting activity of the Ferruginous Hawk population provided a historical information base. These data are combined with new Ferruginous Hawk data collected between 1978 and 1980 to give a continuous 9-year breeding survey. Information on the distribution, density, and production of the other raptor species found in the study area during 1978 and 1979 is also provided.

  18. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208 Section 9.208 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.208 Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of...

  19. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River Valley. 9.216 Section 9.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley....

  20. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  1. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  2. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  3. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  4. Contrasts of atmospheric circulation and associated tropical convection between Huaihe River valley and Yangtze River valley mei-yu flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jieli; Liu, Yimin

    2012-07-01

    The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e., the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated. During the both flooding cases, although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere, the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent. During flooding in the Huaihe River valley, only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake. In contrast, during flooding in the Yangtze River valley, there are two blocking anticyclones. One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia. In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases, but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding. Furthermore, abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula. However, the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation. While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south, along with abundant rainfall.

  5. This Glorious Mud Pile (Rocky River Valley). Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabbage, Mary Ellen

    This student text focuses on the social and geological history of a river basin. In addition to background information, the text includes student worksheets for 12 field trip stops in Ohio's Rocky River Valley. Material is designed to support a full-day field trip during which students work in small groups. Also included are a geological…

  6. Rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisawa, Marie

    1989-09-01

    The 1889 paper by William Morris Davis on the "Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania" is a landmark in the history of geomorphology. It was in this manuscript that he set forth what came to be known as the Davisian system of landscape. It is important to understand that Davis' interpretation of landforms was restricted by the geologic paradigms of his day. Uniformitarianism was strongly entrenched and Darwin's theory of evolution had become popularly accepted. The concept of the landmass Appalachia and then current theories on mountain building affected the approach that Davis took in hypothesizing the origin and development of the Folded Appalachian drainage. All of these geologic precepts influenced the formulation and explanation of his theories. In his exposition he adapted, synthesized and embellished on ideas he derived from fellow geologists such as Gilbert, Dutton, Powell, and McGee. A number of the concepts he proposed in the 1889 paper quickly became the bases for geomorphic studies by others: the cycles of river erosion and landscape evolution and the peneplain (here called base level erosion). The cycle of erosion became the model for subsequent geomorphic analyses, and peneplain hunting became a popular sport for geomorphologists. Davis' hypothesis of the origin and development of Pennsylvanian drainage stimulated subsequent discussion and further hypotheses by others. In fact, many of the later theories were refinements and/or elaborations of ideas mentioned in this paper of Davis. He proposed the origin of the drainage as consequent streams, then antecedence, superposition, headward extension of divides by piracy, erosion along lines of weaknesses (faults, easily erodible beds) through resistant ridges and normal fluvial erosion. Thus, the hypotheses of regional superposition (Johnson), extended consequents (Ruedemann), consequents and local superposition (Meyerhoff and Olmstead), the utilization of structural weaknesses in development of transverse

  7. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  8. Preliminary results of hydrogeologic investigations Humboldt River Valley, Winnemucca, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1964-01-01

    Most of the ground water of economic importance and nearly all the ground water closely associated with the flow o# the Humboldt River in the. 40-mile reach near Winnemucca, Nev., are in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits. These deposits range in age from Pliocene to Recent and range in character from coarse poorly sorted fanglomerate to lacustrine strata of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The most permeable deposit consists of sand and gravel of Lake Lahontan age--the so-called medial gravel unit--which is underlain and overlain by fairly impermeable silt and clay also of Lake Lahontan age. The ultimate source of nearly all the water in the study area is precpitation within the drainage basin of the Humboldt River. Much of this water reaches the study, area as flow or underflow of the Humboldt River and as underflow from other valleys tributary to the study area. Little if any flow from the tributary streams in the study area usually reaches the Humboldt River. Most of the tributary streamflow within the study area evaporates or is transpired by vegetation, but a part percolates downward through unconsolidated deposits of the alluvial fans flanking the mountains and move downgradient as ground-water underflow toward the Humboldt River. Areas that contribute significant amounts of ground-water underflow to. the valley of the Humboldt River within the study area are (1) the valley of the Humboldt River upstream from the study area, (2) the Pole Creek-Rock Creek area, (3) Paradise Valley, and (4) Grass Valley and the northwestern slope of the Sonoma Range. The total average underflow from these areas in the period 1949-61 was about 14,000-19,000 acre-feet per year. Much of this underflow discharged into the Humboldt River within the study area and constituted a large part of the base flow of the river. Streamflow in the Humboldt River increases substantially in the early spring, principally because of runoff to the river in the reaches upstream from the study area

  9. Quaternary landscape evolution of the Turkey River Valley, northeastern Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Hudak, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkey River Valley, a major Mississippi tributary in northeastern Iowa, provides a more complete and accessible Quaternary record than the Upper Mississippi Valley. This project, using 3-dimensional reconstructions of both valley and upland deposits, revealed at least 13 important depositional, erosional, and soil-forming events. From oldest to youngest these events are: (1) deposition of pre-Illinoian till; (2) erosion of till and bedrock as the Turkey River cut down; (3) deposition of fluvial and colluvial sediments in the valley; (4) development of a Sangamon soil(s) on both the pre-Illinoian (upland) till and valley sediments; (5) truncation of the Sangamon soil(s) relatively high in the valley as bedrock entrenchment proceeded to its deepest point; (6) deposition of coarse fluvial and colluvial sediments in the valley prior to 32,000 yr. B.P.; (7) aggradation of mostly loess-derived alluvium until approximately 16,000 yr. B.P.; (8) large-scale colluviation between approximately 32,000 and 13,000 yr., B.P.; (9) major downcutting between 16,000 and 14,000 yr. B.P.; (10) aggradation of coarse to medium alluvium from approximately 14,000 to 13,000 yr. B.P.; (11) overall downcutting during several intervals of the late Wisconsinan and early Holocene; (12) aggradation of mid to late Holocene alluvium starting by 5000 yr. B.P.; (13) lateral erosion and deposition during the past 200 yr. B.P. Turkey River Valley deposits previously interpreted as pre-Illinoian are now recognized as late Wisconsinan or early Holocene, as indicated by /sup 14/C dates and molluscan fossils. The Paleozoic Plateau landform region (formerly part of the Driftless Area) is herein interpreted as a rugged, although complex, extension of the Iowan Erosion Surface.

  10. 75 FR 2885 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on...: Jan H. Reitsma, Executive Director, John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage...

  11. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2003-07-01

    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  12. Valley confinement as a factor of braided river pattern for the Platte River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotherby, Lisa M.

    2009-02-01

    The Platte River in Nebraska has evolved in the twentieth century from a predominantly braided river pattern to a mélange of meandering, wandering, anastomosed, island braided, and fully braided reaches. Identifying the factors that determine the occurrence of a fully braided main channel was the objective of this study. Aerial photography, gage flow data, ground-surveyed cross sections, bed material samples, and the results of sediment transport modeling were used to examine factors that control spatial change in main river pattern of the central Platte River. Valley confinement is identified as the determining factor of braided river in nine of eleven divisions of the central Platte River. Flow reduction and the interruption of sediment supply are identified as determining factors preventing fully braided river in the remaining two of eleven reaches. Valley confinement, the topography which limits the width of the floodplain, was initially measured as width between historical banks (predevelopment river banks). This metric was later refined to width between confining features (historical banks, remnant bars, bridge abutments, protected banks and levees). Under existing conditions, the main channel of the central Platte River is fully braided when valley confinement (width between confining features) is 600 m or less and begins to divide into the multiple channels of an anastomosed pattern when valley confinement (width between confining features) exceeds 600 m When Platte River flow is divided between two to four major anabranches, a fully braided pattern in the main channel of the main anabranch requires a more confined valley of 400 m or less. Valley confinement is demonstrated to be the dominant factor in determining river pattern in the central Platte River, although this factor is not normally considered in the continuum of channel pattern model. Conclusions from this study can be used to increase the occurrence of fully braided main channel in the central

  13. 75 FR 48359 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot Square, Woonsocket, RI 02895, Tel.: (401)...

  14. River valley construction as hazard for engineering structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postolenko, Galina

    2010-05-01

    It is common knowledge that for designing of engineering structure at river valleys it is necessary to investigate base of dam rock with a view to find out the structure disposition and nature of bottom rocks. It is important with relation to structural and economic calculation. One object of that investigation is alluvium. At present due to achievement of large success in geomorphology it is known that river valleys are constructed very complex. They have buried alluvium. Buried alluvium one can find both in plain and mountain valleys. It differs by thickness, composition and age. Since the Quaternary geological body is local, it is very important to know its chronological successive rise and the regularity of its spatial disposal. The investigative base consists in the stratigraphic and genetic research of the mellow deposit. Earlier the chronological determination depended on the hypsometric criteria . Complex of geomorphologic, biostratigraphic, lithologic, and physical data established the history of relief development and the spatial distribution of different age and genetic homogeneous relief fragments and sediment. These data show that relief and correlative sediment are formed as a result of the complex cyclical, non-one-trend geomorphologic processes at the Quaternary period. The several stages of relief and sediment development are established at the Quaternary period. They differed in process intensity, character and duration. This is the cause that the morpholithogenetic results of these stages are different. These are different sizes of valleys deepening and increasing of the relief height amplitude at the instructive stage, the different correlative sediment capacity at the constructive stage of relief development. These indexes are so significant, that river terraces of something stages turned out buried by the alluvium those stages that have the smaller alluvium capacity. Consequences of such valleys development lie in

  15. Arsenic hydrogeochemistry in an irrigated river valley - A reevaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the lower Madison River valley, Montana, are high (16 to 176 ??g/L). Previous studies hypothesized that arsenic-rich river water, applied as irrigation, was evapoconcentrated during recharge and contaminated the thin alluvial aquifer. Based on additional data collection and a reevaluation of the hydrology and geochemistry of the valley, the high arsenic concentrations in ground water are caused by a unique combination of natural hydrologic and geochemical factors, and irrigation appears to play a secondary role. The high arsenic concentrations in ground water have several causes: direct aquifer recharge by Madison River water having arsenic concentrations as high as 100 ??g/L, leaching of arsenic from Tertiary volcano-clastic sediment, and release of sorbed arsenic where redox conditions in ground water are reduced. The findings are consistent with related studies that demonstrate that arsenic is sorbed by irrigated soils in the valley. Although evaporation of applied irrigation water does not significantly increase arsenic concentrations in ground water, irrigation with arsenic-rich water raises other environmental concerns.

  16. Hydrologic conditions in the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge and Planet Valley, Arizona, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Richard P.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    2002-01-01

    During a period of sustained base-flow conditions in the Bill Williams River below Alamo Dam in west central Arizona from March to July 2000, the channel of the river through Planet Valley was dry, and the water table sloped almost due west parallel to the main slope of the flood plain. Water from the river infiltrated into the channel bottom at the head of Planet Valley, moved downgradient in the subsurface, and reappeared in the channel about 0.3 mile downstream from the east boundary of the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge. A river aquifer in hydraulic connection with the Bill Williams River was mapped from a point 6.3 miles upstream from Highway 95 to the upstream end of Planet Valley. Formations that make up the river aquifer in Planet Valley are younger alluvium, older alluviums, and fanglomerate. Total thickness of the river aquifer probably is less than 200 feet in the bedrock canyons to as much as 1,035 feet in Planet Valley. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current hydrologic conditions along the Bill Williams River, which included an inventory of wells within the river aquifer of the Colorado River and in Planet Valley, and to determine the configuration of the water table. A map shows the elevation and configuration of the water table from the east end of Planet Valley to the confluence of the Bill Williams River with Lake Havasu.

  17. Synthetic river valleys: Creating prescribed topography for form-process inquiry and river rehabilitation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Pasternack, G. B.; Wallender, W. W.

    2014-06-01

    The synthesis of artificial landforms is complementary to geomorphic analysis because it affords a reflection on both the characteristics and intrinsic formative processes of real world conditions. Moreover, the applied terminus of geomorphic theory is commonly manifested in the engineering and rehabilitation of riverine landforms where the goal is to create specific processes associated with specific morphology. To date, the synthesis of river topography has been explored outside of geomorphology through artistic renderings, computer science applications, and river rehabilitation design; while within geomorphology it has been explored using morphodynamic modeling, such as one-dimensional simulation of river reach profiles, two-dimensional simulation of river networks, and three-dimensional simulation of subreach scale river morphology. To date, no approach allows geomorphologists, engineers, or river rehabilitation practitioners to create landforms of prescribed conditions. In this paper a method for creating topography of synthetic river valleys is introduced that utilizes a theoretical framework that draws from fluvial geomorphology, computer science, and geometric modeling. Such a method would be valuable to geomorphologists in understanding form-process linkages as well as to engineers and river rehabilitation practitioners in developing design surfaces that can be rapidly iterated. The method introduced herein relies on the discretization of river valley topography into geometric elements associated with overlapping and orthogonal two-dimensional planes such as the planform, profile, and cross section that are represented by mathematical functions, termed geometric element equations. Topographic surfaces can be parameterized independently or dependently using a geomorphic covariance structure between the spatial series of geometric element equations. To illustrate the approach and overall model flexibility examples are provided that are associated with

  18. Monitoring of heavy flooding by orbital remote sensing: The example of the Doce river valley. [Doce River Valley, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Novo, E. M. L. D.; Dossantos, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of temporal LANDSAT data to study floods was verified, and the natural features responsible for this phenomenon were surveyed using the Doce river valley as a test site, because of the catastrophic (1978-1979) flood. Data from LANDSAT images and CCT's were used. Geomorphical mapping evaluated morphostructural features. Seven and nine classes of water surfaces for dry and rainy seasons were analyzed. The magnitude of the changes from preflood to postflood stage are estimated. The single Pixel program was applied to correlate the drainage basin characteristics to the grey level of LANDSAT data.

  19. D GIS for Flood Modelling in River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymkow, P.; Karpina, M.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is implementation of system architecture for collecting and analysing data as well as visualizing results for hydrodynamic modelling of flood flows in river valleys using remote sensing methods, tree-dimensional geometry of spatial objects and GPU multithread processing. The proposed solution includes: spatial data acquisition segment, data processing and transformation, mathematical modelling of flow phenomena and results visualization. Data acquisition segment was based on aerial laser scanning supplemented by images in visible range. Vector data creation was based on automatic and semiautomatic algorithms of DTM and 3D spatial features modelling. Algorithms for buildings and vegetation geometry modelling were proposed or adopted from literature. The implementation of the framework was designed as modular software using open specifications and partially reusing open source projects. The database structure for gathering and sharing vector data, including flood modelling results, was created using PostgreSQL. For the internal structure of feature classes of spatial objects in a database, the CityGML standard was used. For the hydrodynamic modelling the solutions of Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensional version was implemented. Visualization of geospatial data and flow model results was transferred to the client side application. This gave the independence from server hardware platform. A real-world case in Poland, which is a part of Widawa River valley near Wroclaw city, was selected to demonstrate the applicability of proposed system.

  20. A cleaning energy area conception on Fenhe river valley

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, C.

    1997-12-31

    Fenhe river valley has a dense population, abundant resources and coal mining, coke making, metallurgy industry concentration. Therefore, it is a seriously pollute area. The paper puts forward a concept of building up a clean energy area through process improvement and change of energy structure to realize ecological economy. The analysis shows that the indigenous method used for coking produces serious pollution, the resource cannot be used comprehensively, the regular machinery coke has a high investment in capital construction, but not much economic benefit. All are disadvantages for health and sustainable economic development. Also, this paper describes a LJ-95 machinery coke oven which has lower investment, higher product quality, less pollution, and higher economical benefit. LJ-95 coke oven will be the technical basis for construction of a clean energy area. The clean energy area concept for the Fenhe river valley consists of a coal gas pipeline network during the first phase and building electricity generation using steam turbines in the second phase.

  1. 75 FR 64741 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot Square, Woonsocket, RI 02895, Tel.: (401) 762-0250....

  2. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... on May 20, 2010 at 9 a.m. at Atria Draper Place located at 25 Hopedale Street, Hopedale, MA for the..., Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One...

  3. Assessment of the alluvial sediments in the Big Thompson River Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, Adrienne; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2000-01-01

    To obtain subsurface geologic information about the alluvium in the Big Thompson River valley, S-wave refraction data were collected along three roads that cross the valley. The refraction data were used to estimate velocities and thickness for a layered-earth model; from these models, three cross sections of the river valley were constructed. These cross sections show the thickness and the gross stratigraphy of the alluvium.

  4. Agricultural water and energy use in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiyandima, M. C.; Sow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of the productivity of irrigation water is important measuring the performance of irrigation schemes especially in water scarce areas. Equally important for performance is the energy cost of providing water for irrigation. Sahel irrigation schemes are dependent on pumping water from rivers into a network of gravity operated channels. In the Senegal River valley in Senegal the cost of pumping water and for irrigation has been estimated to be 20-25% of total rice production costs. Irrigation schemes in the valley are characterized by low water productivity. We analysed rice production, irrigation water use and energy use for supplying irrigation water at Pont Gendarme, Ndiawar and Ngallenka MCA irrigation schemes in the Senegal River valley. For the 2013 rainfall season the mean yield ranged between 6 and 8t ha-1. Dry season yield ranged between 1.7 and 6.8t ha-1. Energy use for irrigation in the Ndiawar irrigation scheme was 8kg MJ-1 and 6.4kg MJ-1 in the 2013 and 2014 rainfall seasons respectively. In 2014 (rainfall season) energy productivity of irrigation water was 8.5, 8.0 and 16.4 kg MJ-1 at Ngallenka MCA, Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme respectively. Dry season (2014) energy productivity at Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme was 3.4 and 11.2kg MJ-1 respectively. Productivity of irrigation water was similar for all schemes (0.37kg m-3 at Pont Gendarme, 0.42kg m-3 at Ngallenka MCA, and 0.41kg m-3 Ndiawar). Energy use for the supply of irrigation water in the rainfall season ranged from 403 to 1,002MJ ha-1. Dry season irrigation energy use was 589MJ ha-1 Pont Gendarme and 331MJ ha-1 at Ndiawar. Reducing water use in these schemes through better water management will result in lower production costs and increased margins for the farmers. The observations from 2013 - 2014 highlight the importance of using both water and energy productivity to assess performance of irrigation schemes.

  5. Histoplasmosis infections worldwide: thinking outside of the Ohio River valley

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Nathan C; Antinori, Spinello; Wheat, L. Joseph; Sarosi, George A.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, histoplasmosis is generally thought to occur mainly in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, and the classic map of histoplasmosis distribution reflecting this is second nature to many U.S. physicians. With the advent of the HIV pandemic reports of patients with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS came from regions of known endemicity, as well as from regions not thought to be endemic for histoplasmosis throughout the world. In addition, our expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive medications and biologics has increased the diagnosis of histoplasmosis worldwide. While our knowledge of areas in which histoplasmosis is endemic has improved, it is still incomplete. Our contention is that physicians should consider histoplasmosis with the right constellations of symptoms in any febrile patient with immune suppression, regardless of geographic location or travel history. PMID:26279969

  6. Valley heat deficit as a bulk measure of wintertime particulate air pollution in the Arve River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemel, Charles; Arduini, Gabriele; Staquet, Chantal; Largeron, Yann; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Paci, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Urbanized valleys are particularly vulnerable to particulate air pollution during the winter, when ground-based stable layers or cold-air pools persist over the valley floor. We examine whether the temporal variability of PM10 concentration in the section of the Arve River Valley between Cluses and Servoz in the French Alps can be explained by the temporal variability of the valley heat deficit, a bulk measure of atmospheric stability within the valley. We do this on the basis of temperature profile and ground-based PM10 concentration data collected during wintertime with a temporal resolution of 1 h or finer, as part of the Passy-2015 field campaign conducted around Passy in this section of valley. The valley heat deficit was highly correlated with PM10 concentration on a daily time scale. The hourly variability of PM10 concentrations was more complex and cannot be explained solely by the hourly variability of the valley heat deficit. The interplay of the diurnal cycles of emissions and local dynamics is demonstrated and a drainage mechanism for observed nocturnal dilution of near-surface PM10 concentrations is proposed.

  7. Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the central Mississippi River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdale, Roy B.; Cupples, William B.; Csontos, Ryan M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the northern Mississippi embayment the ancestral Mississippi River flowed south through the Western Lowlands and the ancestral Ohio River flowed through the Eastern Lowlands for most of the Pleistocene. Previous investigators have mapped and dated the terraces of their respective braid belts. This current research investigates the three-dimensional aspect of the Quaternary alluvium north of Memphis, Tennessee, through the interpretation of 3374 geologic well logs that are 91.4 m (300 ft) deep. The braid belts are capped by a thin silt/clay horizon (Pleistocene loess) that overlies gravelly sand, which in turn overlies sandy gravel. The base of the Pleistocene alluvium beneath the Ash Hill (27.3-24.6 ka), Melville Ridge (41.6-34.5 ka), and Dudley (63.5-50.1 ka) terraces of the Western Lowland slope southerly by 0.275 m/km and all have an average basal elevation of 38 m. Near Beedeville, Arkansas, the bases of these terraces descend 20 m across a northeast-striking down-to-the-southeast fault that coincides with the western margin of the Cambrian Reelfoot rift. The maximum depth of flow (lowest elevation of base of alluvium) occurred in the Eastern Lowlands and appears to have been the downstream continuation of the ancestral Ohio River Cache valley course in southern Illinois. In traversing from west to east in the Eastern Lowlands, the Sikeston braid belt (19.7-17.8 ka) has a basal elevation averaging 7 m, the Kennett braid belt (16.1-14.4 ka) averages 13 m, the Morehouse (12 ka) braid belt averages 24 m, and the Holocene (≤ 10 ka) Mississippi River floodplain has the highest average basal elevation at 37 m. Along this easterly traverse the base of the Quaternary alluvium rises and the age of alluvium decreases. The eastward thinning of the floodplain alluvium in the Eastern Lowlands appears to be caused by decreasing Mississippi River discharge as it transitioned from the Wisconsinan glacial maximum to the Holocene. The base of the Holocene Mississippi

  8. Debris flow occurrence and sediment persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimsley, Kyle J; Rathburn, Sara L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  9. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsley, K. J.; Rathburn, S. L.; Friedman, J. M.; Mangano, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  10. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers. PMID:27059223

  11. EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF MAJOR FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study characterizes the atmospheric emissions from five major coal-fired power plant units in the Ohio River Valley between Portsmouth, Ohio, and Louisville, Kentucky. This characterization provides data that are representative of the boiler fuel emission control combination...

  12. [Ethnic dimension to migration in the Senegal river valley].

    PubMed

    Traore, S

    1993-08-01

    Studies of the factors determining migratory patterns in the Senegal River Valley usually stress the importance of economic factors related to colonial domination. But when cultural factors and the social relations governing them are examined in a comparative study of ethnic groups, distinct population subgroups may be revealed to have differential migratory patterns. The Soninka and the Poular, two groups highly affected by migration, were chosen for an analysis of the impact of specific historical experiences on migratory behavior. A historical analysis of colonial archives and anthropological and historical monographs and the 1982-83 "Survey of Migration in the Valley of the Senegal River" provided data. The survey indicated that Soninka and Poular migratory patterns differed from each other, but that both differed from the migratory patterns of all other ethnic groups in the region. Soninka migration is international and oriented primarily toward Europe. It has recently become more intense than that of the poular. The determinants of migration in the two groups appear related more to the structure of households than to lack of educational and health facilities or even of food at the village level. Pastoral life and its associated beliefs and religious ideology appear to have been the principal determinants of precolonial movement among the Poular, while Soninka migration responded more to competition over control of manpower. Itinerant commercial activity was coupled with use of slave labor to ensure food production. But the suppression of slavery and crises of subsistence aggravated by colonial policy provoked ever more distant migration, which found a focus in the French demand for labor after World War II. Migration as an alternative does not appear to have been as significant for the Poular until more recently, when subsistence agriculture and the sale of animals were no longer sufficient to cover monetary needs. Male migration among the Soninka is a

  13. Community Survey Results for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Completion Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Stewart, Susan C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a summary of results for the survey of residents of communities adjacent to Rappahannock River Valley NWR conducted from the spring through the summer in 2006. This research was commissioned by the Northeast Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in support of the Rappahannock River Valley NWR CCP and conducted by the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch (PASA) of the U.S. Geological Survey/Fort Collins Science Center.

  14. Geology and ground water in Russian River Valley areas and in Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys, Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardwell, G.T.

    1965-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water in seven valley areas along the course of the Russian River in Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, Calif., and in three valleys in the upper drainage reach of the Eel River in Mendocino County. Except for the westward-trending lower Russian River valley, the remaining valley areas along the Russian River (Healdsburg, Alexander, Cloverdale, Sanel, Ukiah, and Potter Valleys) lie in northwest-trending structurally controlled depressions formed in marine rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. The principal aquifer in all the valleys is the alluvium of Recent age, which includes highly permeable channel deposits of gravel and sand. Water for domestic, irrigation, industrial, and other uses is developed by (1) direct diversion from the Russian River and its tributaries, (2) withdrawal of ground water and river water from shallow wells near the river, and (3) withdrawals of ground water from wells in alluvial deposits at varying distances from the river. Surface water in the Russian River and most tributaries is of good chemical quality. The water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type and contains 75,200 parts per million of dissolved solids. Ground water is also of good chemical quality throughout most of the drainage basin, but the concentration of dissolved solids (100-300 parts per million) is somewhat higher than that in the surface water. Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys are in central and northern Mendocino County in the drainage basin of the northwestward flowing Eel River. In Round Valley the alluvium of Recent age yields water of good chemical quality in large quantities. Yields are lower and the chemical quality poorer in Laytonville Valley. Ground water in Little Lake Valley is relatively undeveloped. Selected descriptions of wells, drillers' logs, chemical analyses, and hydrographs showing water-level fluctuations are included in the report. Accompanying maps show the

  15. Geoindicators for river and river-valley monitoring in the humid tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Geoindicators for rivers and river valleys in the humid tropics are suggested to indicate environmental change during periods of up to a century. Geoindicators suggested for upland areas of supply are rainfall-runoff relations, rates of soil movement and slope failure, and analyses of drainage density. Data applicable to sediment storage in lowlands are rates of sediment deposition as shown by monuments, short-lived radioisotopes, and pollen. Discharges of water, sediment, and dissolved solids are basic geoindicators for large streams, especially when analyses include flood frequency, stage-discharge relations, flow duration, sediment-rating curves, and comparisons of dissolved loads to sediment loads. The utility of geoindicators in the humid tropics may be greatest if observation sites are selected with a network design to permit comparisons of sites with similar conditions of climate and drainage-basin characteristics.

  16. Lithologic Heterogeneity and Variable Valley Width in the Buffalo River Watershed, AR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, S. L.; Keen-Zebert, A.

    2014-12-01

    Lithologic heterogeneity across catchments is thought to be a key control on the style of incision, whether dominated by vertical or lateral processes, but little field evidence is available to support the claims. Map and field observations from the Buffalo National River (BNR) indicate that valley width is related to variation in lithology along the length of the river. The BNR is a gravel-mantled, ingrown meandering, bedrock river that incises through a sequence of Pennsylvanian, Mississippian, and Ordovician carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks. Using GIS, valley width was measured at 250 m intervals along the entire length of the river through two sequences of limestone and sandstone reaches that represent the dominant lithologies of the catchment. Preliminary results show measurable and statistically significant differences in valley width between limestone and sandstone reaches. Where limestone strata is exposed at river level the mean width is ~ 360 m and is highly variable with a standard deviation of 227 m. The mean width in sandstone strata is ~240 m with a standard deviation of 88 m. At each transition from limestone to sandstone there is a greater than 20% decrease in valley width downstream, with no visible change in channel width at map scales. It is possible the atypical pattern in valley width in the BNR is due to variation in lithologic resistance. These results support the assumption that lithologic heterogeneity exerts control on stream valley evolution.

  17. Holocene river dynamics in Northland, New Zealand: The influence of valley floor confinement on floodplain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. M.; Fuller, I. C.; Holt, K. A.; Litchfield, N. J.; Macklin, M. G.

    2013-11-01

    Valley floor mapping, sedimentology, and 14C-dating have been used to reconstruct the fluvial history at eight floodplain sites spread throughout Northland, a region removed from the main areas of tectonic and volcanic activity in New Zealand. We present a probability-based record of Holocene river behaviour for Northland using 14C-dated Holocene fluvial deposits and compare this with independent palaeoclimate proxy records from the North Island. Holocene floodplain evolution and fluvial behaviour have been conditioned by the degree of valley-floor confinement. In the most and least confined valley settings, Holocene floodplain evolution has involved the development of a single floodplain surface. At partly confined sites, the river terrace and floodplain geomorphology are more complex. Region-wide progressive floodplain alluviation through the mid to late Holocene and a period of increased river activity between 3500 and 2800 cal. YBP in response to climatically driven increases in sediment supply was followed by a period of valley floor incision and terrace formation beginning after 1900 cal. YBP. In partly confined valley settings, this was followed by the aggradation of a lower Holocene floodplain surface, with rapid rates of vertical accretion in response to post-settlement catchment disturbance. The results of this study indicate that valley floor confinement has played a major role in controlling Northland Holocene river floodplain development, producing a continuum of floodplain and river terrace landforms in response to climatically and anthropogenically driven variations in sediment flux.

  18. The evolution of the Shiwanghe River valley in response to the Yellow River incision in the Hukou area, Shaanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wei-Li; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Yu-Jie; Zhuang, Mao-Guo; Fu, Xiao; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Tributary response to mainstream incision is an important landscape evolution process. The objective of this study is to examine tributary valley evolution in response to mainstream incision. The Shiwanghe River, a tributary of the Yellow River in the Hukou area, was chosen for a case study. The terraces and knickpoints of the Shiwanghe River were investigated and correlated to those of the mainstream. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) was applied to date fluvial terraces. Longitudinal profiles of river and terraces were used to analyze valley evolution. The terrace sequence of the Shiwanghe River near their confluence is almost identical to the Yellow River terraces at the Hukou area. This suggests that terrace formations of the tributary and the mainstream are synchronous, and influenced by similar factors. But the formation age of the same tributary terrace varies from downstream to the upper reaches of the river valley. For such terraces, their formation should be controlled by knickpoint migration. A sudden drop in base-level caused by the Yellow River incision would trigger the formation of a knickpoint in the tributary. A new terrace would be formed as the knickpoint propagated upstream throughout the tributary valley. Due to the different erodibility of bedrock, a set of interbedded sandstone and shale, the major knickpoint would disassemble into a cluster of small ones during its propagation. The age of terrace formation with various valley segments depends on knickpoint migration rate and distance from the confluence. Vertical incision of the Yellow River results in knickpoint recession of its tributaries. The migration rate of knickpoints was affected by climate, lithologic variation, and, to some extent, structural control.

  19. Stratigraphy of the Mississippi-Alabama shelf and the Mobile River incised-valley system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Balson, Peter S.; Flocks, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The Holocene incised-valley fill (estuarine facies) underlying Mobile Buy fit well into the conceptual facies model of a microtidal wave-dominated estuary. The model does not fit as well, however, with the rapidly transgressed shelf portion of the incised valley. The down dip section does not contain a clearly identifiable (from seismic profiles) estuarine facies; the valley fill is primarily fluvial and is overlain by marine shoals. In the Mobile River incised valley, the distal portion of the valley was rapidly drowned, allowing the thin estuarine facies to be reworked. The proximal portion was drowned more slowly, leaving the estuarine facies intact. Thus, the single incised valley contains two very different types of fill.

  20. Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Berri, Dulcy A.; Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    The Wind River Valley, on the west slope of the Cascade Range, is a northwest-trending drainage that joins the Columbia River near Carson, Washington. The region has been heavily dissected by fluvial and glacial erosion. Ridges have sharp crests and deep subsidiary valleys typical of a mature topography, with a total relief of as much as 900 m. The region is vegetated by fir and hemlock, as well as dense, brushy ground-cover and undergrowth. The lower 8 km of the valley is privately owned and moderately populated. The upper reaches lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and include several campgrounds and day parks, the Carson National Fish Hatchery, and the Wind River Ranger Station and Wind River Nursery of the US Forest Service. Logging activity is light due to the rugged terrain, and consequently, most valley slopes are not accessible by vehicle. The realization that a potential for significant geothermal resources exists in the Wind River area was brought about by earlier exploration activities. Geologic mapping and interpretation was needed to facilitate further exploration of the resource by providing a knowledge of possible geologic controls on the geothermal system. This report presents the detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource.

  1. Geological and geothermal investigation of the lower Wind River valley, southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Berri, D.A.; Korosec, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley is presented with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource. The lower Wind River drainage consists primarily of the Ohanapecosh Formation, an Oligocene unit that is recognized across the entire southern Washington Cascade Range. The formation is at least 300 m thick in the Wind River valley area. It consists largely of volcaniclastic sediments, with minor massive pyroclastic flows, volcanic breccias and lava flows. Low grade zeolite facies metamorphism during the Miocene led to formation of hydrothermal minerals in Ohanapecosh strata. Metamorphism probably occurred at less than 180{sup 0}C.

  2. Evaluation of reforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    Only about 2.8 million ha of an estimated original 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests still exist in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) of the United States. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and state agencies initiated reforestation efforts in the late 1980s to improve wildlife habitat. We surveyed restorationists responsible for reforestation in the LMAV to determine the magnitude of past and future efforts and to identify major limiting factors. Over the past 10 years, 77,698 ha have been reforested by the agencies represented in our survey and an additional 89,009 ha are targeted in the next 5 years. Oaks are the most commonly planted species and bare-root seedlings are the most commonly used planting stock. Problems with seedling availability may increase the diversity of plantings in the future. Reforestation in the LMAV is based upon principles of landscape ecology; however, local problems such as herbivory, drought, and flooding often limit success. Broad-scale hydrologic restoration is needed to fully restore the structural and functional attributes of these systems, but because of drastic and widespread hydrologic alterations and socioeconomic constraints, this goal is generally not realistic. Local hydrologic restoration and creation of specific habitat features needed by some wildlife and fish species warrant attention. More extensive analyses of plantings are needed to evaluate functional success. The Wetland Reserve Program is a positive development, but policies that provide additional financial incentives to landowners for reforestation efforts should be seriously considered.

  3. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. Results 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Conclusion Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations. PMID:24079706

  4. Using a novel flood prediction model and GIS automation to measure the valley and channel morphology of large river networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional methods for measuring river valley and channel morphology require intensive ground-based surveys which are often expensive, time consuming, and logistically difficult to implement. The number of surveys required to assess the hydrogeomorphic structure of large river n...

  5. [Dynamics and influence width of dry valley landscape boundary in upper reaches of Minjiang River].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao-Ping; Chang, Yu; Yang, Meng; Hu, Yuan-Man; Bu, Ren-Cang; He, Xing-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    Based on RS and GIS techniques, the distribution extent of the dry valley in upper reaches of Minjiang River was determined, with the dynamics and influence width of its landscape boundary analyzed. The results indicated that the dry valley had a gradually expanded distribution, and the total length of its boundary was increased. The boundary complexity increased from 1974 to 1995 but decreased from 1995 to 2000, and the upper boundary of the dry valley ascended rapidly along mountain slope. The uppermost elevation of the dry valley boundary was 3128 m in 1974, 3167 m in 1995, and 3181 m in 2000. In the last 26 years, the upper boundary of the dry valley ascended 53 m in total, being about 2 m per year. The influence width of the dry valley boundary was 800 m, which could be regarded as a buffer zone to disturbances. The area between 800-1200 m from the dry valley boundary to exterior was a transition zone intensely influenced by the dry valley and its surrounding landscape, which should be addressed in the restoration of the dry valley. PMID:18062298

  6. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  7. Recycling of Pleistocene valley fills dominates 125 ka of sediment flux, upper Indus River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munack, Henry; Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Rivers draining the semiarid Transhimalayan Ranges along the western Tibetan Plateau margin underwent alternating phases of massive valley infill and incision in Pleistocene times. The imprints of these cut-and-fill cycles on long-term sediment fluxes have remained largely elusive. We investigate the timing and geomorphic consequences of headward incision of the Zanskar River, which taps the vast More Plains valley fill that currently impedes drainage of the endorheic high-altitude basins of Tso Kar and Tso Moriri. In situ 10Be exposure dating and topographic analyses indicate that a phase of valley infill gave way to net dissection of the >250-m thick sedimentary stacks ˜125 ka ago, i.e. during the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Rivers eroded >14.7 km3 of sediment from the Zanskar headwaters since then, fashioning specific sediment yields that surpass 10Be-derived denudation rates from neighbouring catchments by factors of two to ten. We conclude that recycling of Pleistocene valley fills has provided Transhimalayan headwater rivers with more sediment than bedrock denudation, at least since the beginning of the last glacial cycle. This protracted liberation of sediment stored in thick valley fills could bias rate estimates of current sediment loads and long-term bedrock denudation.

  8. Geomorphological record of transformations of upland river valley bottoms at variable rate of gully erosion (case study: Wieprz River valley in Roztocze)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociuba, Waldemar

    2014-06-01

    In the upland geosystems of the moderate climate zone, any change in the conditions of functioning of a catchment causes a response of the system involving variable dynamics of fluvial processes (Gregory, Walling 1973; Schumm 1977, 1981; Kostrzewski, Szpikowski 2003; Świeca, Kociuba 2007). In the conditions of low anthropopressure, the direction and intensity of the processes modelling the valley bottom are determined by environmental factors, i.e. the geology and lithology of sediments, and land relief, and climate-driven factors, i.e. precipitation and groundwater supply determining water and sediment discharge rate (Froehlich 1982; Kostrzewski et al. 1994; Krzemień 1999; Dearing, Jones 2003, Meybeck et al. 2003; Kociuba et al. 2003; Świeca, Kociuba 2007; Rodzik et al. 2008). In the conditions of strong anthropopressure, the processes of transformation of the valley bottom can be largely accelerated due to disturbances in the stability of the catchment’s environmental conditions. Their geomorphological ef fects are manifested in changes in the channel shape (in the plan and cross profile), and in the modelling of the zone outside the channel, as a result of both flood and delluvial sediment deposition, particularly in the mouth zones of dry valleys and erosional dissections (Bork 1989; Rodzik et al. 2008; Brown 2009). Transformations of valley landforms resulting from changes in natural conditions and anthropopressure on the valley system can be traced based on the example of the meridional part of the Roztocze section of the Wieprz River valley (Fig. 1) - a typical medium-sized upland river of the moderate climate zone (Rodzik et al. 2008). The modern relief of the alluvial plain of the Roztocze fragment of the Wieprz River valley results from complex morphogenetic processes (Kociuba, Brzezińska-Wójcik 2002; Kociuba, Superson 2004). The primary morphostructural features developed with the contribution of tectonic movements in the Neogene and Early

  9. Types of river valleys as a criterion for estimation of the territory geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opekunova, Marina; Vyrkin, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    The Oka plateau occupies an intermediate position between large morphostructures of Southern Siberia. It is a unique object, where the features of relief development of the contiguous areas were reflected. The structure of the plateau also includes the Ilchir-Kitoi depression, located in the southeast, and the Oka depression, which lies in the north-west. The river network is characterized by deeply incised valleys, the relief of which bears traces of glacial activity, manifestations of Cenozoic volcanism, and active neotectonic movements. These factors also determine a wide variability in distribution of the types of river valleys: from the valleys with the hilly-moraine topography to the broad-floodplain sections of valleys with an instrativ floodplain-terrace complex and incised type of channel when the river crosses basalt fields. Thus, the antecedent Oka river valley of ancient formation was actively affected by volcanism and glaciation in Late Cenozoic. Lava flows enabled the formation of the incised and adapted types of channels within the south-western part of the Oka depression. Large areas of distribution of basalts on the left-bank part of the Oka river basin, occupying mainly the watershed positions, contributed to the formation of a certain type of longitudinal profiles of channels, characterized by a shallow form in the upper reaches (in the field of basalts development) and by a steep form in the middle and lower sections of the valleys. The distribution of fluvioglacial landforms and moraine ridges descending into the Oka valley along the tributaries (Sentsa, Gargan and others), and the presence of facies transitions from fluvioglacial and glacial to alluvial deposits determine the specific type of river valleys, developed under the conditions of the glacial relief formation. Due to the uplift of the Kropotkin range, the river erosion within the plateau is relatively slowed down in comparison with the surrounding mountains, which is reflected in the

  10. PCB cleanup battle wages on in the Hudson River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.B.

    1990-07-01

    The Hudson River between Troy, NY and Fort Edward, NY has sediments contaminated with polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). The author discusses the legal red tape and public opinion problems associated with the clean up of this river.

  11. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  12. Irrigation related arsenic contamination of a thin, alluvial aquifer, Madison River Valley, Montana, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Sonderegger, J.L. ); Ohguchi, Takeshi )

    1988-04-01

    The arsenic concentration in 13 water samples from wells in the thin, alluvial aquifer of the Madison River Valley, Montana, U.S.A. ranged from 26 to 150 {mu}g/l. The Madison River, which originates in Yellowstone National Park, has a mean arsenic concentration of 51 {mu}g/l ({sigma} = 26 {mu}g/l), based upon very limited sampling in the study area during the main irrigation period. Groundwater arsenic concentration increases down the valley can be best correlated with the intensity of ditch irrigation in this semiarid area. No other sources of dissolved arsenic as concentrated as that of the river water have been identified. Evaporative concentration of river-derived irrigation water is believed to have been the overwhelming factor in the contamination of this shallow aquifer.

  13. Quality of the Arkansas River and irrigation-return flows in the lower Arkansas River Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Doug

    1985-01-01

    Irrigation-return flows in the lower Arkansas River valley of Colorado were investigated using one-time data at 59 sites, monthly data at 4 sites, and intensive data in a small irrigated area. Specific conductance of return flows increased downstream, paralleling specific conductance of irrigation water. During July 1977, Arkansas River streamflow below Manzanola was mostly irrigation-return flow. A similar situation existed during periods of little precipitation in the early and late irrigation seasons during 1974 to 1978. Irrigation-return flows had a large effect on Arkansas River water quality during these times. (USGS)

  14. Effects of hydrologic infrastructure on flow regimes of California's Central Valley rivers: Implications for fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Bauer, Marissa L.

    2010-01-01

    Alteration of natural flow regimes is generally acknowledged to have negative effects on native biota; however, methods for defining ecologically appropriate flow regimes in managed river systems are only beginning to be developed. Understanding how past and present water management has affected rivers is an important part of developing such tools. In this paper, we evaluate how existing hydrologic infrastructure and management affect streamflow characteristics of rivers in the Central Valley, California and discuss those characteristics in the context of habitat requirements of native and alien fishes. We evaluated the effects of water management by comparing observed discharges with estimated discharges assuming no water management ("full natural runoff"). Rivers in the Sacramento River drainage were characterized by reduced winter–spring discharges and augmented discharges in other months. Rivers in the San Joaquin River drainage were characterized by reduced discharges in all months but particularly in winter and spring. Two largely unaltered streams had hydrographs similar to those based on full natural runoff of the regulated rivers. The reduced discharges in the San Joaquin River drainage streams are favourable for spawning of many alien species, which is consistent with observed patterns of fish distribution and abundance in the Central Valley. However, other factors, such as water temperature, are also important to the relative success of native and alien resident fishes. As water management changes in response to climate change and societal demands, interdisciplinary programs of research and monitoring will be essential for anticipating effects on fishes and to avoid unanticipated ecological outcomes.

  15. Holocene climatic events recorded in palaeoflood slackwater deposits along the middle Yiluohe River valley, middle Yellow River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xueru; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Guo, Yongqiang; Hu, Guiming

    2016-06-01

    Palaeohydrological investigations were carried out in the middle reaches of the Yiluohe River, a major tributary in the lower-middle Yellow River basin. Typical palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) were identified in the Holocene pedostratigraphy on the cliffy river banks. Analytical results, including magnetic susceptibility and grain-size distribution data, indicated that these SWDs were deposited from the suspended sediment load in flood water. These SWDs are different from eolian loess, soils and aeolian sands in the riverbank profile. They recorded several episodes of extraordinary palaeoflood events. In the Longmenxia reaches of the Yihe River valley, these flood events were dated at 3100-3000 a, 1800-1700 a, 770-610 a, and 420-340 a using the optically stimulated luminescence method in combination with the pedostratigraphic correlations. In the Longhutan reaches of the Luohe River valley, the palaeoflood events were dated at 1975-1466 a, i.e., from the Han to Wei dynasties (AD 25-534), during which the capital city on the river banks was flooded many times, as recorded in the literature. These extraordinary flood events are well correlated chronologically with the known Holocene climatic events that occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, the monsoonal climate was highly variable with both floods and droughts occurring frequently during these episodes. These results are important for understanding the response of river systems in eastern Asia to global changes.

  16. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in Sonoma County, California. (1) Starting point Healdsburg map... miles generally north along Santa Rosa Avenue, which becomes Mendocino Avenue, to its intersection with... Mendocino Avenue, section 11, T7N, R8W, on the Santa Rosa map. (21) Proceed 2.5 miles straight...

  17. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in Sonoma County, California. (1) Starting point Healdsburg map... miles generally north along Santa Rosa Avenue, which becomes Mendocino Avenue, to its intersection with... Mendocino Avenue, section 11, T7N, R8W, on the Santa Rosa map. (21) Proceed 2.5 miles straight...

  18. The Use of Radar to Improve Rainfall Estimation over the Tennessee and San Joaquin River Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Felix, Mariana; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the collaborative radar rainfall project between the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Von Braun Center for Science & Innovation (VCSI), NASA MSFC and UAHuntsville. Two systems were used in this project, Advanced Radar for Meteorological & Operational Research (ARMOR) Rainfall Estimation Processing System (AREPS), a demonstration project of real-time radar rainfall using a research radar and NEXRAD Rainfall Estimation Processing System (NREPS). The objectives, methodology, some results and validation, operational experience and lessons learned are reviewed. The presentation. Another project that is using radar to improve rainfall estimations is in California, specifically the San Joaquin River Valley. This is part of a overall project to develop a integrated tool to assist water management within the San Joaquin River Valley. This involves integrating several components: (1) Radar precipitation estimates, (2) Distributed hydro model, (3) Snowfall measurements and Surface temperature / moisture measurements. NREPS was selected to provide precipitation component.

  19. 78 FR 1832 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Id; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Id; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project Correction In notice document 2012-29836 appearing on pages 73976-73978 in the issue of Wednesday,...

  20. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... description of the features of the viticultural area that affect viticulture, such as climate, geology, soils..., in the Federal Register (73 FR 49123) regarding the proposed expansion of the Russian River Valley....) ATF-159, published in the Federal Register (48 FR 48812) on October 21, 1983. It was expanded by...

  1. TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS ON FINE PARTICLES IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particles were collected from May, 1980 to Dec., 1981 at 3 sampling sites in the Ohio River Valley (ORV). The collected samples were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for elemental concentrations and their masses determined by beta gauging. The XRF data and associa...

  2. First record of Diatraea tabernella in the Cauca River Valley of Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diatraea tabernella (Dyar) is first recorded in the Cauca River Valley of Colombia. Even though information on its status has been unknown for almost a century in Colombia, its recent register creates concern about its potential economic importance in virtue of its abundance and distribution in the ...

  3. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  4. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... viticultural area are 12 U.S.G.S. topographic maps in the scale 1:250,000, as follows: (1) Paducah NJ 16-7... River and the Ohio River (Paducah map). (2) The boundary follows the Illinois-Indiana State line... in a straight line northwesterly to the beginning point (Paducah map). (d) Transition period. A...

  5. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... viticultural area are 12 U.S.G.S. topographic maps in the scale 1:250,000, as follows: (1) Paducah NJ 16-7... River and the Ohio River (Paducah map). (2) The boundary follows the Illinois-Indiana State line... in a straight line northwesterly to the beginning point (Paducah map). (d) Transition period. A...

  6. Accounting System for Water Use by Vegetation in the Lower Colorado River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado River is the principal source of water in the valley of the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and the international boundary with Mexico (fig. 1). Agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power genera-tion, and recreation are the primary uses of river water in the valley. Most of the consumptive use of water from the river occurs downstream from Davis Dam, where water is diverted to irrigate crops along the river or is exported to interior regions of California and Arizona. Most of the agricultural areas are on the alluvium of the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the alluvial terraces has been cultivated. River water is consumed mainly by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain. Crops were grown on 70.3 percent of the vegetated area classified by using 1984 digital image satellite data. Phreatophytes, natural vege-tation that obtain water from the alluvial aquifer, covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped from the river. In some areas, water is pumped from wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the river.

  7. Characteristics of a Recent and Prehistoric Landslides in the Pine River Valley, BC: a Mapping Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijenk, R.; Geertsema, M.; Miller, B.; de Jong, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Spreads and other low gradient landslides are common in glacial lake sediments in north eastern British Columbia. Both pre and post glacial lake sediments, largely derived from shale bedrock are susceptible to low-gradient landslides. Bank erosion by rivers and streams and high pore pressures, have contributed to the landslides. We used LiDAR for mapping the extent of the glaciolacustrine sediments and map and characterise landslides in the Pine River valley, near Chetwynd, British Columbia. We included metrics such as travel angle, length, area, and elevation to distinguish rotational and translational landslides. We mapped 45 landslides in the Pine River valley distinguishing between rotational and translational landslides. The rotational landslides commonly have a smaller area and smaller travel length than translational landslides. Most rotational slides involved overlying alluvial fans, while most translational slides involved terraces.

  8. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  9. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... viticultural area are 12 U.S.G.S. topographic maps in the scale 1:250,000, as follows: (1) Paducah NJ 16-7... River (Paducah map). (2) The boundary follows the Illinois-Indiana State line northerly (across the... map). (21) The boundary proceeds in a straight line northwesterly to the beginning point (Paducah map)....

  10. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... viticultural area are 12 U.S.G.S. topographic maps in the scale 1:250,000, as follows: (1) Paducah NJ 16-7... River (Paducah map). (2) The boundary follows the Illinois-Indiana State line northerly (across the... map). (21) The boundary proceeds in a straight line northwesterly to the beginning point (Paducah map)....

  11. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... viticultural area are 12 U.S.G.S. topographic maps in the scale 1:250,000, as follows: (1) Paducah NJ 16-7... River (Paducah map). (2) The boundary follows the Illinois-Indiana State line northerly (across the... map). (21) The boundary proceeds in a straight line northwesterly to the beginning point (Paducah map)....

  12. Ground-water flow and simulated effects of development in Paradise Valley, a basin tributary to the Humboldt River in Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, D.E.; Herman, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    A computer model was used to characterize ground-water flow in Paradise Valley, Nevada, and to evaluate probable long-term effects of five hypothetical development scenarios. One finding of the study is that concentrating pumping at the south end of Paradise Valley may increase underflow from the adjacent Humboldt River valley, and might affect flow in the river.

  13. Native American prehistory of the middle Savannah River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Sassaman, K.E.; Brooks, M.J.; Hanson, G.T.; Anderson, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Archaeological investigations on the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina span 17 years and continue today through a cooperative agreement between DOE and the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology (SCIAA), University of South Carolina. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of SCIAA has been and continues to be the sole archaeological consultant for DOE-SRS. This report documents technical aspects of all prehistoric archaeological research conducted by the SRARP between 1973 and 1987. Further, this report provides interpretative contexts for archaeological resources as a basis for an archaeological resource plan reported elsewhere (SRARP 1989), and as a comprehensive statement of our current understanding of Native American prehistory. 400 refs., 130 figs., 39 tabs.

  14. Geochemical processes in the Onyx River, Wright Valley, Antarctica: Major ions, nutrients, trace metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William J.; Stage, Brian R.; Preston, Adam; Wagers, Shannon; Shacat, Joseph; Newell, Silvia

    2005-02-01

    We present data on major ions, nutrients and trace metals in an Antarctic stream. The Onyx River is located in Wright Valley (77-32 S; 161-34 E), one of a group of ancient river and glacier-carved landforms that comprise the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The river is more than 30 km long and is the largest of the glacial meltwater streams that characterize this relatively ice-free region near the Ross Sea. The complete absence of rainfall in the region and the usually small contributions of glacially derived tributaries to the main channel make this a comparatively simple system for geochemical investigation. Moreover, the lack of human impacts, past or present, provides an increasingly rare window onto a pristine aquatic system. For all major ions and silica, we observe increasing concentrations with distance from Lake Brownworth down to the recording weir near Lake Vanda. Chemical weathering rates are unexpectedly high and may be related to the rapid dissolution of ancient carbonate deposits and to the severe physical weathering associated with the harsh Antarctic winter. Of the nutrients, nitrate and dissolved reactive phosphate appear to have quite different sources. Nitrate is enriched in waters near the Lower Wright Glacier and may ultimately be derived from stratospheric sources; while phosphate is likely to be the product of chemical weathering of valley rocks and soils. We confirm the work of earlier investigations regarding the importance of the Boulder Pavement as a nutrient sink. Dissolved Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Cd are present at nanomolar levels and, in all cases, the concentrations of these metals are lower than in average world river water. We hypothesize that metal uptake and exchange with particulate phases along the course of the river may serve as a buffer for the dissolved load. Concurrent study of these three solute classes points out significant differences in the mechanisms and sites of their removal from the Onyx River.

  15. Sublacustrine river valley in the shelf zone of the Black Sea parallel to the Bulgarian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisinger, A.; Aslanian, S.; Beigelbeck, R.; Heinitz, W.-D.

    2009-04-01

    The considered sublacustrine river valley is situated in the shelf zone of the Black Sea. It runs in parallel to the Bulgarian coast, was formed in the time period of the Younger Dryas (Preisinger et al., 2005), and features an inclination of about 0.5 m/km. An about 200 km long sediment wall separates the approximately 10 km broad river valley from the outside shelf zone. This wall was generated during the Older Dryas until the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Its shape was formed by transportation of water and sediment from the Strait of Kerch by a circulating rim current in the Black Sea and water as well as sediment flow of the Danube in direction to the Bosporus. New investigations of the sediments of this river valley were performed by utilizing a Sediment Echo Sounder (SES 2000). This Echo Sounder is a parametric sub-bottom profiler enabling a high resolution sub-bottom analyses. It is capable of penetrating sea beds up to more than 50 m of water depth. The received echo data are real-time processed. The signal amplitudes are valuated in context to a logarithmic scale and graphically visualized by means of a colorized echogram utilizing false colours ranging from red for a high to blue representing a low signal (W.-D. Heinitz et al., 1998). The highest signal (red) is given by the acoustic impedance of the boundary between sea water and river sediment. The echograms of the river valley depict spatially isolated (red) high-signal peaks, which are periodically repeated in vertical direction between the sediment surface and the bottom of the valley. The number of these high-signal parts increase with an increasing valley depth. Studying of the distribution of these peaks allows to draw conclusions regarding the content and composition of the sediment. This prediction of the sediment composition obtained by means of the SES 2000 was successfully verified by analyzing a gravity core taken near Nos Maslen (at 44 m water depth) with a particular focus on the water

  16. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Baker, R.G.; Nations, B.K.; Benn, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ?? 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan. ?? 1990.

  17. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Baker, Richard G.; Nations, Brenda K.; Benn, David W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ± 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan.

  18. Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.N.

    1988-07-01

    Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

  19. Numerical modeling of tectonically driven river dynamics and deposition in an upland incised valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Valeria; Salles, Tristan; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Billi, Paolo; Dallanave, Edoardo; Duclaux, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    Within upstream reaches of incised valleys, fluvial sedimentation occurs where it is controlled by interaction between climate and tectonics. This study focuses on a Plio-Pleistocene fluvial paleovalley, which drained the northeastern margin of Siena basin (northern Apennines, Italy). Valley filling resulted from the interaction between river drainage and active normal faults striking perpendicular and parallel to the main valley. Through numerical modeling, this study aims to refine temporal and spatial mesoscale deposit variations, which highlight the upset of fluvial architectures derived from the interplay between the river system and uplift. Geomorphological and hydrodynamic parameter calibration was performed integrating field studies with paleohydraulic and paleomagnetic data. The numerical model simulates the evolution of valley formation with the development of (i) a pre-tectonic steady state system, followed by (ii) a syntectonic aggradation and avulsion phase, and (iii) a post-tectonic relaxation phase. The syntectonic phase shows fine sediment back-filling upstream of the uplifted area and coarse sediment down-filling downstream of the upwarping. The recorded aggradations are asynchronous with upstream deposition preceding downstream deposition.

  20. Climatic and morphological controls on post-glacial lake and river valley evolution in the Weichselian belt - an example from the Wda valley, Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Brauer, A.; Gierszewski, P.; Kordowski, J.; Lamparski, P.; Lorenz, S.; Noryśkiewicz, A. M.; Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Tyszkowski, S.

    2014-12-01

    The River Wda valley is a classical example of a polygenetic valley, consisting of former lake basins joined by erosive gap sections. In its middle section, which was the subject of our research, a fragment of an abandoned Lateglacial river valley is preserved, which is unique for the Weichselian moraine belt in the Central European Lowlands. The analysis of the relationship between the lacustrine and fluvial sediments and landforms enabled the authors to report many evolutionary connections between the initial period of the river system formation and the emergence of lakes during the Weichselian Lateglacial. The surface drainage essentially determined the progress of melting of dead ice blocks buried in the glacial depressions, which finally led to lake formation there. Most of the lake basins in the study area were formed during the Bølling-Allerød period. However, one section of the subglacial channel was not exposed to the thermokarst conditions and was therefore preserved with dead ice blocks throughout the entire Lateglacial. The dead ice decay at the beginning of the Holocene, as well as the emergence of another lake, created a lower base level of erosion in the close vicinity of the abandoned valley and induced a change of the river's course. Both fluvial and lacustrine deposits and landforms distributed in the central section of the River Wda valley indicate two processes, which proceeded simultaneously: (1) emergence of fluvially joined lake basins within a glacial channel, (2) degradation of the river bed in the gap sections interfering between the lakes. The processes described for the central section of the River Wda channel indicate a very dynamic river valley development during the Weichselian Lateglacial and the early Holocene. The valley formation was tightly interwoven with the morphogenesis of the primary basins within the valley, mainly with the melting of the buried blocks of dead ice and the development of lakes. This study is a contribution

  1. [Relationships between biochemical qualities of paddy rice and climate conditions in the Anning River Valley].

    PubMed

    Peng, Guozhao; Bai, Jian; Wang, Jingbo

    2004-12-01

    Based on the experimental data of paddy rice planted geographically periodically without control in the Anning River Valley of Sichuan Province, this paper quantitatively analyzed the effects of meteorological conditions from 40 days before heading to ripeness on the biochemical qualities of paddy rice, and developed a model about the integrated relationships between biochemical qualities of paddy rice and mean temperature, daily range of temperature and daylight hours, which would be of significance both for the instruction of paddy distribution in the Anning River Valley and for improving rice qualities via adjusting planting time. The results showed that climate conditions had a great effect on the biochemical qualities of paddy rice, which was different in ways and in critical periods. The period when the correlation between some ingredients of rice and climate conditions was most significant was before or after, or from before to after full heading, which widened the existing knowledge about the period which was important for paddy rice qualities forming. Applying this finding in the Anning River Valley during 2002-2003, the accumulated high-grade paddy farming area stood at 73,000 hm2, 30,000 hm2 more than that in 2001, and brought 0.2 billion yuan increment to the peasants, promoting the development of high-grade paddy greatly. PMID:15825441

  2. Ground-water resources of the Mattapoisett River Valley, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olimpio, J.C.; De Lima, Virginia

    1984-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawals by municipal wells in the Mettapoisett River valley, Massachusetts, are expected to triple in the next two decades. State and local concern about the long-term impacts of these withdrawals on ground-water levels and streamflow made it necessary to assess the ground-water resources of the valley and to develop a digital ground-water-flow model for management purposes. Ten pumping scenarios, which represent the present and proposed withdrawals from the aquifer, were simulated using reduced recharge conditions. Under conditions simulating 1965 average annual recharge, predicted water levels in the aquifer are as much as 9 feet lower than average annual levels. At the highest withdrawal rates, the predicted drawdown in four wells exceeds the estimated available drawdown. Under conditions representative of the 7-day 10-year low flow of the river, predicted water levels decline as much as 19 feet. Simulated withdrawals in six scenarios use all of the available ground-water discharge. If this drought condition should occur and streamflow is not supplemented by surface water, the model results indicate that the river in the southern half of the valley will stop flowing under most pumping plans. (USGS)

  3. Debris Flow Control on Fluvial Hanging Valley Formation in the South Fork Eel River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, N.; Perkins, J.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of how base level signals are transmitted into landscapes is fundamental to interpreting river long profiles in tectonically active settings. Fluvial hanging valleys, locations where waves of incision have apparently arrested at tributary junctions, suggest that base level propagation is an unsteady process in many settings. A recent hypothesis (Wobus et al., 2006) explains the formation of fluvial hanging valleys via an instability in the saltation abrasion model of Sklar and Dietrich (2004). At locations where small steep tributaries join trunk streams, tributary incision rates can actually decrease with increasing channel slope when subjected to downstream base-level fall. However, we note that in mountainous river networks steep tributaries also commonly convey debris flows into trunk channels. Since these tributary junctions mark the upstream limit of channels whose beds are mobilized on a regular basis during flood events, here we hypothesize that transitions from fluvial to debris flow channels control the location of fluvial hanging valleys. To test our hypothesis, we exploit a natural experiment in base level fall and landscape evolution along the South Fork Eel River, which is argued to be responding to an increase in rock uplift rate associated with the passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. In order to separate debris flow channels from fluvial channels, we use airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) to quantify channel slopes and concavities. In our analysis, concavity data are noisy and represent a poor metric for determination of debris flow channels. In lieu of this, we choose a more straightforward metric of channel slope to discriminate where debris flows occur on the landscape. We find that, on average, fluvial hanging valleys are only present in tributaries with average gradients above 0.10, consistent with empirical determinations of the gradient at which debris flow channels transition to fluvial channels (0.03-0.10). Field

  4. Digital Map of Surficial Geology, Wetlands, and Deepwater Habitats, Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Jackson, Berne L.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Derkey, Pamela D.; Munts, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River channel and its floodplain in north Idaho are mostly covered by metal-enriched sediments, partially derived from upstream mining, milling and smelting wastes. Relative to uncontaminated sediments of the region, metal-enriched sediments are highly enriched in silver, lead, zinc, arsenic, antimony and mercury, copper, cadmium, manganese, and iron. Widespread distribution of metal-enriched sediments has resulted from over a century of mining in the CdA mining district (upstream), poor mine-waste containment practices during the first 80 years of mining, and an ongoing series of over-bank floods. Previously deposited metal-enriched sediments continue to be eroded and transported down-valley and onto the floodplain during floods. The centerpiece of this report is a Digital Map Surficial Geology, Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River valley (sheets 1 and 2). The map covers the river, its floodplain, and adjacent hills, from the confluence of the North and South Forks of the CdA River to its mouth and delta front on CdA Lake, 43 linear km (26 mi) to the southwest (river distance 58 km or 36 mi). Also included are the following derivative theme maps: 1. Wetland System Map; 2. Wetland Class Map; 3. Wetland Subclass Map; 4. Floodplain Map; 5. Water Regime Map; 6. Sediment-Type Map; 7. Redox Map; 8. pH Map; and 9. Agricultural Land Map. The CdA River is braided and has a cobble-gravel bottom from the confluence to Cataldo Flats, 8 linear km (5 mi) down-valley. Erosional remnants of up to four alluvial terraces are present locally, and all are within the floodplain, as defined by the area flooded in February of 1996. High-water (overflow) channels and partly filled channel scars braid across some alluvial terraces, toward down-valley marshes and (or) oxbow ponds, which drain back to the river. Near Cataldo Flats, the river gradient flattens, and the river coalesces into a single channel with a large friction

  5. Digital elevation model based geomorphological mapping in the lower River Boyne valley, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Gez; Turner, Jonathan; Gallagher, Colman; Lewis, Helen

    2010-05-01

    Interpretation of digital elevation models (DEMs) is rapidly becoming a valuable extension to field-based geomorphic mapping. High-resolution LiDAR data (Light Detection and Ranging; point spacing 1m, vertical accuracy 0.1m) is ideally-suited for mapping areas of complex and subtle geomorphology, such as fluvial landscapes. This poster outlines how LiDAR data are being used to map and characterise the postglacial fluvial terraces of the lower Boyne valley, Co. Meath, Ireland. Comprehensive mapping, together with longitudinal profiles, demonstrate that the valley contains a suite, or ‘staircase', of six main fluvial terraces, spanning an altitude range of ca. 20m. These terraces represent a chronosequence of ‘palaeo' floodplains, with the highest (T1) being the oldest level, and the lowest (T6) the youngest. The evolution of the valley has thus involved progressive erosion, punctuated by episodes of vertical stability or re-filling. Classified maps of the river terrace sequence indicate that terrace T1 is closely associated with glacial landforms, while T2 exhibits multiple channels with large bar-forms, and could mark a braided river system that conveyed huge water and sediment loads during deglaciation ca. 20-17 ka BP. The ‘modern' floodplain (T6) is ubiquitous, and preliminary field studies have dated two of its palaeochannels to >1,000 cal. BP. The LiDAR based model of geomorphic evolution in the lower Boyne valley is being used to underpin field-based geomorphological and sediment studies, focusing on the acquisition of OSL and radiocarbon dates to secure the timing of river terrace formation and to assess the relationships between fluvial development and environmental change since the Late Glacial period.

  6. Authentic Research Experience for University of the Fraser Valley Undergraduate Students through the Global Rivers Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Voss, B.; Janmaat, A.; Yakemchuk, A.; Smith, S.; Faber, A.; Luymes, R.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M. C.; Fanslau, J.; Downey, B.; Wiebe, B.; VanKoughnett, H.; Macklam-Harron, G.; Herbert, J.

    2014-12-01

    The University of the Fraser Valley has undertaken the time series sampling of water chemistry of the Fraser River at Fort Langley, British Columbia, Canada as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is organized by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. In addition, we have been afforded the opportunity to undertake a time series sampling of Fraser Valley tributaries of the Fraser River. These small salmon bearing streams are being threatened by increased urbanization within their watersheds and runoff from agricultural activity. Students in upper level courses and individual research students have had the opportunity to become involved in GRO research projects. These students have been instructed in the sampling protocol and techniques and have become more aware of the threats to both local streams and the Fraser River watershed. Additionally, individual research students have been able to develop their own research projects within the larger project and present their findings at academic conferences. They have also been involved in peer-reviewed publications as co-authors of research papers.

  7. 77 FR 47493 - DMH Trust fbo Martha M. Head-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Red River Valley & Western Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board DMH Trust fbo Martha M. Head--Acquisition of Control Exemption-- Red River..., has filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire control of Red River Valley & Western...

  8. Don't Fence Me In: Free Meanders in a Confined River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eke, E. C.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between meandering river channels and inerodible valley walls provides a useful test of our ability to understand meander dynamics. In some cases, river meanders confined between valley walls display distinctive angular bends in a dynamic equilibrium such that their size and shape persist as the meander migrates. In other cases, meander geometry is more varied and changes as the meander migrates. The ratio of channel to valley width has been identified as a useful parameter for defining confined meanders, but is not sufficient to distinguish cases in which sharp angular bends are able to migrate with little change in geometry. Here, we examine the effect of water and sediment supply on the geometry of confined rivers in order to identify conditions under which meander geometry reaches a persistent dynamic equilibrium. Because channel width and meander geometry are closely related, we use a numerical meander model that allows for independent migration of both banks, thereby allowing channel width to vary in space and time. We hypothesize that confined meanders with persistent angular bends have smaller transport rates of bed material and that their migration is driven by erosion of the cutbank (bank-pull migration). When bed material supply is sufficiently large that point bar deposition drives meander migration (bar-push migration), confined meander bends have a larger radius of curvature and a geometry that varies as the meander migrates. We test this hypothesis using historical patterns of confined meander migration for rivers with different rates of sediment supply and bed material transport. Interpretation of the meander migration pattern is provided by the free-width meander migration model.

  9. Centipede (Chilopoda) richness and diversity in the Bug River valley (Eastern Poland).

    PubMed

    Leśniewska, Małgorzata; Jastrzębski, Piotr; Stańska, Marzena; Hajdamowicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the survey was to describe the diversity and richness of Chilopoda in the selected area of the Bug River valley. The study sites were located in two regions differing in the shape of the valley, the presence of thermophilous habitats and the size of riparian forests. Pitfall traps were used as a sampling method. As a result, 444 specimens belonging to 12 centipede species of two orders - Geophilomorpha (four species) and Lithobiomorpha (eight species) were caught. Lithobius (Monotarsobius) curtipes C.L.Koch, 1847, Pachymeriumferrugineum (C.L.Koch, 1835), Lamyctes (Lamyctes) emarginatus (Newport, 1844) and Lithobius (Monotarsobius) dudichi Loksa, 1947 were the most common and the most numerous species. Of particular note is Lithobiusdudichi found in Poland for the first time and previously known based on a single specimen. Two to 10 Chilopoda species were found in each habitat under investigation. The greatest species richness was found in thermophilous thickets (10 species), sandy grasslands (eight), xerothermic grasslands (eight) and mesic meadows (six). The fewest number of species (two) was found in rushes at oxbows and in wet meadows. We found differences in the species composition and the number of Chilopoda between the lower (102 specimens, six species) and the middle (324 specimens, 11 species) section of the river valley. Our results confirm the need to protect xerothermic habitats, unique almost throughout entire Central Europe, which due to their distribution and their small area covered are fairly easily subject to the process of destruction. PMID:26257539

  10. Centipede (Chilopoda) richness and diversity in the Bug River valley (Eastern Poland)

    PubMed Central

    Leśniewska, Małgorzata; Jastrzębski, Piotr; Stańska, Marzena; Hajdamowicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The main aim of the survey was to describe the diversity and richness of Chilopoda in the selected area of the Bug River valley. The study sites were located in two regions differing in the shape of the valley, the presence of thermophilous habitats and the size of riparian forests. Pitfall traps were used as a sampling method. As a result, 444 specimens belonging to 12 centipede species of two orders – Geophilomorpha (four species) and Lithobiomorpha (eight species) were caught. Lithobius (Monotarsobius) curtipes C.L.Koch, 1847, Pachymerium ferrugineum (C.L.Koch, 1835), Lamyctes (Lamyctes) emarginatus (Newport, 1844) and Lithobius (Monotarsobius) dudichi Loksa, 1947 were the most common and the most numerous species. Of particular note is Lithobius dudichi found in Poland for the first time and previously known based on a single specimen. Two to 10 Chilopoda species were found in each habitat under investigation. The greatest species richness was found in thermophilous thickets (10 species), sandy grasslands (eight), xerothermic grasslands (eight) and mesic meadows (six). The fewest number of species (two) was found in rushes at oxbows and in wet meadows. We found differences in the species composition and the number of Chilopoda between the lower (102 specimens, six species) and the middle (324 specimens, 11 species) section of the river valley. Our results confirm the need to protect xerothermic habitats, unique almost throughout entire Central Europe, which due to their distribution and their small area covered are fairly easily subject to the process of destruction. PMID:26257539

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  12. Landslide hazard mapping in the Göta river valley to limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, M.; Svahn, V.; Lind, B.; Lundström, K.; Cederbom, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide scars are frequent along the river bank of the Göta river in southwest Sweden, and several landslides in quick-clay have resulted in casualties and severe damages on buildings and infrastructure during the last century. Moreover, higher average precipitation and increased occurrence of extreme rainfall events are some expected climate changes in Sweden during the coming 70-100 years. The Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) was therefore commissioned by the Swedish Government to perform an inventory of the landslide potential in the Göta river valley, taking predicted climate changes into consideration. The project was running over three years (2009-2011) and the final report is presented in March 2012. To prevent extensive floodings and damages of cities and infrastructure around Lake Vänern, it is necessary to allow controlled overflow from Lake Vänern through the Göta river. An overflow in the river, in turn, leads to increased risk for erosion and landslides along the river valley. The inventory has included detailed field and laboratory investigations of the geological and hydrological conditions, methodology development, erosion modeling, effects of climate changes on porewater and groundwater conditions as well as an estimation of consequences and probabilities for failure in the present-day and future climate. In the final report risk estimates for the complete study area are presented along with rough cost estimates for first-order preventing measures. This presentation aims to give an overview of the outcome of the inventory, the experience and new knowledge acquired during the project as well as the need of research and development work in different technical areas in order to improve risk mapping of natural slopes.

  13. Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2014-04-01

    This study is the first attempt in the literature on the subject of comparing water balance components for floodplain lake basins, depending on the type of a lake connection to the parent river. Research was carried out in the Bug River valley in 2007-2011 water years. Four types of connections were distinguished in the area under study. Simple water balance equation could only be used with regard to the lakes connected to the main river via the upstream crevasses. Detailed and individual water balance equations were developed with reference to the other types of lakes. Water gains and losses varied significantly in the lakes under study. Values of horizontal water balance components (inflow and outflow) of the floodplain lake in Wola Uhruska considerably prevailed over the vertical ones (precipitation and evaporation). Inflow of the Bug River waters was diverse during the time period under study and amounted from 600 000 to 2 200 000 m3 yr-1. Volumes of precipitation and evaporation were rather stable and amounted to approx. 30 000 m3 yr-1. The lowest disparity between horizontal and vertical water balance components was observed in the inter-levee lake. Both upstream inflow of rivers water and outflow from the lake (ranged from 0 in 2008 to 35 000 m3 yr-1 in 2009) were usually an order of magnitude higher than precipitation and evaporation from the lake surface (700-800 m3 yr-1). Study showed that the values and the proportion between aforementioned vertical and horizontal water balance elements were determined by the type of a lake connection to the Bug River. Storage volume showed no relationship to the type of connection, but resulted from individual features of the lakes (location within the valley, precipitation and evaporation volume, difference between water inflow and outflow).

  14. The environmental conditionings of the location of primeval settlements in the Wieprz River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozieł, Marcin; Kozieł, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The Wieprz River along the section currently occupied by the Nadwieprzański Landscape Park (NLP) constituted a convenient place of human settlement from the moment of retreat of the last ice sheet. Depending on the types of economy preferred by representatives of individual archaeological cultures, the river valley from Spiczyn to Dorohucza offered continuous access to water. This obviously gained additional importance from the moment of appearance of Neolithic cultures, particularly the Globular Amphora culture and Corded Ware culture with semi-nomadic style of life, dealing with breeding. Neolithic hunters-gatherers exploited the animal resources available in the river and its vicinity. The further role of fishing, i.e. providing a diet element or supplementation already in the conditions of agricultural-breeding economy, seems to be evidenced by findings of fishing hooks at Lusatian and Wielbark sites. Another factor affecting the location of settlements in NLP was also its close vicinity to the crops of the Rejowiec flint. According to archaeologists, this is particularly obvious in the case of the Late Palaeolithic and the turn of the Neolithic and Bronze Age. The communication function of the river could also be of importance: in the case of seasonal animal migrations of animals and hunters (Late Palaeolithic); livestock and shepherds (Globular Amphora culture and Corded Ware culture); or people alone (migration of the population of the Wielbark culture to the Red Sea). The fact that a commercial trail fragment was located along the Wieprz River is probably evidenced by the abundance of import from various parts of Europe at site 53 in Spiczyn. Fertile soils (black soils, silt-peat soils) prevailing in the valley also favoured the settlement of cultures with an agricultural-breeding model of economy, providing good conditions for horticulture. Meadows near the river could be used as pastures.

  15. Wetlands monitoring - hydrological conditions and water quality in selected transects of Biebrza National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmaszczyk, Mateusz; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    Water Framework Directive (WFD) obligates Member States to prevent further deterioration as well as to protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. In order to fulfill one of the WFD objectives - to keep wetlands in good surface water and groundwater status (determined by good ecological, chemical and quantitative status) it is necessary to specify most favourable conditions for them. In that case monitoring of factors responsible for wetlands status in natural areas is a key issue. Further, achieved knowledge of existing relations in ecosystems can be implemented in protection and restoration projects. There are a number of factors influencing diversity of habitats responsible for developing different wetland ecosystems and their sustaining in good ecological status. It's believed that among significant factors such as hydrological conditions, water quality, nutrient availability in the soil, pH value and management (e.g. grazing, mowing) the hydrological conditions are the most important. In presented work authors concentrated on hydrological conditions and water quality and theirs influence on wetland vegetation of Biebrza National Park (BNP). BNP located north-east part of Poland is recognized by many scientist as a unique undisturbed wetland reference area. Five transects located in different basins of BNP were chosen. Transects consist of piezometers in which the water table levels and water quality were measured. Analysis of electroconductivity (EC), alkalinity (HCO3-) and pH were done directly in the field. In the laboratory anions (NO3-, PO43-, Cl-, SO42-) and cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Br+, Li+, Na+, K+) concentration was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). D-divers, electronic devices to permanent measurement of groundwater level changes were located in some of the piezometers. Piezometers were located in the sites characterized by different hydrological conditions, from groundwater fed to river fed areas

  16. Is history of rivers important in restoration projects? The example of human impact on a lowland river valley (the Obra River, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowik, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    Palaeoenvironmental and palaeohydrological reconstructions can provide important guidance for river restoration projects. This paper reconstructs the trajectory of river pattern changes of a lowland river (the Obra River, western Poland) as a basis to inform realistic restoration activities. The history of river changes is reconstructed for the last 12,700 radiocarbon years BP. The sequence and timing of change differ from widely recognized, conventional assessments of transitions from braided to meandering planforms in the Polish Lowlands. Traces of a laterally migrating anabranching system were found in the middle Obra valley. In its lower course, a transition from a braided to meandering planform took place later than in other rivers of the Polish Lowlands. Sediment delivery from parts of the catchment situated downstream of lakes in the river course could have been the main reason for maintenance of the braided pattern. Restoration scenarios that take into account the trajectory of river planform changes are hypothesized in relation to variations of sediment supply and degree of anthropogenic impact.

  17. A ground-water-quality monitoring network for the Lower Mojave River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A ground-water-quality monitoring network was developed for the Lower Mojave River valley to define the ground-water quality of the valley. Basin geohydrology, geology, land use and water-level and water-quality data were factors considered in developing objectives for an ideal network. These objectives were used in selecting well locations for the conceptual ground-water-quality monitoring network. The conceptual network was used as a guide in the design of the ground-water-quality monitoring network. Active monitoring sites are wells that are currently being monitored by some agency and were selected whenever possible because of budgetary constraints. In areas where no wells are currently being monitored, new well locations were selected and are considered proposed monitoring sites. A sampling regimen is also included. (USGS)

  18. Seismic local site effects characterization in the Andarax River Valley (SE Spain) from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Enrique; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Piña, José

    2014-05-01

    This work is focused on the characterization of seismic local effects in the Low Andarax River Valley (SE Spain). The Low Andarax River valley is located in an active seismic region, with the higher seismic hazard values in Spain. The landform is composed mainly by sedimentary materials which increase its seismic hazard due to the amplification of the seismic inputs and spectral resonances. We study seismic local effects in the Low Andarax River by analyzing the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) of ambient noise records. The noise data were recorded during two field campaigns in 2012 and 2013. There have been a total of 374 noise measurements with 15 and 30 minutes duration. The acquisition was performed with a Digital Broadband Seismometer Guralp CMG-6TD. The distance between measurements was about 200 meters, covering an area around 40 km2. There have been 6 significant peak frequencies between 0.3 Hz and 5 Hz. It was possible to find interesting areas with similar spectral peaks that coincide with zones with similar microgravimetric anomalies at the alluvial valley. It is also observed a decrease in the frequency peaks from West to East suggesting increased sediment layer. We also compute the soil models at those sites where geotechnical information is available, assuming that the seismic noise is diffuse. We invert the HVSR for these places using horizontally layered models and in the imaginary part the Green functions at the source. It is observed that the S wave velocity inverted models are consistent with the known geotechnical information obtained from drilled boreholes. We identify the elastodynamic properties of the limestone-dolomite materials with a formation of phyllites and quartzite that form the basement of the depression, and those properties of the Miocene and Pliocene detrital deposits (marls, sandy silts, sands and conglomerates) that fill the valley. These results together with the observed resonant frequencies along the Andarax

  19. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image. The Santa Clara River, which lends its name to this valley, flows from headwaters near Acton, California, 160 km (100 miles) to the Pacific Ocean, and is one of only two natural river systems remaining in southern California. In the foreground of this image, the largely dry riverbed can be seen as a bright feature as it winds its way along the base of South Mountain. The bright region at the right end of this portion of the valley is the city of Santa Paula, California. Founded in 1902, this small, picturesque town at the geographic center of Ventura County is referred to as the 'Citrus Capital of the World.' The city is surrounded by orange, lemon, and avocado groves and is a major distribution point for citrus fruits in the United States. The bright, linear feature in the center of the valley is State Highway 126, the valley's 'main drag.' For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  20. Active evaporite tectonics and collapse in the Eagle River valley and the southwestern flank of the White River uplift, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, R.B.; Lidke, D.J.; Hudson, M.R.; Perry, W.J., Jr.; Bryant, Bruce; Kunk, M.J.; Budahn, J.R.; Byers, F.M., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This field trip presents field evidence for Neogene evaporite tectonism, dissolution of evaporates, and related collapse in Eagle River valley and along the southwestern flank of the White River uplift. In the Eagle collapse center, Pennsylvanian evaporite flowed to form anticlinal diapirs, dissolved, and disrupted a lower Miocene basaltic plateau originally at elevations as high as 3.35 km by tilting, faulting, and sagging to elevations as low as about 2.1 km. Also in the Eagle collapse center, the 30 x 10-km, homoclinal Hardscrabble Mountain sank into evaporite during Triassic and Permian collapse followed by Neogene(?) tilting and collapse, based on seismic reflection data. Along the southwestern flank of the White River uplift in the northwestern part of the Carbondale collapse center, parts of the Grand Hogback monocline have collapsed northeastward toward a series of strike-elongate extrusive diapirs. The volume of evaporite removed from the Eagle and Carbondale collapse centers during the Neogene (about 2,250 km3 from an area of roughly 4,500 km2) was calculated by measuring the departure of collapsed basalts from an assumed original basalt plateau. Regional Neogene uplift and incision of the Rocky Mountains, which locally began about 8-10 Ma, probably triggered dissolution and collapse. Presently the Colorado River removes a dissolved-solids load of about 1.4 x 109 kg per year from the two collapse centers.

  1. Timing and origin for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland of Illinois, upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miao, X.; Hanson, P.R.; Wang, Hongfang; Young, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The recent increase in dune studies in North America has been heavily focused in the Great Plains, while less attention has historically been given to the dune fields east of the Mississippi River. Here we report ages and suggest a potential sediment source for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland, Illinois, which may provide a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between eolian, glacial, lacustrine and fluvial processes that shaped the landscapes of the upper Midwest. Seven coherent optically stimulated luminescence ages (OSL, or optical ages) obtained from four sites suggest that major dune construction in the Green River Lowland occurred within a narrow time window around 17,500 ago. This implies either an enhanced aridity or an episodic increase of sediment supply at 17,500 years ago, or combination of the both. Contrary to previous assertions that dune sand was sourced from the deflation of the underlying outwash sand deposited when the Lake Michigan Lobe retreated from the area, we propose that Green River Lowland dunes sand originated from the Green Bay Lobe through the Rock River. Specifically, sediment supply increased in the Rock River valley during drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, which formed between ???18,000 and 17,000 years ago, when the Green Bay Lobe retreated from its terminal moraine. The lake drained catastrophically through the Rock River valley, providing glacial sediment and water to erode the preexisting sandy sediments. Throughout the remainder of the late Pleistocene, the Laurentide Ice Sheet drained into larger more northerly glacial lakes that in turn drained through other river valleys. Therefore, the dunes in the Green River Lowland formed only during the catastrophic drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, but were stabilized through the remainder of the Pleistocene. This scenario explains the abrupt dune construction around 17,500 years ago, and explains the lack of later dune activity up to the Pleistocene

  2. Examining the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater inflows to a valley-to-floodplain river using 222Rn, geochemistry and river discharge: the Ovens River, southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M. C. L.; Cartwright, I.; Braden, J. L.; de Bree, S. T.

    2013-04-01

    Radon (222Rn) and major ion geochemistry were used to define and quantify the catchment-scale river-aquifer interactions along the Ovens River in the southeast Murray-Darling Basin, Victoria, Australia, between September 2009 and October 2011. The Ovens River is characterized by the transition from a single channel river residing within a mountain valley in the upper catchment to a multi-channel meandering river on flat alluvial plains in the lower catchment. Overall, the river is dominated by gaining reaches, receiving groundwater from both alluvial and basement aquifers. The distribution of gaining and losing reaches is governed by catchment morphology and lithology. In the upper catchment, rapid groundwater recharge through sediments that have high hydraulic conductivities in a narrow valley produces higher baseflow to the river during wet (high flow) periods as a result of hydraulic loading. In the lower catchment, the open and flat alluvial plains, lower rainfall and finer-gained sediments reduce the magnitude and variability of hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the river, producing lower and constant groundwater inflow. With a small difference between the water table and the river height, small changes in river height or in groundwater level can result fluctuating gaining and losing behaviour along the river. The middle catchment represents a transition in river-aquifer interactions from upper to lower catchment. High baseflow in some parts of the middle and lower catchments is caused by groundwater flow over basement highs. Mass balance calculations based on 222Rn activities indicate that groundwater inflow is 4-22% of total flow with higher baseflow occurring in high flow periods. Uncertainties in gas exchange coefficient and 222Rn activities of groundwater alter the calculated groundwater inflow to 3-35%. Ignoring hyporheic exchange appears not to have a significant impact on the total groundwater estimates. In comparison to 222Rn activities, Cl

  3. Characterization of geomorphic units in the alluvial valleys and channels of Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in Texas, with examples from the Brazos, Sabine, and Trinity Rivers, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffman, David K.; Malstaff, Greg; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, described and characterized examples of geomorphic units within the channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers using a geomorphic unit classification scale that differentiates geomorphic units on the basis of their location either outside or inside the river channel. The geomorphic properties of a river system determine the distribution and type of potential habitat both within and adjacent to the channel. This report characterizes the geomorphic units contained in the river channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in the context of the River Styles framework. This report is intended to help Texas Instream Flow Program practitioners, river managers, ecologists and biologists, and others interested in the geomorphology and the physical processes of the rivers of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain (1) gain insights into how geomorphic units develop and adjust spatially and temporally, and (2) be able to recognize common geomorphic units from the examples cataloged in this report. Recent aerial imagery (high-resolution digital orthoimagery) collected in 2008 and 2009 were inspected by using geographic information system software to identify representative examples of the types of geomorphic units that occurred in the study area. Geomorphic units outside the channels of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers are called \\"valley geomorphic units\\" in this report. Valley geomorphic units for the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers described in this report are terraces, flood plains, crevasses and crevasse splays, flood-plain depressions, tie channels, tributaries, paleochannels, anabranches, distributaries, natural levees, neck cutoffs, oxbow lakes, and constructed channels. Channel geomorphic units occur in the river channel and are subject to frequent stresses associated with flowing water and sediment transport; they adjust (change) relatively quickly in

  4. Paper Birch Decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, Microclimate, and Birch Stand Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980's. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  5. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plan, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-01-07

    This report includes an evaluation of deep rock formations with the objective of providing practical maps, data, and some of the issues considered for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in the Ohio River Valley. Injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into deep rock formations represents a feasible option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-burning power plants concentrated along the Ohio River Valley area. This study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office, Schlumberger, and Battelle along with its Pacific Northwest Division. An extensive program of drilling, sampling, and testing of a deep well combined with a seismic survey was used to characterize the local and regional geologic features at AEP's 1300-megawatt (MW) Mountaineer Power Plant. Site characterization information has been used as part of a systematic design feasibility assessment for a first-of-a-kind integrated capture and storage facility at an existing coal-fired power plant in the Ohio River Valley region--an area with a large concentration of power plants and other emission sources. Subsurface characterization data have been used for reservoir simulations and to support the review of the issues relating to injection, monitoring, strategy, risk assessment, and regulatory permitting. The high-sulfur coal samples from the region have been tested in a capture test facility to evaluate and optimize basic design for a small-scale capture system and eventually to prepare a detailed design for a capture, local transport, and injection facility. The Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project was conducted in phases with the ultimate objectives of demonstrating both the technical aspects of CO{sub 2} storage and the testing, logistical, regulatory, and outreach issues related to conducting such a project at a large point source under realistic constraints. The site

  6. Reconstructing late Pliocene to middle Pleistocene Death Valley lakes and river systems as a test of pupfish (Cyprinodontidae) dispersal hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.R.; Machette, M.N.; Klinger, R.E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Liddicoat, J.C.; Tinsley, J. C., III; David, B.T.; Ebbs, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    During glacial (pluvial) climatic periods, Death Valley is hypothesized to have episodically been the terminus for the Amargosa, Owens, and Mojave Rivers. Geological and biological studies have tended to support this hypothesis and a hydrological link that included the Colorado River, allowing dispersal of pupfish throughout southeastern California and western Nevada. Recent mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) studies show a common pupfish (Cyprinodontidae) ancestry in this region with divergence beginning 3-2 Ma. We present tephrochronologic and paleomagnetic data in the context of testing the paleohydrologic connections with respect to the common collection point of the Amargosa, Owens, and Mojave Rivers in Death during successive time periods: (1) the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene (3-2 Ma), (2) early to middle Pleistocene (1.2-0.5 Ma), and (3) middle to late Pleistocene (<0.70.03 Ma; paleolakes Manly and Mojave). Using the 3.35 Ma Zabriskie Wash tuff and 3.28 Ma Nomlaki Tuff Member of the Tuscan and Tehama Formations, which are prominent marker beds in the region, we conclude that at 3-2 Ma, a narrow lake occupied the ancient Furnace Creek Basin and that Death Valley was not hydrologically connected with the Amargosa or Mojave Rivers. A paucity of data for Panamint Valley does not allow us to evaluate an Owens River connection to Death Valley ca. 3-2 Ma. Studies by others have shown that Death Valley was not hydrologically linked to the Amargosa, Owens, or Mojave Rivers from 1.2 to 0.5 Ma. We found no evidence that Lake Manly flooded back up the Mojave River to pluvial Lake Mojave between 0.18 and 0.12 Ma, although surface water flowed from the Amargosa and Owens Rivers to Death Valley at this time. There is also no evidence for a connection of the Owens, Amargosa, or Mojave Rivers to the Colorado River in the last 3-2 m.y. Therefore, the hypothesis that pupfish dispersed or were isolated in basins throughout southeastern California and western

  7. The Owens River as a tiltmeter for Long Valley caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.B. Jr )

    1992-05-01

    In the lower 11 km of its course around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, the Owens River displays two parallel meander belts, comparable in meander wavelength and amplitude but unequal in age, elevation, and discharge. It appears the two belts take turns carrying the river's flow depending on whether the dome is inflating or subsiding. The inboard belt, some 200-300 m closer to the dome and now 30-60 cm higher in elevation, contains an underfit stream and is now being abandoned. The outboard channel formed in a series of avulsions apparently induced by recent uplift of the dome. In the upper 4 km of the two-channel reach, avulsion occurred between 1856 and 1878 as inferred from the original US Coast and Geodetic Survey mapping the caldera. Avulsion had already occurred by 1856 in the lower 4 km of the river, suggesting a possible migration of the center of uplift through time. More ancient meander scars at the inboard and outboard limits of the floodplain imply additional earlier episodes of inflation and subsidence. Projection of surveyed topographic profiles across the river's floodplain to the center of the dome suggests that cumulative recent uplift is on the order of 15-35 m, or about 30-70 times greater than that measured for the caldera since 1979 (Castle et al. 1984). The duration of the era of subsidence can be estimated by comparing oxbow densities in the old and new meander belts in the upper two-channel reach; the data suggest that the dome may have been in subsidence for a period of at least 500 to 1,000 yr ending about 150 yr ago. No eruptions of the Long Valley volcanic system have accompanied these inflations and subsidings.

  8. Interactions of Growth-faulting with Incised Valleys and Channels on the Late Miocene to Recent Mississippi River Delta, LA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, C. P.; Mohrig, D.; Steel, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction between incised valleys and growth-fault related subsidence is poorly understood in the Late Miocene to Recent Mississippi River Delta. Previous work has found little evidence that growth-faults are able to affect the course or geometry of small (< 200m in width and 20m in depth) channels. However, the relationship between growth-faults and larger scale valleys (> 1km in width and 25m in depth) has not been previously evaluated in this area. We use a 1400 km2 3D seismic volume located under Breton Sound, LA, integrated with a selection of well logs to document the effect of growth-faults on 12 valleys and 14 channels present within the upper 1.5 kilometers of the seismic volume. In contrast to the majority of smaller distributary channels found within the survey, valleys appear to be steered along or away from growth-faults. This observation suggests that faults are able to affect the course of valleys to a greater extent than small channels. We suggest that this is because valleys are long lived features which do not avulse before being influenced by shorter time scale faulting events. This study contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of growth-faults and valleys in the subsurface and has important long term societal implications for populations living near large rivers in areas with active growth-faulting.

  9. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  10. Preliminary appraisal of ground water in and near the ancestral Missouri River Valley, northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary appraisal was conducted in and near the ancestral Missouri River valley in northeastern Montana to describe the groundwater resources and to establish a data base for the area. The data base then could be used for future evaluation of possible changes in water levels or water quality. In this area, consolidated aquifers are the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer and the overlying Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Unconsolidated aquifers are Pleistocene terrace gravel and glacial deposits and Holocene alluvial deposits. Aquifers are recharged by precipitation, infiltration of streamflow, and possibly leakage from lakes and potholes. Groundwater moves from topographically higher areas to the ancestral valley, then along the ancestral valley to the southwest. Water is discharged from aquifers by evapotranspiration, springs and seeps, movement directly into streams and lakes, and from pumping wells. Average well yields are greatest for irrigation wells completed in outwash gravel (886 gallons/min). Eighteen wells were completed in various aquifers to monitor potential long-term changes in water levels and water quality. Measured water levels declined about 2 ft. or less during the study (1982-85). Chemical analysis of groundwater samples indicated that concentrations of some dissolved constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. (USGS)

  11. Late Quaternary tectonic landforms and fluvial aggradation in the Saryu River valley: Central Kumaun Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Luirei, Khayingshing

    2016-09-01

    The present study has been carried out with special emphasis on the aggradational landforms to explain the spatial and temporal variability in phases of aggradation/incision in response to tectonic activity during the late Quaternary in the Saryu River valley in central Kumaun Himalaya. The valley has preserved cut-and-fill terraces with thick alluvial cover, debris flow terraces, and bedrock strath terraces that provide signatures of tectonic activity and climate. Morphostratigraphy of the terraces reveals that the oldest landforms preserved south of the Main Central Thrust, the fluvial modified debris flow terraces, were developed between 30 and 45 ka. The major phase of valley fill is dated between 14 and 22 ka. The youngest phase of aggradation is dated at early and mid-Holocene (9-3 ka). Following this, several phases of accelerated incision/erosion owing to an increase in uplift rate occurred, as evident from the strath terraces. Seven major phases of bedrock incision/uplift have been estimated during 44 ka (3.34 mm/year), 35 ka (1.84 mm/year), 15 ka (0.91 mm/year), 14 ka (0.83 mm/year), 9 ka (1.75 mm/year), 7 ka (5.38 mm/year), and around 3 ka (4.4 mm/year) from the strath terraces near major thrusts. We postulate that between 9 and 3 ka the terrain witnessed relatively enhanced surface uplift (2-5 mm/year).

  12. Fuel regulation in inland navigation: Reduced soil black carbon deposition in river valleys in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bläsing, M.; Shao, Y.; Lehndorff, E.

    2015-11-01

    Inland navigation is of increasing economic and ecological interest, however its contribution to environmental quality is hardly known. We hypothesized that i) inland navigation emits considerable amounts of soot-Black Carbon (BC) as a product of incomplete combustion of diesel fuel, which is then deposited on soils along river valleys, that ii) improvement of fuel quality by sulfur reduction in 2011 decreased BC inputs to soil, and that iii) this provides a tracer for the spatial impact of inland navigation emissions. The spatial and temporal patterns of soil BC deposits from inland navigation were investigated yearly (2010-2013) working within transects perpendicular to the rivers Rhine, Moselle and Ahr, Germany (the Ahr Valley is free of shipping and served as a reference). In rural areas at inland waterways navigation likely represented the dominant BC emitter. Topsoils (0-10 cm depth) were sampled in vineyards. Their BC content and composition was determined via oxidation of bulk soil organic matter to benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs). The highly trafficked Rhine Valley yielded only little more BC (64.7 ± 12 g BC kg-1 soil organic carbon (SOC) compared to 51.7 ± 9 at the Moselle, and 53.6 ± 6 at the reference Ahr Valley). At both inland waterways soil BC increased towards the river, following the simulated dispersal of ship-derived BC using a Lagrangian model. In the course of ship fuel regulation, soil BC deposits at the Rhine and Moselle waterways decreased significantly from 70.2 ± 3.2 to 47.9 ± 1.1 and 57.6 ± 1.3 to 41.7 ± 0.9 g BC kg-1 SOC within 3 years. Even more pronounced was the change in BC composition, i.e., the ratio of pentacarboxylated to mellitic acid increased from 0.75 to 1.3 (Rhine) and 1 to 1.4 (Moselle) during this time span. From this we calculated that ∼30% less BC was deposited by inland navigation likely due to reduced BC emissions after sulfur regulation in ship diesel.

  13. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  14. Relating streamflow characteristics to specialized insectivores in the Tennessee River Valley: a regional approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Rodney R.; Gregory, M. Brian; Wales, Amy K.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of hydrologic time series and fish community data across the Tennessee River Valley identified three hydrologic metrics essential to habitat suitability and food availability for insectivorous fish communities in streams of the Tennessee River Valley: constancy (flow stability or temporal invariance), frequency of moderate flooding (frequency of habitat disturbance), and rate of streamflow recession. Initial datasets included 1100 fish community sites and 300 streamgages. Reduction of these datasets to sites with coexisting data yielded 33 sites with streamflow and fish community data for analysis. Identification of critical hydrologic metrics was completed using a multivariate correlation procedure that maximizes the rank correlation between the hydrologic metrics and fish community resemblance matrices. Quantile regression was used to define thresholds of potential ranges of insectivore scores for given values of the hydrologic metrics. Increased values of constancy and insectivore scores were positively correlated. Constancy of streamflow maintains wetted perimeter, which is important for providing habitat for fish spawning and increased surface area for invertebrate colonization and reproduction. Site scores for insectivorous fish increased as the frequency of moderate flooding (3 times the median annual streamflow) decreased, suggesting that insectivorous fish communities respond positively to less frequent disturbance and a more stable habitat. Increased streamflow recession rates were associated with decreased insectivore scores. Increased streamflow recession can strand fish in pools and other areas that are disconnected from flowing water and remove invertebrates as food sources that were suspended during high-streamflow events.

  15. Nitrate in ground water in the Great Valley carbonate subunit of the Potomac River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Ator, Scott W.

    1995-01-01

    Agriculture is the major land use in the carbonate part of the Great Valley of the Potomac River Basin. Applied fertilizer and manure are potential sources of nitrate that can contaminate Groundwater. Nitrate concentrations in Groundwater increased with increasing percentage of cropland but did not decrease with increasing well depth, as has been found in previous studies elsewhere. Samples from 28 wells contained nitrate concentrations ranging from 0.29 to 29 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen, with a median concentration of 4.55 mg/L, compared to a median of 1.8 mg/L for 1,056 Groundwater samples from the entire Potomac River Basin. Median nitrate concentrations in Groundwater samples were higher in the Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia part of the valley, and were lower in the Virginia part (7.45 and 2.95 mg/L, respectively), probably as a result of differences in agricultural land-use patterns; this geographical difference was also noted in surface-water samples (6.65 and 2.3 mg/L, respectively). The area of contribution to each well could not be delineated by surface topography or distance to the well, because Groundwater flow and nitrate transport can be unpredictable in the carbonate region because of fractures and solution channels present.

  16. Use Of limestone resources in flue-gas desulfurization power plants in the Ohio River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Barsotti, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, more than 41 of the approximately 160 coal-fired, electrical- power plants within the six-state Ohio River Valley region used flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) units to desulfurize their emissions, an approximately 100% increase over the number of plants using FGD units in 1989. This increase represents a trend that may continue with greater efforts to meet Federal Clean Air Act standards. Abundant limestone resources exist in the Ohio River Valley and are accessed by approximately 975 quarries. However, only 35 of these are believed to have supplied limestone for FGD electrical generating facilities. The locations of these limestone suppliers do not show a simple spatial correlation with FGD facilities, and the closest quarries are not being used in most cases. Thus, reduction in transportation costs may be possible in some cases. Most waste generated by FGD electrical-generating plants is not recycled. However, many FGD sites are relatively close to gypsum wallboard producers that may be able to process some of their waste.

  17. Fluvial Record of Active Deformation Along the Canyon River Fault in the Wynoochee River Valley, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delano, J.; Amos, C. B.; Loveless, J. P.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing uplift of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State represents unknown contributions from Cascadia subduction zone processes, including earthquakes, interseismic deformation, aseismic slow slip events, and north-south shortening of the North American plate focused on upper plate faults. The relationship between upper plate faults and Cascadia subduction is poorly understood, as is the seismic hazard posed by these structures to the greater Puget Sound region. The Wynoochee River is a south-flowing drainage in the southern Olympic Mountains bisected by a previously uncharacterized section of the Canyon River reverse fault. In this study we utilize high-resolution aerial lidar and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of offset fluvial terraces to determine the kinematics and slip rate of the Canyon River fault over the late Quaternary. In combination with surficial geologic mapping and differential GPS surveys of terrace straths observed in the field, we also determine incision rates along the Wynoochee River from OSL dates. Our mapping reveals eight generations of fluvial and glaciofluvial terraces, with twenty-one pending ages from OSL sampling of fluvial sands intercalated with outwash and river gravels. Additionally, we compare our slip rate results with a boundary element model, estimating the stress on the Canyon River fault over the recent decades, as constrained by GPS data from the Cascadia subduction zone. Preliminary results indicate that the Canyon River fault is a long-lived feature with south-side-up and left-lateral displacement. Taken together, our results enable comparison of deformation rates constrained by short-term, geodetic data with those acting over longer-term geologic time scales.

  18. Flood data for the Sacramento River and Butte Basin, Sacramento Valley, California, 1980-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmon, Jerry G.

    1994-01-01

    Floodflows and peak states of floods were measured and channel cross sections were surveyed at sites along the Sacramento River and in Butte Basin, Sacramento Valley, California, during 1980-90 to document magnitudes of flooding and channel changes. The study reach extends from rivermile 200 near Hamilton City to rivermile 134 near Meridian. Data were collected for each flood at about 70 sites that include streamf-flow gages, crest-stage gages, bridges and road overflows on State Highway 162 east of Butte City, and locations of historical high- water marks. Six cross sections of the river between rivermiles 193.7 near Big Chico Creek and 183.3 near Ordbend were surveyed annually during calendar years 1981-84, and 1986-90. Floodflows (peak flow 157,000 cubic feet per second) almost equaled the design flow capacity of the river at Butte City on March 2, 1983, when the peak stage of 93.0 feet was 5 feet below the top of the levee. This was the largest flood recorded at Butte City during 1980- 90. The most recent flood occurred February 18-19, 1986, when the peak stage in the river at Butte City was 92.0 feet and the peak flow was 145,000 cubic feet per second.

  19. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  20. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of mayor ions in the Radovna River valley (NW Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, Anja; Brenčič, Mihael; Vreča, Polona

    2013-04-01

    Chemical analysis of major elements was used to investigate the characteristics of various springs and surface water in the Radovna River valley. The valley is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. It is 17-kilometre long Alpine river flowing between karstic plateaus of Pokljuka and Mežakla confluenting with Sava Dolinka River. Wider area of the valley is built up by Triassic limestone and dolomite. Quaternary alluvial and glacial sediments occur in the bottom of the valley and on the slopes of the plateaus. Water was sampled monthly from May 2005 till March 2007 at 10 locations along the valley. Locations are divided into: 5 springs, 3 surface water locations, 1 small lake and 1 artesian borehole. On site conductivity, pH and water temperature was measured and samples for chemical analyses were collected. Groundwater, spring water and surface water are related to carbonate rocks; therefore the pH of the samples is in range between 7.1 and 8.4. In most cases pH of river water is higher than that of groundwater and spring water. Conductivity of the water varied in the interval between 188 μS/cm and 374 μS/cm. Results of chemical analyses show that concentration of Ca2+ exceeds that of Mg2+ in all of the samples and Ca/Mg ratio varies between 2.6 and 16.8. The concentration of Na+ is lower than Mg2+, but always higher than that of K+. Predominant anion is the HCO3- and varies between 100 mg/l and 211 mg/l. Concentration of anions Cl-, NO3- and SO42- are low and range from 0.1 mg/l to 7.47 mg/l and between 0.62 mg/l and 12 mg/l for Cl- and SO42-, respectively. NO3- is in almost all of the samples below 1 mg/l. Water data shows that waters are alkaline and the dominant facies is Ca-Mg-HCO3-. Ion concentrations fluctuate seasonally and are related to changes in discharge. In winter and early spring, when the discharge is low, the ion concentrations are higher and in late spring and summer during snowmelt, when the discharge is higher, the ion concentration

  1. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km2 body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An60-70) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo70-80. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. Ten samples, including both igneous and deformed lithologies give a Pb-Pb whole-rock isochron of 2560??155Ma, which is our best estimate of the time of primary crystallization. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet reported from the Grenville Province, but is more calcic and augitic than typical massifs, and lacks their characteristic Fe-Ti oxide ore deposits. The River Valley body may be more akin to similar gabbro-anorthosite bodies situated at the boundary between the Archean Superior Province and Huronian supracrustal belt of the Southern Province west of the Grenville Front. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2377 ?? 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2185 ?? 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2165 ?? 130 Ma and 2100 ?? 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. It is uncertain whether these ages correspond to a discrete event at this time or represent a partial resetting of the Rb-Sr and Pb

  2. The Quaternary Channel River: seismic stratigraphy of its palaeo-valleys and deeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lericolais, Gilles; Auffret, Jean-Paul; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2003-02-01

    Based on the interpretation of geophysical data (very high resolution seismic data combined with EM1000 swath bathymetry), this paper reviews the history of the Channel River throughout the late Cenozoic. New evidence does illustrate how the interplay of tectonics, eustacy and climate have influenced this northwest European drainage system.The concepts of sequence stratigraphy allow the subdivision of the sedimentary record into depositional sequences bounded by unconformities, resulting from globally synchronous sea-level changes. However, the recognition of eustatic sea-level changes in a cold climate environment is very difficult, because of the interplay of additional phenomena such as glacio-isostatic sea-level changes with glacio-eustatic changes. For our interpretation, it was necessary to adjust these concepts with the relative importance of geomorphological processes determining the behaviour of rivers and steering their evolution.The foundations of the modern drainage system were laid after the Oligocene Channel inversion. In general these early rivers occupied shallow valleys. The Pleistocene cold climates resulted in fluvial incision. Through time, the Channel River has adopted a drainage system that can be divided into three parts: (i) the drainage basin comprising the Southern Bight, the eastern Channel and the London and Paris basins, (ii) the river zone itself, which begins at the Cotentin peninsula and passes through the Hurd Deep, before reaching the continental shelf-break in the Celtic Sea, (iii) the depositional basin represented by the Celtic Banks complex and by the deep sea fans, located at the foot of Shamrock and Black Mud canyons. During important lowstands (marine oxygen isotope stages 22, 16, 10, 6 and 2), the Channel River seems to have reached the shelf-break, as indicated by the internal structure of the banks.

  3. Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2013-08-01

    This study is the first attempt in the literature on the subject of comparing water balance equations for floodplain lake basins depending on the type of connection the lake has to its parent river. Where confluent lakes (upstream connections) were concerned, it was only possible to apply a classic water balance equation. When dealing with contrafluent lakes (downstream connections) as well as lakes with a complex recharge type (contrafluent-confluent) modified equations were created. The hydrological type of a lake is decided by high water flow conditions and, consequently, the duration of potamophase (connection with a river) and limnophase (the isolation of the lake), which determine the values of particular components and the proportion of the vertical to horizontal water exchange rate. Confluent lakes are characterised by the highest proportion of horizontal components (the inflow and runoff of river water) to the vertical ones (precipitation and evaporation). The smallest differences occur with respect to a contrafluent lake. In the case of confluent lakes, the relationship between water balance components resulted from the consequent water flow through the basin, consistent with the slope of the river channel and valley. The supplying channels of contrafluent lakes had an obsequent character, which is why the flow rate was lower. Lakes with a complex, contrafluent-confluent recharge type showed intermediate features. After a period of slow contrafluent recharge, the inflow of water through a downstream crevasse from the area of the headwater of the river was activated; this caused a radical change of flow conditions into confluent ones. The conditions of water retention in lake basins were also varied. Apart from hydrological recharge, also the orographic features of the catchment areas of the lakes played an important role here, for example, the distance from the river channel, the altitude at which a given catchment was located within the floodplain and

  4. Late Pleistocene valley fills source sediment flux of Tibetan Plateau margin rivers, Zanskar, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöthe, J. H.; Munack, H.; Korup, O.; Fulop, R. H.; Codilean, A.; Fink, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Indus and its tributaries, one of Asia's largest river systems, drain the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that border the western Tibetan Plateau margin. From the internally drained low-relief areas of the Tibetan Plateau, local relief increases towards the Western Himalayan Syntaxis, where it exceeds 7 km. Simultaneously, average denudation rates rise from as little as 10 mm ka-1 at the Tibetan Plateau margin to rates of >1000 mm ka-1 close to the western Himalayan Syntaxis. In this rugged bedrock landscape, river valleys frequently alternate between deeply incised gorges and broad alluviated reaches. Vast fill terrace staircases of up to 400 m height above current river levels, and intercalated lake sediments point to repeated phases of incision and aggradation within the region. Despite a broad interest in a better understanding of mechanisms that modulate plateau erosion, age constraints on the generation of these impressive features remain sparse, though indicate mainly Pleistocene formation ages. Here we present new data from the More Plains section, a vast sedimentary fill, located in the headwaters of the Zanskar River, the largest tributary to the upper Indus. The vast sedimentary successions of the More Plains originally belonged to a former endorheic basin that has been tapped by the Zanskar River, today revealing a sedimentary exposures of >250 m thickness. We combine morphometric analysis and field based observations with 10Be surface exposure dating and basin-wide denudation rates to constrain the late Quaternary history of this setting. Analysis of a 10Be depth profile on top of the More Plains section indicate a surface exposure age of ~125 +/- 15 ka, which is supported by ages from nearby amalgamated surface samples. Grounding on a morphometric approach, we estimate that ~1.65-1.95 km3 were removed from this section by fluvial erosion since aggradation ceased, requiring a specific sediment yield of 85-100 t km-2 yr-1 averaged over the

  5. Morphology and filling of incised submarine valleys on the continental shelf near the mouth of the Fly River, Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, J. S.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Naar, D. F.; Donahue, B. T.

    2008-03-01

    Much historical perspective about terrestrial and marine processes can be obtained from examination of fluvial valleys formed during lower sea level on surfaces that are now continental shelves. The continental shelf near the mouth of the Fly River (Gulf of Papua) has three incised valleys, which were not extensively modified or filled during the Holocene Transgression. Multibeam mapping of the valleys documents their morphology; seismic profiling reveals stratigraphy of sediment fill; and coring within and near the valleys suggests mechanisms of filling. Kiwai Valley is deep (20-50 m relief), narrow (˜1 km wide), steep-sided and meandering, due to river flows that caused its excavation through competent sedimentary deposits. Purutu Valley is shallow (10-20 m relief) and broad (>2 km wide). Umuda Valley is widest (˜14 km) and has multiple channels with variable incision depths, suggesting more extensive fluvial activity than the other two valleys. Valley filling has occurred in several ways, reflecting valley morphology and location relative to the present river mouth. Kiwai and Umuda valleys reveal three stages of infill: (1) hemipelagic sedimentation at distal sites, (2) gravity-driven flows spreading down the valley, and (3) subsequent clinoform progradation that completely fills the valley. Purutu Valley fill is dominated by clinoform progradation. Clinoform progradation in Umuda Valley is driven by intense sediment reworking on the surrounding topset regions, and its large width allows progradation from the sides as well as down its axis. Most shelf valleys around the world were filled long ago, and available techniques have severe limitations for documenting the details of morphology and the mechanisms of filling. The shelf valleys described in this paper provide a unique perspective to terrestrial and marine processes before, during, and after the Holocene Transgression.

  6. Phytophthora species recovered from the Connecticut River Valley in Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Brazee, Nicholas J; Wick, Robert L; Hulvey, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the assemblage of Phytophthora species in northeastern North America, representing a gap in our understanding of species incidence. Therefore, Phytophthora species were surveyed at 20 sites in Massachusetts, with 16 occurring in the Connecticut River Valley. Many of the sampled waterways were adjacent to active agricultural lands, yet were buffered by mature floodplain forests composed of Acer, Platanus, Populus and Ulmus. Isolates were recovered with three types of baits (rhododendron leaves, pear, green pepper) in 2013 and water filtration in 2014. Overall, 457 isolates of Phytophthora were recovered and based on morphological characters and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (β-tub) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (cox1) sequences, 18 taxa were identified, including three new species: P. taxon intercalaris, P. taxon caryae and P. taxon pocumtuck. In addition, 49 isolates representing five species of Phytopythium also were identified. Water filtration captured a greater number of taxa (18) compared to leaf and fruit baits (12). Of the three bait types rhododendron leaves yielded the greatest number of isolates and taxa, followed by pear and green pepper, respectively. Despite the proximity to agricultural lands, none of the Phytophthora species baited are considered serious pathogens of vegetable crops in the region. However, many of the recovered species are known woody plant pathogens, including four species in the P. citricola s.l. complex that were identified: P. plurivora, P. citricola III, P. pini and a putative novel species, referred to here as P. taxon caryae. An additional novel species, P. taxon pocumtuck, is a close relative of P. borealis based on cox1 sequences. The results illustrate a high level of Phytophthora species richness in the Connecticut River Valley and that major rivers can serve as a source of inoculum for pathogenic Phytophthora species in the northeast. PMID:26553775

  7. Lateglacial/early Holocene fluvial reactions of the Jeetzel river (Elbe valley, northern Germany) to abrupt climatic and environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Falko; Tolksdorf, Johann Friedrich; Viehberg, Finn; Schwalb, Antje; Kaiser, Knut; Bittmann, Felix; von Bramann, Ullrich; Pott, Richard; Staesche, Ulrich; Breest, Klaus; Veil, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of climatic control on river system development are still only partially known. Palaeohydrological investigations from river valleys often lack a precise chronological control of climatic processes and fluvial dynamics, which is why their specific forces remain unclear. In this multidisciplinary case study from the middle Elbe river valley (northern Germany) multiple dating of sites (palynostratigraphy, radiocarbon- and OSL-dating) and high-resolution analyses of environmental and climatological proxies (pollen, plant macro-remains and ostracods) reveal a continuous record of the environmental and fluvial history from the Lateglacial to the early Holocene. Biostratigraphical correlation to northwest European key sites shows that river system development was partially out of phase with the main climatic shifts. The transition from a braided to an incised channel system predated the main phase of Lateglacial warming (˜14.6 ka BP), and the meandering river did not change its drainage pattern during the cooling of the Younger-Dryas period. Environmental reconstructions suggest that river dynamics were largely affected by vegetation cover, as a vegetation cover consisting of herbs, dwarf-shrubs and a few larger shrubs seems to have developed before the onset of the main Lateglacial warming, and pine forests appear to have persisted in the river valley during the Younger Dryas. In addition, two phases of high fluvial activity and new channel incision during the middle part of the Younger Dryas and during the Boreal were correlated with changes from dry towards wet climatic conditions, as indicated by evident lake level rises. Lateglacial human occupation in the river valley, which is shown by numerous Palaeolithic sites, forming one of the largest settlement areas of that period known in the European Plain, is assigned to the specific fluvial and environmental conditions of the early Allerød.

  8. Fertilisation of the Southern Atlantic: Ephemeral River Valleys as a replenishing source of nutrient-enriched mineral aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dansie, Andrew; Wiggs, Giles; Thomas, David

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic dust deposition provides biologically important iron and macronutrients (Phosphorus (P) and Nitrogen-based (N) compounds) that contribute to phytoplankton growth, marine productivity and oceanic atmospheric CO2 uptake. Research on dust emission sources to date has largely focused on the northern hemisphere and on ephemeral lakes and pans. Our work considers the ephemeral river valleys of the west coast of Namibia as an important yet overlooked source of ocean-fertilizing dust. Dust plumes are frequently emitted from the river valleys by strong easterly winds during the Southern Hemisphere winter, when the upwelling of the Benguela Current is at its weakest. We present field data from dust emission source areas along the main river channels near the coastal termini of the Huab, Kuiseb and Tsauchab river valleys. Collected data include erodible surface sediment, wind-blown flux, and associated meteorological data. Extensive surface sediment sampling was also undertaken throughout the combined 34,250 km2 extent of each river valley catchment with samples collected from within the main river channels, the main branches of each river system, selected tributaries, and into the upper watersheds. Geochemical data show valley sediment and wind-blown flux material have high concentrations of bioavailable Fe, P and N, exceeding that measured at the major dry lake basin dust sources in southern Africa. The contribution of fertilising deposition material is enhanced by both the spatial proximity of the source areas to the ocean and enrichment of source material by ephemeral fluvial accumulation and desiccation. Results show that geographical factors within each watershed play a key role in the nutrient composition of the emitting fluvial deposits in the river valleys. Analysis explores potential relationships between land use, geology, climate and precipitation in the upper watersheds and their influence on bioavailability of Fe, P and N compounds in wind

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

  10. Practical aspects of registration the transformation of a river valley by beavers using terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brykała, Dariusz; Gierszewski, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Halina; Kordowski, Jarosław; Słowiński, Michał

    2016-04-01

    Activity of beavers (Castor fiber) often significantly affects the environment in which they life. The most commonly observed effect of their being in environment is construction of beaver dams and formation a pond upstream. However, in case of a sudden break of a dam and beaver pond drainage, the valley below the dam may also undergo remodelling. The nature and magnitude of these changes depends on the quantity of water and its energy as well as on the geological structure of the valley. The effects of such events can be riverbank erosion, and the deposition of the displaced of erosion products in the form of sandbars or fans. The material can also be accumulated in local depressions or delivered to water bodies. Such events may occur multiple times in the same area. To assess their impact on the environment it is important to quantify the displaced material. The study of such transformations was performed within a small valley of the river of Struga Czechowska (Tuchola Pinewood Forest, Poland). The valley is mainly cut in sands and gravels. Its steep banks are overgrown with bushes and trees. The assessment of changes in morphology were based on the event of the beaver pond drainage of 2015. The study uses the measurements from the terrestrial laser scanning (scanner Riegl VZ-4000). The measurements were performed before and after the event. Each of the two models obtained for comparison was made up of more than 20 measurement stations. Point clouds were joined by Multi-Station Adjustment without placing in the terrain any objects of reference. During measurements attention was paid to the changes in morphology of both riverbed and valley surrounding. The paper presents the example of the recorded changes as well as the measurement procedure. Moreover, the aspects of fieldwork and issues related to post-processing, such as merging, filtering of point clouds and detection of changes, are also presented. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of

  11. Quaternary landscape evolution of tectonically active intermontane basins: the case of the Middle Aterno River Valley (Abruzzo, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcucci, Emanuela; Gori, Stefano; Della Seta, Marta; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Fredi, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Aterno River Valley is characterised by different Quaternary tectonic depressions localised along the present course of the Aterno River (Central Apennine) .This valley includes the L'Aquila and Paganica-Castelnuovo-San Demetrio tectonic basins, to the North, the Middle Aterno Valley and the Subequana tectonic basin, to the South. The aim of this contribution is to improve the knowledge about the Quaternary geomorphological and tectonic evolution of this portion of the Apennine chain. A synchronous lacustrine depositional phase is recognized in all these basins and attributed to the Early Pleistocene by Falcucci et al. (2012). At that time, this sector of the chain showed four distinct closed basins, hydrologically separated from each other and from the Sulmona depression. This depression, actually a tectonic basin too, was localized South of the Middle Aterno River Valley and it was drained by an endorheic hydrographic network. The formation of these basins was due to the activity of different fault systems, namely the Upper Aterno River Valley-Paganica system and San Pio delle Camere fault, to the North, and the Middle Aterno River Valley-Subequana Valley fault system to the South. These tectonic structures were responsible for the origin of local depocentres inside the depressions which hosted the lacustrine basins. Ongoing surveys in the uppermost sectors of the Middle Aterno River Valley revealed the presence of sub-horizontal erosional surfaces that are carved onto the carbonate bedrock and suspended several hundreds of metres over the present thalweg. Gently dipping slope breccias referred to the Early Pleistocene rest on these surfaces, thus suggesting the presence of an ancient low-gradient landscape adjusting to the local base level.. Subsequently, this ancient low relief landscape underwent a strong erosional phase during the Middle Pleistocene. This erosional phase is testified by the occurrence of valley entrenchment and of coeval fluvial

  12. Quaternary eolian dunes in the Savannah River valley, Jasper County, South Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Schultz, Arthur P.; González, Wilma Alemán; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Doar, William R.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Mahan, Shannon A.; McGeehin, John P.

    2013-09-01

    Sand hills in the Savannah River valley in Jasper County (South Carolina, USA) are interpreted as the remnants of parabolic eolian dunes composed of sand derived from the Savannah River and stabilized by vegetation under prevailing climate conditions. Optically stimulated luminescence ages reveal that most of the dunes were active ca. 40 to 19 ka ago, coincident with the last glacial maximum (LGM) through early deglaciation. Modern surface winds are not sufficient for sustained eolian sand transport. When the dunes were active, winds blew at velocities of at least 4 m/s from west to east, and some vegetation was present. The ratio of annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (P:PE) was less than the modern ratio of 1.23 and may have been < 0.30, caused by stronger winds (which would have resulted in greater evaporation) and/or reduced precipitation. The Savannah River dunes are part of a larger assemblage of eolian dunes that were active in the eastern United States during and immediately after the LGM, suggesting that eolian sediment behavior in this region has been controlled by regional forcing mechanisms during the Quaternary.

  13. Selected well and ground-water chemistry data for the Boise River Valley, southwestern Idaho, 1990-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.; Boyle, Linda; Nicholls, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 903 wells in the Boise River Valley, Idaho, from January 1990 through December 1995. Selected well information and analyses of 1,357 water samples are presented. Analyses include physical properties ad concentrations of nutrients, bacteria, major ions, selected trace elements, radon-222, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides.

  14. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Two Mycobacterium ulcerans Clonal Complexes in the Offin River Valley of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Aboagye, Samuel; Kerber, Sarah; Danso, Emelia; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Asare, Prince; Parkhill, Julian; Harris, Simon R.; Pluschke, Gerd; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Röltgen, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, comparative genome sequence analysis of African Mycobacterium ulcerans strains isolated from Buruli ulcer (BU) lesion specimen has revealed a very limited genetic diversity of closely related isolates and a striking association between genotype and geographical origin of the patients. Here, we compared whole genome sequences of five M. ulcerans strains isolated in 2004 or 2013 from BU lesions of four residents of the Offin river valley with 48 strains isolated between 2002 and 2005 from BU lesions of individuals residing in the Densu river valley of Ghana. While all M. ulcerans isolates from the Densu river valley belonged to the same clonal complex, members of two distinct clonal complexes were found in the Offin river valley over space and time. The Offin strains were closely related to genotypes from either the Densu region or from the Asante Akim North district of Ghana. These results point towards an occasional involvement of a mobile reservoir in the transmission of M. ulcerans, enabling the spread of bacteria across different regions. PMID:27434064

  15. Holocene intramontane lake development: A new model in the Jáchal River Valley, Andean Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Ferran; Busquets, Pere; Sole de Porta, Nuria; Limarino, Carlos Oscar; Heredia, Nemesio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Luis Roberto; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina

    2009-10-01

    The Jáchal River Valley displays a number of significant Holocene sedimentary accumulations made up of fine-grained materials. These deposits are interpreted as the sedimentary infill of shallow temporary lakes that were generated by slow growing episodes of alluvial fans that obstructed the Jáchal River Valley. The association of fossil remains through the Holocene sedimentary sequence suggests that the accumulation of lacustrine sediments was affected by climate variations. The predominant aridity was punctuated by very few humid episodes characterised by fresh-water gastropoda and the intercalations of muddy sediments. The high proportion of charcoal particles in some samples indicates periodic forest fires. Abundant non-pollen forest remains suggest that an open zone dominated by several types of grasses underwent a dry season during part of the year. The palynomorph associations found in the Jáchal River Valley Holocene lacustrine sediments suggest that the humid conditions were less intense than those in the San Juan River Valley located more than one hundred kilometres southwards. Our study suggests that lake formation could have been controlled by climate oscillation probably related to the ENSO variation at 30° south latitude.

  16. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Two Mycobacterium ulcerans Clonal Complexes in the Offin River Valley of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Lamelas, Araceli; Ampah, Kobina Assan; Aboagye, Samuel; Kerber, Sarah; Danso, Emelia; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Asare, Prince; Parkhill, Julian; Harris, Simon R; Pluschke, Gerd; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Röltgen, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, comparative genome sequence analysis of African Mycobacterium ulcerans strains isolated from Buruli ulcer (BU) lesion specimen has revealed a very limited genetic diversity of closely related isolates and a striking association between genotype and geographical origin of the patients. Here, we compared whole genome sequences of five M. ulcerans strains isolated in 2004 or 2013 from BU lesions of four residents of the Offin river valley with 48 strains isolated between 2002 and 2005 from BU lesions of individuals residing in the Densu river valley of Ghana. While all M. ulcerans isolates from the Densu river valley belonged to the same clonal complex, members of two distinct clonal complexes were found in the Offin river valley over space and time. The Offin strains were closely related to genotypes from either the Densu region or from the Asante Akim North district of Ghana. These results point towards an occasional involvement of a mobile reservoir in the transmission of M. ulcerans, enabling the spread of bacteria across different regions. PMID:27434064

  17. Effects of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River near Bedrock, Colorado, water years 1988-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    During 1999, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the effect of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit. This report describes this evaluation and presents the results from this study. Daily mean flow and daily mean specific conductance, measured at gages upstream and downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit, and results from monthly water-quality samples are used to estimate changes in the dissolved-solids load and concentrations of sodium and chloride in the river as it crosses the valley and to correlate these changes with withdrawals of brine by the Paradox Valley Unit. The time period for this evaluation was restricted to October 1987?September 1998 (water years 1988?98) because regular collection of water-quality samples from the Dolores River in the valley gaban in 1987.

  18. The impact of institutional constraints on the Limarí River Valley water market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjigeorgalis, Ereney; Lillywhite, Jay

    2004-05-01

    Institutional constraints on water and water rights trades are usually implemented to reduce the potential costs of free trade in water rights, but these constrains are themselves not without cost. Using data on permanent water rights and annual spot water transactions in the Limarí River Valley of northern Chile, we test for trade barrier-induced price differences in the constrained permanent water rights market versus the unconstrained spot water market and then estimate the welfare losses generated as a result of these restrictions. We find that trade barriers in the permanent water rights market cause prices to diverge across adjacent irrigation districts for homogenous water rights despite the fact that prices equalize across irrigation districts in the unconstrained spot water market. The resulting estimates of welfare losses from these barriers in the permanent water rights market are found to be significant.

  19. [Peculiarities of the biotope distribution of click beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Elateridae) in the Irtysh river valley].

    PubMed

    Samoĭlova, E S; Striganova, B R

    2013-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Elateridae larvae in the Lower Irtysh valley has been analyzed. The larvae analyzed belonged to 19 Elateridae species inhabiting soils of the floodplain and the river terrace. It has been pointed out that the larvae of Paraphotistus nigricornis, A. lineatus, L. parallelus, and A. incanus are most tolerant to the regular spring flooding. It has been found that the species compositions of floodplains and terrace meadows are significantly different. As a rule, species with a wide tropical spectrum inhabit floodplain soils, including bush and forest habitats. At the same time, the terrace was dominated by species characteristic of open habitats, including the steppe zone. It has been revealed that the values of species diversity vary significantly in the floodplain and terrace plots, but the higher species richness (Menhinick index) was registered in the floodplain. PMID:25518558

  20. Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

  1. Evaluation of the water quality in the releases from thirty dams in the Tennessee River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1990-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has routinely monitored dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature from the tailwater releases of its dams since the 1950s. The original objective of this monitoring was to collect baseline information to support reaeration research and determine the relative impact of impoundments on the assimilative capacity of the river system. This monitoring has continued even though the original objective was satisfied. New purposes for this monitoring data have arisen in support of several programs, without new consideration of the monitoring strategy and sampling design. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the historical release data for 30 dams in the Tennessee Valley based on four different objectives: (1) comparison of seasonal patterns, (2) comparison of baseline conditions using descriptive statistics, (3) evaluation of monotonic trends, and (4) discussion of monitoring strategies that might be required to determine compliance with existing and proposed criteria. A secondary purpose of the report is to compile the existing database into tables and figures that would be useful for other investigators. 51 refs., 210 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Outburst flood origin of the Central Kalamazoo River Valley, Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Andrew L.; Kehew, Alan E.; Bird, Brian C.

    2005-11-01

    Geomorphic evidence and stratigraphic information from boreholes suggest that the oversized Central Kalamazoo River Valley (CKRV) in southwest Michigan resulted from a catastrophic outburst flood emanating from subglacial channels under the Saginaw lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The CKRV occurs as a deeply incised trench over 2 km wide and in excess of 50 m deep situated in a reentrant formed by the Lake Michigan, Saginaw and Huron-Erie lobes. The course of the CKRV follows an irregular flow path that bisects the Kalamazoo Moraine of the Lake Michigan lobe. Erosional terraces near the mouth of the channel indicate that Lake Michigan lobe meltwater drained eastward prior to the westward Saginaw outburst. Prior to valley formation the Lake Michigan lobe had retreated westward to at least the Lake Border Moraine. With the Lake Michigan lobe absent to impede flow, drainage from the CKRV proceeded southwesterly until draining into glacial Lake Chicago near St. Joseph, Michigan. The outburst originated from a system of Saginaw tunnel channels that display convex-up flow profiles and contain eskers. Meltwater drainage transitioned from subglacial-to-ice marginal and proglacial environments. During the interval represented by the outburst, the Saginaw Lobe appears to have been in a relatively stationary position.

  3. Lyme disease and migrating birds in the Saint Croix River Valley.

    PubMed Central

    Weisbrod, A R; Johnson, R C

    1989-01-01

    During a study of migrating land birds in 1987, we examined over 9,200 individual birds representing 99 species from the Saint Croix River Valley, a Lyme disease-endemic area of east central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. We found that 250 deer tick (Ixodes dammini) larvae and nymphs infested 58 birds from 15 migrant species; 56 ticks (22.4%) were positive for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Five ground-foraging migrant bird species favoring mesic habitats, veery (Catharus fuscescens), ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), northern waterthrush (S. novaboracensis), common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), and swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana), accounted for nearly three-quarters of parasitized individuals. Nearly half of the spirochete-positive ticks were removed from migrating birds taken in a riparian floodplain forest. Recaptured migrants with infected ticks indicate that they transmit B. burgdorferi to hexapod larvae. We suggest that birds may be both an important local reservoir in the upper Mississippi Valley and long-distance dispersal agents for B. burgdorferi-infected ticks to other regions of the continent. PMID:2782872

  4. Hazard assessment of landslide and debris flow in the Rjeina river valley, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Watanabe, Naoki; Marui, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The Rječina River extends approximately 18.7km long and flows into the Adriatic Sea at the center of Rijeka City, Croatia. Landslide, debris flow and rockfall are main geohazards in the middle part of the Rječina river basin. The zone between the Valići reservoir dam and the Pasac Bridge is particularly the most unstable and hazardous area in the river basin. The Grohovo landslide in the middle part of the river basin is located on the valley's slope facing southwest and situated at just downstream of the Valići dam. This landslide is the largest active landslide along the Adriatic Sea coast in Croatia. Assuming that serious heavy rainfall or earthquake occurs, it is most likely to occur two types of geohazard event. One scenario is that the debris deposited on the Grohovo landslide will move down to the channel of the Rječina River and dam up the river course. Another scenario is that the slope deposits on the landslide will be mixed with water and subsequently turn into a debris flow reaching to Rijeka City. We simulate both two cases of the formation of landslide-dam and the occurrence of debris-flow by two integrated models using GIS to represent the dynamic process across 3D terrains. In the case of the formation of landslide-dam, it is assumed that slope deposits will move downhill after failing along a shear zone. GIS-based revised Hovland's 3D limit equilibrium model is used to simulate the movement and stoppage of the slope deposits to form landslide-dam. The 3D factor of safety will be calculated step by step during the sliding process simulation. Stoppage is defined by the factor of safety much greater than one and the velocity equal to zero. The simulation result shows that the height of the landslide-dam will be nine meters. In case of debris flow, the mixture of slope deposits and water will be differentiated from landslide by fluid-like deformation of the mobilized material. GIS-based depth-averaged 2D numerical model is used to predict the

  5. Current development of mass movements in lowland river valleys at the site of old landslides - case study form Vistula Valley, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszkowski, S.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides in Polish lowlands are found mostly in the escarpment zone of river valleys. In this geomorphological position, landslides were investigated in the middle of the Lower Vistula Valley - major polish river valley (53°14'N 18°14E). In the zone between Fordon and Kozielec landslides develop within Quaternary tills, sands and clays with glacitectonic deformation. Determination of contemporary activity of landslides in the escarpment zone is based on field work, such as a detailed inventory and documentation of the landslide forms, geotechnical and geological drillings, geodesic measurements, and analysis of aerial photographs. Shearing slides, often in the multiple rotational form, are the most common type of landslides. Most landslides are developed within the main scarps of old landslides. The size of contemporary landslides ranges from 500m2 to 70000m2. While the old, inactive landslides' area varied between 120000m2 to 300000m2. Contemporary active forms represents 58%, regularly active for 17%, and inactive for 25% of the identified landslides. Depending on geomorphological zones, landslides cover up to 30% of the area of the slopes. Currently, in the study area precipitation and geological settings are the most important factor of landslide activation. This study was supported by the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association and the research project no. N N306 0860 37 Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

  6. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwal, L.D. ); Wooden, J.L. )

    1989-03-01

    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km{sup 2} body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An{sub 60-70}) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo{sub 70-80}. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2,377 {plus minus} 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2,185 {plus minus} 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2,165 {plus minus} 130 Ma and 2,100 {plus minus} 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. Initial isotopic ratios for the River Valley pluton correspond to single-stage model parameters of {mu} = 8.06, {epsilon}{sub Nd} = O to {minus}3, and I{sub Sr} = 0.7015 to 0.7021. Collectively, these suggest either an enriched mantle source or crustal contamination of a mantle-derived magma. The crustal component involved must have been older and more radiogenic than the majority of rocks exposed at the surface in the nearby Superior Province.

  7. Groundwater Quality and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Richard B

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination has been an issue in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska since the 1960s, with groundwater nitrate-N concentrations frequently in excess of 10 mg L. This article summarizes education and regulatory efforts to reduce the environmental impact of irrigated crop production in the Platte River Valley. In 1988, a Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was implemented in the Central Platte Natural Resources District to encourage adoption of improved management practices. Since 1988, there have been steady declines in average groundwater nitrate-N concentrations of about 0.15 mg NO-N L yr in much of the GWMA (from 19 to 15 mg NO-N L). However, N use efficiency (NUE) (partial factor productivity for N [PFP]) has increased very little from 1988 to 2012 (60-65 kg grain kg N), whereas statewide PFP increased from 49 to 67 kg grain kg N in the same period. Although growers are encouraged to credit N from sources besides fertilizer (e.g., soil residual, legumes, irrigation water, and manure), confidence in and use of credits tended to decrease as credits became larger; there was a tendency toward an average N rate regardless of credit-based recommendations. This information, coupled with data from other studies, suggests that much of the decline in groundwater nitrate can be attributed to improved irrigation management-especially conversion from furrow to sprinkler irrigation-and to a lesser extent to improved timing of N application. The development and adoption of improved N management practices, such as fertigation, controlled-release N formulation, and use of crop canopy sensors for in-season N application may be required for further significant NUE gains in these irrigated systems. PMID:26023964

  8. Reconnaissance of alluvial fans as potential sources of gravel aggregate, Santa Cruz River valley, Southeast Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Melick, Roger

    2002-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to provide information on the aggregate potential of alluvial fan sediments in the Santa Cruz River valley. Pebble lithology, roundness, and particle size were determined in the field, and structures and textures of alluvial fan sediments were photographed and described. Additional measurements of particle size on digital photographs were made on a computer screen. Digital elevation models were acquired and compiled for viewing the areal extent of selected fans. Alluvial fan gravel in the Santa Cruz River valley reflects the lithology of its source. Gravel derived from granitic and gneissic terrane of the Tortolita, Santa Catalina, and Rincon Mountains weathers to grus and is generally inferior for use as aggregate. Gravel derived from the Tucson, Sierrita, and Tumacacori Mountains is composed mostly of angular particles of volcanic rock, much of it felsic in composition. This angular volcanic gravel should be suitable for use in asphalt but may require treatment for alkali-silica reaction prior to use in concrete. Gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains is of mixed plutonic (mostly granitic rocks), volcanic (mostly felsic rocks), and sedimentary (sandstone and carbonate rock) composition. The sedimentary component tends to make gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains slightly more rounded than other fan gravel. The coarsest (pebble, cobble, and boulder) gravel is found near the heads (proximal part) of alluvial fans. At the foot (distal part) of alluvial fans, most gravel is pebble-sized and interbedded with sand and silt. Some of the coarsest gravel was observed near the head of the Madera Canyon, Montosa Canyon, and Esperanza Wash fans. The large Cienega Creek fan, located immediately south and southeast of Tucson, consists entirely of distal-fan pebble gravel, sand, and silt.

  9. Examining the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater inflows to a valley-to-floodplain river using 222Rn, geochemistry and river discharge: the Ovens River, southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M. C. L.; Cartwright, I.; Braden, J. L.; de Bree, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Radon (222Rn) and major ion geochemistry were used to define and quantify the catchment-scale groundwater-surface water interactions along the Ovens River in the southeast Murray-Darling Basin, Victoria, Australia, between September 2009 and October 2011. The Ovens River is characterized by the transition from a single channel within a mountain valley in the upper catchment to a multi-channel meandering river on flat alluvial plains in the lower catchment. Overall, the Ovens River is dominated by gaining reaches, receiving groundwater from both alluvial and basement aquifers. The distribution of gaining and losing reaches is governed by catchment morphology and lithology. In the upper catchment, rapid groundwater recharge through the permeable aquifers increases the water table. The rising water table, referred to as hydraulic loading, increases the hydraulic head gradient toward the river and hence causes high baseflow to the river during wet (high flow) periods. In the lower catchment, lower rainfall and finer-gained sediments reduce the magnitude and variability of hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the river, producing lower but more constant groundwater inflows. The water table in the lower reaches has a shallow gradient, and small changes in river height or groundwater level can result in fluctuating gaining and losing behaviour. The middle catchment represents a transition in river-aquifer interactions from the upper to the lower catchment. High baseflow in some parts of the middle and lower catchments is caused by groundwater flowing over basement highs. Mass balance calculations based on 222Rn activities indicate that groundwater inflows are 2 to 17% of total flow with higher inflows occurring during high flow periods. In comparison to 222Rn activities, estimates of groundwater inflows from Cl concentrations are higher by up to 2000% in the upper and middle catchment but lower by 50 to 100% in the lower catchment. The high baseflow estimates using

  10. Flow pattern in regional aquifers and flow relations between the lower Colorado River valley and regional aquifers in six counties of southeastern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    The lower Colorado River discussed in this report consists of the 318- river-mile reach from Mansfield Dam near Austin, Texas, to the Gulf of Mexico. The river is underlain directly or indirectly by six regional aquifers the Trinity Group, Edwards, Carrizo-Wilcox, Queen City, Sparta, and Gulf Coast; the Trinity Group aquifer is further subdivided into the lower Trinity, middle Trinity, and upper Trinity aquifers. Generalized potentiometric-surface maps of each regional aquifer show the ground-water-flow pattern near the river valley. Each regional aquifer discharges water to the lower Colorado River valley, particularly in the outcrop area of each aquifer. Only the Gulf Coast aquifer in central Wharton County appears to be recharged by water in the river valley. A summary map shows those subreaches of the lower Colorado River that gain water from the aquifers and those subreaches that lose water to the aquifers.

  11. Aquifer model of the Susquehanna River valley in southwestern Broome County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    A finite-difference model of groundwater flow within stratified drift in the 14 mi reach of the Susquehanna River valley from Binghamton west to Tioga County line (including Johnson City, Endicott, and Vestal) has been developed. Outwash is the most permeable and extensive type of stratified drift in the valley but has only small saturated thickness except where it is downwarped beneath ice-block depressions. The outwash is commonly underlain by extensive beds of silt and clay deposited in proglacial lakes. Older ice-contact deposits are also extensive and provide the largest yields to wells but are highly variable in thickness and commonly siltier than the outwash. The ice-contact deposits seem to occur mainly as ridges that parallel the axis of major valleys and are buried beneath later lacustrine and outwash sediments. The model simulates horizontal flow in two layers-the upper layer generally represents outwash, the lower layer generally represents older ice-contact deposits; and vertical flow between those layers through the beds of silt and clay or, where the two aquifer layers are in direct contact, through sand and gravel. The model has been calibrated to reproduce observed water levels that represent steady-state conditions. The model was calibrated for average steady-state conditions from data for April 1981, when water levels remained fairly stable for nearly 2 months. Recharge from precipitation on the aquifer during this period was determined to be about 1.28 in/mo. Transmissivity of the lower aquifer, as determined by calibration of the model for areas influenced by pumping, was significantly less than transmissivity values calculated from pumping records or geologic logs of individual wells. This difference is attributed to scattered silty layers that reduce average transmissivity of generally permeable materials. Data are available for transient calibration, including: (1) semiannual water level measurements that reflect seasonal changes in river

  12. Landscape Genetic Structure of a Streamside Tree Species Euptelea pleiospermum (Eupteleaceae): Contrasting Roles of River Valley and Mountain Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xinzeng; Meng, Hongjie; Jiang, Mingxi

    2013-01-01

    We used landscape genetics and statistical models to test how landscape features influence connectivity or create barriers to dispersal for a mountain riparian tree species, Euptelea pleiospermum. Young leaves from 1078 individuals belonging to 36 populations at elevations of 900–2000 m along upper reaches of four rivers were genotyped using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. We found no evidence for the unidirectional dispersal hypothesis in E. pleiospermum within each river. The linear dispersal pattern along each river valley is mostly consistent with the “classical metapopulaton” model. Mountain ridges separating rivers were genetic barriers for this wind-pollinated tree species with anemochorous seeds, whereas river valleys provided important corridors for dispersal. Gene flow among populations along elevational gradients within each river prevails over gene flow among populations at similar elevations but from different rivers. This pattern of gene flow is likely to promote elevational range shifts of plant populations and to hinder local adaptation along elevational gradients. This study provides a paradigm to determine which of the two strategies (migration or adaptation) will be adopted by mountain riparian plants under climate warming. PMID:23825588

  13. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  14. Invisible geomorphosites. A case study in the Rhone River valley (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clivaz, Mélanie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, numerous inventories of geosites have been carried out at various scales. As all kinds of inventory, they aim at documenting the state of the geological heritage, which is the basis for management strategies (geoconservation, geoeducation, geotourism, etc.). In very humanized regions, where the original geomorphology has been highly modified by human infrastructures, agriculture, urban sprawling, and various modifications of the landforms, it is interesting to inventory not only the landforms visible today but also former landforms that have been destroyed or hidden by human activities. To address the issue of the inventory of invisible geomorphosites, two approaches have been tested in the Rhone River valley, in Switzerland. For centuries the river was flowing quite freely on the floodplain and alternated - both in time and space - braided and meandering sectors. Tributaries fed by glaciers and snow-melting as well as torrential systems were building alluvial fans at their confluence with the Rhone River, and more or less extensive wetlands were isolated by these alluvial fans and the braided sectors of the main river. Floods were frequent and temporary lakes were formed during the snow-melting season and during intensive rainfall events, especially in autumn. Even sand dunes were visible in several places due to the remobilisation of fine fluvial deposits by wind processes. During the second half of the 19th century, the Rhone River and the majority of its tributaries was channelized, the sand dunes were completely destroyed - partly for filling the depressions -, and most wetlands were drained during the first half of the 20th century and replaced by intensive agricultural crops. The first study consisted to inventory the geomorphosites of the research area. Not only the visible landforms but also the landforms that had completely disappeared were evaluated using the assessment method of Reynard et al. (2015). A total of 28

  15. The geomorphology and evolution of aeolian landforms within a river valley in a semi-humid environment: A case study from Mainling Valley, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Na; Zhang, Chun-Lai; Wu, Xiao-Xu; Wang, Xun-ming; Kang, Li-qiang

    2014-11-01

    This paper systematically analyzes a valley's aeolian landforms in a semi-humid region and presents a model of its contemporary evolution. Mainling Valley of the Yarlung Zangbo River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was chosen as the case study for the analysis of morphometric characteristics and the evolution sequence of aeolian landforms via field data and remote sensing images. The aeolian landforms were primarily composed of aeolian sand belts on river terraces and dunes (sheets) on hillside slopes. Three types of aeolian sand belts were identified based on their dune types. In type I belts, an erosive air stream combined with relatively high vegetation cover (10%) produced sparsely distributed parabolic dunes with a high variability of dune heights; in type II belts, the continual reworking by the erosive air stream in combination with low vegetation cover (3%) formed more densely distributed barchans and transitional dunes with a moderate variability of dune heights; and in type III belts, the gradual evolution from an erosive sand-laden air stream to a saturated sand-laden air stream in combination with low vegetation cover (2%) produced the densest crescentic dunefields but with the least variability in dune heights. Dune sizes increase, dune shapes become uniform, and dune distribution becomes close from type I to III belts. Lateral linking and merging of the dunes were also observed within the belts. Together this evidence indicates that an evolution sequence may exist. Aeolian dunefields in the belt appear to evolve from embryonic parabolic dunefields to adolescent barchan dunefields and, subsequently, to mature compound crescentic dunefields. As the aeolian sand belt evolves into the mature stage, sand accumulations at the foot of the mountain valley can be steps for sand accumulation on valley-side slopes.

  16. Conjunctive-use optimization model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Clark, Brian R.; Reed, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer is a water-bearing assemblage of gravels and sands that underlies about 32,000 square miles of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Because of the heavy demands placed on the aquifer, several large cones of depression over 100 feet deep have formed in the potentiometric surface, resulting in lower well yields and degraded water quality in some areas. A ground-water flow model of the alluvial aquifer was previously developed for an area covering 14,104 square miles, extending northeast from the Arkansas River into the northeast corner of Arkansas and parts of southeastern Missouri. The flow model showed that continued ground-water withdrawals at rates commensurate with those of 1997 could not be sustained indefinitely without causing water levels to decline below half the original saturated thickness of the aquifer. To develop estimates of withdrawal rates that could be sustained in compliance with the constraints of critical ground-water area designation, conjunctive-use optimization modeling was applied to the flow model of the alluvial aquifer in northeastern Arkansas. Ground-water withdrawal rates form the basis for estimates of sustainable yield from the alluvial aquifer and from rivers specified within the alluvial aquifer model. A management problem was formulated as one of maximizing the sustainable yield from all ground-water and surface-water withdrawal cells within limits imposed by plausible withdrawal rates, and within specified constraints involving hydraulic head and streamflow. Steady-state flow conditions were selected because the maximized withdrawals are intended to represent sustainable yield of the system (a rate that can be maintained indefinitely). Within the optimization model, 11 rivers are specified. Surface-water diversion rates that occurred in 2000 were subtracted from specified overland flow at the appropriate river cells. Included in these diversions were the

  17. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in the Cuyahoga River in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Amie M.G.; Plona, Meg B.

    2010-01-01

    There are several measures of the 'cleanliness' of a natural body of water, including concentrations of indicator bacteria, anthropogenic chemicals (chemicals derived from human activities), and nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium that lives in the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, such as humans, deer, cows, and dogs. Most strains of E. coli are not harmful and are in fact beneficial to humans by aiding in the digestive process. A few strains, such as the O157 strain, produce toxins that can cause gastrointestinal illness, but occurrence of toxic strains in the environment is not common. E. coli is considered a good indicator bacterium because its occurrence in the environment indicates the presence of fecal contamination and therefore the possible presence of pathogenic organisms associated with feces. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommends using measurements of E. coli to monitor freshwaters and set criteria for the concentration of bacteria that can be present in the water with minimal adverse human-health effects. Typically, a State's waters are assigned a recreational-use designation, such as bathing, primary-contact, or secondary contact waters, which is used to set the State's water-quality standards based on the USEPA criteria. The Cuyahoga River in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park is designated for primary-contact recreation; therefore, when concentrations of E. coli exceed 298 CFU/100mL, the river would be considered potentially unsafe for recreation.

  18. High Resolution Monitoring of Algal Growth Dynamics in a Hypereutrophic River in the Central Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, S. S.; Dahlgren, R.; van Nieuwenhuyse, E.; O'Geen, A. T.; Gallo, E. L.; Ahearn, D. S.

    2005-05-01

    The lower San Joaquin River in California's Central Valley experiences periods of hypoxia during the late summer and fall that is detrimental to aquatic organisms and migration of fall-run chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Hypoxia is attributable, in part, to excess nutrients from urban waste water and agricultural runoff, which contribute to growth of high concentrations of phytoplankton. This study examined spatial and temporal growth patterns that control algal loading using continuous fluorescence measurements at three sites along a 50 km section of the lower San Joaquin River between April and October. A strong diel fluorescence signal was observed and associated grab samples verified that fluorescence was an accurate measure of chlorophyll. Peak chlorophyll concentrations occurred between 18:00 and 20:00 and minimum concentrations between 10:00 and 12:00. Maximum concentrations were nearly two times greater than minimum concentrations although this ratio varied temporally and spatially. Although the mechanism for the diel chlorophyll signal is not very well understood several parameters including temperature, irradiance, turbidity, residence time, stream depth, and zooplankton grazing were considered within the scope of this study. This study highlights the importance of considering high resolution sampling on algal loading rates within heavily impacted riverine systems.

  19. Early Pleistocene Glacial Lake Lesley, West Branch Susquehanna River valley, central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, Joan M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Sasowsky, Ira D.

    1998-02-01

    Laurentide glaciers extended into north central Pennsylvania repeatedly during at least the last 2 million years. Early Pleistocene glaciation extended farther south into central Pennsylvania than any subsequent glaciation, reaching the West Branch Susquehanna River (WBSR) valley. Early Pleistocene ice dammed the northeast-flowing West Branch Susquehanna River at Williamsport, forming Glacial Lake Lesley, a 100-km-long proglacial lake. In this paper, we present compelling evidence for the lake and its age. Maximum lake volume (˜ 100 km 3) was controlled by the elevation of the lowest drainage divide, ˜ 340 m above sea level at Dix, Pennsylvania. Stratified deposits at McElhattan and Linden are used to reconstruct depositional environments in Glacial Lake Lesley. A sedimentary section 40 m thick at McElhattan fines upward from crossbedded sand to fine, wavy to horizontally laminated clay, consistent with lake deepening and increasing distance from the sediment source with time. At Linden, isolated cobbles, interpreted as dropstones, locally deform glacio-lacustrine sediment. We use paleomagnetism as an age correlation tool in the WBSR valley to correlate contemporaneous glaciofluvial and proglacial lacustrine sediments. Reversed remanent polarity in finely-laminated lacustrine clay and silt at McElhattan ( I = 20.4°, D = 146.7°, α95 = 17.7°) and in interbedded silt and sand at Linden ( I = 55.3°, D = 175.2°, α95 = 74.6°) probably corresponds to the latter part of the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Chron, indicating an age between ˜ 770 and ˜ 970 ka. At McElhattan, a diamicton deformed the finely laminated silt and clay by loading and partial fluidization during or soon after lake drainage. As a result, the deformed clay at McElhattan lacks discrete bedding and records a different characteristic remanent magnetism from underlying, undeformed beds. This difference indicates that the characteristic remanent magnetism is detrital. An electrical resistivity

  20. Geo-referenced social accounting with application to integrated watershed planning in the Hudson River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowosielski, Audra Ann

    Changing economic activity and patterns of human habitation have long been a cause of concern for the ecological health of the Hudson River and its tributaries. Today, economic development in the Hudson River Valley is often characterized as a battle between proponents of economy-wide growth and citizen groups concerned about the cumulative impact of incremental development on the watershed. Current development trends in the Hudson River Valley are driving the conversion of rural, agricultural and forestland to urban or industrial uses. This thesis is part of a larger study of the economic changes that lead to land use and environmental changes. It focuses specifically on the economic drivers of development in Dutchess County, an area of the lower watershed on the east bank of the Hudson, midway between New York City and the state capital of Albany. The objective was to engage the Dutchess County planning community in developing a planning model, the economic portion of which characterizes the economy with a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) referenced to a Geographical Information System (GIS). The model was used to assess economic impacts of locally relevant development scenarios including a new IBM semiconductor plant, agro-tourism, and commuting behavior. These scenarios each discuss economic changes that have land use consequences. For example, a new IBM plant will likely instigate new residential development, agro-tourism offers a way to keep land in agricultural use, and the study of commuting behavior leads to insights on how residential growth may depend on commuting patterns, as well as information on the effects of second home communities. The final model will help stakeholders to visualize not only how economic shocks will change their communities, but also how these changes may lead to land use and cumulative environmental impact. Stakeholders will be able to visualize the trade-off between new economic growth and the possible loss of environmental

  1. Map of water table in Solomon River valley, Waconda Lake to Solomon, north-central Kansas, May 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Thomas B.

    1983-01-01

    A map of the water table in the Solomon River valley from Waconda Lake to Solomon presents current (1980) data on water levels in the unconsolidated deposits. The Solomon River, which originates in western Kansas, flows southeastward from Waconda Lake to its confluence with the Smoky Hill River at Solomon. In the study area, its valley is incised into consolidated rocks that are composed mostly of shale and limestone. The unconsolidated deposits in the valley underlie the flood plain and the terrace. The alluvial deposits generally consist of gravel and sand, grading upward to sand and silt, with clay lenses interbedded throughout. Thickness of the deposits may be as much as 70 feet. Ground water in the unconsolidated deposits is a principal source of supply for domestic, stock, and irrigation use. Water-table contours indicate that ground water moves from the alluvial deposits to the stream. Thus, the Solomon River gains in flow through most of the reach. Water-level measurements for this study were made during the spring of 1980, prior to the irrigation season. (USGS)

  2. Updated glacial chronology of the South Fork Hoh River valley, Olympic Peninsula, Washington through detailed stratigraphy and OSL dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyshnytzky, C.; Rittenour, T. M.; Thackray, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Olympic Peninsula lies within a maritime climatic zone under the direct influence of westerly atmospheric flow and Pacific Ocean sea surface temperature variations (i.e. ENSO and PDO). During the last glaciation, large valley glaciers extended radially from the Mt. Olympus area and carved deep valleys, which preserve glacial diamicton, outwash, and lacustrine sediment emplaced during ice advance and retreat. Previous work by Thackray (1996) mapped glacial deposits through several key drainages in the western Olympic Mountains and used exposures along the South Fork Hoh River to reconstruct MIS 2 glaciation and determine the relative extent of the LGM ice margin in the region. Findings suggest that the extent of mountain glaciers in the western Olympics were much reduced during MIS 2 in comparison to MIS 3/4, with glacier mass balance primarily controlled by moisture delivery. Here we discuss new data constraining the style and timing of deglaciation in the South Fork Hoh River valley of the western Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA. Previous research in the South Fork Hoh River used radiocarbon ages, geomorphic mapping, and general stratigraphic relationships to establish a chronostratigraphic framework (Thackray, 1996). To further that understanding and provide new insight on the style and timing of MIS 2 glaciation, we examine the sedimentology and stratigraphic architecture of glacial landforms, which contain invaluable information about glacial processes and style. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, commonly regarded as problematic in glacial sediments, constrains the ages of proximal glacial outwash and glaciolacustrine deposits that were traditionally difficult to date due to the lack of organic matter for radiocarbon dating. OSL ages are internally coherent and stratigraphically consistent with previous radiocarbon ages. Results from this research in the South Fork Hoh River valley and associated work in the Queets River valley, the next

  3. Delta growth and river valleys: the influence of climate and sea level changes on the South Adriatic shelf (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, V.; Trincardi, F.; Asioli, A.; Ceregato, A.; Rizzetto, F.; Taviani, M.

    2014-09-01

    Incised valleys across continental margins represent the response of fluvial systems to changes in their equilibrium dynamics, mainly driven by base level fall forced by glacial-eustatic cycles. The Manfredonia Incised Valley formed during the last glacial sea level lowstand, when most of the southern Adriatic shelf was sub-aerially exposed but the outer shelf remained under water. The pronounced upstream deepening of the valley is ascribed to river incision of the MIS5e highstand coastal prism and related subaqueous clinoform under the influence of MIS5-4 sea level fluctuations, while the downstream shallowing and narrowing mainly reflects the impact of increased rates of sea level fall at the MIS3-2 transition on a flatter mid-outer shelf. Until 15 ka BP, the valley fed an asymmetric delta confined to the mid-outer shelf, testifying that continental and deep marine systems remained disconnected during the lowstand. Sea level rise reached the inner shelf during the Early Holocene, drowning the valley and leading to the formation of a sheltered embayment confined toward the land: at this time part of the incision remained underfilled with a marked bathymetric expression. This mini-basin was rapidly filled by sandy bayhead deltas, prograding from both the northern and southern sides of the valley. In this environment, protected by marine reworking and where sediment dispersal was less effective, the accommodation space was reduced and autogenic processes forced the formation of multiple and coalescing delta lobes. Bayhead delta progradations occurred in few centuries, between 8 and 7.2 ka cal BP, confirming the recent hypothesis that in this area the valley was filled during the formation of sapropel S1. This proximal valley fill, representing the very shallow-water equivalent of the cm-thick sapropel layers accumulated offshore in the deeper southern Adriatic basin, is of key importance in following the signature of the sapropel in a facies-tract ideally from the

  4. Demographics and movements of least terns and piping plovers in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roche, Erin A.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Ring, Megan M.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2016-01-01

    The Central Platte River Valley provides breeding habitat for a variety of migratory birds, including federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum; least tern) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). Since 2009, researchers have collected demographic data on both species that span their lifecycle (that is, from egg laying through survival of adults). Demographic data were used to estimate vital rates (for example, nest survival, chick survival, and so on) for both species and assess how these vital rates were related to type and age of nesting habitat. Nest survival of both species was unrelated to the age of the site a nest was initiated on. Piping plover chick survival to fledging age was not related to the age of the site it was hatched at, however, the probability of a least tern chick surviving to fledging was higher at older sites. In general there were fewer piping plover nests than least tern nests found at sites created through either the physical construction of a new site or new vegetation management regimes, during 2009–14.Mean daily least tern nest survival was 0.9742 (95-percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.9692–0.9783) and cumulative nest survival was 0.59 (95-percent CI: 0.53–0.65). Mean daily least tern chick survival was 0.9602 (95-percent CI: 0.9515–0.9673) and cumulative survival to fledging was 0.54 (95-percent CI = 0.48–0.61). Annual apparent survival rates were estimated at 0.42 (95-percent CI = 0.22–0.64) for adult least terns nesting in the Central Platte River Valley and an apparent survival rate of 0.14 (95-pecent CI = 0.04–0.41) for juvenile least terns. The number of least tern nests present at sites created during 2009–14 was associated with the age of the site; more least tern nests were associated with older sites. During 2009–14, there were four (less than 1 percent of all chicks marked) least tern chicks hatched from the Central Platte River Valley that were subsequently captured on

  5. Large flood on a mountain river subjected to restoration: effects on aquatic habitats, channel morphology and valley infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukiewicz, Hanna; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur

    2016-04-01

    The Biała River, Polish Carpathians, was considerably modified by channelization and channel incision in the twentieth century. To restore the Biała, establishing an erodible corridor was proposed in two river sections located in its mountain and foothill course. In these sections, longer, unmanaged channel reaches alternate with short, channelized reaches; and channel narrowing and incision increases in the downstream direction. In June 2010 an 80-year flood occurred on the river; and this study aims at determining its effects on physical habitat conditions for river biota, channel morphology, and valley-floor infrastructure. Surveys of 10 pairs of closely located, unmanaged and channelized cross sections, performed in 2009 and in the late summer 2010, allowed us to assess the flood-induced changes to physical habitat conditions. A comparison of channel planforms determined before (2009) and after (2012) the flood provided information on the degree of channel widening as well as changes in the width of particular elements of the river's active zone in eight stretches of the Biała. The impact of the flood on valley-floor infrastructure was confronted with the degree of river widening in unmanaged and channelized river reaches. Before the flood, unmanaged cross sections were typified by finer bed material and greater lateral variability in depth-averaged and near-bed flow velocity than channelized cross sections. The flood tended to equalize habitat conditions in both types of river cross sections, obliterating differences (in particular physical habitat parameters) between channelized and unmanaged channel reaches. River widening mostly reflected an increase in the area of channel bars, whereas the widening of low-flow channels was less pronounced. A comparison of channel planform from 2009 and 2012 indicated that intense channel incision typical of downstream sections limited river widening by the flood. Active channel width increased by half in the unmanaged

  6. Natural curiosities of the Bug river valley near Janów Podlaski as a chance of the specialized tourism development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznerczuk, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the most precious natural curiosities of the Bug river valley near Janów Podlaski (between Zaczopki and Gnojno). This area is protected as the landscape park - "Podlasie Bug Water Gap". The natural abiotic elements, among others geomorphological ones significantly conditioning unrepeatable charms of the Bug river valley landscape, are regarded as marginal in many papers concerning the unique values of this valley. The presented natural curiosities are arranged in genetic and chronological order. These main relief elements of the Bug river valley are associated with different morphogenetic processes, i.e. the gap formation, the Bug river metamorphosis and gully erosion. These elements can be a chance of the development of specialised tourism, which will influence the economic mobilization of this undeveloped region.

  7. Map of the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones, Salinas River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Clark, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    The Rinconada Fault and its related faults constitute a major structural element of the Salinas River valley, which is known regionally, and referred to herein, as the 'Salinas Valley'. The Rinconada Fault extends 230 km from King City in the north to the Big Pine Fault in the south. At the south end of the map area near Santa Margarita, the Rinconada Fault separates granitic and metamorphic crystalline rocks of the Salinian Block to the northeast from the subduction-zone assemblage of the Franciscan Complex to the southwest. Northwestward, the Rinconada Fault lies entirely within the Salinian Block and generally divides this region into two physiographically and structurally distinct areas, the Santa Lucia Range to the west and the Salinas Valley to the east. The Reliz Fault, which continues as a right stepover from the Rinconada Fault, trends northwestward along the northeastern base of the Sierra de Salinas of the Santa Lucia Range and beyond for 60 km to the vicinity of Spreckels, where it is largely concealed. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the Reliz Fault continues northwestward another 25 km into Monterey Bay, where it aligns with a high-definition magnetic boundary. Geomorphic evidence of late Quaternary movement along the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones has been documented by Tinsley (1975), Dibblee (1976, 1979), Hart (1976, 1985), and Klaus (1999). Although definitive geologic evidence of Holocene surface rupture has not been found on these faults, they were regarded as an earthquake source for the California Geological Survey [formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology]/U.S. Geological Survey (CGS/USGS) Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Assessment because of their postulated slip rate of 1+-1 mm/yr and their calculated maximum magnitude of 7.3. Except for published reports by Durham (1965, 1974), Dibblee (1976), and Hart (1976), most information on these faults is unpublished or is contained in theses, field trip guides, and other types of reports

  8. Impact of climate and parent material on chemical weathering in Loess-derived soils of the Mississippi River valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Been, J.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Peoria Loess-derived soils on uplands east of the Mississippi River valley were studied from Louisiana to Iowa, along a south-to-north gradient of decreasing precipitation and temperature. Major element analyses of deep loess in Mississippi and Illinois show that the composition of the parent material is similar in the northern and southern parts of the valley. We hypothesized that in the warmer, wetter parts of the transect, mineral weathering should be greater than in the cooler, drier parts of the transect. Profile average values of CaO/TiO2, MgO/ TiO2, K2O/TiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, Sr/Zr, Ba/Zr, and Rb/Zr represent proxies for depletion of loess minerals such as calcite, dolomite, hornblende, mica, and plagioclase. All ratios show increases from south to north, supporting the hypothesis of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the valley. An unexpected result is that profile average values of Al2O3/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 (proxies for the relative abundance of clay minerals) show increases from south to north. This finding, while contrary to the evidence of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the transect, is consistent with an earlier study which showed higher clay contents in Bt horizons of loess-derived soils in the northern part of the transect. We hypothesize that soils in the northern part of the valley received fine-grained loess from sources to the west of the Mississippi River valley either late in the last glacial period, during the Holocene or both. In contrast, soils in the southern part of the valley were unaffected by such additions.

  9. Conservation Effects Assessment Project-Wetlands assessment in California's Central Valley and Upper Klamath River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary-Ecosystem Services Derived from Wetlands Reserve Program Conservation Practices in California's Central Valley and Oregon's Upper Klamath River Basin. The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) is one of several programs implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Since the WRP's inception in 1990, it has resulted in the restoration of approximately 29,000 hectares in California's Central Valley (CCV) and roughly 12,300 hectares in Oregon's Upper Klamath River Basin (UKRB). Both the CCV and UKRB are agricultural dominated landscapes that have experienced extensive wetland losses and hydrological alteration. Restored habitats in the CCV and UKRB are thought to provide a variety of ecosystem services, but little is known about the actual benefits afforded. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) California Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit in collaboration with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service surveyed 70 WRP sites and 12 National Wildlife Refuge sites in the CCV, and 11 sites in the UKRB to estimate ecosystem services provided. In the CCV, sites were selected along three primary gradients; (1) restoration age, (2) management intensity, and (3) latitude (climate). Sites in the UKRB were assessed along restoration age and management intensity gradients where possible. The management intensity gradient included information about the type and frequency of conservation practices applied at each site, which was then ranked into three categories that differentiated sites primarily along a hydrological gradient. Information collected was used to estimate the following ecosystem services: Soil and vegetation nutrient content, soil loss reduction, floodwater storage as well as avian, amphibian, fish, and pollinator use and habitat availability. Prior to this study, very little was known about WRP habitat morphology in the CCV and UKRB. Therefore in this study, we described these habitats and related them to ecosystem services provided. Our

  10. Present-day CGPS-derived Crustal Strain Rate Field of the Saint Lawrence River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, M. A.; Cocard, M.; Santerre, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley (SLRV) is one of the most seismically active areas in eastern Canada. Along the SLRV and the Ottawa valley, earthquakes are concentrated on three distinct zones of western Quebec along the Ottawa River, Charlevoix, and Lower Saint Lawrence. The entire area is also subject to the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We studied the earth's surface deformation of the area using the velocity field of 51 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations and the least-squares collocation method. While the intraplate horizontal velocities showed a coherent horizontal motion towards southeast with the typical magnitude of ~1.3 mm/yr for stations along the SLRV, the interpolated vertical velocities demonstrated a coherent uplift with the average rate of 3.1 mm/yr. We estimated strain rate tensors including the effect of vertical velocity. A NNW-SSE shortening with a typical rate of ~3.6-8.1 nstrain/yr was observed over Lower Saint Lawrence. In Charlevoix, an extension with a typical rate of ~3.0-7.1 nstrain/yr was oriented in ENE-WSW parallel to the SLRV. In western Quebec, the deformation has a shear straining mechanism with a typical shortening rate of ~1.0-5.1 nstrain/yr and extension rate of ~1.6-4.1 nstrain/yr. The extension over the northern model is consistent with the prediction of the GIA models. The range of the estimated strain rates of the area (~1.0-8.1 nstrain/yr) is between typical values of rigid blocks (< 0.1 nstrain/yr) and active tectonic regions (> 100 μstrain/yr). A strong correlation was observed between epicenters of earthquakes and areas with the highest rate of shear strain. We found a good agreement between the orientations of the principal axes of strain rate tensors and the maximum horizontal compressional stress σH from World Stress Map 2008 for both strike-slip and thrust faulting regimes especially those derived from focal mechanisms. This shows our CGPS intraplate velocities are representative of the current crustal deformation

  11. A subsynoptic-scale kinetic energy study of the Red River Valley tornado outbreak (AVE-SESAME 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, G. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subsynoptis-scale kinetic energy balance during the Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented in order to diagnose storm environment interactions. Area-time averaged energetics indicate that horizontal flux convergence provides the major energy source to the region, while cross contour flow provides the greatest sink. Maximum energy variability is found in the upper levels in association with jet stream activity. Area averaged energetics at individual observation times show that the energy balance near times of maximum storm activity differs considerably from that of the remaining periods. The local kinetic energy balance over Oklahoma during the formation of a limited jet streak receives special attention. Cross contour production of energy is the dominant local source for jet development. Intense convection producing the Red River Valley tornadoes may have contributed to this local development by modifying the surrounding environment.

  12. Analysis and computer simulation of stream-aquifer hydrology, Arkansas River Valley, southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.A.; Sauer, C.G.; Dunlap, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, to determine geohydrologic conditions underlying nearly 110,000 acres of the Arkansas River Valley between the Colorado-Kansas State line and the Bear Creek Fault zone in southwestern Kansas. The Arkansas River meanders atop and interacts hydraulically with the area's unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Owing to decreasing recharge and increasing discharge during the 1970's, water levels declined an average of 4 feet during 1970-79. Average annual streamflow at Syracuse, Kansas, also decreased from 232 cubic feet per second during 1951-69 to 85 cubic feet per second during 1970-79. A digital-computer model was calibrated to simulate the trends of historic water levels and streamflow during 1970-79. Simulated 1975-79 conditions depict an annual recharge to the aquifer of 15,000 acre-ft (acre-feet) from river leakage, 9,000 acre-ft from boundary inflow, and 50,000 acre-ft from deep percolation. Simulated annual discharge consists of 12,000 acre-ft to boundary outflow across the Bear Creek Fault zone, 1,000 acre-ft as leakage to the Arkansas River, 11,000 acre-ft to groundwater evaporation, and 57,000 acre-ft to pumpage. Simulated annual recharge was 7,000 acre-ft less than simulated annual discharge of 81,000 acre-ft. Simulation indicates that: (1) The long-term effects of less recharge from smaller than average amounts of annual precipitation during the 1970's were offset by more recharge during brief, timely periods of much greater than the mean monthly amounts of precipitation, and (2) the effects of the increased pumpage were partly offset by increased recharge resulting from increased irrigation. Model results indicate that the water-level decline and streamflow shortage during 1970-79 were affected more directly by departures from historic (1951-69) rates of incoming streamflow than by either the smaller than average amounts of precipitation or the

  13. Conjunctive-use optimization model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Clark, Brian R.; Stanton, Gregory P.

    2003-01-01

    The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer is a water-bearing assemblage of gravels and sands that underlies about 32,000 square miles of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Because of the heavy demands placed on the aquifer, several large cones of depression have formed in the potentiometric surface, resulting in lower well yields and degraded water quality in some areas. A ground-water flow model of the alluvial aquifer was previously developed for an area covering 3,826 square miles, extending south from the Arkansas River into the southeastern corner of Arkansas, parts of northeastern Louisiana, and western Mississippi. The flow-model results indicated that continued ground-water withdrawals at rates commensurate with those of 1997 could not be sustained indefinitely without causing water levels to decline below half the original saturated thickness of the aquifer. Conjunctive-use optimization modeling was applied to the flow model of the alluvial aquifer to develop withdrawal rates that could be sustained relative to the constraints of critical ground-water area designation. These withdrawal rates form the basis for estimates of sustainable yield from the alluvial aquifer and from rivers specified within the alluvial aquifer model. A management problem was formulated as one of maximizing the sustainable yield from all ground-water and surface-water withdrawal cells within limits imposed by plausible withdrawal rates, and within specified constraints involving hydraulic head and streamflow. Steady-state conditions were selected because the maximized withdrawals are intended to represent sustainable yield of the system (a rate that can be maintained indefinitely).One point along the Arkansas River and one point along Bayou Bartholomew were specified for obtaining surface-water sustainable-yield estimates within the optimization model. Streamflow constraints were specified at two river cells based on average 7-day low flows

  14. Soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley in West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.; Litvinova, T. I.

    2012-05-01

    The genetic characterization of soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley (West Spitsbergen) is presented. These soils are compared with analogous soils formed on marine terraces along the coasts of Isfjord and Grönfjord. Gray-humus (soddy) soils with an O-AY-C profile have been described on parent materials of different origins, including alluvial and proluvial sediments. The texture of the soils in the Gröndalselva River valley varies from medium to heavy loam and differs from the texture of the soils on other geomorphic positions in the higher content of fine particles. The soils developed from the alluvial deposits are characterized by their richer mineralogical and chemical composition in comparison with the soils developed from proluvial deposits, marine deposits, and bedrocks. All the deposits are impoverished in CaO. No differentiation of the chemical composition of the soils along the soil profiles has been found in the soils of the coastal areas and the river valley. Some accumulation of oxalate-soluble Al and Fe compounds takes place in the uppermost mineral horizon. The soils of all the geomorphic positions have a high humus content and a high exchange capacity.

  15. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  16. Bovid ecomorphology and hominin paleoenvironments of the Shungura Formation, lower Omo River Valley, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Thomas W; Ferraro, Joseph V; Louys, Julien; Hertel, Fritz; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Bobe, René; Bishop, L C

    2015-11-01

    The Shungura Formation in the lower Omo River Valley, southern Ethiopia, has yielded an important paleontological and archeological record from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of eastern Africa. Fossils are common throughout the sequence and provide evidence of paleoenvironments and environmental change through time. This study developed discriminant function ecomorphology models that linked astragalus morphology to broadly defined habitat categories (open, light cover, heavy cover, forest, and wetlands) using modern bovids of known ecology. These models used seven variables suitable for use on fragmentary fossils and had overall classification success rates of >82%. Four hundred and one fossils were analyzed from Shungura Formation members B through G (3.4-1.9 million years ago). Analysis by member documented the full range of ecomorph categories, demonstrating that a wide range of habitats existed along the axis of the paleo-Omo River. Heavy cover ecomorphs, reflecting habitats such as woodland and heavy bushland, were the most common in the fossil sample. The trend of increasing open cover habitats from Members C through F suggested by other paleoenvironmental proxies was documented by the increase in open habitat ecomorphs during this interval. However, finer grained analysis demonstrated considerable variability in ecomorph frequencies over time, suggesting that substantial short-term variability is masked when grouping samples by member. The hominin genera Australopithecus, Homo, and Paranthropus are associated with a range of ecomorphs, indicating that all three genera were living in temporally variable and heterogeneous landscapes. Australopithecus finds were predominantly associated with lower frequencies of open habitat ecomorphs, and high frequencies of heavy cover ecomorphs, perhaps indicating a more woodland focus for this genus. PMID:26208956

  17. Monitoring agricultural burning in the Mississippi River Valley region from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS).

    PubMed

    Korontzi, Stefania; McCarty, Jessica; Justice, Christopher

    2008-09-01

    The 2003 active fire observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, were analyzed to assess burning activity in the cropland areas of the Mississippi River Valley region. Agricultural burning was found to be an important contributor to fire activity in this region, accounting for approximately one-third of all burning. Agricultural fire activity showed two seasonal peaks: the first, smaller peak, occurring in June during the spring harvesting of wheat; and the second, bigger peak, in October during the fall harvesting of rice and soy. The seasonal signal in agricultural burning was predominantly evident in the early afternoon MODIS Aqua fire detections. A strong diurnal agricultural fire signal was prevalent during the fall harvesting months, as suggested by the substantially higher number (approximately 3.5 times) of fires detected by MODIS Aqua in the early afternoon, compared with those detected by MODIS Terra in the morning. No diurnal variations in agricultural fire activity were apparent during the springtime wheat-harvesting season. The seasonal and diurnal patterns in agricultural fire activity detected by MODIS are supported by known crop management practices in this region. MODIS data provide an important means to characterize and monitor agricultural fire dynamics and management practices. PMID:18817116

  18. Evapotranspiration from forage grass replacing native vegetation in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration from an area of forage grass, which had been planted to replace native vegetation of little economic value, were made daily for a 363-day period in 1969 and 1970. The measurement site was located in the Gila River valley in east-central Arizona. The forage, panigrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.), grew from seed during the early summer of 1969 and after winterkill, regrew in 1970. Daily evapotranspiration estimates, which were based on energy budget measurements, ranged from a maximum of 9.2 millimeters to small amounts of condensation. Two daily values of substantial condensation (0.9 and 0.4 millimeter) were of dubious quality, but were retained in the record. The annual evapotranspiration was 989 millimeters, of which about 332 millimeters came from precipitation at the site. The water table fluctuated between 210 and 280 centimeters below land surface. However, the measurement site was near a wash, so that undocumented, shallower subterranean flows may have occurred. (USGS)

  19. Groundwater uranium origin and fate control in a river valley aquifer.

    PubMed

    Banning, Andre; Demmel, Thomas; Rüde, Thomas R; Wrobel, Michael

    2013-12-17

    Groundwater in a Quaternary gravel aquifer partly exhibits uranium (U) concentrations exceeding the new German drinking water limitation (22% of the samples >10 μg L(-1)). This study assesses relevant U reservoirs and hydrogeochemical processes responsible for U transfer between them. A large data set of solid materials (sediments and soils, 164 samples total) and groundwater (114 samples total) characteristics was created in terms of geo- and hydrochemistry, mineralogy, U microdistribution, and mobilization potential. Results show that U primarily derived from lignitic inclusions in Tertiary sediments is transported to and accumulated (complexation to organic substance and UO2 precipitation) in lowland moor peats of the river valley grown on the aquifer gravels. The alkaline character of the system predefines a hydrogeochemical framework fostering U mobility. Elevated concentrations (up to 96 μg L(-1) U) occur downstream of the moor areas and under Mn/NO3-reducing groundwater conditions. Oxic and stronger reduced settings are rather little affected. Supporting previous laboratory studies, this suggests enhanced U mobility in the presence of nitrate also in the field scale. While no anthropogenic U input was detected in the study area, agricultural usage of the moor areas triggers geogenic U release via nitrate fertilization, surface peat degradation, and erosion. PMID:24112070

  20. Ancient landslide-dam events in the Jishi Gorge, upper Yellow River valley, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guanghui; Zhang, Fanyu; Ma, Minmin; Fan, Yuxin; Zhang, Jiawu; Wang, Zongli; Chen, Fahu

    2014-05-01

    Some scholars have argued that the formation and outburst of an ancient dammed lake in the Jishi Gorge at ca. 3700 cal yr BP resulted in the destruction of Lajia, the site of a famous prehistoric disaster in the Guanting Basin, upper Yellow River valley, China. However, the cause of the dammed lake and the exact age of the dam breaching are still debated. We investigated ancient landslides and evidence for the dammed lake in the Jishi Gorge, including dating of soil from the shear zone of an ancient landslide, sediments of the ancient dammed lake, and loess above lacustrine sediments using radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating methods. Six radiocarbon dates and two OSL dates suggested that the ancient landslides and dammed lake events in the Jishi Gorge probably occurred around 8100 cal yr BP, and the ancient dammed lake was breached between 6780 cal yr BP and 5750 cal yr BP. Hence, the outburst of the ancient dammed lake in the Jishi Gorge was unrelated to the ruin of the Lajia site, but likely resulted in flood disasters in the Guanting Basin around 6500 cal yr BP.

  1. The helminth community of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus from the Erro River valley, Navarre, Spain.

    PubMed

    Debenedetti, A L; Sainz-Elipe, S; Sáez-Durán, S; Galicia, D; Imaz, A; Galán-Puchades, M T; Fuentes, M V

    2015-11-01

    The helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, in the Erro River valley (Navarre, Spain) was investigated from a total of 150 mice between February 2001 and July 2002. An overall prevalence of 90.7% was recorded and up to 14 helminth species identified. The most prevalent species was the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus (78.0%), whereas Syphacia stroma was the species with the highest median abundance (19.8). The detection of Calodium hepaticum, Rodentolepis straminea and the larvae of Hydatigera taeniaeformis are significant, since these helminth species could be considered potential human parasites. The helminth infracommunity comprised no more than five species. A significant predominance of monoxenous species was detected. Statistically significant differences were also found between prevalences, helminth abundance, species richness and helminth diversity of sub-populations of the wood mouse determined by host age and season of capture, which agree with most of the studies carried out on this host. This study will shed light on the helminth community of the wood mouse from a region of Spain which has not previously been documented. PMID:25007313

  2. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from groundwater. Analytical , two-dimensional numerical and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas of groundwater pollution. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial drift, river valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial drift aquifers in New England. These controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and degree of well penetration. Numerical models of valley aquifers are deemed best suited to determine the approximate contributing area of a well because of their capability to simulate more accurately the variable geohydrologic conditions typical of glacial drift valley aquifers. On the basis of results obtained with the two-dimensional numerical model, for which a wide range of hydrologic conditions were simulated, the contributing area in a typical glacial drift, river valley setting for a well pumped at a rate of 1.0 million gal/day--a common pumping rate--can be expected to range from about 0.9 to 1.8 sq mi. Model analysis also shows that the contributing area of pumped wells may be expected to extend to the opposite side of the river and to include significant areas of till uplands adjacent to the aquifer on both sides of the valley

  3. Lead-rich sediments, Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho: area, volume, tonnage, and lead content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Campbell, Julie K.; Foster, Kathryn I.; Jackson, Berne L.

    2001-01-01

    In north Idaho, downstream from the Coeur d?Alene (CdA) silver-lead-zinc mining district, lead-rich sediments, containing at least 1,000 ppm of lead, cover approximately 61 km2 (or 73 percent) of the 84-km2 floor of the CdA River valley, from the confluence of its North and South Forks to the top of its delta-front slope, in CdA Lake. Concentrations of lead (Pb) in surface sediments range from 15 to about 38,500 ppm, and average 3,370 ppm, which is 112 times the mean background concentration (30 ppm) of Pb in uncontaminated sediments of the CdA and St. Joe River valleys. Most of the highest concentrations of Pb are in sediments within or near the river channel, or near the base of the stratigraphic section of Pb-rich sediments. Ranges of Pb concentration in Pb-rich sediments gradually decrease with increasing distance from the river and its distributaries. Ranges of thickness of Pb-rich sediments generally decrease abruptly with increasing distance from the river, from about 3 + 3 m in the river channel to about 1 + 1m on upland riverbanks, levees and sand splays, to about 0.3 + 0.3 m in back-levee marshes and lateral lakes. Thickness of Pb-rich dredge spoils (removed from the river and deposited on Cataldo-Mission Flats) is mostly in the range 4 + 4 m, thinning away from an outfall zone north and west of the river, near the formerly dredged channel reach near Cataldo Landing. We attribute lateral variation in ranges of thickness and Pb content of Pb-rich sediments to the dynamic balance between decreasing floodwater flow velocity with increasing distance from the river and the quantity, size, density, and Pb content of particles mobilized, transported, and deposited. We present alternative median- and mean-based estimates of the volume of Pbrich sediments, their wet and dry tonnage, and their tonnage of contained Pb. We calculate separate pairs of estimates for 23 Estimation Units, each of which corresponds to a major depositional environment, divided into down-valley

  4. The inter-ground massive ice sheet in the bottoms of Valyok Valley (Norilskaya River)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenets, V.; Ablyazina, D.

    2009-04-01

    Inter-ground massive ice sheet is a wide spread phenomena in many regions of permafrost zone and in Norilsk area (North of Middle Siberia) as well. Here they are located at the 2nd terrace of the Norilskaya River where in lateral piedmont parts of the valley buried glacier sheet ice occurs. High ice content and occurrence of ice sheets and ice wedges are the reasons of thermokarst, thermoerosion and cryogenic landslides development on coasts of rivers and lakes. The Valyok Valley (lacustrine-alluvial terrace of the Norilskaya River) is located in the intermountain depression limited by the Putorana Plateau offshoots from the north, east, south and south-west. To the north-west it spreads towards the Pyasino Lake. In the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene the valley was occupied by the cold fresh-water lake and ancient permafrost melted. After the water retreat 9000-8000 years B. P., epigenetic freezing began. The lower part of sediments of this epoch (al III34 vl - al-b IV vl) is represented by bandy clay covered by loam and loamy-sand deposits on the plain and by loamy-sand and gravel deposits in the piedmont part. The surface on many sites is composed of peat up to 2-3 m thick containing ice wedges. For epigenetically frozen sediments of the Valyok formation, high ice content (i up to 30-60% by volume) in upper layers is characteristic. In buildings construction, dangerous ground subsidence resulted from ice-rich deposits thawing may occur. At the same time, a contrary tendency was marked. In engineering prospect in 1970, before construction of large building of a suburban ski base, ice-rich clay of lattice cryostructure (i = 25 - 40 %) was found near the surface and at the depth of 8-12 m, a massive ice sheet 3,2 m thick was discovered. Temperature measurements (5 November, 1970) detected that the permafrost here is in the degrading state and lattice cryostructure formed under colder thermal conditions of Holocene age. Besides, thawing and thawed ground below

  5. Effect of the Paradox Valley Unit on the dissolved-solids load of the Dolores River near Bedrock, Colorado, 1988-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chafin, Daniel T.

    2003-01-01

    Discharge of brine with an average dissolved-solids concentration of about 256,000 milligrams per liter from alluvium in Paradox Valley, a collapsed salt anticline, substantially increases the dissolved-solids load of the Dolores River. In 1996, the Bureau of Reclamation began operation of the Paradox Valley Unit, a series of brine-withdrawal wells completed in alluvium along the Dolores River and a deep-injection well for the brine, to decrease flow of brine into the river. This report presents the findings of a study to determine the effectiveness of the Paradox Valley Unit from 1988 through September 2001. Differences in dissolved-solids load of the Dolores River between two gaging stations, one upstream and one downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit, indicate that an average dissolved-solids load of about 313 tons per day (an annual average of about 115,000 tons) was contributed by brine inflow to the Dolores River before operation of the Paradox Valley Unit began in July 1996. By September 30, 2001, the dissolved-solids load contributed by brine had declined to an average of about 29 tons per day? a decrease of about 90 percent. This decrease might have been facilitated by a decrease in precipitation and streamflow into the Paradox Valley during the last few years of the assessed period.

  6. Analysis of extent and effects caused by the flood wave in May and June 2010 in the Vistula and Odra River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlej, K.; Bartold, M.; Lewinski, S.

    2010-01-01

    In May and June 2010 a flood occurred in Poland, which was the result of intensive rainfalls in the upper sections of the Vistula and Odra Rivers. Medium-resolution TERRA-MODIS satellite images were used for analysis of the extent of the flood wave. Images taken on 6 June for the Vistula River Valley and on 9 June for the Odra River Valley were selected from a generally accessible database. The size of flooded areas was delineated using an object-oriented classification methods in the eCognition software environment. Statistical analysis of classification results was performed at the municipality level, by comparing the classification with Corine Land Cover 2006 database. During the discussed flood, areas in 184 municipalities along the Vistula River and in 120 municipalities along the Odra River were flooded. The most extensive flooding occurred in Slonsk Municipality in the Odra River Valley, where 4055 hectareswere flooded. In total, the Vistula waters flooded 4.01% of the area of municipalities located within the Vistula River Valley, and 3.29% of the area of Odra municipalities were flooded by the Odra River waters.

  7. Topographic growth around the Orange River valley, southern Africa: A Cenozoic record of crustal deformation and climatic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauteuil, Olivier; Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François

    2015-03-01

    We reconstruct the history of topographic growth in southern Africa on both sides of the Orange River valley from an integrated analysis of erosion surfaces, crustal deformation and climate change. First, we propose an inventory of erosion surfaces observed in the study area and classify them according to their most likely formative process, i.e. chemical weathering or mechanical erosion. Among the various land units observed we define a new class of landform: the pedivalley, which corresponds to a wide valley with a flat erosional floor. In the Orange River valley, we mapped three low-relief erosion surfaces, each bevelling a variety of lithologies. The oldest and most elevated is (1) a stripped etchplain evolving laterally into (2) a stepped pediplain bearing residual inselbergs; (3) a younger pediplain later formed in response to a more recent event of crustal deformation. These are all Cenozoic landforms: the etchplain is associated with a late Palaeocene to middle Eocene weathering event, and the two pediplains are older than the middle Miocene alluvial terraces of the Orange River. Landscape evolution was first driven by slow uplift (10 m/Ma), followed by a second interval of uplift involving a cumulative magnitude of at least 200 m. This event shaped the transition between the two pediplains and modified the drainage pattern. A final phase of uplift (magnitude: 60 m) occurred after the Middle Miocene and drove the incision of the lower terraces of the Orange River. Climate exerted a major control over the denudation process, and involved very humid conditions responsible for lateritic weathering, followed by more arid conditions, which promoted the formation of pedivalleys. Collectively, these produce pediplains.

  8. Forces driving late Pleistocene (ca. 77-12 ka) landscape evolution in the Cimarron River valley, southwestern Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layzell, Anthony L.; Mandel, Rolfe D.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Smith, Jon J.

    2015-07-01

    This study presents stratigraphic, geomorphic, and paleoenvironmental (δ13C) data that provide insight into the late Pleistocene landscape evolution of the Cimarron River valley in the High Plains of southwestern Kansas. Two distinct valley fills (T-1 and T-2) were investigated. Three soils occur in the T-2 fill and five in the T-1 fill, all indicating periods of landscape stability or slow sedimentation. Of particular interest are two cumulic soils dating to ca. 48-28 and 13-12.5 ka. δ13C values are consistent with regional paleoenvironmental proxy data that indicate the prevalence of warm, dry conditions at these times. The Cimarron River is interpreted to have responded to these climatic changes and to local base level control. Specifically, aggradation occurred during cool, wet periods and slow sedimentation with cumulic soil formation occurred under warmer, drier climates. Significant valley incision (~ 25 m) by ca. 28 ka likely resulted from a lowering of local base level caused by deep-seated dissolution of Permian evaporite deposits.

  9. Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE

  10. Isotopic Content of Ground Ice in the Lower Kolyma River Valley (Eastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spektor, V.; Vonk, J.; Kholodov, A. L.; Spawn, S.; Spektor, V. B.; Andreeva, V. V.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    The report deals with the results of isotopic investigations in ground ice of Quaternary sediments in the Lower Kolyma River Lowland. The field works were undertaken in 2012 and 2013. Analyses of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) stable isotopes were obtained using the Picarro Isotopic Liquid Water Analyzer (Biogeosciences group, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland). The ground ice samples were collected both from four boreholes (BH) drilled on the right limit of the Kolyma River valley and from one section (S) in the Duvanny Yar exposure. Late Pleistocene wedge ice (Ice complex) was recovered by the BH13/1 located on a yedoma relics towering over the low thermokarst plain (N68°30.7' E161°29.6') and S12/4 in the Duvanny Yar exposure (N68°37.8' E159°08.6'). Isotopes δ18O and δD range from -31.413 to -34.05 and from -244.934 to -260.57, correspondingly. Modern wedge ice was recovered by the BH13/3 located on the joint Kolyma and Panteleikha Rivers floodplain underlain by river-bed sediments (N68°36.8', E161°21'). Isotopes range from -25.83 to -26.32(δ18O) and from -197.09 to -204.47 (δD). Oblique segregated ice layers adjacent to a modern ice wedge were recovered by the BH12/2 on the annually flooded thermokarst plain (N68˚30.8' E161˚30). Isotopes range from -18.778 to -20.897 (δ18O) and from -149.883 to -168.901 (δD). The δD contents are the lowest here, resulting possibly from mixed (ice wedging and segregation) mechanism of ice lenses formation. Segregated ice was recovered by the BH13/2 on the Schuch'e lake alas (N68°44.77', E161°23.3') and S12/4 in the transition layer of the Duvanny Yar. Isotopes range from -19.63 to -23.43 (δ18O) and from -146.77 to -177.23 (δD). Preliminary results are as follows: 1) all samples are distributed near the line of meteoric water providing evidence for atmospheric origin of ground ice in the region; 2) isotope distribution exhibits a clear distinction between Late Pleistocene wedge ice, modern wedge ice, segregated ice

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae associated with flood in Brahamputra River valley, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Soubhagya K; Vairale, Mohan G; Arya, Neha; Yadav, Priti; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Yadava, Pramod K; Kumar, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    Cholera is often caused when drinking water is contaminated through environmental sources. In recent years, the drastic cholera epidemics in Odisha (2007) and Haiti (2010) were associated with natural disasters (flood and Earthquake). Almost every year the state of Assam India witnesses flood in Brahamputra River valley during reversal of wind system (monsoon). This is often followed by outbreak of diarrheal diseases including cholera. Beside the incidence of cholera outbreaks, there is lack of experimental evidence for prevalence of the bacterium in aquatic environment and its association with cholera during/after flood in the state. A molecular surveillance during 2012-14 was carried out to study prevalence, strain differentiation, and clonality of Vibrio cholerae in inland aquatic reservoirs flooded by Brahamputra River in Assam. Water samples were collected, filtered, enriched in alkaline peptone water followed by selective culturing on thiosulfate bile salt sucrose agar. Environmental isolates were identified as V. cholerae, based on biochemical assays followed by sero-grouping and detailed molecular characterization. The incidence of the presence of the bacterium in potable water sources was higher after flood. Except one O1 isolate, all of the strains were broadly grouped under non-O1/non-O139 whereas some of them did have cholera toxin (CT). Surprisingly, we have noticed Haitian ctxB in two non-O1/non-O139 strains. MLST analyses based on pyrH, recA and rpoA genes revealed clonality in the environmental strains. The isolates showed varying degree of antimicrobial resistance including tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. The strains harbored the genetic elements SXT constins and integrons responsible for multidrug resistance. Genetic characterization is useful as phenotypic characters alone have proven to be unsatisfactory for strain discrimination. An assurance to safe drinking water, sanitation and monitoring of the aquatic reservoirs is of utmost importance for

  12. wrv: An R Package for Groundwater Flow Model Construction, Wood River Valley Aquifer System, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater models are one of the main tools used in the hydrogeological sciences to assess resources and to simulate possible effects from future water demands and changes in climate. The hydrological inputs to groundwater models can be numerous and can vary in both time and space. Difficulties associated with model construction are often related to extensive datasets and cumbersome data processing tasks. To mitigate these difficulties, a graphical user interface (GUI) is often employed to aid the input of data for creating models. Unfortunately, GUI software presents an obstacle to reproducibility, a cornerstone of research. The considerable effort required to document processing steps in a GUI program, and the rapid obsoleteness of these steps with subsequent versions of the software, has prompted modelers to explicitly write down processing steps as source code to make them 'easily' reproducible. This research describes the R package wrv, a collection of datasets and functions for pre- and post-processing the numerical groundwater flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho. R largely facilitates reproducible modeling with the package vignette; a document that is a combination of content and source code. The code is run when the vignette is built, and all data analysis output (such as figures and tables) is created on the fly and inserted into the final document. The wrv package includes two vignettes that explain and run steps that (1) create package datasets from raw data files located on a publicly accessible repository, and (2) create and run the groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-USG, the numerical groundwater model used in this study, is executed from the vignette, and model output is returned for exploratory analyses. The ability of R to perform all processing steps in a single workflow is attributed to its comprehensive list of features; that include geographic information system and time series functionality.

  13. Foraging Ecology of Fall-Migrating Shorebirds in the Illinois River Valley

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Randolph V.; Stafford, Joshua D.; Yetter, Aaron P.; Horath, Michelle M.; Hine, Christopher S.; Hoover, Jeffery P.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many shorebird species appear to be declining in North America, and food resources at stopover habitats may limit migratory bird populations. We investigated body condition of, and foraging habitat and diet selection by 4 species of shorebirds in the central Illinois River valley during fall migrations 2007 and 2008 (Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus], Least Sandpiper [Calidris minutilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], and Lesser Yellowlegs [Tringa flavipes]). All species except Killdeer were in good to excellent condition, based on size-corrected body mass and fat scores. Shorebird diets were dominated by invertebrate taxa from Orders Diptera and Coleoptera. Additionally, Isopoda, Hemiptera, Hirudinea, Nematoda, and Cyprinodontiformes contribution to diets varied by shorebird species and year. We evaluated diet and foraging habitat selection by comparing aggregate percent dry mass of food items in shorebird diets and core samples from foraging substrates. Invertebrate abundances at shorebird collection sites and random sites were generally similar, indicating that birds did not select foraging patches within wetlands based on invertebrate abundance. Conversely, we found considerable evidence for selection of some diet items within particular foraging sites, and consistent avoidance of Oligochaeta. We suspect the diet selectivity we observed was a function of overall invertebrate biomass (51.2±4.4 [SE] kg/ha; dry mass) at our study sites, which was greater than estimates reported in most other food selection studies. Diet selectivity in shorebirds may follow tenants of optimal foraging theory; that is, at low food abundances shorebirds forage opportunistically, with the likelihood of selectivity increasing as food availability increases. Nonetheless, relationships between the abundance, availability, and consumption of Oligochaetes for and by waterbirds should be the focus of future research, because estimates of foraging carrying capacity

  14. Foraging ecology of fall-migrating shorebirds in the Illinois River valley.

    PubMed

    Smith, Randolph V; Stafford, Joshua D; Yetter, Aaron P; Horath, Michelle M; Hine, Christopher S; Hoover, Jeffery P

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many shorebird species appear to be declining in North America, and food resources at stopover habitats may limit migratory bird populations. We investigated body condition of, and foraging habitat and diet selection by 4 species of shorebirds in the central Illinois River valley during fall migrations 2007 and 2008 (Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus], Least Sandpiper [Calidris minutilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], and Lesser Yellowlegs [Tringa flavipes]). All species except Killdeer were in good to excellent condition, based on size-corrected body mass and fat scores. Shorebird diets were dominated by invertebrate taxa from Orders Diptera and Coleoptera. Additionally, Isopoda, Hemiptera, Hirudinea, Nematoda, and Cyprinodontiformes contribution to diets varied by shorebird species and year. We evaluated diet and foraging habitat selection by comparing aggregate percent dry mass of food items in shorebird diets and core samples from foraging substrates. Invertebrate abundances at shorebird collection sites and random sites were generally similar, indicating that birds did not select foraging patches within wetlands based on invertebrate abundance. Conversely, we found considerable evidence for selection of some diet items within particular foraging sites, and consistent avoidance of Oligochaeta. We suspect the diet selectivity we observed was a function of overall invertebrate biomass (51.2 ± 4.4 [SE] kg/ha; dry mass) at our study sites, which was greater than estimates reported in most other food selection studies. Diet selectivity in shorebirds may follow tenants of optimal foraging theory; that is, at low food abundances shorebirds forage opportunistically, with the likelihood of selectivity increasing as food availability increases. Nonetheless, relationships between the abundance, availability, and consumption of Oligochaetes for and by waterbirds should be the focus of future research, because estimates of foraging carrying capacity

  15. A Holocene vegetation record from the Mississippi River Valley, southeastern Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J.E.; Allen, W.H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Pollen preserved in a peat deposit from a large swamp, the Old Field in the Mississippi River Valley near Advance, Missouri, records radiocarbon-dated vegetation changes between 9000 and about 3000 years ago. The principal feature of both the percentage and influx pollen diagrams is the replacement of arboreal pollen, primarily Quercus, Fraxinus, and Cephalanthus, with Gramineae and NAP between 8700 and 5000 years BP. This vegetation shift is interpreted as reflecting a decrease in the extent of the Old Field swamp and its associated bottomland forest species along with the expansion of a grass-dominated herb community, as a result of a reduction in available ground water. The desiccation of the swamp during this period indicates a reduction in precipitation within the ground-water source area and a shift to a drier climate in the southern Midwest. The pollen suggests that the lowest water levels and driest climate in southeastern Missouri lasted from 8700 to 6500 years BP, at which time there is a partial reappearance of swamp species. Relatively dry conditions, however, continued until at least 5000 years BP. Although pollen influx data are lacking from the upper part of the profile, the relative pollen frequencies suggest an increase in trees after 5000 BP. The replacement of the arboreal vegetation by grasses and herbs between 8700 and 5000 years BP reflects the period of maximum expansion of the Prairie Peninsula in southeastern Missouri. The Old Field swamp provides the first pollen evidence that the vegetational changes along the southern border of the Prairie Peninsula were chronologically similar to those on the northern and northeastern margins. ?? 1977.

  16. Late Pleistocene paleosols in the lower Mississippi River Valley: Documentation of regional base level change

    SciTech Connect

    Autin, W.J. ); Aslan, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Late Pleistocene alluvial paleosols of the Mississippi River are developed in constructional fluvial deposits of ancestral meander belt, overbank, and flood basin deposits. At the type section of the Mt. Pleasant Bluff Alloformation of the Prairie Complex, the upper paleosol developed between 27 and 22 ka as part of a sequence of stacked paleosols that reflect cycles of an abandoned channel fill draped by proximal overbank deposits. Peoria Loess and mixed loess accumulated between 22 and 12 ka to bury the alluvial sequence. Base level lowering coincided with Late Wisconsinan glaciation and a minimum sea level at about 20 to 18 ka. Subsequent Holocene alluvial aggradation and valley wall plantation produced the present terrace escarpment. Soil morphology of the Mt. Pleasant Bluff Alloformation reflects two stages of soil development related to the removal of soils from an active flood plain environment to a terraced landscape position. Based on comparison with Holocene analogs, the first stage of pedogenesis in an active flood plain environment produced a hydromorphic soil as evidenced by color mottles, iron and carbonate nodules, and moderately developed B and C horizons. The second stage of development produced a more oxidized and leached soil profile as evidenced by an increase in soil color brightness, kaolinite content, and a decrease in smectite content and soil pH. In addition, pedogenic mixing by biogenic processes probably incorporated the A and E horizons into the overlying loess. A stratigraphic succession of alluvial paleosols may contain a record of regional base level rise and fall. However, an evaluation of eustatic, climatic, and/or tectonic influences on regional base level must first take into account local factors that control flood plain sedimentation and erosion.

  17. Computer modeling of ground-water availability in the Pootatuck River Valley, Newtown, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeni, F.P.; Handman, Elinor H.

    1978-01-01

    A hydrologic analysis of the stratified drift in Newtown, Conn., based on available data, test drilling, seismic refraction profiling, and the stream-aquifer connection was performed using a digital computer model. Simulated pumping indicates that a total of 4.0 million gallons of water per day (Mgal/d) can be withdrawn from the stream-aquifer system. A minimum of 2.5 Mgal/d is available for future development since Fairfield Hills Hospital is capable of withdrawing 1.5 Mgal/d. Induced recharge from the Pootatuck River supplies 65 percent, or 2.6 Mgal/d of the total pumpage, and captured ground-water outflow supplies the remaining 35 percent of 1.4 Mgal/d. The predicted yields are for long-term average hydrologic conditions; usually dry or extended drought periods would significantly reduce the water available from the aquifer. The quality of surface water in the valley as shown by seven samples from five sites, meets the Connecticut standards for public drinking water except for excessive coliform bacteria. Ground-water quality also meets these standards, as indicated by analyses of 20 samples from 14 wells and 1 spring, but high manganese (up to 15 mg/L) and iron (up to 1.7 mg/L) would require treatment prior to use. Trace metals from one surface-water and four ground-water samples are also within these standards, except for the high cadmium concentration of 26 micrograms per liter in water from one well. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial-drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many of the communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from ground water. Recent events have shown that these aquifers are highly susceptible to contamination that results from a number of sources, such as seepage from wastewater lagoons, leaking petroleum-product storage tanks, and road salting. To protect the quality of water pumped from supply wells in these aquifers, it is necessary to ensure that potentially harmful contaminants do not enter the ground in the area that contributes water to the well. A high degree of protection can be achieved through the application of appropriate land-use controls within the contributing area. However, the contributing areas for most supply wells are not known. This report describes the factors that affect the size and shape of contributing areas to public supply wells and evaluates several methods that may be used to delineate contributing areas of wells in glacial-drift, river-valley aquifers. Analytical, two-dimensional numerical, and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to a hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial-drift aquifers in New England. The controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and

  19. Facies and facies association of the siliciclastic Brak River and carbonate Gemsbok formations in the Lower Ugab River valley, Namibia, W. Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciullo, F. V. P.; Ribeiro, A.; Trouw, R. A. J.; Passchier, C. W.

    2007-03-01

    The Neoproterozoic Zerrissene Turbidite Complex of central-western Namibia comprises five turbiditic units. From the base to the top they are the Zebrapüts Formation (greywacke and pelite), Brandberg West Formation (marble and pelite), Brak River Formation (greywacke and pelite with dropstones), Gemsbok River Formation (marble and pelite) and Amis River Formation (greywacke and pelites with rare carbonates and quartz-wacke). In the Lower Ugab River valley, five siliciclastic facies were recognised in the Brak River Formation. These are massive and laminated sandstones, classical turbidites (thick- and thin-bedded), mudrock, rare conglomerate and breccia. For the carbonate Gemsbok River Formation four facies were identified including massive non-graded and graded calcarenite, fine grained evenly bedded blue marble and calcareous mudrock. Most of these facies are also present in the other siliciclastic units of the Zerrissene Turbidite Complex as observed in other areas. The vertical facies association of the siliciclastic Brak River Formation is interpreted as representing sheet sand lobe to lobe-fringe palaeoenvironment with the abandonment of siliciclastic deposition at the top of the succession. The vertical facies association of the carbonate Gemsbok Formation is interpreted as the slope apron succession overlain by periplatform facies, suggesting a carbonate slope sedimentation of a prograding depositional shelf margin. If the siliciclastic-carbonate paired succession would represent a lowstand relative sea-level and highstand relative sea-level, respectively, the entire turbidite succession of the Zerrissene Turbidite Complex can be interpreted as three depositional sequences including two paired siliciclastic-carbonate units (Zebrapüts-Brandberg West formations; Brak River-Gemsbok formations) and an incomplete succession without carbonate at the top (Amis River Formation).

  20. Siphateles (Gila) sp. and Catostomus sp. from the Pleistocene OIS-6 Lake Gale, Panamint Valley, Owens River system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Smith, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Panamint Valley lies within the Owens River system which linked southeastern Sierra Nevada basins between Mono Lake and Death Valley during glacial-pluvial times. Previous work indicates that late Pleistocene glacial-pluvial Lake Gale, Panamint Valley was an open system during OIS-6, a closed ground water supported shallow lake during OIS-4, and the terminal lake basin for the Owens River system during OIS-2. We here report the first occurrence of fossil fish from the Plio-Pleistocene Panamint basin. Fish remains are present in late Pleistocene OIS-6 nearshore deposits associated with a highstand that was spillway limited at Wingate Wash. The deposits contain small minnow-sized remains from both Siphateles or Gila sp. (chubs) and Catostomus sp. (suckers) from at least four locations widely dispersed in the basin. Siphateles or Gila sp. and Catostomus are indigenous to the Pleistocene and modern Owens River system, in particular to the historic Owens Lake area. Cyprinodon (pupfish) and Rhinichthys (dace) are known from the modern Amargosa River and from Plio-Pleistocene deposits in Death Valley to the east. The late Pleistocene OIS-6 to OIS-2 lacustrine and paleohydrologic record in Panamint basin is interpreted from ostracod assemblages, relative abundance of Artemia sp. pellets, shallow water indicators including tufa fragments, ruppia sp. fragments and the relative abundance of charophyte gyrogonites obtained from archived core, as well as faunal assemblages from paleoshoreline and nearshore deposits. The OIS-4 groundwater supported shallow saline lake had sufficiently low ratios of alkalinity to calcium (alk/Ca) to support the occurrence of exotic Elphidium sp. (?) foraminfera which are not observed in either OIS-2 or OIS-6 lacustrine deposits. The arrival of Owens River surface water into Panamint Basin during OIS-2 is recorded by the first appearance of the ostracod Limnocythere sappaensis at ~27 m depth in an ~100 m archived core (Smith and Pratt, 1957) which

  1. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  2. Influence of logjam-formed hard points on the formation of valley-bottom landforms in an old-growth forest valley, Queets River, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Abbe, Tim B.

    2006-01-01

    Field surveys and radiocarbon dating of buried logjams in the floodplain of an old-growth forest river demonstrate the formation of erosion-resistant "hard points" on the floodplain of the Queets River, Washington. These hard points provide refugia for development of old-growth forest patches in frequently disturbed riparian environments dominated by immature forest. Our surveys show that local bed aggradation associated with logjams not only influences channel patterns and profiles but leads to development of a patchwork of elevated landforms that can coalesce to form portions of the valley bottom with substantial (i.e., 1 to >4 m) relief above the bankfull elevation. In addition, logjam-formed hard points promote channel avulsion, anastomosing morphology, and growth of mature patches of floodplain forest that, in turn, provide large logs needed to form more logjam-formed hard points. Hence, our findings substantiate the potential for a feedback mechanism through which hard points sustain complex channel morphology and a patchwork floodplain composed of variable-elevation surfaces. Conversely, such a feedback further implies that major changes in riparian forest characteristics associated with land use can lead to dramatic simplification in channel and floodplain morphology.

  3. Mercury Loads in the South River and Simulation of Mercury Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for the South River, South Fork Shenandoah River, and Shenandoah River: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Due to elevated levels of methylmercury in fish, three streams in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia have been placed on the State's 303d list of contaminated waters. These streams, the South River, the South Fork Shenandoah River, and parts of the Shenandoah River, are downstream from the city of Waynesboro, where mercury waste was discharged from 1929-1950 at an industrial site. To evaluate mercury contamination in fish, this total maximum daily load (TMDL) study was performed in a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The investigation focused on the South River watershed, a headwater of the South Fork Shenandoah River, and extrapolated findings to the other affected downstream rivers. A numerical model of the watershed, based on Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) software, was developed to simulate flows of water, sediment, and total mercury. Results from the investigation and numerical model indicate that contaminated flood-plain soils along the riverbank are the largest source of mercury to the river. Mercury associated with sediment accounts for 96 percent of the annual downstream mercury load (181 of 189 kilograms per year) at the mouth of the South River. Atmospherically deposited mercury contributes a smaller load (less than 1 percent) as do point sources, including current discharge from the historic industrial source area. In order to determine how reductions of mercury loading to the stream could reduce methylmercury concentrations in fish tissue below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.3 milligrams per kilogram, multiple scenarios were simulated. Bioaccumulation of mercury was expressed with a site-specific exponential relation between aqueous total mercury and methylmercury in smallmouth bass, the indicator fish species. Simulations indicate that if mercury loading were to decrease by 98.9 percent from 189

  4. Groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, Idaho--A groundwater-flow model for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James; Vincent, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR), will use the current understanding of the Wood River Valley aquifer system to construct a MODFLOW numerical groundwater-flow model to simulate potential anthropogenic and climatic effects on groundwater and surface-water resources. This model will serve as a tool for water rights administration and water-resource management and planning. The study will be conducted over a 3-year period from late 2012 until model and report completion in 2015.

  5. A new green anole lizard of the "Dactyloa" clade (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from the Magdalena river valley of Colombia .

    PubMed

    Velasco, Julián A; Hurtado-Gómez, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Anolis from the Magdalena river valley in Colombia. The new species is morphologically similar to Anolis ibanezi and A. chocorum, but differs in body and dewlap color, and head scalation. We performed an exploratory multivariate analysis based on 15 morphological characteristics of the new species and A chocorum and found that differences between both species are mainly associated with head dimensions. A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters suggests that the new species is nested within the "Dactyloa" clade of Anolis. Finally, we discuss phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical affinities based in its distribution.  PMID:24872178

  6. A mid to late Holocene history of floodplain and terrace reworking along the middle Delaware River valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinchcomb, Gary E.; Driese, Steven G.; Nordt, Lee C.; Allen, Peter M.

    2012-10-01

    This study tests and refines the traditional floodplain development model for the partly confined middle Delaware River valley, which has shown that the main channel was relatively stable and flanked by a 6000-8000 year old, vertically accreting alluvial terrace. The Holocene alluvial processes and history presented here in 6 fluvial phases were reconstructed using morphostratigraphy, 36 profile descriptions, 332 grain size analyses, and 82 14C ages from soil trenches, auger borings, and archaeological excavations. Fluvial phases I-III largely validate previous reconstructions showing a late Pleistocene (I: > 10.7 ka) braided stream transition into an early Holocene wandering stream with prolonged floodplain stability (II: 10.7-8 ka), followed by early-middle Holocene erosion and then deposition (III: 8-5 ka). The early and middle Holocene changes in alluvial stratigraphy and sedimentology broadly correlate with climatically derived Holocene subdivisions, suggesting climate change partly controls alluvial response along the middle Delaware River valley. This study documents for the first time a middle Holocene episode of channel incision occurring sometime between 6.0 and 5.0 ka. Although the results reconfirm that the majority of alluvial landforms are composed of vertical accretion deposits, we present here new evidence of oblique, abandoned channel, and lateral accretion deposits inset to similar landforms with different formation histories (i.e., polycyclic terrace development), depicting a river valley that has experienced floodplain and terrace reworking. The majority of floodplain and terrace reworking occurs during the late-middle and late Holocene phases IV-VI (5.5-0 ka), following the middle Holocene incision event. These phases demonstrate floodplain reworking processes in the form of channel abandonment, stripping, flood channeling, and convex bank erosion. The subsequent space filled rapidly with evidence of multistory soil formation, and eventually

  7. Garnet-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry: refinement and application to the English River subprovince and the Minnesota River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Dexter; Chipera, Steve J.

    1985-03-01

    colname="c1"> 3.6 1.6 Otter Lake, Quebec 9.3 7.7 Qianxi Country, China 11.0 10.7 The above pressures are, in general, in excellent agreement with previous estimates. The results for the English River subprovince and for the Minnesota River Valley further support the idea that the Archean crust was, in some areas, in excess of 20 km thick.

  8. Effects of ground-water withdrawals on flow in the Sauk River Valley Aquifer and on streamflow in the Cold Spring area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The simulated contributing areas for selected watersupply wells in the Cold Spring area generally extend to and possibly beyond the model boundaries to the north and to the southeast. The contributing areas for the Gold'n Plump Poultry Processing Plant supply wells extend: (1) to the Sauk River, (2) to the north to and possibly beyond to the northern model boundary, and (3) to the southeast to and possibly beyond the southeastern model boundary. The primary effects of projected increased ground-water withdrawals of 0.23 cubic feet per second (7.5 percent increase) were to: (1) decrease outflow from the Sauk River Valley aquifer through constant-head boundaries and (2) decrease leakage from the valley unit of the Sauk River Valley aquifer to the streams. No appreciable differences were discernible between the simulated steady-state contributing areas to wells with 1998 pumpage and those with the projected pumpage.

  9. Source attribution, physicochemical properties and spatial distribution of wet deposited mercury to the Ohio River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Emily Mae

    Mercury (Hg) is a bioaccumulative neurotoxin that is emitted from anthropogenic sources through fossil fuel combustion. The spatial scale of atmospheric transport prior to deposition is dependent on the chemical and physical form of Hg emissions, and has yet to be quantitatively defined. A five-year comprehensive Hg monitoring and source apportionment study was conducted in Steubenville, Ohio to investigate atmospheric Hg deposition to the highly industrialized Ohio River Valley region. Long-term event-precipitation measurements revealed a significant 30% to three-fold enrichment of Hg concentrations and total Hg deposition flux to the Steubenville site over other Great Lakes regional sites. Multivariate receptor models attributed ˜70% of Hg wet deposition to local coal combustion sources. While local stagnant atmospheric conditions led to moderately high volume-weighted mean Hg concentrations and the majority of Hg wet deposition flux, regional transport from the Chicago/Gary and Detroit/Windsor urban areas also led to elevated precipitation Hg concentrations, but did not contribute significantly to the overall Hg deposition. The degree of local source influence was established during a summertime field intensive study in which a local scale network of concurrently collected rain samples revealed that 42% of Hg wet deposition measured less than one km from the base of coal fired utilities could be attributed to the adjacent source, corresponding to 170% Hg concentration enhancement over regionally representative precipitation collected concurrently. In addition, 69+/-37% of the Hg collected in rain was in a soluble form, entering the precipitation as reactive gas phase or fine particle associated Hg. The Hg scavenging coefficient (rate of concentration reduction throughout a single precipitation event) was particularly low when compared to other trace elements. Furthermore, when compared to an upwind but non-locally source impacted site, the scavenging

  10. Using GPS to Quantify Three Dimensional Storage and Aquifer Deformation in the Virgin River Valley, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, S. M.; Burbey, T. J.; Blewitt, G.; Bell, J. W.; Hill, E.; Johnson, M.

    2003-12-01

    Quantifying aquifer storage is important in order to characterize aquifer response and optimize aquifer pumping in large well fields located in thick sedimentary basins like those in the arid southwestern United States. The majority of this water is released from storage because of aquifer-system compaction. Historically this compaction was assumed to occur only in the vertical direction. However, aquifer mechanics and related field investigations indicate that strain is three-dimensional and the amount of water released from storage by horizontal strain can be significant. The development of empirically-based analytical techniques that allow for accurate quantification of storage and an assessment of the strain components at various radii from the pumping well are needed. From May through August, 2003, field scale aquifer testing and land subsidence monitoring were performed in the Virgin River Valley at Mesquite, NV. The goals were to determine the usefulness of storage quantification methods at the field scale and developing an effective inexpensive method to monitor three-dimensional deformation patterns due to removal of water from storage. The ground movement was monitored using choke ring antennas and GPS receivers at 10 different locations at various distances from the pumping well for 100 days. The well was pumped for approximately 12 hours each day at a rate of about 18000 m3/d. Compared to pumping at a steady rate, pulsating pumping (i.e. on and off cycles) has been shown to concentrate vertical deformation closer to the pumping well. The effect of pulsed pumping on horizontal deformation is previously not well documented but can now be investigated. The GPS data and pumping data collected from the aquifer test will be used to quantify aquifer strain in three dimensions at various distances from the well and stages during pumping. These strain patterns will provide information about possible faults in the area that affect groundwater flow, provide

  11. Geophysical Characterization for a CO2 Sequestration Potential in the Ohio River Valley Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Jagucki, P.; Meggyesy, D.; Janosy, R.; Sminchak, J.; Ramakrishan, T.; Boyd, A.

    2003-12-01

    A site at the American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant, WV in the Ohio River Valley in the Midwestern U.S., a region with the economy heavily dependent on fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, is being evaluated to determine the potential for geologic sequestration. The project is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Battelle, AEP, BP, The Ohio Air Quality Development Office, and Schlumberger. The major objective of the current phase is to characterize the reservoir at the plant site. Future decisions with regard to CO2 injection will be subject to the evaluated reservoir properties. The effort includes acquisition of 2-dimensional seismic data, assessment of regional geology, drilling to PreCambrian rocks and formation analysis and testing in a 2,800 meters deep well, reservoir simulations, risk assessment, and stakeholder outreach. The test well reached total depth in summer 2003. Wireline logging and reservoir testing was performed for each section of the borehole, including extensive tests in the lowermost 885 meters to estimate formation properties and pressure gradients. The logs included gamma-ray, neutron and density, and array resistivity, magnetic resonance relaxation for permeability information, elemental composition via capture spectroscopy, and resistivity based formation image. The seismic survey was conducted over approximately 11 miles along 2 lines: one along strike and one along dip. The results of the geophysical surveys combined with the field observations provide an integrated assessment of the major injection parameters for the two main injection reservoirs of interest, the Rose Run Formation and the Lower Maryville formation. In addition, the properties of the potential caprock formations overlying the candidate injection zones were also determined. The results of this characterization will be presented with emphasis on geophysical testing and seismic survey. These results are also being used to conduct reservoir

  12. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of

  13. Geographic information science: Contribution to understanding salt and sodium affected soils in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Ramatoulaye

    The Senegal River valley and delta (SRVD) are affected by long term climate variability. Indicators of these climatic shifts include a rainfall deficit, warmer temperatures, sea level rise, floods, and drought. These shifts have led to environmental degradation, water deficits, and profound effects on human life and activities in the area. Geographic Information Science (GIScience), including satellite-based remote sensing methods offer several advantages over conventional ground-based methods used to map and monitor salt-affected soil (SAS) features. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of information on soil salinization extracted from Landsat satellite imagery. Would available imagery and GIScience data analysis enable an ability to discriminate natural soil salinization from soil sodication and provide an ability to characterize the SAS trend and pattern over 30 years? A set of Landsat MSS (June 1973 and September 1979), Landsat TM (November 1987, April 1994 and November 1999) and ETM+ (May 2001 and March 2003) images have been used to map and monitor salt impacted soil distribution. Supervised classification, unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection methods were used. Supervised classifications of May 2001 and March 2003 images were made in conjunction field data characterizing soil surface chemical characteristics that included exchange sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the electrical conductivity (EC). With this supervised information extraction method, the distribution of three different types of SAS (saline, saline-sodic, and sodic) was mapped with an accuracy of 91.07% for 2001 image and 73.21% for 2003 image. Change detection results confirmed a decreasing trend in non-saline and saline soil and an increase in saline-sodic and sodic soil. All seven Landsat images were subjected to the unsupervised classification method which resulted in maps that separate SAS according to their degree of

  14. Organic carbon flux and particulate organic matter composition in Arctic valley glaciers: examples from the Bayelva River and adjacent Kongsfjorden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhuo-Yi; Wu, Ying; Liu, Su-Mei; Wenger, Fred; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2016-02-01

    In the face of ongoing global warming and glacier retreat, the composition and flux of organic matter in glacier-fjord systems are key variables for updating the carbon cycle and budget, whereas the role of Arctic valley glaciers seems unimportant when compared with the huge Greenland Ice Sheet. Our field observations of the glacier-fed Bayelva River, Svalbard, and the adjacent Kongsfjorden allowed us to determine the compositions of particulate organic matter from glacier to fjord and also to estimate the flux of organic carbon, both for the river and for Svalbard in general. Particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Bayelva River averaged 56 and 73 µM, respectively, in August, 2012. Amino acids (AAs) and phytoplankton carbon accounted for ˜ 10 % of the bulk POC in the Bayelva River, while AAs represented > 90 % of particulate nitrogen (PN) in fjord surface water, suggesting the strong in situ assimilation of organic matter. Bacteria accounted for 13 and 19 % of the POC in the Bayelva River and the Kongsfjorden, respectively, while values for PN were much higher (i.e., 36 % in Kongsfjorden). The total discharge from the Bayelva River in 2012 was 29 × 106 m3. Furthermore, we calculated the annual POC, DOC, and PN fluxes for the river as 20 ± 1.6 tons, 25 ± 5.6 tons, and 4.7 ± 0.75 tons, respectively. Using the POC content and DOC concentration data, we then estimated the annual POC and DOC fluxes for Svalbard glaciers. Although the estimated POC (0.056 ± 0.02 × 106 tons year-1) and DOC (0.02 ± 0.01 × 106 tons year-1) fluxes of Svalbard glaciers are small in amount, its discharge-weighted flux of DOC was over twice higher than other pan-Arctic glacier systems, suggesting its important role as a terrestrial DOC source.

  15. Shallow subsurface geology of part of the Savannah River alluvial valley in the upper Coastal Plain of Georgia and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, D.C.; Nagle, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The depth to which Coastal Plain rivers incise underlying formations is an important control on local and regional hydrologic flow systems. In order to clarify these stream/aquifer relations, a better understanding of the shallow subsurface geology of the Savannah River was necessary. To accomplish this, three drillhole transects were completed across a part of the Savannah River alluvial valley in September 1993, and five geologic sections were constructed from the data. The alluvium is coarser, more angular, and more poorly sorted than the underlying formations, and lithologic differences between the strata are readily apparent, especially in areas where the underlying strata are of marine origin. Inspection of the transects indicates an asymmetry to both the alluvial terrace complex and the underlying bedrock strath. The alluvium thins in a coastward direction; and similarly, bulk-grain size diminishes in a downstream direction. This phenomenon has remained constant over time and is most likely a function of the change in slope which occurs when the river traverses the Fall Line north of the study area. The maximum thickness of the alluvial valley fill is 50 ft. The elevation of the unconformity between the alluvium and the underlying formation is far below the lowest elevation of the modern-day thalweg, indicating that the alluvial system has aggraded to form the modern-day Savannah River Valley. Formerly, the Savannah River was located immediately adjacent to and east of the modern floodplain when the river valley was formed by a cyclic pattern of infilling and subsequent entrenchment that gave rise to an irregular bedrock surface beneath the depositional terrace system. After this depositional period, the river migrated to the southwest and began a period of downcutting that ended with the formation of the unconformity (erosional terrace) that lies some 45 ft. beneath the modern-day river. The protracted southwestward migration of the river system is perhaps

  16. High-precision U-Pb geochronology in the Minnesota River Valley subprovince and its bearing on the Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic evolution of the southern Superior Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitz, M.D.; Bowring, S.A.; Southwick, D.L.; Boerboom, Terrence; Wirth, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    High-precision U-Pb ages have been obtained for high-grade gneisses, late-kinematic to postkinematic granitic plutons, and a crosscutting mafic dike of the Archean Minnesota River Valley tectonic subprovince, at the southern ramparts of the Superior craton of North America. The antiquity of the Minnesota River Valley terranes is confirmed by a high-precision U-Pb zircon age of 3422 ?? 2 Ma for a tonalitic phase of the Morton Gneiss. Voluminous, late-kinematic monzogranites of the Benson (Ortonville granite) and Morton (Sacred Heart granite) blocks yield identical crystallization ages of 2603 ?? 1 Ma, illustrating the synchrony and rapidity of deep crustal melting and plutonism throughout the Minnesota River Valley terranes. Postkinematic, 2591 ?? 2 Ma syenogranites and aplitic dikes in both blocks effectively constrain the final penetrative deformation of the Minnesota River Valley subprovince. Monazite growth from 2609 to 2595 Ma in granulitic paragneisses of the Benson and Montevideo blocks is interpreted to record prograde to peak granulite facies metamorphic conditions associated with crustal thickening and magmatism. Neoarchean metamorphism and plutonism are interpreted to record the timing of collisional accretion and terminal suturing of the Mesoarchean continental Minnesota River Valley terranes to the southern margin of the Superior Province, along the western Great Lakes tectonic zone. Subsequent Paleoproterozoic rifting of this margin is recorded by voluminous basaltic dike intrusion, expressed in the Minnesota River Valley by major WNW-trending tholeiitic diabase dikes dated at 2067 ?? 1 Ma, only slightly younger than the structurally and geochemically similar 2077 ?? 4 Ma Fort Frances (Kenora-Kabetogama) dike swarm of northern Minnesota and adjoining Canada. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  17. Particulate organic matter composition and organic carbon flux in Arctic valley glaciers: examples from the Bayelva River and adjacent Kongsfjorden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.-Y.; Wu, Y.; Liu, S.-M.; Wenger, F.; Hu, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.-F.

    2015-09-01

    In the face of ongoing global warming and glacier retreat, the composition and flux of organic matter in glacier-fjord systems are key variables for updating the carbon cycle and budget, whereas the role of Arctic valley glaciers seems unimportant when compared with the huge Greenland Ice Sheet. Our field observations of the glacier-fed Bayelva River, Svalbard, and the adjacent Kongsfjorden allowed us to determine the compositions of particulate organic matter from glacier to fjord and also to estimate the flux of organic carbon, both for the river and for Svalbard in general. Particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Bayelva River averaged 56 and 73 μM, respectively, in August 2012. Amino acids (AAs) and phytoplankton pigments accounted for ~ 10 % of the particulate organic matter (POM) in the Bayelva River, while AAs represented > 90 % of particulate nitrogen in fjord surface water, suggesting the strong in situ assimilation of organic matter. Bacteria accounts for 13 and 19 % of the POC in the Bayelva River and the Kongsfjorden, respectively, while values for particulate nitrogen (PN) are much higher (i.e., 36 % in Kongsfjorden). The total discharge from the Bayelva River in 2012 was 29 × 106 m3. Furthermore, we calculated the annual POC, DOC, and PN fluxes for the river as 20 ± 1.6, 25 ± 5.6, and 4.7 ± 0.75 t, respectively. Using the POC content and DOC concentration data, we then estimated the annual POC and DOC fluxes for Svalbard glaciers. Although the estimated POC (0.056 ± 0.02 × 106 t yr-1) and DOC (0.02 ± 0.01 × 106 t yr-1) fluxes of Svalbard glaciers are small compared with those of the Greenland Ice Sheet, the area-weighted POC flux of Svalbard glaciers is twice that of the Greenland Ice Sheet, while the flux of DOC can be 4 to 7 times higher. Therefore, we propose that valley glaciers are efficient high-latitude sources of organic carbon.

  18. 77 FR 73976 - Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests; Idaho; Crooked River Valley Rehabilitation Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... from the road surface, and often floods during spring runoff. Crooked River Road 233 prism is within... The current Road 233 prism is within the bankfull floodplain of Crooked River for much of its...

  19. Holocene ethnobotanical and paleoecological record of human impact on vegetation in the Little Tennessee River Valley, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.; Cridlebaugh, Patricia A.; Chapman, Jefferson

    1986-05-01

    Human occupation and utilization of plant resources have affected vegetation in the lower Little Tennessee River Valley of East Tennessee for 10,000 yr. Changes in Indian cultures and land use are documented by radiocarbon chronologies, lithic artifacts, ceramics, settlement patterns, and ethnobotanical remains from 25 stratified archaeological sites within the Holocene alluvial terrace. The ethnobotanical record consists of 31,500 fragments (13.7 kg) of wood charcoal identified to species and 7.7 kg of carbonized fruits, seeds, nutshells, and cultigens from 956 features. Pollen and plant macrofossils from small ponds both in the uplands and on lower stream terraces record local vegetational changes through the last 1500 to 3000 yr. Human impact increased after cultigens, including squash and gourd, were introduced ca. 4000 yr B.P. during the Archaic cultural period. Forest clearance and cultivation disturbed vegetation on both the floodplain and lower terraces after 2800 yr B.P., during the Woodland period. Permanent Indian settlements and maize and bean agriculture extended to higher terraces 1.5 km from the floodplain by the Mississippian period (1000 to 300 yr B.P.). After 300 yr B.P., extensive land clearance and cultivation by Historic Overhill Cherokee and Euro-Americans spread into the uplands beyond the river valley.

  20. Evidence for synsedimentary coseismic hydraulic fracturing in the Middle Devonian Cedar Valley Group, Plum River Fault Zone of Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Ludvigson, G.A.; Gonzalez, L.A.; Faulds, J.E. )

    1993-03-01

    Correspondence between the Plum River Fault Zone and stratigraphic asymmetry the Middle Devonian Wapsipinicon and Cedar Valley groups in eastern Iowa have long been considered to record probable paleotectonism. Mesoscopic evidence for Devonian paleotectonism is exposed in strata of the Rapid Mbr of the Little Cedar Fm (Givetian) at the Silver Creek Graben, a 150 m-wide fault block within the Plum River Fault zone in southern Jackson county, Iowa. Little Cedar limestones are cut by multiple generations of brittle microstructures including compound sediment/spar-filled veins, tectonic stylolites that cut bedding at high angles, and late calcite veins coupled with stylolites. Internal sediments filling compound veins are preserved as unfossiliferous early gray and late olive-colored inclusion-rich microspars, both with mottled luminescence. Inclusions in the microspars consist of detrital illite and diagenetic microdolomite. Spars enclosing the internal sediments have a constructional oscillatory luminescent-nonluminescent zonation. Internal sediments in compound veins at Silver Creek Graben apparently were drawn downward through 15--30 m of overlying Cedar Valley carbonates to fill dilational fractures opened by coseismic hydraulic fracturing during the late Givetian erosional episode that followed deposition of the Coralville Fm. Preliminary sampling of cements and gray microspars from compound veins have [delta][sup 18]O values ranging from [minus]6 to [minus]5 [per thousand] and [delta][sup 13]C values ranging from [minus]6.5 to [minus]3 [per thousand]. These components are interpreted to record diagenesis in a meteoric phreatic environment.

  1. Morphogenetic evolution of the Têt river valley (eastern Pyrenees) using 10Be/21Ne cosmogenic burial dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartégou, Amandine; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Calvet, Marc; Zimmermann, Laurent; Tibari, Bouchaïb; Hez, Gabriel; Gunnell, Yanni; Aumaitre, Georges; Keddadouche, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The rates and chronologies of valley incision are closely modulated by the tectonic uplift of active mountain ranges and were controlled by repeated climate changes during the Quaternary. The continental collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates induced a double vergence orogen, the Pyrenees, which has been considered as a mature mountain range in spite of significant seismicity (e.g. Chevrot et al., 2011) and evidence of neotectonics (e.g. Goula et al., 1999). Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that the range may have never reached a steady state (Ford et al., in press). One option for resolving this controversy is to quantify the incision rates since the Miocene by reconstructing the vertical movement of geometric markers such as fluvial terraces. However, the few available ages from the Pyrenean terrace systems do not exceed the middle Pleistocene. Thus, to enlarge the time span of this dataset, we studied alluvium-filled horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone karstic networks. Such landforms are used as substitutes of fluvial terraces because they represent former valley floors (e.g. Palmer, 2007; Audra et al., 2013). They record the transient position of former local base levels during the process of valley deepening. The Têt river valley (southern Pyrenees) was studied near the Villefranche-de-Conflent limestone gorge where 8 cave levels have been recognized over a vertical height of 600 meters. Given that 26Al/10Be cosmogenic burial dating in this setting was limited to the last ~5 Ma (Calvet et al., 2015), here we used the cosmogenic 10Be/21Ne method in order to restore a more complete chronology of valley incision (e.g. Balco & Shuster, 2009; McPhilipps et al., 2016). Burial age results for alluvial deposits from 12 caves document incision rates since the Langhian (~14 Ma). Preliminary results indicate a history of valley deepening in successive stages. The data show a regular incision rate of 70-80 mm/a from the Langhian to the Messinian

  2. Aquifer-test results, direction of ground-water flow, and 1984-90 annual ground-water pumpage for irrigation, lower Big Lost River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.; Jones, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area (see index map of Idaho), part of the Big Lost River drainage basin, is at the northern side of the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower Big Lost River Valley extends from the confluence of Antelope Creek and the Big Lost River to about 4 mi south of Arco and encompasses about 145 mi2 (see map showing water-level contours). The study area is about 18 mi long and, at its narrowest, 4 mi wide. Arco, Butte City, and Moore, with populations of 1,016, 59, and 190, respectively, in 1990, are the only incorporated towns. The entire study area, except the extreme northwestern part, is in Butte City. The study area boundary is where alluvium and colluvium pinch out and abut against the White Knob Mountains (chiefly undifferentiated sedimentary rock with lesser amounts of volcanic rock) on the west and the Lost River Range (chiefly sedimentary rock) on the east. Gravel and sand in the valley fill compose the main aquifer. The southern boundary is approximately where Big Lost River valley fill intercalates with or abuts against basalt of the Snake River Group. Spring ground-water levels and flow in the Big Lost River depend primarily on temperature and the amount and timing of precipitation within the entire drainage basin. Periods of abundant water supply and water shortages are, therefore, related to the amount of annual precipitation. Surface reservoir capacity in the valley (Mackay Reservoir, about 20 mi northwest of Moore) is only 20 percent of the average annual flow of the Big Lost River (Crosthwaite and others, 1970, p. 3). Stored surface water is generally unavailable for carryover from years of abundant water supply to help relieve drought conditions in subsequent years. Many farmers have drilled irrigation wells to supplement surface-water supplies and to increase irrigated acreage. Average annual flow of the Big Lost River below Mackay Reservoir near Mackay (gaging station 13127000, not shown) in water years 1905, 1913-14, and 1920-90 was about 224

  3. Pre-and post-Missoula flood geomorphology of the Pre-Holocene ancestral Columbia River Valley in the Portland forearc basin, Oregon and Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Minor, Rick; Peterson, Gary L.; Gates, Edward B.

    2011-06-01

    Geomorphic landscape development in the pre-Holocene ancestral Columbia River Valley (1-5 km width) in the Portland forearc basin (~ 50 km length) is established from depositional sequences, which pre-date and post-date the glacial Lake Missoula floods. The sequences are observed from selected borehole logs (150 in number) and intact terrace soil profiles (56 in number) in backhoe trenches. Four sequences are widespread, including (1) a vertically aggraded Pleistocene alluvial plain, (2) a steep sided valley that is incised (125-150 m) into the Pleistocene gravel plain, (3) Missoula flood terraces (19-13 ka) abandoned on the sides of the ancestral valley, and (4) Holocene flooding surfaces (11-8 ka) buried at 70-30 m depth in the axial Columbia River Valley. Weathering rims and cementation are used for relative dating of incised Pleistocene gravel units. Soil development on the abandoned Missoula flood terraces is directly related to terrace deposit lithology, including thin Bw horizons in gravel, irregular podzols in sand, and multiple Bw horizons in thicker loess-capping layers. Radiocarbon dating of sand and mud alluvium in the submerged axial valley ties Holocene flooding surfaces to a local sea level curve and establishes Holocene sedimentation rates of 1.5 cm year- 1 during 11-9 ka and 0.3 cm year- 1 during 9-0 ka. The sequences of Pleistocene gravel aggradation, river valley incision, cataclysmic Missoula flooding, and Holocene submergence yield complex geomorphic landscapes in the ancestral lower Columbia River Valley.

  4. Availability of ground water for large-scale use in the Malad Valley-Bear River areas of southeastern Idaho: an initial assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, W.L.; Harder, A.H.; Dion, N.P.

    1969-01-01

    Five areas within the Bear River drainage of southeastern Idaho offer potential for further development of ground water--the valley north of Bear Lake, north of Soda Springs, Gem Valley, Cache Valley in Idaho, and Malad Valley in Idaho. Saturated deposits north of Bear Lake are too fine-textured to yield large quantities to wells; the areas north of Soda Springs and in Gem Valley would provide large yields, but at the expense of current beneficial discharge. Northern Cache Valley has small areas of high yield in the northwestern part, but total annual yield would be only about 20,000 acre-feet and seasonal water-level fluctuation would be large. Malad Valley contains a large aquifer system within valley fill underlying about 75 square miles. The aquifer system is several hundred feet thick, and contains about 1.8 million acre-feet of water in storage in the top 300 feet of saturated thickness. Average annual recharge to the valley-fill aquifer is about 64,000 acre-feet. Lowering of the water level 100 feet uniformly over the valley area would theoretically yield about 300,000 acre-feet from storage and salvage a present-day large nonbeneficial discharge. Sufficient water to irrigate all lands in a planned project near Samaria could be pumped with a maximum 200-foot pumping lift and then delivered by gravity flow. Such pumping would cause water-level lowering of a few feet to a few tens of feet in present artesian areas, and would cause many present-day artesian wells to cease flowing at land surface. Chemical-quality problems in Malad Valley seem not to be sufficient to prohibit development and use of the ground-water resource.

  5. Geochemistry of the Onyx River (Wright Valley, Antarctica) and its role in the chemical evolution of Lake Vanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William J.; Canfield, Donald E.

    1984-12-01

    The Onyx River (Wright Valley, Antarctica) is a dilute meltwater stream originating in the vicinity of the Wright Lower Glacier. It acquires a significant fraction of its salt content when glacial meltwaters contact Wright Valley soils at Lake Brownworth and the concentrations of all ions increase with distance along the 28-km channel down to Lake Vanda. Average millimolar concentrations of major ions at the Vanda weir during the 1980-1981 flow season were: Ca = 0.119; Mg = 0.061; Na = 0.212; K = 0.033; Q = 0.212; SO4 = 0.045; HCO3 = 0.295; and SiO2 = 0.049. Based on the flow measurements of Chinn (1982), this amounts to an annual flux (in moles) to Lake Vanda of: Ca = 0.238 × 10 6; Mg = 0.122 × 10 6; Na = 0.424 × 10 6; K = 0.066 × 10 6; Cl = 0.424 × 10 6; SO4 = 0.09 × 10 6; HCO3 = 0.59 × 10 6; SiO2 = 0.098 × 10 6. In spite of the large salt input from this source, equilibrium evaporation of Onyx River water would have resulted in early calcite deposition and in the formation of a Na-Mg-Cl-HCO 3 brine rather than in the Ca-Na-Mg-Cl waters observed in Lake Vanda. The river alone could not have produced a brine having the qualitative geochemical features of the lower saline waters of Lake Vanda. It is proposed that the Vanda brine is instead the result of past ( > 1200 yrs BP) mixing events between Onyx River inflows and calcium chloride-rich deep groundwaters derived from the Don Juan Basin. The mixing model presented here shows that the Onyx River is the major contributor of K, HCO 3, SO 4, and (possibly) Mg found in the lake and a significant contributor (approximately one half) of the observed Na. Calcium and Cl, on the other hand, came largely from deep groundwater sources in the Don Juan Basin. All concentrations except Mg are well predicted by this model. The chemical composition of the geologically recent upper lake is explained in terms of ionic diffusion from the pre-formed brine, coupled with Onyx River inflow. Ionic ratios calculated from this

  6. Hydrology and model of North Fork Solomon River Valley, Kirwin Dam to Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1981-01-01

    The alluvial valley of the North Fork Solomon River is an important agricultural area. Reservoir releases diverted below Kirwin Dam are the principal source of irrigation water. During the 1970'S, severe water shortages occurred in Kirwin Reservoir and other nearby reservoirs as a result of an extended drought. Some evidence indicates that surface-water shortages may have been the result of a change in the rainfall-runoff relationship. Examination of the rainfall-runoff relationship shows no apparent trend from 1951 to 1968, but annual records from 1969 to 1976 indicate that deficient rainfall occurred during 6 of the 8 years. Ground water from the alluvial aquifer underlying the river valley also is used extensively for irrigation. Utilization of ground water for irrigation greatly increased from about 200 acre-feet in 1955 to about 12,300 acre-feet in 1976. Part of the surface water diverted for irrigation has percolated downward into the aquifer raising the ground-water level. Ground-water storage in the aquifer increased from 230,000 acre-feet in 1946 to 275,000 acre-feet in 1976-77. A digital model was used to simulate the steady-state conditions in the aquifer prior to closure of Kirwin Dam. Model results indicated that precipitation was the major source of recharge to the aquifer. The effective recharge, or gain from precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was about 11,700 acre-feet per year. The major element of discharge from the aquifer was leakage to the river. The simulated net leakage (leakage to the river minus leakage from the river) was about 11,500 acre-feet per year. The simulated value is consistent with the estimated gain in base flow of the river within the area modeled. Measurements of seepage used to determine gain and loss to the stream were made twice during 1976. Based on these measurements and on base-flow periods identified from hydrographs, it was estimated that the ground-water discharge to the stream has increased about 4,000 acre

  7. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1

  8. Crustal anisotropy in the Archean Minnesota River Valley Subprovince and its significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebelin, A.; Ferre, E. C.; Teyssier, C.

    2007-12-01

    The origin and evolution of the American continental lithosphere is a key question addressed by EarthScope. The Superior Province formed as an amalgamation of Archean/ Proterozoic terranes that subsequently acted as a stabilizing nucleus. This province is characterized by a strong seismic anisotropy (SWS = 1.3 s) of unknown origin. As suggested for the Archean Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), this could be attributed (1) to current asthenospheric flow, or (2) to fossil lithospheric anisotropy, or (3) to the role of lithospheric keels on modern asthenospheric flow. The first hypothesis is not favored because SWS data for the Superior Province do not fit global mantle flow models. The second hypothesis would be compatible with obliquity between lithospheric mantle and crustal seismic anisotropies, possibly due to oblique docking. The third hypothesis would require asthenospheric flow to be controlled by lithospheric block geometry. The origin of seismic anisotropy and its spatial variations need to be determined to test these hypotheses. The deployment of USArray in the Superior Province in FY10, along with the prospect of deployment of a Flexible Array and the GeoFrame Superior focus area should provide a wealth of seismic data. Yet, the contribution of the Archean-early Proterozoic continental crust to seismic anisotropy is unknown. This study focusses on the Minnesota River Valley (MRV) Subprovince, part of the Superior Province. The MRV Subprovince consists of four juxtaposed blocks (Benson, Montevideo, Morton and Jeffers) of amphibolite to granulite grade migmatites, tonalites, granodiorites, diorites and pelitic rocks interlayered into each other. These blocks are separated by EW-dipping shear zones broadly parallel to SWS observations. In other parts of the world, the crustal seismic anisotropy is generally considered to be modest (SWS = 0.1-0.2 s), although experiments specifically designed to constrain it are scarce. The MRV represents a 200 km-wide, tilted

  9. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  10. 77 FR 41048 - Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... Federal Register (76 FR 139) for this event. The Coast Guard is issuing this final rule without prior... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster...