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1

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene and acrylonitrile with monofunctional and bifunctional initiators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bifunctional initiator (benzal bromide) was used to initiate the bulk atom transfer radical polymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile at 90°C with CuBr\\/2,2-bipyridyl. We compared these results with those of a monofunctional initiator of similar structure (1-bromoethyl benzene) under the same polymerization conditions. The monofunctional initiator worked better than the bifunctional initiator when both comonomers were added simultaneously at the

Mamdouh Al-Harthi; Amirpouyan Sardashti; João B. P. Soares; Leonardo C. Simon

2007-01-01

2

Highly enantioselective Michael addition of diethyl malonate to chalcones catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids-derivatived bifunctional tertiary amine-thioureas bearing multiple hydrogen-bonding donors.  

PubMed

Chalcones are still challenge substrates in Michael reactions, and only limited success has been achieved. This work describes a highly enantioselective Michael addition of diethyl malonate with chalcones catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids-derivatived bifunctional tertiary amine-thioureas bearing multiple hydrogen-bonding donors. PMID:24682148

Liu, Yulong; Wang, Xie; Wang, Xiaoyun; He, Wei

2014-05-28

3

Undelayed initialization in bearing only SLAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most solutions to the SLAM problem in robotics have utilised range and beating sensors as the provided perception data is easy to incorporate, allowing immediate landmark initialization. This is not the case when using bearing-only information because the distance to the perceived landmarks is not directly provided. A whole estimate of a landmark position is only possible via a set

Joan Sola; Andre Monin; Michel Devy; Thomas Lemaire

2005-01-01

4

Concurrent initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM.  

PubMed

Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:22294884

Munguía, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

2010-01-01

5

AMB rotor drop initial transient on ball and solid bearings  

SciTech Connect

The increasing number of critical path machinery applications using active magnetic bearing (AMB) technology has focused awareness on the necessity for proper design of the auxiliary (backup) bearings. These emergency bearings are required to support the rotor in the event of control system failure or to provide for operation during momentary overload conditions with the AMB control system still active. Full-scale testing of production machinery has demonstrated both successful rotor drops as well as limited cases of auxiliary bearing failure. The reliability required for critical path machinery makes it essential to completely understand what parameters control the nature of the rotor drop transients. The current research project is intended to help understand the dynamic behavior of the rotor/bearing/support systems in the case of total loss of AMB support. This work presents test results for the initial rotor drop transient for several backup bearing configurations. The cases reported are: rigidly mounted antifriction bearing, rigidly mounted solid bushings (lubricated and unlubricated), and two soft mounted solid bushing configurations.

Swanson, E.E.; Kirk, R.G.; Wang, J. [VA Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1995-12-31

6

Sequential Bearings-Only-Tracking Initiation with Particle Filtering Method  

PubMed Central

The tracking initiation problem is examined in the context of autonomous bearings-only-tracking (BOT) of a single appearing/disappearing target in the presence of clutter measurements. In general, this problem suffers from a combinatorial explosion in the number of potential tracks resulted from the uncertainty in the linkage between the target and the measurement (a.k.a the data association problem). In addition, the nonlinear measurements lead to a non-Gaussian posterior probability density function (pdf) in the optimal Bayesian sequential estimation framework. The consequence of this nonlinear/non-Gaussian context is the absence of a closed-form solution. This paper models the linkage uncertainty and the nonlinear/non-Gaussian estimation problem jointly with solid Bayesian formalism. A particle filtering (PF) algorithm is derived for estimating the model's parameters in a sequential manner. Numerical results show that the proposed solution provides a significant benefit over the most commonly used methods, IPDA and IMMPDA. The posterior Cramér-Rao bounds are also involved for performance evaluation. PMID:24453865

Hao, Chengpeng

2013-01-01

7

The bifunctional protein TtFARAT from Tetrahymena thermophila catalyzes the formation of both precursors required to initiate ether lipid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of ether lipids and wax esters requires as precursors fatty alcohols, which are synthesized by fatty acyl reductases (FARs). The presence of ether glycerolipids as well as branched wax esters has been reported in several free-living ciliate protozoa. In the genome of Tetrahymena thermophila, the only ORF sharing similarities with FARs is fused to an acyltransferase-like domain, whereas, in most other organisms, FARs are monofunctional proteins of similar size and domain structure. Here, we used heterologous expression in plant and yeast to functionally characterize the activities catalyzed by this protozoan protein. Transient expression in tobacco epidermis of a truncated form fused to the green fluorescence protein followed by confocal microscopy analysis suggested peroxisomal localization. In vivo approaches conducted in yeast indicated that the N-terminal FAR-like domain produced both 16:0 and 18:0 fatty alcohols, whereas the C-terminal acyltransferase-like domain was able to rescue the lethal phenotype of the yeast double mutant gat1? gat2?. Using in vitro approaches, we further demonstrated that this domain is a dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase that uses preferentially 16:0-coenzyme A as an acyl donor. Finally, coexpression in yeast with the alkyl-dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase from T. thermophila resulted the detection of various glycerolipids with an ether bond, indicating reconstitution of the ether lipid biosynthetic pathway. Together, these results demonstrate that this FAR-like protein is peroxisomal and bifunctional, providing both substrates required by alkyl-dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase to initiate ether lipid biosynthesis. PMID:24917677

Dittrich-Domergue, Franziska; Joubès, Jérôme; Moreau, Patrick; Lessire, René; Stymne, Sten; Domergue, Frédéric

2014-08-01

8

Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

1991-01-01

9

Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. Methods In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years) who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103), while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93). All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest group. Conclusion These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures. PMID:22573944

Kishikawa, Yoichi

2012-01-01

10

Undelayed Initialization in Bearing Only SLAM Joan Sol`a, Andre Monin, Michel Devy and Thomas Lemaire  

E-print Network

Undelayed Initialization in Bearing Only SLAM Joan Sol`a, Andr´e Monin, Michel Devy and Thomas to the SLAM problem in robotics have utilized Range and Bearing sensors as the provided perception data updates. Simulations have been carried out to validate the proposed algorithms. Index Terms-- SLAM, vision

Monin, André

11

Bifunctional Asymmetric Catalysis  

PubMed Central

CONSPECTUS In the field of catalytic, asymmetric synthesis, there is a growing emphasis on multifunctional systems, in which multiple parts of a catalyst or multiple catalysts work together to promote a specific reaction. These efforts, in part, are result-driven, and they are also part of a movement toward emulating the efficiency and selectivity of nature’s catalysts, enzymes. In this Account, we illustrate the importance of bifunctional catalytic methods, focusing on the cooperative action of Lewis acidic and Lewis basic catalysts by the simultaneous activation of both electrophilic and nucleophilic reaction partners. For our part, we have contributed three separate bifunctional methods that combine achiral Lewis acids with chiral cinchona alkaloid nucleophiles, for example, benzoylquinine (BQ), to catalyze highly enantioselective cycloaddition reactions between ketene enolates and various electrophiles. Each method requires a distinct Lewis acid to coordinate and activate the electrophile, which in turn increases the reaction rates and yields, without any detectable influence on the outstanding enantioselectivities inherent to these reactions. To place our results in perspective, many important contributions to this emerging field are highlighted and our own reports are chronicled. PMID:18402470

PAULL, DANIEL H.; ABRAHAM, CIBY J.; SCERBA, MICHAEL T.; ALDEN-DANFORTH, ETHAN; LECTKA, THOMAS

2008-01-01

12

The initial bearing capacities of subchondral bone replacements considerably contributing to chondrogenesis.  

PubMed

The degeneration of articular cartilage results from osteoarthritis and many other forms of severe arthritis. Current treatments for cartilage repair are less than satisfactory, and rarely restore a full function or return the tissue to its natural state. The leading strategies in the treatment are aimed at the transplantation of cells and/or the use of various biological grafts, bioactive agents, or biologically compatible implant matrices. The insertion of a crushed autologous bone graft has been reported as a possible therapy. However, the regenerative quality of the tissue was less than 70% of healthy cartilage for fragments and controls. The implantation of cycloolefin-blend 3D-cylinders with hydrogel scaffolds on their proximal parts and with the applications of type I collagen films is one of several surgical therapies. The replacement and continuous biomechanical properties of the subchondral bone play an important role in the morphology and the quality of chondrogenesis. The initial biomechanical stability of COC-blend polymer replacements in the subchondral bone contributes to the formation of a new cartilage tissue. The initial bearing capacities of the implanted tissue/replacements and vertical positions of the replacements have a principal influence upon both the quality and the quantity of new articular cartilage. PMID:21243971

Petrtýl, Miroslav; Danešová, Jana; Lísal, Jaroslav; Senolt, Ladislav; Hulejová, Hana; Polanská, Markéta; Bastl, Zden?k; Kruliš, Zden?k; Cerný, Pavel

2010-01-01

13

Initial in vivo evaluation of the newly developed axial flow turbo pump with hydrodynamic bearings.  

PubMed

An implantable, compact rotary blood pump has been newly developed using an axial flow turbo pump with hydrodynamic bearings. The rotating impeller, which is hydrodynamically levitated with the assistance of repulsive magnetic force, has no contact with the inner surface of the pump. To evaluate the hemodynamic performance and biocompatibility, the pump was installed into four calves for up to 90 days. The pump was installed in the left heart bypass fashion, and placed paracorporeally in the first two calves and in the thoracic cavity in the other two calves. All calves received anticoagulation and antiaggregation therapy during the study. Aortic pressure, heart rate and pump-operating parameters were continuously measured. Hematologic and biochemical tests to evaluate anemia, hepato-renal function and the extent of hemolysis were performed on schedule. Each calf was killed at the termination of the experiments, and pathological analysis for the biocompatibility of the pump system was performed, including the thrombi in the device, emboli in the systemic organs and signs of infection. The pump stably produced a flow of 5 l/min. Each calf was supported for 78, 50, 90 and 90 days, respectively, with no incidence of hemorrhage, organ failure or significant hemolysis. No thrombus formation or mechanical wearing was observed inside the pump. There was no evidence of heat injury around the pump. Device-related infections were observed, but the severity of infection was mild in the implant case compared to the paracorporeal case. The pump demonstrated acceptable hemodynamic performance and biocompatibility in the initial in vivo testing. PMID:21207088

Tanaka, Hideyuki; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Mizuno, Toshihide; Hidaka, Tatsuya; Okubo, Takeshi; Osada, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Shinji; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

2011-03-01

14

Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Methods Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. Results The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2? and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. Conclusion The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway. PMID:17341295

Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice R; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C

2007-01-01

15

75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Yang Jin Chun or Richard Rimlinger...December 10, 2008). On June 24, 2009, we initiated the administrative...1, 2008, through April 30, 2009. See Initiation of Antidumping...Part, 74 FR 30052 (June 24, 2009). After analysis of the...

2010-01-21

16

Redirecting splicing with bifunctional oligonucleotides  

PubMed Central

Ectopic modulators of alternative splicing are important tools to study the function of splice variants and for correcting mis-splicing events that cause human diseases. Such modulators can be bifunctional oligonucleotides made of an antisense portion that determines target specificity, and a non-hybridizing tail that recruits proteins or RNA/protein complexes that affect splice site selection (TOSS and TOES, respectively, for targeted oligonucleotide silencer of splicing and targeted oligonucleotide enhancer of splicing). The use of TOSS and TOES has been restricted to a handful of targets. To generalize the applicability and demonstrate the robustness of TOSS, we have tested this approach on more than 50 alternative splicing events. Moreover, we have developed an algorithm that can design active TOSS with a success rate of 80%. To produce bifunctional oligonucleotides capable of stimulating splicing, we built on the observation that binding sites for TDP-43 can stimulate splicing and improve U1 snRNP binding when inserted downstream from 5? splice sites. A TOES designed to recruit TDP-43 improved exon 7 inclusion in SMN2. Overall, our study shows that bifunctional oligonucleotides can redirect splicing on a variety of genes, justifying their inclusion in the molecular arsenal that aims to alter the production of splice variants. PMID:24375754

Brosseau, Jean-Philippe; Lucier, Jean-François; Lamarche, Andrée-Anne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Thibault, Philippe; Paquet, Éric; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Abou Elela, Sherif; Chabot, Benoit

2014-01-01

17

Local-global properties of bifunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representations of composite systems, such as bilinear programming, models of consumer\\/producer behavior, and sensitivity problems involve bifunctions (functions of two vector arguments). Such bifunctions are typically convex, pseudoconvex, or quasiconvex in each of their arguments, but not jointly convex, pseudoconvex, or quasiconvex. These functions do not in general possess the strong local-global property, namely, that every stationary point is a

Z. First; S. T. Hackman; U. Passy

1992-01-01

18

Highly stereoselective synthesis of cyclopentanes bearing four stereocentres by a rhodium carbene-initiated domino sequence.  

PubMed

Stereoselective synthesis of a cyclopentane nucleus by convergent annulation constitutes a significant challenge for synthetic chemists. Although a number of biologically relevant cyclopentane natural products are known, more often than not, the cyclopentane core is assembled in a stepwise manner because of the lack of efficient annulation strategies. Here we report the rhodium-catalysed reactions of vinyldiazoacetates with (E)-1,3-disubstituted 2-butenols generate cyclopentanes, containing four new stereogenic centres with very high levels of stereoselectivity (99% ee, >97: 3 dr). The reaction proceeds by a carbene-initiated domino sequence consisting of five distinct steps: rhodium-bound oxonium ylide formation, [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, oxy-Cope rearrangement, enol-keto tautomerization and finally an intramolecular carbonyl ene reaction. A systematic study is presented detailing how to control chirality transfer in each of the four stereo-defining steps of the cascade, consummating in the development of a highly stereoselective process. PMID:25082301

Parr, Brendan T; Davies, Huw M L

2014-01-01

19

Poly(ether-ether-ketone) orthopedic bearing surface modified by self-initiated surface grafting of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine).  

PubMed

We investigated the production of free radicals on a poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) substrate under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The amount of the ketyl radicals produced from the benzophenone (BP) units in the PEEK molecular structure initially increased rapidly and then became almost constant. Our observations revealed that the BP units in PEEK acted as photoinitiators, and that it was possible to use them to control the graft polymerization of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC). This "self-initiated surface graft polymerization" method is very convenient in the absence of external photoinitiator. We also investigated the effects of the monomer concentration and UV irradiation time on the extent of the grafted PMPC layer. Furthermore, as an application to improving the durability of artificial hips, we demonstrated the nanometer-scale photoinduced grafting of PMPC onto PEEK and carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK (CFR-PEEK) orthopedic bearing surfaces and interfaces. A variety of test revealed significant improvements in the water wettability, frictional properties, and wear resistance of the surfaces and interfaces. PMID:23891520

Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Yamane, Shihori; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

2013-10-01

20

Peroxisomal D-bifunctional protein deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the causative genetic lesion in 3 adult siblings with a slowly progressive, juvenile-onset phenotype comprising cerebellar atrophy and ataxia, intellectual decline, hearing loss, hypogonadism, hyperreflexia, a demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy, and (in 2 of 3 probands) supratentorial white matter changes, in whom numerous prior investigations were nondiagnostic. Methods: The patients’ initial clinical assessment included history and physical examination, cranial MRI, and nerve conduction studies. We performed whole-exome sequencing of all 3 probands, followed by variant annotation and selection of rare, shared, recessive coding changes to identify the gene responsible. We next performed a panel of peroxisomal investigations in blood and cultured fibroblasts, including assessment of D-bifunctional protein (DBP) stability and activity by immunoblot and enzymologic methods, respectively. Results: Exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous mutations in HSD17B4, encoding peroxisomal DBP, in all 3 probands. Both identified mutations alter a conserved residue within the active site of DBP’s enoyl-CoA hydratase domain. Routine peroxisomal screening tests, including very long-chain fatty acids and phytanic acid, were normal. DBP enzymatic activity was markedly reduced. Conclusion: Exome sequencing provides a powerful and elegant tool in the specific diagnosis of “mild” or “atypical” neurometabolic disorders. Given the broad differential diagnosis and the absence of detectable biochemical abnormalities in blood, molecular testing of HSD17B4 should be considered as a first-line investigation in patients with compatible features. PMID:24553428

Lines, Matthew A.; Jobling, Rebekah; Brady, Lauren; Marshall, Christian R.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Rodriguez, Amadeo R.; Lee, Liesly; Lang, Anthony E.; Mestre, Tiago A.; Wanders, Ronald J.A.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

2014-01-01

21

A bifunctional nanocarrier based on amphiphilic hyperbranched polyglycerol derivatives  

E-print Network

A bifunctional nanocarrier based on amphiphilic hyperbranched polyglycerol derivatives Indah N here report on the synthesis of a bifunctional nanocarrier system based on amphiphilic hyperbranched treatment. Introduction Nanocarrier systems based on amphiphilic macromolecules for drug delivery have

Peters, Achim

22

Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Arabidopsis Bifunctional Enzyme Dethiobiotin  

E-print Network

Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Arabidopsis Bifunctional Enzyme Dethiobiotin by a single enzyme encoded by a bifunctional gene originating from the fusion of prokaryotic monofunctional of a bifunctional enzyme in biotin synthesis pathway in eukaryotes and the relative implication of each

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Bifunctional immobilization of a hyperthermostable endo-?-1,3-glucanase.  

PubMed

Laminarinase A (LamA) from Pyrococcus furiosus is a hyperthermostable endo-?-1,3-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.39) belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family GH16. Here, we report the two-step immobilization of LamA on macroporous acrylic epoxy beads, extra-functionalized with disulfide groups. To facilitate initial immobilization via thiol-disulfide exchange, we introduced, by site-directed mutagenesis, a superficial cysteine residue near the protein C-terminal end. The thus-obtained S296C variant showed similar catalytic properties as native LamA. The activity of immobilized S296C displayed an inverse relationship with particle size. Use of conventional beads (150-300 ?m in diameter) obstructed the catalytic efficiency due to pore diffusion limitation of the polysaccharide substrate. Bifunctional attachment to milled beads (20-40 ?m) resulted in high enzyme load and outstanding catalytic features. Bifunctional immobilized S296C showed extreme pH stability and could be repeatedly used at 60 °C without significant activity loss. PMID:23666443

Przybysz, Agata; Volmer, Astrid A; Westphal, Adrie H; van Berkel, Willem J H

2014-02-01

24

Surface-initiated addition polymerization of norbornene by a Pd(II) catalyst bearing acetylacetone ligand on the glass slide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Pd catalyst bearing acetylacetone ligand [(CH3CO)2CHPdCl2] was covalently attracted onto the surface of glass slides, and then these Pd-terminated glass slides were immersed into a toluene solution of norbornene (NB) to produce a vinyl-type addition polynorbornene (PNB) layer on the surface of glass slides. It was found that the contract angles of the PNB-terminated glass slides surface increased with the increasing of polymerization time, and the thickness of the PNB layers were approximately 0-44.0 ?m when the polymerization time was 0.5-24 h. The researching on etching also has been operated.

He, Xiaohui; Wang, Kaiti; Chen, Yiwang; Yuan, Bin

2012-02-01

25

De novo synthesis of a new diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) bifunctional chelating agent.  

PubMed

Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been in extensive use as a metal chelator in the development of radiopharmaceuticals and contrast agents. The former application uses DTPA mostly as a bifunctional chelating agent (BCA) conjugated to tumor-targeting vehicles (TTVs) such as monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and receptor-directed peptides. A new bifunctional DTPA derivative was synthesized by a fully organic scheme. This compound, N(4),N(alpha),N(alpha),N(epsilon),N(epsilon)-[pentakis(carboxymethyl)]-N(4)-(carboxymethyl)-2,6-diamino-4-azahexanoic hydrazide (20) was prepared by a convergent synthesis strategy using N(alpha)-benzyloxycarbonyl-2,3-diaminopropionic acid as the starting compound. This commercially available material was used to build a functionalized triamine which served as the molecular core template for assembling the target molecule. To evaluate the conjugation and radiolabeling capabilities of this new molecule, it was covalently attached to the anti-TAG-72 MAb, Delta CH2HuCC49, and the conjugate was radiolabeled in near-quantitative yields with yttrium-90 ((90)Y) and lutetium-177 ((177)Lu). Biodistribution of the (177)Lu-labeled DTPA-Delta CH2HuCC49 in tumor-bearing nude mice demonstrated preservation of the immunoreactivity of the MAb as indicated by high tumor uptake. In addition to the introduction of a new bifunctional DTPA, this work reports on a novel synthetic approach for preparation of this useful metal chelator and introduces a new conjugation protocol. PMID:11906270

Safavy, Ahmad; Smith, Dale C; Bazooband, Alireza; Buchsbaum, Donald J

2002-01-01

26

Bifunctional Janus microparticles with spatially segregated proteins  

PubMed Central

We present a fabrication process to create bifunctional microparticles displaying two distinct proteins that are spatially segregated onto the surface hemispheres. Silica and polystyrene microparticles with 2.0 ?m, 4.1 ?m, and 4.7 ?m diameters are processed with metal deposition to form two chemically distinct and segregated hemispheres. The surface of each hemisphere is then separately derivatized with biological proteins using different chemical conjugation strategies. These bifunctional Janus particles possess biologically relevant, native conformation proteins attached to a biologically-unreactive and safe substrate. They also display high densities of each type of proteins which may enable a range of capabilities that monofunctional particles cannot, such as improved targeting of drugs and bioimaging agents. PMID:22624704

Tang, Jennifer L.; Schoenwald, Kipp; Potter, Daniel; White, David; Sulchek, Todd

2012-01-01

27

Polar Bears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the following websites to answer questions about the rapid disappearance of polar bears in the Arctic region. Polar Bear picture Polar Bear Tracker 1: What region in the world has the fewest polar bears? 2: Using the internet as a resource, provide some reasons as to why this region is suffering from the most polar bear differences? Polar Bears Change Diet 1: Why are polar bears having to change their diets? 2: List some other factors (besides diet) in the ...

Thomas, Mr.

2010-09-27

28

Bear Spray Safety Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

2009-01-01

29

Development of Benzophenone-Alkyne Bifunctional Sigma Receptor Ligands  

PubMed Central

Sigma (?) receptors represent unique non-opioid binding sites that are associated with a broad range of disease states. Sigma-2 receptors provide a promising target for diagnostic imaging and pharmacological interventions to curb tumor progression. Most recently, the progesterone receptor (PGRMC1, 25 kDa) has been identified to contain ?2 receptor-like binding properties, highlighting the need to understand the biological function of an 18-kDa protein that exhibits ?2-like photoaffinity labeling (herein denoted as ?2-18k) but the amino acid sequence of which is not known. In order to provide novel tools for the study of the ?2-18k protein, we have developed bifunctional sigma receptor ligands that bear a benzophenone photo-crosslinking moiety and an alkyne group, to which an azide-containing biotin affinity tag can be covalently attached via click chemistry following photo-crosslink. While several compounds showed favorable ?2 binding properties, compound 22 exhibited the highest affinity (2 nM) and the greatest potency in blocking photolabeling of the ?2-18k by a radioactive photoaffinity ligand. Thus, these benzophenone-alkyne sigma receptor ligands may be amenable for studying the ?2-18k protein via chemical biology approaches. To our knowledge, these compounds represent the first reported benzophenone-containing clickable sigma receptor ligands, which may potentially serve broad applications by “plugging” in various tags. PMID:23001760

Guo, Lian-Wang; Hajipour, Abdol R.; Karaoglu, Kerim; Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Ruoho, Arnold E.

2012-01-01

30

Polar Bear Polar Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will listen for key details in a nonfiction text about polar bears. They will work at completing a graphic organizer with the teacher to help organize their thinking and understanding of key details about a text. They will also complete an independent assignment where they will draw or write two things that they learned about the topic.

Burgess, Kelly

2012-09-11

31

Bifunctional nanoarrays for probing the immune response at the single-molecule level  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional nanoarrays were created to simulate the immunological synapse and probe the T-cell immune response at the single-molecule level. Sub-5?nm AuPd nanodot arrays were fabricated using both e-beam and nanoimprint lithography. The nanoarrays were then functionalized by two costimulatory molecules: antibody UCHT1 Fab, which binds to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and activates the immune response, bound to metallic nanodots; and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which enhances cell adhesion, on the surrounding area. Initial T-cell experiments show successful attachment and activation on the bifunctional nanoarrays. This nanoscale platform for single-molecule control of TCR in living T-cells provides a new approach to explore how its geometric arrangement affects T-cell activation and behavior, with potential applications in immunotherapy. This platform also serves as a general model for single-molecule nanoarrays where more than one molecular species is required. PMID:24353927

Cai, Haogang; Depoil, David; Palma, Matteo; Sheetz, Michael P.; Dustin, Michael L.; Wind, Shalom J.

2013-01-01

32

Polar Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) International provides general information about polar bears as well as data on the movements of two radio-collared bears, along with the ice status, through a series of online maps.

2007-01-01

33

A new look at Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata of the East Midlands, UK: initial data from the Smalley open pit mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outcrops of Pennsylvanian (Duckmantian) age coal-bearing strata in the East Midlands of England are rare and have become rarer as more of the surface environment has been developed. Much of the stratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental interpretation of these strata have thus been based on subsurface data from deep mine workings and coal exploration boreholes. However, in 2009, coal mining commenced at an open pit mine near Smalley, east Derbyshire in the UK East Midlands. The mine provides a unique opportunity to carry out examination of a large-scale outcrop of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in order to undertake detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. The coals that will be exposed during working belong to the Waterloo group of seams of Duckmantian age. Initial examination of the workings has been concentrated on two successive intervals: from the basal Third Waterloo Seam to the Bottom Second Waterloo seam, and the from above the Bottom Second Waterloo seam to the Top Second Waterloo seam. The two inter-seam intervals are approximately 10-12 meters thick. Examination of the coal seams and inter-seam intervals will continue as new faces are exposed, supplemented by exploration drilling data. Initial field observations on the first sections exposed suggest that the two inter-seam intervals represent the infill of lakes formed on a fluvio-lacustrine plain, with negligible marine influence. The strata immediately above the Third Waterloo Seam consist of dark grey fissile shaly mudrocks overlain by an upward coarsening sequence of pale grey siltstones with sandy laminae and current ripples indicating unidirectional tractional flows. These pass upwards into rippled fine sandstones, cut by shallow channels towards the top. The overall inter-seam sequence is interpreted as the deposits of a lacustrine delta system that infilled a shallow lake that was initially anoxic. Once the lake had been infilled, a peat mire was able to form, now represented by the Bottom Second Waterloo Seam. The interval between the Bottom and Top Waterloo Seams contains an upward-coarsening sequence of laminated siltstones, overlain by a series of sharp-based rippled sandstones, each up to about 60 cm thick. The sharp based sandstones are interpreted as being crevasse splay deposits, which would have been fed by a nearby fluvial channel, which has not yet been located. As additional exposures are created during the lifetime of the mine, the temporal, spatial and environmental relationships of the coals and inter-seam strata will be investigated further by recording stratigraphic sections and directional data and producing photo panels. This should enable detailed paleoenvironmental reconstructions for each of the intervals investigated, which will be considered in the light of recent research on analogous ancient and recent environments. Data from adjacent former mines and coal exploration boreholes containing lateral continuations of the intervals examined will then allow the Smalley mine geology to be placed within the regional context of the East Midlands Coalfield, and enable us to consider broad scale paleoenvironmental variation across the area. It is anticipated that by enhancing our understanding of inter-seam deposits, prediction of geological conditions ahead of mining will be improved.

Sian Davies-Vollum, K.; Guion, Paul; Satterfield, Dorothy; Suthren, Roger

2010-05-01

34

Structural optimization of thiourea-based bifunctional organocatalysts for the highly enantioselective dynamic kinetic resolution of azlactones.  

PubMed

This article describes the synthesis of a library of structurally diverse bifunctional organocatalysts bearing both a quasi-Lewis acidic (thio)urea moiety and a Brønsted basic tertiary amine group. Sequential modification of the modular catalyst structure and subsequent screening of the compounds in the alcoholytic dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of azlactones revealed valuable structure-activity relationships. In particular, a "hit-structure" was identified which provides e.g.N-benzoyl-tert-leucine allyl ester in an excellent enantiomeric excess of 95%. PMID:17102877

Berkessel, Albrecht; Mukherjee, Santanu; Müller, Thomas N; Cleemann, Felix; Roland, Katrin; Brandenburg, Marc; Neudörfl, Jörg-M; Lex, Johann

2006-12-01

35

Bearing fatigue investigation 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were investigated. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also investigated. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.

Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.

1982-01-01

36

Particle migration through sealed bearings  

SciTech Connect

Tests were performed to determine the ability of various types of shielded bearings to isolate particulate from a clean environment in support of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. In the DOI firing system, a stronglink mechanism will share the same environment with a high-powered laser which needs uncontaminated optics to perform properly. Two commercially available shielded and sealed bearings were tested along with a sealed bearing designed at Allied Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The KCD-designed bearing proved to be the best barrier, but the torque required to function the bearing was magnitudes above the commercial bearings. The commercial sealed bearing was an effective barrier, allowing a small fraction of particles to migrate through, and had a relatively low running torque. The shielded bearing was not acceptable as a particle barrier.

Sundvold, P.D.

1993-08-01

37

Engine bearings  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydrodynamic journal bearing combination comprising: a rotary journal shaft having a circular cross section; a journal bearing surrounding the rotary journal shaft. The journal bearing has at least two symmetrical arcuate bearing surfaces, each arcuate surface having the same radius. The radius is slightly greater than that of the rotary journal shaft. Each arcuate bearing surface defines less than 180/sup 0/ and has a mid point intermediate it ends. The arcuate bearing surfaces are disposed with their mid points diametrically opposed. The journal shaft is positioned within the area covered by the two arcuate surfaces whereby a small clearance is maintained therebetween at all points under both load and no-load lubricant filling the aforesaid clearance between the journal shaft and the two arcuate surfaces.

Showalter, M.R.

1987-05-26

38

Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

2005-01-01

39

Synthesis of covalently bonded cellulose derivative chiral stationary phases with a bifunctional reagent of 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bifunctional reagent of 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate (TEPI) was initially adopted as a spacer reagent to prepare the bonded types of chiral stationary phases (CSPs) with cellulose derivatives. The silica-based CSPs were chemically prepared with non-regioselective and regioselective approaches and their chiral resolving capabilities were evaluated in terms of HPLC resolution of test enantiomers. It was observed that the chiral recognition

Xiaoming Chen; Yueqi Liu; Feng Qin; Liang Kong; Hanfa Zou

2003-01-01

40

Polar Bear  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

Amstrup, S.D.

1988-01-01

41

A new look at Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata of the East Midlands, UK: initial data from the Smalley open pit mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcrops of Pennsylvanian (Duckmantian) age coal-bearing strata in the East Midlands of England are rare and have become rarer as more of the surface environment has been developed. Much of the stratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental interpretation of these strata have thus been based on subsurface data from deep mine workings and coal exploration boreholes. However, in 2009, coal mining commenced

K. Sian Davies-Vollum; Paul Guion; Dorothy Satterfield; Roger Suthren

2010-01-01

42

Magnetic Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

1996-01-01

43

Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding assembly of silanediols with bifunctional heterocycles.  

PubMed

X-ray crystallography showcases the distinct self-association and hydrogen-bonding patterns of organic silanediols, R2Si(OH)2, with bifunctional heterocycles for supramolecular assembly. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) studies identify the dominant hydrogen-bonding patterns and structures in solution, which correlate with solid-state patterns at high concentrations. PMID:24577634

Tran, Ngon T; Wilson, Sean O; Franz, Annaliese K

2014-04-11

44

Dyeing Effects Of Bifunctional Reactive Dyes On Knitted Cotton Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several new bifunctional reactive dyes of the Sumifix Supra range that carry monochlorotriazine and sulphato ethyl sulphone reactive systems were developed and their dyeing perfor- mance studied. Suitable characteristic properties and fastness properties were examined over the knitted cotton fab- rics. The dyes were characterized by spectral data and elemental analysis. The dyes structures were established by preparing the coupling

M. M. Dalal; K. R. Desai

1996-01-01

45

A Bifunctional Molecule That Displays Context-Dependent Cellular Activity  

E-print Network

was covalently linked to a ligand for the protein FKBP to create a bifunctional molecule called MTXSLF. The covalent tether between the two ligands was designed to be prohibitively short, so that unfavorable protein has no effect on the inhibitory potency of MTXSLF in vivo. These studies illustrate a potentially

Wandless, Tom

46

Cell Adhesion to Unnatural Ligands Mediated by a Bifunctional Protein  

E-print Network

Cell Adhesion to Unnatural Ligands Mediated by a Bifunctional Protein Juan Sa@uchicago.edu Abstract: This paper describes a molecular strategy to restore adhesion of cells to surfaces that otherwise to cell-surface integrin adhesion receptors. In this way, the fusion protein can bind to a monolayer

Mrksich, Milan

47

Designed synthesis of ferrocenylanthraquinones and their bifunctional electrochromic properties.  

PubMed

New bifunctional electrochromic systems were developed by combination of reductive anthraquinone with oxidative ferrocene redox systems. The resultant ferrocenylanthraquinones demonstrated enhanced stability in electrochromic performance through the concomitant reductive electrochromism and oxidative counting action. The displayed colors were dependent on the position of the ferrocenyl group. PMID:20565113

Sharmoukh, W; Ko, Kyoung Chul; Ko, Ju Hong; Jung, Ii Gu; Noh, Changho; Lee, Jin Young; Son, Seung Uk

2010-07-16

48

Sensitivity Analysis of Metabolic Cascades Catalyzed by Bifunctional Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent modification\\/demodification cycles are common in metabolism. When the modification and demodification steps are carried out by two independent enzymes, the degree of modification can be ultrasensitive to the total concentration of either catalyst. We recently showed that the degree of modification of a target molecule cannot exhibit ultrasensitivity to the free concentrations of effectors that decide whether a bifunctional

Fernando Ortega; Måns Ehrenberg; Luis Acerenza; Hans V. Westerhoff; Francesc Mas; Marta Cascante

2002-01-01

49

Crystallization of bi-functional ligand protein complexes.  

PubMed

Homodimerization is important in signal transduction and can play a crucial role in many other biological systems. To obtaining structural information for the design of molecules able to control the signalization pathways, the proteins involved will have to be crystallized in complex with ligands that induce dimerization. Bi-functional drugs have been generated by linking two ligands together chemically and the relative crystallizability of complexes with mono-functional and bi-functional ligands has been evaluated. There are problems associated with crystallization with such ligands, but overall, the advantages appear to be greater than the drawbacks. The study involves two matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-12 and MMP-9. Using flexible and rigid linkers we show that it is possible to control the crystal packing and that by changing the ligand-enzyme stoichiometric ratio, one can toggle between having one bi-functional ligand binding to two enzymes and having the same ligand bound to each enzyme. The nature of linker and its point of attachment on the ligand can be varied to aid crystallization, and such variations can also provide valuable structural information about the interactions made by the linker with the protein. We report here the crystallization and structure determination of seven ligand-dimerized complexes. These results suggest that the use of bi-functional drugs can be extended beyond the realm of protein dimerization to include all drug design projects. PMID:23567804

Antoni, Claudia; Vera, Laura; Devel, Laurent; Catalani, Maria Pia; Czarny, Bertrand; Cassar-Lajeunesse, Evelyn; Nuti, Elisa; Rossello, Armando; Dive, Vincent; Stura, Enrico Adriano

2013-06-01

50

Cave Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Decoding an ancient cave bear. A two-ton, thirteen-foot cave bear, extinct for ten thousand years, has just experienced a rebirth of sorts. From a tooth and a bone, scientists have recovered its entire genetic code.Eddy Rubin, director of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute, says finding genuine cave bear DNA was like looking for a needle in a haystack. The haystack were all the other organisms that were living in the bones and in the tooth of this ancient creature. And the needle was the little bit of the ancient creature's genome DNA, or genes.They used state-of-the-art computer technology to separate the bear genes from the clutter. Jurassic Park fans should note that they can't clone a new cave bear, nor can they recover DNA from creatures as old as the dinosaurs. But they do hope to reconstruct the genetic code of Neanderthals, our closest non-human relatives, to better understand how our own species evolved. This resource contains detailed text description of the research as well as likes for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-08-15

51

Effect of Bearing Surroundings on the High-Speed Spindle-Bearing Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of bearing assembly tolerance on spindle-bearing compliance. In a high-speed spindle system,\\u000a the bearing characteristics are influenced significantly by the initial assembly tolerances and the thermal deformation of\\u000a the bearing surroundings. In the very early stage of spindle operation, spindle bearings could be under hazardous conditions\\u000a owing to the rapid change of the internal pressure

S.-M. Kim; S.-K. Lee; K.-J. Lee

2002-01-01

52

Bear Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

Science Update;

2004-03-08

53

The role of garnet in (Y+REE) mobility during fluid-initiated, localized, solid state dehydration of an amphibole-bearing migmatised granitic gneiss to charnockite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On either side of 1 m wide granitic pegmatoid dyke, Söndrum stone quarry, Halmstad, SW Sweden, extends a 2.5-3 m wide Opx-bearing dehydration zone (DZ) (650-700 °C; 800 MPa; Opx-Cpx-Bt-Amph-Gt-allanite), which overprints the gneissic banding of the surrounding migmatised granitic gneiss (MGG) (Amph-Bt-Gt-allanite) (Harlov et al., 2006, J Petrol 47, 3). Whole-rock chemistry indicates that dehydration of the MGG was predominantly isochemical. Exceptions include (Y+HREE), Ba, Sr, and F, which are markedly depleted throughout the DZ while LREE-bearing allanite remains unaltered. Systematic trends in the Gt, Bt, Amph, and FAp mineral chemistry across the DZ include depletion in Fe, (Y+HREE), Na, K, F, and Cl, and enrichment in Mg, Mn, Ca, and Ti. Fluid inclusion data suggest that the solid state dehydration event was due to advective transport of a CO2-rich fluid with a minor Cl and F component originating from a tectonic fracture represented today by the pegmatoid dyke. LA-ICPMS analysis of (Y+REE) in Gt (NIST 612 Glass standard; for operating conditions cf. Anczkiewicz et al. 2012 Chem Geol 318-319, 16) across the traverse indicates at least two distinct populations of Gt from the DZ variably depleted in (Y+HREE) and LREE (Fig. 1) by an order of magnitude compared to Gt in the MGG (Fig. 2). Depletion most likely is the result of (Y+HREE) and LREE partitioning from the Gt into the dehydrating fluid to complex with F and Cl. Variable depletion suggests preferred inter-granular pathways for fluid flow through the DZ during the dehydration event allowing some Gt grains greater exposure to the fluid than other Gt grains.

Harlov, D. E.; Anczkiewicz, R.; Johansson, L.

2013-12-01

54

Topologically constrained bifunctional intercalators: DNA intercalation by a macrocyclic bisacridine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A topologically novel DNA bifunctional intercalator, 4, has been synthesized and its DNA binding compared with the binding of the monointercalator 9-aminoacridine (6) and spermine bisacridine (5), a known bisintercalator. Water-soluble macrocyclic bisacridine 4 was synthesized by reaction of 4-(bromomethyl)-9-~hloroacridine with N,N'-bis(2-mercapto- ethy1)succinamide and base. The resulting dichloride was converted to the corresponding bis(9-phenoxyacridine), which reacted with spermine tetrahydrochloride to

Steven C. Zimmerman; Carol R. Lamberson; Michael Cory; Terri A. Fairley

1989-01-01

55

Room Temperature Hydrosilylation of Silicon Nanocrystals with Bifunctional Terminal Alkenes  

PubMed Central

H-terminated Si nanocrystals undergo room temperature hydrosilylation with bifunctional alkenes with distal polar moieties—ethyl-, methyl-ester or carboxylic acids—without the aid of light or added catalyst. The passivated Si nanocrystals exhibit bright photoluminescence (PL) and disperse in polar solvents, including water. We propose a reaction mechanism in which ester or carboxylic acid groups facilitate direct nucleophilic attack of the highly curved Si surface of the nanocrystals by the alkene. PMID:23312033

Yu, Yixuan; Hessel, Colin M.; Bogart, Timothy; Panthani, Matthew G.; Rasch, Michael R.; Korgel, Brian A.

2013-01-01

56

Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator.  

PubMed

Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety. PMID:25308055

Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

57

Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind–solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

2014-10-01

58

(Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents)  

SciTech Connect

Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III).

Not Available

1991-01-01

59

[Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents  

SciTech Connect

Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III).

Not Available

1991-12-31

60

Bifunctional Aluminum Catalyst for CO2 Fixation: Regioselective Ring Opening of Three-Membered Heterocyclic Compounds.  

PubMed

Regioselective ring opening of three-membered heterocyclic compounds (epoxides or N-substituted aziridines) at various temperatures was observed in coupling reactions with CO2 by the use of an aluminum-salen catalyst in conjunction with intramolecular quaternary ammonium salts as cocatalysts, affording the corresponding five-membered cyclic products with complete configuration retention at the methine carbon. Notably, this bifunctional aluminum-based catalyst exhibited nearly 100% regioselectivity for the ring opening at the methylene C-O bond for various terminal epoxides. This was true for those bearing an electron-withdrawing group, such as styrene oxide or epichlorohydrin, thereby affording the synthesis of various enantiopure cyclic carbonates that have previously been obtained only rarely by other methods. An intramolecular cooperative catalysis is suggested to contribute to the high activity and excellent stereochemistry control observed. Surprisingly, the highly selective ring opening at the methine carbon of N-substituted aziridines was found in the coupling with CO2, predominantly giving 5-substituted oxazolininones with retention of configuration as a result of double inversion at the methine carbon. PMID:25238647

Ren, Wei-Min; Liu, Ye; Lu, Xiao-Bing

2014-10-17

61

Bifunctional Phage-Based Pretargeted Imaging of Human Prostate Carcinoma Bifunctional Phage Based Pretargeted Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction Two-step and three-step pretargeting systems utilizing biotinylated prostate tumor-homing bacteriophage (phage) and 111In-radiolabeled- streptavidin or biotin were developed for use in cancer radioimaging. The in vivo selected prostate carcinoma-specific phage (G1) displaying up to five copies of the peptide IAGLATPGWSHWLAL, was the focus of the present study. Methods The ability of G1 phage to extravasate and target prostate tumor cells was investigated using immunohistochemistry. G1 phage were biotinylated, streptavidin was conjugated to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and biotin was conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Biodistribution studies and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging of xenografted PC-3 tumors via two-step pretargeted 111In-labeled streptavidin and three-step pretargeted 111In-labeled biotin were performed in SCID mice to determine the optimal pretargeting method. Results The ability of G1 phage to extravasate the vasculature and bind directly to human PC-3 prostate carcinoma tumor cells in vivo was demonstrated via immunocytochemical analysis. Comparative biodistribution studies of the two-step and three-step pretargeting strategies indicated increased PC-3 human prostate carcinoma tumor uptake in SCID mice of 4.34 ±0.26 %ID/g at 0.5 hours post-injection of 111In radiolabeled biotin (utilized in a three-step protocol) compared to that of 0.67 ±0.06 %ID/g at twenty four hour postinjection of 111In radiolabeled streptavidin (employed in a two-step protocol). In vivo SPECT/CT imaging of xenografted PC-3 tumors in SCID mice with the three-step pretargeting method was superior to that of the two-step pretargeting method, and, importantly, blocking studies demonstrated specificity of tumor uptake of 111In-labeled biotin in the three-step pretargeting scheme. Conclusion This study demonstrates the use of multivalent bifunctional phage in a three-step pretargeting system for prostate cancer radioimaging. PMID:19720291

Newton-Northup, Jessica R.; Figueroa, Said D.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Deutscher, Susan L.

2009-01-01

62

Author's personal copy A bi-functional cathode structure for alkaline-acid direct  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy A bi-functional cathode structure for alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel 19 August 2011 Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell Bi-functional structure associated with the use of hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant in the so-called alkaline-acid direct ethanol

Zhao, Tianshou

63

Competitive Immunosorbent Assays Using Ligand-Enzyme Conjugates and Bifunctional Liposomes: Theory and Experiment  

E-print Network

Competitive Immunosorbent Assays Using Ligand-Enzyme Conjugates and Bifunctional Liposomes: Theory with liposomes to which many biotin and HRP molecules have been conjugated. This analysis is of interest because previous work has shown that these bifunctional liposomes can reduce the detection limit for antigens

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

64

Cryogenic turbopump bearing materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials used for modern cryogenic turbopump bearings must withstand extreme conditions of loads and speeds under marginal lubrication. Naturally, these extreme conditions tend to limit the bearing life. It is possible to significantly improve the life of these bearings, however, by improving the fatigue and wear resistance of bearing alloys, and improving the strength, liquid oxygen compatibility and lubricating ability of the bearing cage materials. Improved cooling will also help to keep the bearing temperatures low and hence prolong the bearing life.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

1989-01-01

65

The oxidation state of tungsten in iron bearing and iron free silicate glasses: Initial results from W L-edge XANES measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tungsten is important in constraining core formation of the Earth because this element is a moderately siderophile element (depleted ~ 10 relative to chondrites) and, as a member of the Hf-W isotopic system, it is useful in constraining the timing of core formation. A number of experimental studies have been carried out to determine the silicate solubility and metal-silicate partitioning behavior of W, including its concomitant oxidation state. However, results are inconsistent on whether W occurs as W^{4+} or W^{6+}. Results of Hillgren et al. (1996) and Walter and Thibault (1995) suggest W6+ for oxygen fugacities of IW-1 to -2, whereas Ertel et al. (1996) show W^{4+} for all oxygen fugacities below IW-1. The multiple linear regression analyses of Schmitt et al. (1989) (IW to IW-3) support W^{6+}, while similar analyses by Jones (1998), Lauer and Jones (1999), and Wade and Wood (2005) support W^{4+}, though it was suggested past discrepancies were due to iron-bearing vs. iron free systems. It is assumed that W^{4+} is the cation valence relevant to core formation (Jaeger and Drake, 2000). Given the sensitivity to silicate composition of high valence cations (Jaeger and Drake, 2000), knowledge of the oxidation state of W over a wide range of fO2 is critical to understanding the oxidation state of the mantle and core formation processes. Controlled fO2 experiments were carried out using two compositions to determine the effects of iron content. Experiments were conducted at 1300 °C, for durations of 24 to 72 hours, and air quenched. One series was conducted using the An-Di eutectic, from log fO2 -7.25 to -18. Experiments using an ankaramite starting composition were conducted from log fO2 -1.65 to -18.3. Experiments were doped with 1wt% of WO3. For both starting compositions, at IW-1, one set of experiments was doped with 1wt% of WO2, and at IW+1, one set of experiments was quenched in water. Analyses were conducted using the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) microprobe at the Advanced Photon Source (GeoSoilEnviroCARS), Argonne National Laboratory. A monochromatic X-ray beam from a Si(111) double crystal monochromator was focused onto the sample and the fluorescent X-ray yield was plotted as a function of incident X-ray energy (more detail can be found in Sutton et al., 2002). The oxidation state of tungsten was inferred from the energy of the first peak in the LIII-edge derivative spectrum. WO2, WO3, FeWO4, CaWO4, were used as standards. Results for the CMAS starting materials suggest that only W^{6+} is present from the most oxidized conditions to IW (log fO2 -10.75). At IW-1, W starts to exhibit mixed valence but is still dominated by W^{6+}. At IW-2, W^{4+} becomes more abundant, with the most reduced state observed being equal proportions of W^{4+} and W^{6+}. These preliminary results suggest that W^{6+} may still be present, even below IW-5. At IW-2 and below, metal exsolves from the silicate, complicating the analyses. For ankaramite, only W^{6+} is present down to IW-1, with mixed valence beginning at IW-2, similar behavior to the Fe-free samples. As in the CMAS samples, "the nugget effect" is also observed for the ankaramite glasses below IW-2 and W^{6+} appears to be present below IW-5. Thus, the effect of iron appears to be small, if present at all.

Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.; Le, L.

2006-12-01

66

Optimal Synchronizability of Bearings  

E-print Network

Bearings are mechanical dissipative systems that, when perturbed, relax toward a synchronized (bearing) state. Here we find that bearings can be perceived as physical realizations of complex networks of oscillators with ...

Seybold, Hansjorg

67

Bearing Remover And Presser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Document describes simple bearing-servicing tool consisting of only three parts capable of removing and replacing rotary bearing within race. Threaded drive operates between guide and pressure plate for dislodging bearing from race.

Boyce, Rex A.

1995-01-01

68

Laser glazed bearings  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade high power, reliable, carbon dioxide lasers have become commercially available. Laser glazing is a process in which a focused laser beam is used to melt a very small portion of a component. As the beam moves away from the melted region, the underlying mass of the component causes the liquid pool to rapidly solidify. A major advantage of laser glazing is that the refined structure is only created in areas where high load carrying capacity is required. Initially rods manufactured from BG 42 and M 50 steels were laser glazed. Laser glazing transformed the normal, fine grain, martensitic steel matrix into a very fine dendritic microstructure. The carbides in the laser glazed material were greatly reduced in size due to very rapid solidification. Using a standard ball/rod rolling contact fatigue tester, enhanced rolling contact fatigue life was realized from the laser glazing process. LM 12749 tapered roller bearing cones were fabricated from M 50 high speed steel and laser glazed. At 200% catalog load, the L{sub 15.9%} life of the laser glazed M 50 bearings was 370% greater than the wrought cones. Similarly, when tested at 300% catalog load, the laser glazed bearings had L{sub 15.9%} life 580% greater than the wrought cones. Laser processing has been applied to 440 C stainless steel. In this alloy similar reduction in the size and distribution of large chromium carbides was achieved. The glazed 440 C was approximately 20 Knoop hardness points higher than the wrought alloy. Examples and properties of glazed microstructures in ball bearings and other alloy systems are discussed.

Hetzner, D.W. [Timken Co., Canton, OH (United States)

1998-12-31

69

Zinc/air battery R and D research and development of bifunctional oxygen electrode: Tasks 1 and 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bifunctional oxygen electrode is examined. The development of a rechargeable metal-oxygen (air) cell is hampered to a great extent by the lack of a stable and cost effective oxygen electrode capable of use during both charge and discharge. The first type of bifunctional electrode consists of two distinct catalytic layers. The oxygen reduction catalyst layer containing a supported gold catalyst is in contact with a hydrophilic nickel layer in which evolution of oxygen takes place. Loadings of gold from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/sq cm were investigated; carbon, graphite, metal, and spinel oxides were evaluated as substrates. The second part of the research effort was centered on developing a reversible oxygen electrode containing only one catalytic layer for both reduction and evolution of oxygen. The work was directed specifically to the study of perovskite type of oxides with the composition AA sup 1 BO sub 3, where A is an element of the lanthanide series, A sup 1 is an alkaline earth metal and B, a first row transition element. Initial polarization data obtained in unscrubbed air gave a value of approximately 200 millivolts vs Hg/HgO reference electrode at a current density of 50 ma/cm. Electrodes were made both by roll-bonding and by pelletizing techniques and tested for polarization and cycle life.

Klein, M.; Viswanathan, S.

1986-12-01

70

Zinc/air battery R and D research and development of bifunctional oxygen electrode: Tasks I and II, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted of the bifunctional oxygen electrode. The development of a rechargeable metal-oxygen (air) cell has been hampered to a great extent by the lack of a stable and cost effective oxygen electrode capable of use during both charge and discharge. The first type of bifunctional electrode consists of two distinct catalytifc layers. The oxygen reduction catalyst layer containing a supported gold catalyst is in contact with a hydrophilic nickel layer in which evolution of oxygen takes place. Loadings of gold from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/cm/sup 2/ were investigated; carbon, graphite, metal, and spinel oxides were evaluated as substrates. The second part of the research effort was centered on developing a reversible oxygen electrode containing only one catalytic layer for both reduction and evolution of oxygen. The work was directed specifically to the study of perovskite type of oxides with the composition AA/sup 1/BO/sub 3/ where A is an element of the lanthanide series, A/sup 1/ is an alkaline earth metal and B, a first row transition element. Initial polarization data obtained in unscrubbed air gave a value of approximately 200 millivolts vs Hg/HgO reference electrode at a current density of 50 ma/cm/sup 2/. Electrodes were made both by roll-bonding and by pelletizing techniques and tested for polarization and cycle life. This study also indicates the optimum process conditions for the manufacture of oxides and fabrication of electrodes.

Klein, M.; Viswanathan, S.

1986-12-01

71

99mTc-labeling studies of a modified metronidazole and its biodistribution in tumor bearing animal models.  

PubMed

A cysteine-based bifunctional chelating agent viz. N-(2'-hydroxybenzyl)-cysteine with a free carboxylic acid group (CAA) was synthesized. Bearing in mind the affinity of localization of nitroimidazoles in hypoxic tissues, this bifunctional chelating agent was coupled to metronidazole (MNZ). The (99m)Tc labeling studies of the novel agent (MNZCAA) thus obtained, was carried out and the radiolabeled product was subsequently purified. The complexation yield under optimized condition was approximately 85%. Biodistribution studies carried out in Swiss mice bearing 'barcl-95' tumors showed selective accumulation of the injected activity in the tumor (1.70%/g at 30 min p.i.) with renal as well as hepatobiliary clearance. High tumor/muscle ratio (14.7 at 3 h post-injection) of the novel agent indicates considerable promise towards further evaluation. PMID:12623111

Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila; Samuel, Grace; Sarma, H D; Korde, Aruna; Venkatesh, Meera; Pillai, M R A

2003-02-01

72

Getting Your Bearings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of friction and how ball bearings reduce friction. Learners investigate different uses for ball bearings, how the design has changed over time to incorporate roller bearings, test friction using marbles, and identify the use of ball bearings in everyday items.

Ieee

2013-08-30

73

Bearings for Your Whirligig  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experiment with friction and make bearings for a whirligig! This activity is a nice introduction to friction and bearings and demonstrates why bearings are useful for spinning. A related video show Vollis Simpson, an artist who creates kinetic sculptures and whirligigs, explain how he uses bearings in all of his spinning pieces so that they move smoothly.

Minnesota, Science M.

1995-01-01

74

Passive magnetic bearing configurations  

DOEpatents

A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2011-01-25

75

Introduction to ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of a ball bearing is to provide a relative positioning and rotational freedom while transmitting a load between two structures, usually a shaft and a housing. For high rotational speeds (e.g., in gyroscope ball bearings) the purpose can be expanded to include rotational freedom with practically no wear in the bearing. This condition can be achieved by separating the bearing parts with a coherent film of fluid known as an elastohydrodynamic film. This film can be maintained not only when the bearing carries the load on a shaft, but also when the bearing is preloaded to position the shaft to within micro- or nano-inch accuracy and stability. Background information on ball bearings is provided, different types of ball bearings and their geometry and kinematics are defined, bearing materials, manufacturing processes, and separators are discussed. It is assumed, for the purposes of analysis, that the bearing carries no load.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1981-01-01

76

The bi-functional organization of human basement membranes.  

PubMed

The current basement membrane (BM) model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A) isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B) The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C) epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers. PMID:23844050

Halfter, Willi; Monnier, Christophe; Müller, David; Oertle, Philipp; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Safi, Farhad; Lim, Roderick; Loparic, Marko; Henrich, Paul Bernhard

2013-01-01

77

The Bi-Functional Organization of Human Basement Membranes  

PubMed Central

The current basement membrane (BM) model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A) isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B) The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C) epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers. PMID:23844050

Halfter, Willi; Monnier, Christophe; Muller, David; Oertle, Philipp; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Safi, Farhad; Lim, Roderick; Loparic, Marko; Henrich, Paul Bernhard

2013-01-01

78

High efficiency magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities concerning high efficiency permanent magnet plus electromagnet (PM/EM) pancake magnetic bearings at the University of Maryland are reported. A description of the construction and working of the magnetic bearing is provided. Next, parameters needed to describe the bearing are explained. Then, methods developed for the design and testing of magnetic bearings are summarized. Finally, a new magnetic bearing which allows active torque control in the off axes directions is discussed.

Studer, Philip A.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Anand, Davinder K.; Kirk, James A.

1993-01-01

79

High efficiency magnetic bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research activities concerning high efficiency permanent magnet plus electromagnet (PM/EM) pancake magnetic bearings at the University of Maryland are reported. A description of the construction and working of the magnetic bearing is provided. Next, parameters needed to describe the bearing are explained. Then, methods developed for the design and testing of magnetic bearings are summarized. Finally, a new magnetic bearing which allows active torque control in the off axes directions is discussed.

Studer, Philip A.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Anand, Davinder K.; Kirk, James A.

80

Bifunctional chelates of RH-105 and AU199 as potential radiotherapeutic agents  

SciTech Connect

Research is presented on new bifunctional chelating ligand systems with stability on the macroscopic and radiochemical levels. The synthesis of the following complexes are described: rhodium 105, palladium 109, and gold 198.

Droege, P.

1997-03-01

81

Efficient bifunctional gallium-68 chelators for positron emission tomography: tris(hydroxypyridinone) ligands  

PubMed Central

A new tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) bifunctional chelator for gallium allows easy production of 68Ga-labelled proteins rapidly under mild conditions in high yields at exceptionally high specific activity and low concentration. PMID:21623436

Berry, David J.; Ma, Yongmin; Ballinger, James R.; Tavare, Richard; Koers, Alexander; Sunassee, Kavitha; Zhou, Tao; Nawaz, Saima; Mullen, Gregory E. D.; Hider, Robert C.; Blower, Philip J.

2014-01-01

82

BIFUNCTIONAL ALUMINUN: A PERMEABLE BARRIER MATERIAL FOR THE DEGRADATION OF MTBE  

EPA Science Inventory

Bifunctional aluminum is an innovative remedial material for the treatment of gasoline oxygenates in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs represent a promising environmental technology for remediation of groundwater contamination. Although zero-valent metals (ZVM) have been...

83

Bifunctional Chemopreventive Effects of Adenocaulon himalaicum Through Induction of Detoxification Enzymes and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phase II detoxification enzymes are known to play essential roles in the detoxification and elimination of activated carcinogens during tumor initiation, while apoptosis is one of the most important chemopreventive targets for inhibiting tumor promotion in cancer. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive activity of two plant extracts, the ethanolic extract of Adenocaulon himalaicum (AHE) and the butanolic fraction of AHE (AHB). Both, the AHE and AHB induced NQO1 activity and had relatively high chemoprevention indices (CI=12.4). The AHE and AHB were associated with increased NQO1 and HO-1 mRNA levels via Nrf2-ARE pathway activation. In addition, the AHB increased CYP1A1 activity through AhR-XRE pathway activation. We also found that the AHE and AHB induced apoptosis, as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, an increase in the sub-G0/G1 content, chromatin condensation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and p53 induction. These data suggest that AHE and AHB act as bifunctional inducers and that their chemopreventive effects result from the biphasic induction of phase II detoxification enzymes and apoptosis. Therefore, these results suggest that A. himalaicum plant extracts have potential for use as chemopreventive agents for the prevention and/or treatment of human cancers. PMID:23957354

Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Saet Byoul; Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Eun Ha; Lee, Hee Ju; Jung, Sang Hoon

2013-01-01

84

High-Speed Video Analysis of Rotor-Retainer-Bearing-Contacts Due to Failure of Active Magnetic Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

.Abstract - This paper addresses the experimental analysis and the modeling of rotor-retainer-bearing- contacts due to failure of active magnetic bearings. The most critical state that can occur, is the backward whirl motion, which is initiated by friction forces acting on the rotor. To model and simulate the highly nonlinear behavior of the system, a good bearing model and an

Marlene Helfert; Martin Ernst; Rainer Nordmann

85

Catalytic, Enantioselective Bifunctional Inverse Electron Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of Ketene Enolates and o-Benzoquinone  

E-print Network

Catalytic, Enantioselective Bifunctional Inverse Electron Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions@jhu.edu Catalytic, enantioselective Diels-Alder reactions ([4 + 2] cycloadditions) constitute a vital part

Lectka, Thomas

86

ZINC/AIR BATTERY R & D RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF BIFUNCTIONAL OXYGEN ELECTRODE TASKS I AND II  

E-print Network

continuous cathodic and bifunctional modes of operation, tests were started to characterize electrode "performancetests were done to evaluate the electrodes. Electrode performance was monitored under conditions of continuous

Klein, M.

2009-01-01

87

Experiments with needle bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

Ferretti, Pericle

1933-01-01

88

Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Axial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

2008-01-01

89

Polar Bears Change Diet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast from 2001 explains how polar bears have adjusted their diet due to the climate warming around Hudson Bay, Canada. The ringed seals that polar bears normally eat have been harder for polar bears to get to, due to disappearing ice. This has forced polar bears to begin eating harbor seals and bearded seals. The clip is 4 minutes and 15 seconds in length.

Schneider, Doug

2007-12-12

90

Grizzly bears and forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's growing demand for timber is increasing road development in once roadless forest ecosystems. Roads create both local changes in plant communities and landscape-level changes in forest connectivity. Roads also increase human access, which can be detrimental to species such as grizzly bears. Because most grizzly bear mortalities occur near roads, we examined grizzly bear attractants near roads, which could

C. L. Roever; M. S. Boyce; G. B. Stenhouse

2008-01-01

91

The sesquiterpene lactone hymenoxon acts as a bifunctional alkylating agent.  

PubMed

Hymenoxon, a toxic sesquiterpene lactone found in bitterweed, bound deoxyguanosine in a cell-free system and formed adducts with guanine residues in cellular DNA. The reactive dialdehyde form of hymenoxon formed stable Schiff base products with deoxyguanosine which were separable from unreacted hymenoxon and deoxynucleosides by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. Hymenoxon adducts which eluted as a single impure peak from the octadecylsilane column separated on amino and diphenyl-bonded phases with 10% methanol. Tritiated nucleoside adducts were isolated and purified from CFW mouse sarcoma cells treated with hymenoxon. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of purified hymenoxon-deoxyguanosine adducts revealed a loss of signals for hydroxyl groups in the bishemiacetal of hymenoxon. 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the major adduct has 35 carbon atoms, indicating an interaction of at least two guanine residues per hymenoxon molecule and suggesting that hymenoxon may cross-link DNA. Sedimentation analysis of treated DNA further showed that DNA cross-linking by hymenoxon (30 micrograms/ml) was equivalent to that of a known cross-linking agent, mitomycin C (7.5 micrograms/ml). Hymenoxon was more cytotoxic to DNA cross-link repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants than to repair-proficient strains. These data combine to indicate that hymenoxon acts as a bifunctional alkylating agent which cross-links DNA in mammalian cells. PMID:2852991

Sylvia, V L; Kim, H L; Norman, J O; Busbee, D L

1987-03-01

92

Magnetic-plasmonic bifunctional CoO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the synthesis of CoO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles by chemical reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of Co nanoparticles in oleylamine (OAm). OAm plays multiple roles as a surfactant, solvent, and reducing agent. The mechanism of surface-activated heterogeneous nucleation and growth on the preformed seeds has been proposed. At the same time, the Co nanoparticles are oxidized to form hollow CoO nanoparticles through the Kirkendall effect. The resulting CoO-Ag heterostructures display mushroom-like morphology, Ag nanoparticle as ‘cap’ attached on the ‘stem’ of hollow CoO nanoparticles. The size of Ag domains in the heterostructure nanoparticles can be tuned by controlling the volume of Co nanoparticles. The plasmonic absorption and the magnetization of the bifunctional nanoparticles were investigated. The combination of the hollow structure of the CoO and the surface plasmon resonances of the Ag domains may make them suitable for catalysis, drug delivery, therapy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Yang, Jianhui; Cao, Beibei; Liu, Bin

2014-03-01

93

Monodisperse Magneto-Fluorescent Bifunctional Nanoprobes for Bioapplications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the work on the synthesis of dye-doped monodisperse Fe/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles as bifunctional probes for bioapplications. Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) have been widely studied as nano-probes for bio-imaging, sensing as well as for cancer therapy. Among all the NPs, Fe NPs have been the focus because they have very high magnetization. However, Fe NPs are usually not stable in ambient due to the fast surface oxidation of the NPs. On the other hand, dye molecules have long been used as probes for bio-imaging. But they are sensitive to environmental conditions. It requires passivation for both so that they can be stable for applications. In this work, monodisperse Fe NPs with sizes ranging from 13-20 nm have been synthesized through the chemical thermal-decomposition in a solution. Silica shells were then coated on the Fe NPs by a two-phase oil-in-water method. Dye molecules were first bonded to a silica precursor and then encapsulated into the silica shell during the coating process. The silica shells protect both the Fe NPs and dye molecules, which makes them as robust probes. The dye doped Fe/SiO2 core/shell NPs remain both highly magnetic and highly fluorescent. The stable dye doped Fe/SiO2NPs have been used as a dual functional probe for both magnetic heating and local nanoscale temperature sending, and their performance will be reported.

Zhang, Hongwang; Huang, Heng; Pralle, Arnd; Zeng, Hao

2013-03-01

94

Identification of a Bifunctional Maize C- and O-Glucosyltransferase*  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids accumulate in plant vacuoles usually as O-glycosylated derivatives, but several species can also synthesize flavonoid C-glycosides. Recently, we demonstrated that a flavanone 2-hydroxylase (ZmF2H1, CYP93G5) converts flavanones to the corresponding 2-hydroxy derivatives, which are expected to serve as substrates for C-glycosylation. Here, we isolated a cDNA encoding a UDP-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT708A6), and its activity was characterized by in vitro and in vivo bioconversion assays. In vitro assays using 2-hydroxyflavanones as substrates and in vivo activity assays in yeast co-expressing ZmF2H1 and UGT708A6 show the formation of the flavones C-glycosides. UGT708A6 can also O-glycosylate flavanones in bioconversion assays in Escherichia coli as well as by in vitro assays with the purified recombinant protein. Thus, UGT708A6 is a bifunctional glycosyltransferase that can produce both C- and O-glycosidated flavonoids, a property not previously described for any other glycosyltransferase. PMID:24045947

Falcone Ferreyra, María Lorena; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Casas, María Isabel; Labadie, Guillermo; Grotewold, Erich; Casati, Paula

2013-01-01

95

A bifunctional monomer derived from lactide for toughening polylactide.  

PubMed

(6S)-3-Methylene-6-methyl-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione was synthesized from L-lactide and used as the dienophile to prepare spiro[6-methyl-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione-3,2'-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept[5]ene] via an exoselective and diastereofacial-selective Diels-Alder reaction. Polymerizations of this bifunctional lactide derivative were successfully carried out under ring-opening and ring-opening metathesis polymerization conditions to yield high molecular weight and high Tg polymers. We further demonstrated that by incorporating a small percentage of spiro[6-methyl-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione-3,2'-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept[5]ene] into poly(1,5-cyclooctadiene) and copolymerizing it with DL-lactide, novel polymeric alloys of PLA can be created that have tremendous improvements in toughness over PLA and the corresponding binary blend of PLA and poly(1,5-cyclooctadiene). PMID:18821759

Jing, Feng; Hillmyer, Marc A

2008-10-22

96

Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

1994-01-01

97

Homogeneous and label-free detection of microRNAs using bifunctional strand displacement amplification-mediated hyperbranched rolling circle amplification.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases including cancers. Here, we develop a homogeneous and label-free method for sensitive detection of let-7a miRNA based on bifunctional strand displacement amplification (SDA)-mediated hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA). The binding of target miRNA with the linear template initiates the bifunctional SDA reaction, generating two different kinds of triggers which can hybridize with the linear template to initiate new rounds of SDA reaction for the production of more and more triggers. In the meantime, the released two different kinds of triggers can function as the first and the second primers, respectively, to initiate the HRCA reaction whose products can be simply monitored by a standard fluorometer with SYBR Green I as the fluorescent indicator. The proposed method exhibits high sensitivity with a detection limit of as low as 1.8 × 10(-13) M and a large dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude from 0.1 pM to 10 nM, and it can even discriminate the single-base difference among the miRNA family members. Moreover, this method can be used to analyze the total RNA samples from the human lung tissues and might be further applied for sensitive detection of various proteins, small molecules, and metal ions in combination with specific aptamers. PMID:24903889

Zhang, Li-rong; Zhu, Guichi; Zhang, Chun-yang

2014-07-01

98

Bifunctional ?/? Opioid Peptides: Variation of the Type and Length of the Linker Connecting the Two Components  

PubMed Central

On the basis of evidence that opioid compounds with a mixed ? agonist/? antagonist profile may produce an antinociceptive effect with low propensity to induce side effects, bifunctional opioid peptides containing the ? agonist [Dmt1]DALDA (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt = 2',6’-dimethyltyrosine) connected tail-to-tail via various ?,?-diaminoalkyl- or diaminocyclohexane linkers to the ? antagonists TICP[?] (H-Tyr-Tic?[CH2-NH]Cha-Phe-OH; Cha = cyclohexylalanine, Tic = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid), H-Dmt-Tic-OH or H-Bcp-Tic-OH (Bcp = 4'-[N-((4'-phenyl)phenethyl)carboxamido]phenylalanine) were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized in vitro. Bifunctional [Dmt1]DALDA?NH-(CH2)n-NH?TICP[?] compounds (n = 0–12) showed decreasing ? and ? receptor binding affinities with increasing linker length. As expected, several of the bifunctional peptides were ? agonist/? antagonists with low nanomolar ? and ? receptor binding affinities. However, compounds with unexpected opioid activity profiles, including a ? partial agonist/? partial agonist, ? antagonist/? antagonists and ? agonist/? agonists, were also identified. These results indicate that the binding affinities and intrinsic efficacies of these bifunctional compounds at both receptors depend on the length and type of the linker connecting the ? and ? components. An important recommendation emerging from this study is that the in vitro activity profiles of bifunctional compounds containing an agonist and an antagonist component connected via a linker need to be determined prior to their pharmacological evaluation in vivo. PMID:22070627

Ding, Jinguo; Lemieux, Carole; Chung, Nga N.; Schiller, Peter W.

2011-01-01

99

Bearing load analysis and control of a motorized high speed spindle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angular contact ball bearings are the most popular bearing type used in the high speed spindle for machining centers. Because the bearing load is increased rapidly with the raised spindle speed due to the centrifugal force and temperature raise, proper initial preload and especially operating-induced load control of the angular ball bearing is important to the rigidity, accuracy and life

Jenq-Shyong Chen; Kwan-Wen Chen

2005-01-01

100

Polymer-Supported Reagents: The Role of Bifunctionality in the Design of Ion-Selective Complexants  

SciTech Connect

The importance of multi-functionality in the preparation of ion-selective polymers is evident from the structure of enzymes where specific metal ions are bound through cooperative interactions among different amino acids. In synthetic polymers, ionic selectivity is enhanced when a chemical reaction is superimposed on an ion-exchange process. The concept of reactive ion exchange has been extended through the synthesis of crosslinked polymers whose metal ion selectivity is a function of reduction, coordination or precipitation reactions as determined by various covalently bound ligands. Development of three classes of dual mechanism bifunctional polymers, a new series of bifunctional diphosphonate polymers, and novel bifunctional ion-selective polymers with enhanced ionic accessibility has been accomplished.

Alexandratos, S. D.

2001-06-01

101

Bioconjugates of rhizavidin with single domain antibodies as bifunctional immunoreagents.  

PubMed

Use of the avidin-biotin binding interaction for immunoassay applications is widespread. One advantageous immunoreagent is the recombinant fusion of an antibody fragment with a biotin binding protein. These genetic fusions alleviate the need to prepare chemical conjugates to achieve molecules that combine target recognition with signal transduction or to facilitate the directional immobilization of the binding element. In order for such a fusion protein to be useful, however, it must be able to be produced in good yield. Unfortunately, recombinant production of avidin or streptavidin as well as bioconjugates derived thereof has been problematic. An alternative biotin binding molecule called rhizavidin has been described, which forms a homodimer instead of a tetramer, but it has not been evaluated in genetic fusions with antibody binding domains. Single domain antibodies, the variable domain derived from camelid heavy chain only antibodies, offer binding domains with high affinity, and solubility that are well expressed in Escherichia coli. In this work, we prepared an anti-ricin single domain antibody - rhizavidin bioconjugate and evaluated it on the basis of its production in E. coli and on its activity in comparison to a streptavidin core bioconjugate and unfused single domain antibody. The single domain antibody-rhizavidin bioconjugate produced much better than its streptavidin core counterparts, yielding an average of 14mg/L, a 20-fold improvement. When used in assays the rhizavidin conjugate provided the same desirable characteristics as the streptavidin core fusion as both capture and detection reagents. Since rhizavidin and single domain antibodies both display impressive thermal stabilities their fusion provides a route to achieve robust bifunctional immunoreagents. PMID:24946086

Liu, Jinny L; Zabetakis, Dan; Walper, Scott A; Goldman, Ellen R; Anderson, George P

2014-09-01

102

Employment of a macrocyclic amine bifunctional chelate to label antibodies  

SciTech Connect

Conjugation of antibodies (ABs) with bifunction chelates (BFCs) is an effective method to produce immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic agents. Most BFCs employ multidentate acetate ligands to chelate metallic radionuclides. The authors have designed a BFC where a cyclam analogue tetradentate macrocyclic amine (MA) is the complexing moiety, MA was linked to the AB using a 3 step process. The epsilon-amine groups on the AB was conjugated using m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. A MA derivative with a free thiol group was added to produce the final product. The conjugated AB was used to bind Cu-64 (tl/2=12hr). Cu-64 was used because of its availability and because its analog Cu-67 can be used therapeutically. The effects of conjugation and radiolabeling on the denaturation of rabbit-anti-HSA antibodies were determined by affinity chromatography and molecular exclusion HPLC. Non-specific binding (NSB) was minimized by washing the labeled conjugated ABs bound to a Sepharose-HSA affinity column with 1 mM EDTA. No exchange of Cu-64 from the MA to EDTA occured in greater than or equal to 72 hrs while most NSB Cu-64 was exchangeable. An average of 0.5 +- 0.2 BFC groups per AB can be conjugated with 65% active AB remaining. A series of experiments demonstrated that labeling the BFC with Tc-99m prior to conjugation was effective in attaching Tc-99m to the ABs with less than or equal to 10% denaturation. These results indicate the efficacy of MA based BFCs for producing radiocopper and Tc-99m labeled ABs.

Franz, J.; Barefield, E.K.; Freeman, G.M.; Volkert, W.A.; Holmes, R.A.

1985-05-01

103

Physical properties of bifunctional BST/LSMO nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the fabrication of bifunctional nanocomposites consisting of ferroelectric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) at different concentrations via a high-temperature solid state route. The structural, dielectric, electrical, magnetodielectric (MD), magnetoelectric (ME) and magnetic properties of BST/LSMO nanocomposites were systematically investigated over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The X-Ray Diffraction analyses reveal the nanocrystalline nature of the heterostructures, wherein both perovskite phases co-exist. No parasitic phases were observed. The study of the dielectric properties shows that the nanocomposites exhibit relaxor ferroelectric character, with ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperatures around 287-292 K that do not follow the Curie-Weiss law. The electrical measurements indicate that ac conductivities of the nanocomposites follow the Jonscher's universal power law, with activation energies of 0.42-0.63 eV based on Arrhenius-type behavior at high temperatures. The nanocomposites exhibit well-defined ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at room temperature (RT). The MD and ME measurements at RT indicate that BST/LSMO exhibits a nonlinear ME effect at low frequencies, with a threshold near 0.5 T. The magnetocapacitance (MCp) measurements evidence a quadratic dependence on magnetic field, further confirming the multiferroic nature of BST/LSMO. The order of MCp was found to be ˜7% per Tesla. The analysis of the MCp measurements indicates that one of the BST/LSMO compositions studied can be considered as a new multiferroic compound.

Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Martinez, Ricardo; Morell, Gerardo

2014-02-01

104

Synthesis and characterization of hafnium and molybdenum bifunctional initiators for the preparation of triblock copolymers  

E-print Network

Chapter 1. Three monofunctional mixed alkyl hafnium complexes containing the (MesNpy)2 ligand ([(MesitylNCH2)2CMe(2-CsH4N)]2) were synthesized. (MesNpy)Hf(Neo)R ((2b), R = Me; Neo = CH2CMe2Ph) and (MesNpy)Hf(CH2TMS)(R), ...

Gabert, Andrea Jennifer

2007-01-01

105

Bearings: Technology and needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

Anderson, W. J.

1982-01-01

106

Oxford phase III meniscal bearing fracture: case report.  

PubMed

Meniscal bearing fracture is a rare complication of phase III Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). We report a case of a meniscal bearing fracture that occurred 7 years after phase III Oxford medial UKR. The meniscal bearing showed uneven delamination of the polyethylene in the thinnest articular surface and an impingement lesion. This lesion initiated a fatigue crack that propagated to cause failure of the meniscal bearing. This is the first report of a meniscal bearing fracture without a posterior marker wire. PMID:23993481

Lim, Hong-Chul; Shon, Won-Yong; Kim, Seung-Ju; Bae, Ji-Hoon

2014-01-01

107

The Incredible Water Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich Micscape Magazine article explores how water bears can be found almost everywhere yet are still unknown to almost everybody, why there are relatively few light microscope photographs of water bears in the literature and on the Web, and how light microscopy can outperform scanning electron microscopy when viewing these animals. It includes a list of historical references, early sketches, and colorful images of water bears, also known as tardigrades.

Mach, Martin; Magazine, Micscape

108

Novel bidirectional air bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid lubricated bearings (ball or journal) exhibit problems of life and contamination in high speed polygonal scanners, particularly at speeds above 15,000 rpm. Grooved air bearings are limited to relatively high manufacturing cost, vertical only attitude, unidirectional rotation, and they tend to ingest debris. A plain journal air bearing is described which is bidirectional, any attitude operation, is free of whirl instability and has low manufacturing cost.

Sherman, Randy J.

1993-12-01

109

Bearing servicing tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tool for removing and/or replacing bearings in situ is presented. The tool is comprised of a brace having a first end adapted to engage a first end of the bearing housing, and a second end adapted to engage a second end of the bearing housing. If the two ends of the bearing housing are different in configuration, then the respective ends of the brace are configured accordingly. An elongate guide member integral with the brace has two parts, each projecting endwise from a respective end of the brace. A removable pressure plate can be mounted on either part of the guide member for longitudinal movement therealong and has first and second ends of different configurations adapted to engage the first and second ends of the bearing. A threaded-type drive is cooperative between the guide and the pressure plate to move the pressure plate longitudinally along the guide and apply a force to the bearing, either to remove the bearing from its housing, or to emplace a new bearing in the housing.

Boyce, Rex A. (inventor)

1992-01-01

110

Bearing Thermal Performance Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameter called lubricant percent volume or cavity factor (XCAV) used primarily in calculation of ball or roller drag and, therefore, significantly affects calculated bearing-heat generation and temperature distribution. New equation accounts for sensitivity of XCAV to shaft speed, lubricant flow rate, and bearing size, and provides significant improvement over previous estimation methods.

Parker, R. J.

1986-01-01

111

Grizzly bears and forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the occurrence and fruit production of 13 grizzly bear foods in west-central Alberta, Canada, to better understand use of clearcuts by grizzly bears. Comparisons were made between clearcuts and upland forest stands, while specific models describing food or fruit occurrence within clearcuts were developed from canopy, clearcut age, scarification, and terrain-related variables using logistic regression. Ants, Equisetum spp.,

S. E. Nielsen; R. H. M. Munro; E. L. Bainbridge; G. B. Stenhouse; M. S. Boyce

2004-01-01

112

Linear kinematic air bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bearing provides continuous, smooth movement of the cat's-eye mirror, eliminating wear and deterioration of bearing surface and resulting oscillation effects in servo system. Design features self-aligning configuration; single-point, pivotal pad mounting, having air passage through it; and design of pads that allows for precise control of discharge path of air from pads.

Mayall, S. D.

1974-01-01

113

Hollow rolling element bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low mass rolling element with a lightweight core and hollow center was developed for use in bearings. The core is plated so as to provide a hard surface and increase the life and reliability of the high speed ball bearings.

Parker, R. J. (inventor)

1973-01-01

114

Antident Bearing-Ball Retainer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jig prevents indentation of bearing balls by hard contact with edges of inner bearing rings during assembly. Jig is retaining ring which includes fingers that separates balls and pushes them against outer bearing and out of contact with inner bearing rings. Eliminates need for ball-retaining tabs on bearing cage.

Thomas, Larry L., Jr.

1995-01-01

115

Arcturus and the Bears  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arcturus is the brightest star in Bootes. The ancient Greek name Arktouros means Bear Guard. The star, however, is not close to Ursa Maior (Big She-Bear) and Ursa Minor (Little She-Bear), as the name would suggest. This curious discrepancy could be explained by the star proper motion, assuming the name Bear Guard is a remote cultural heritage. The proper motion analysis could allow us to get an insight also into an ancient myth regarding Ursa Maior. Though we cannot explain scientifically such a myth, some interesting suggestions can be obtained about its possible origin, in the context of the present knowledge of the importance of the cult of the bear both during the Palaeolithic times and for several primitive populations of modern times, as shown by the ethnological studies.

Antonello, E.

2009-08-01

116

Study of Catcher Bearings for High Temperature Magnetic Bearing Application  

E-print Network

temperature permanent magnet based magnetic bearings. The magnetic bearings are made of high temperature resistant permanent magnets (up to 1000 degrees F). A test rig has been developed to test these magnetic bearings. The test rig mainly consists of two...

Narayanaswamy, Ashwanth

2011-08-08

117

Enantioselective ?-Chlorination of Aldehydes with Recyclable Fluorous (S)-Pyrrolidine-Thiourea Bifunctional Organocatalyst  

PubMed Central

A novel fluorous (S)-pyrrolidine-thiourea bifunctional organocatalyst is prepared. The catalyst shows good activity and enantioselectivity for direct ?-chlorination of aldehydes using N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS) as the chlorine source. It can be recovered from the reaction mixture by fluorous solid-phase extraction with excellent purity for direct reuse. PMID:20717504

Wang, Liang; Curran, Dennis P.

2010-01-01

118

Improved Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Retention in an Injectable Collagen Matrix Using Bifunctional Peptides  

PubMed Central

To promote healing of many orthopedic injuries, tissue engineering approaches are being developed that combine growth factors such as Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) with biomaterial carriers. Although these technologies have shown great promise, they still face limitations. We describe a generalized approach to create target-specific modular peptides that bind growth factors to implantable biomaterials. These bifunctional peptide coatings provide a novel way to modulate biology on the surface of an implant. Using phage display techniques, we have identified peptides that bind with high affinity to BMP-2. The peptides that bind to BMP-2 fall into two different sequence clusters. The first cluster of peptide sequences contains the motif W-X-X-F-X-X-L (where X can be any amino acid) and the second cluster contains the motif F-P-L-K-G. We have synthesized bifunctional peptide linkers that contain BMP-2 and collagen-binding domains. Using a rat ectopic bone formation model, we have injected rhBMP-2 into a collagen matrix with or without a bifunctional BMP-2: collagen peptide (BC-1). The presence of BC-1 significantly increased osteogenic cellular activity, the area of bone formed, and bone maturity at the site of injection. Our results suggest that bifunctional peptides that can simultaneously bind to a growth factor and an implantable biomaterial can be used to control the delivery and release of growth factors at the site of implantation. PMID:23950987

Hamilton, Paul T.; Jansen, Michelle S.; Ganesan, Sathya; Benson, R. Edward; Hyde-DeRuyscher, Robin; Beyer, Wayne F.; Gile, Joseph C.; Nair, Shrikumar A.; Hodges, Jonathan A.; Gr?n, Hanne

2013-01-01

119

Highly Enantioselective Three-Component Direct Mannich Reactions of Unfunctionalized Ketones Catalyzed by Bifunctional Organocatalysts  

PubMed Central

A highly stereoselective three-component direct Mannich reaction between aromatic aldehydes, p-toluenesulfonamide, and unfunctionalized ketones was achieved through an enolate mechanism for the first time with a bifunctional quinidine thiourea catalyst. The corresponding N-tosylated ?-aminoketones were obtained in high yields and excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to >99:1 dr and >99% ee). PMID:23343472

Guo, Qunsheng; Zhao, John Cong-Gui

2013-01-01

120

A bifunctional cloak using transformation media and J. P. Huang1,a  

E-print Network

Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic of bifunctional cloak possessing both electrical and thermal cloaking functionality. We employ a composite conductivities of the composite material should meet the perfect conductivity profile calculated from

Huang, Ji-Ping

121

Bioelectrocatalytic hydrogels from electron-conducting metallopolypeptides coassembled with bifunctional enzymatic building blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we present two bifunctional protein building blocks that coassemble to form a bioelectrocatalytic hydrogel that catalyzes the reduction of dioxygen to water. One building block, a metallopolypeptide based on a previously designed triblock polypeptide, is electron-conducting. A second building block is a chimera of artificial alpha-helical leucine zipper and random coil domains fused to a polyphenol oxidase, small laccase

Ian R. Wheeldon; Joshua W. Gallaway; Scott Calabrese Barton; Scott Banta

2008-01-01

122

Formation of ceramophilic chitin and biohybrid materials enabled by a genetically engineered bifunctional protein.  

PubMed

A bifunctional protein composed of a highly negatively charged oyster shell protein and a chitin-binding domain enabled the formation of biohybrid materials through non-covalent surface modification of chitin nanofibres. The results demonstrate that specific biomolecular interactions offer a route for the formation of biosynthetic materials. PMID:24871427

Malho, Jani-Markus; Heinonen, Hanna; Kontro, Inkeri; Mushi, Ngesa E; Serimaa, Ritva; Hentze, Hans-Peter; Linder, Markus B; Szilvay, Géza R

2014-07-14

123

Stable cycling of lithium sulfide cathodes through strong affinity with a bifunctional binder  

E-print Network

Stable cycling of lithium sulfide cathodes through strong affinity with a bifunctional binder Zhi simulations to guide our rational selection of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) binder which exhibits strong affinity, it would be an added advantage if the proposed binder has a strong affinity for lithium poly- suldes (Li2Sn

Cui, Yi

124

Group I disynaptic excitation of cat hindlimb flexor and bifunctional motoneurones during fictive locomotion  

PubMed Central

The incidence of short latency excitation of motoneurones innervating flexor and bifunctional muscles evoked by group I intensity (? 2 × threshold) electrical stimulation of hindlimb muscle nerves was investigated during fictive locomotion in decerebrate cats. Intracellular recordings were made from hindlimb motoneurones in which action potentials were blocked by intracellular diffusion of a lidocaine (lignocaine) derivative (QX-314) and fictive locomotion was evoked by electrical stimulation of the midbrain. Few motoneurones (16%) received group I-evoked oligosynaptic excitation in the absence of fictive locomotion. During fictive locomotion 39/44 (89%) motoneurones innervating ankle, knee or hip flexor muscles and 18/28 (64%) motoneurones innervating bifunctional muscles received group I-evoked oligosynaptic EPSPs. In flexor motoneurones, locomotor-dependent excitation was present in both step cycle phases but largest during flexion. In bifunctional motoneurones, EPSPs were often largest at the transition between flexion and extension phases. Activation of homonymous afferents most consistently evoked the largest locomotor-dependent excitation (amplitude up to 4.6 mV), but in some cases stimulation of heteronymous flexor or bifunctional muscle nerves evoked large EPSPs. EPSP amplitude became maximal as stimulation intensity was increased to about twice threshold. This suggests that tendon organ afferents can evoke group I EPSPs during locomotion. The EPSPs resulting from brief, small stretches of extensor digitorum longus tendons indicate that group Ia muscle spindle afferents can also evoke the group I excitation of flexors. Stimulation of extensor group I afferents did not result in excitation of flexor motoneurones. The mean latency of locomotor-dependent group I excitation in flexor and bifunctional motoneurones was 1.64 ± 0.16 ms, indicating a path consisting of a single interneurone interposed between group I afferents and motoneurones innervating flexor and bifunctional muscles. This disynaptic excitation is analogous to that recorded in extensor motoneurones and evoked from extensor group I afferents during locomotion. Differences in the phase dependence and sources of group I excitation to flexor and extensor motoneurones during locomotion suggest the existence of separate groups of excitatory interneurones exciting flexor and extensor motoneurones. The wide distribution of group I disynaptic excitation in motoneurones innervating extensor, flexor and bifunctional muscles acting on hip, knee and ankle joints suggests that these pathways can play an important role in the reinforcement of ongoing locomotor activity throughout the limb. PMID:10835053

Quevedo, J; Fedirchuk, B; Gosgnach, S; McCrea, D A

2000-01-01

125

Ball Bearing Mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Load-deflection relationships for different types of elliptical contacts such as those found in a ball bearing are developed. Simplified expressions that allow quick calculations of deformation to be made simply from a knowledge of the applied load, the material properties, and the geometry of the contacting elements are presented. Ball bearings subjected to radial, thrust and combined ball loads are analyzed. A design criterion for fatigue life of ball bearings is developed. The section of a satisfactory lubricant, as well as describing systems that provide a constant flow of lubricant to the contact, is considered.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1981-01-01

126

Rate of Reaction and Crosslink Density of Bifunctional Monomers (Application to Olefinic and Acrylate Functionality): Computer Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rate of reaction and crosslink density of bifunctional monomers (olefinic (A) and acrylate (B)) in a solvent are studied via a computer simulation model. A fraction p of lattice sites are randomly occupied by A and B at a given concentration pA and pB. All other remaining sites represent an effective solvent medium. Monomer and solvent are mixed for a given period of time before polymerization is initiated. If A or B attempts to move into a site occupied by another functionality (A or B), a bond is formed with a reaction probability when both units have at least one unsaturated bond: the probability of reaction is KAA, KAB, and KBB for a radical initiated photo-polymerization. Once reacted, those monomers become immobile. Three systems are considered:(i) pA/pB = 1, (ii) pA/pB = 5, (iii) pA/pB = 2. Crosslink density and rate of reaction are studied as a function of polymer concentration. Preliminary data appears to support experimental observations.

Diamond, Keri; Pandey, Ras; Thames, Shelby

2003-03-01

127

Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) when approached by humans on foot.  

PubMed

Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males) GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80%) left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%). Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m) than passive bears (69±47 m), and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans. PMID:22363710

Moen, Gro Kvelprud; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Sahlén, Veronica; Swenson, Jon E

2012-01-01

128

Behaviour of Solitary Adult Scandinavian Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) when Approached by Humans on Foot  

PubMed Central

Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006–2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males) GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80%) left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%). Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m) than passive bears (69±47 m), and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans. PMID:22363710

Moen, Gro Kvelprud; St?en, Ole-Gunnar; Sahlen, Veronica; Swenson, Jon E.

2012-01-01

129

D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase/D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional protein deficiency: a newly identified peroxisomal disorder.  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomal beta-oxidation proceeds from enoyl-CoA through D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA to 3-ketoacyl-CoA by the D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase/D-3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional protein (d-bifunctional protein), and the oxidation of bile-acid precursors also has been suggested as being catalyzed by the d-bifunctional protein. Because of the important roles of this protein, we reinvestigated two Japanese patients previously diagnosed as having enoyl-CoA hydratase/L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional protein (L-bifunctional protein) deficiency, in complementation studies. We found that both the protein and the enzyme activity of the d-bifunctional protein were hardly detectable in these patients but that the active L-bifunctional protein was present. The mRNA level in patient 1 was very low, and, for patient 2, mRNA was of a smaller size. Sequencing analysis of the cDNA revealed a 52-bp deletion in patient 1 and a 237-bp deletion in patient 2. This seems to be the first report of D-bifunctional protein deficiency. Patients previously diagnosed as cases of L-bifunctional protein deficiency probably should be reexamined for a possible d-bifunctional protein deficiency. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:9345094

Suzuki, Y; Jiang, L L; Souri, M; Miyazawa, S; Fukuda, S; Zhang, Z; Une, M; Shimozawa, N; Kondo, N; Orii, T; Hashimoto, T

1997-01-01

130

Hydrostatic bearing support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrostatic bearing support system is provided which comprises a bearing housing having a polygonally configured outer surface which defines at least three symmetrically disposed working faces and a plurality of pressure plates, each of which is disposed relatively opposite a corresponding working face and spaced therefrom to define a gap therebetween. A hydrostatic support film is created in the gap for supporting the housing in spaced relationship to the pressure plates.

Cunningham, R. E. (inventor)

1977-01-01

131

Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C–1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to

A. T. W. Barrow; P. E. J. Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo

2011-01-01

132

Evaluation of SRM flex bearing materials and processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tensile, peel, and shear testing was performed on combinations of primers, adhesives, tycements and rubber compounds cured at various times and temperatures. The materials used in the fabrication of the solid rocket motor flex bearing as well as in other systems were evaluated. A compatibility study between adhesives and tycements was initiated. The flex bearing mold design was reviewed by our tooling experts.

Wood, T. E.

1980-01-01

133

Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing  

DOEpatents

A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

2002-01-01

134

Splined Ball-Bearing Carrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ball-bearing carrier includes splined outer surface mating with slightly larger splined inner surface of housing and provides constant deadband, unaffected by movements of other components. Deadband needed to establish radial spring rate and provide for axial movement of bearing for thrust balance. Bearing carrier and bearing intended for use in high-pressure turbopump.

Moore, Jerry H.

1992-01-01

135

American Black Bear: Ursus americanus  

E-print Network

3/21/2011 1 USFWS American Black Bear: Ursus americanus www.bear.org LDWF Historic Distribution Bear: Ursus americanus Louisiana Florida Eastern Olympic New Mexico California Cinnamon Mexican: Ursus americanus luteolus American black bear Historically abundant in Louisiana, eastern Texas

Gray, Matthew

136

Encapsulated ball bearings for rotary micro machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first encapsulated rotary ball bearing mechanism using silicon microfabrication and stainless steel balls. The method of capturing stainless steel balls within a silicon race to support a silicon rotor both axially and radially is developed for rotary micro machines and MEMS ball bearing tribology studies. Initial demonstrations show speeds up to 6.8 krpm without lubrication, while speeds up to 15.6 krpm with lubrication are possible. Qualitative analysis is used to explain start-up behavior and investigate the wear of the stainless steel ball and silicon race.

Waits, C. Mike; Geil, Bruce; Ghodssi, Reza

2007-09-01

137

Fault tolerant magnetic bearings  

SciTech Connect

A fault tolerant magnetic bearing system was developed and demonstrated on a large flexible-rotor test rig. The bearing system comprises a high speed, fault tolerant digital controller, three high capacity radial magnetic bearings, one thrust bearing, conventional variable reluctance position sensors, and an array of commercial switching amplifiers. Controller fault tolerance is achieved through a very high speed voting mechanism which implements triple modular redundancy with a powered spare CPU, thereby permitting failure of up to three CPU modules without system failure. Amplifier/cabling/coil fault tolerance is achieved by using a separate power amplifier for each bearing coil and permitting amplifier reconfiguration by the controller upon detection of faults. This allows hot replacement of failed amplifiers without any system degradation and without providing any excess amplifier kVA capacity over the nominal system requirement. Implemented on a large (2440 mm in length) flexible rotor, the system shows excellent rejection of faults including the failure of three CPUs as well as failure of two adjacent amplifiers (or cabling) controlling an entire stator quadrant.

Maslen, E.H.; Sortore, C.K.; Gillies, G.T.; Williams, R.D.; Fedigan, S.J. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Aimone, R.J. [Mobile Technology Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

1999-07-01

138

Amplified electrochemiluminescence detection of cancer cells using a new bifunctional quantum dot as signal probe.  

PubMed

In this work, we prepared a new electrochemiluminescent signal probe using a small bifunctional composite quantum dot (QD) with intense electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and excellent magnetic property, and developed a sensitive ECL biosensor for detection of cancer cells via DNA cyclic amplification technique. The graphene oxide (GO) with unique electrical properties was used as nano-amplified platform to immobilize a large number of capture DNA (c-DNA1). The endonuclease-assisted amplification technique was applied to amplify the ECL signal change induced by target cells. Specifically, the bifunctional composite QDs with excellent magnetic property can be conveniently labeled, separated, and developed the ECL signal probe, thus an ECL method for rapid and sensitive detection of cancer cells was developed. So far, it is for the first time that the small magnetic electrochemiluminescent QDs were applied to the assays of cancer cells by using amplification strategy, which is expected to have great potential for early clinical diagnosis of cancer. PMID:23891800

Jie, Guifen; Zhao, Yanbin; Niu, Shuyan

2013-12-15

139

Preparations of bifunctional polymeric beads simultaneously incorporated with fluorescent quantum dots and magnetic nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifunctional polystyrene beads simultaneously incorporated with fluorescent CdTe quantum dots (Q-dots) and superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanocrystals were prepared by a modified mini-emulsion polymerization method, in which polymerizable surfactants were used as both phase transfer agent for aqueous colloidal nanoparticles and emulsifier. In addition, silica coating was also introduced to Fe3O4 nanocrystals for regulating the internal structure of the composite beads. Transmission electron microscopy, confocal fluorescence microscopy and conventional spectroscopy were used to characterize the composite beads, as well as the polymerizable surfactant-coated CdTe Q-dots and silica-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Different mixing methods were also attempted in order to vary the size of the resultant bifunctional beads.

Tu, Chifeng; Yang, Yunhua; Gao, Mingyuan

2008-03-01

140

Radiometals (non-Tc, non-Re) and Bifunctional Labeling Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometals are of increased current interest because of the growing use of targeted radiotherapy for tumors and the development of generators that produce positron-emitting radiometals. In addition, biomedical cyclotrons allow the cheap production of some relevant radiometals. The design of the corresponding radiopharmaceuticals includes the synthesis of bifunctional chelators, which carry a functional unit for the immobilization of the radiometal and a functional group for the covalent attachment to a vector molecule. Radiometals of interest for therapeutic applications are some lanthanides, 67Cu, and 90Y. For diagnostic applications 61Cu, 62Cu, 64Cu, 89Zr, and 68Ga are currently used and corresponding radiopharmaceuticals are being designed. In this chapter, some properties and the synthesis of bifunctional chelators including metal ion selectivity and special aspects of coupling chemistry are being described.

Fani, M.; Good, S.; Maecke, H. R.

141

A bifunctional nonprecious metal catalyst for oxygen reduction and water oxidation.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in oxygen electrochemistry as conversions between O(2) and H(2)O play an important role in a variety of renewable energy technologies. The goal of this work is to develop active bifunctional catalyst materials for water oxidation and oxygen reduction. Drawing inspiration from a cubane-like CaMn(4)O(x), the biological catalyst found in the oxygen evolving center (OEC) in photosystem II, nanostructured manganese oxide surfaces were investigated for these reactions. Thin films of nanostructured manganese oxide were found to be active for both oxygen reduction and water oxidation, with similar overall oxygen electrode activity to the best known precious metal nanoparticle catalysts: platinum, ruthenium, and iridium. Physical and chemical characterization of the nanostructured Mn oxide bifunctional catalyst reveals an oxidation state of Mn(III), akin to one of the most commonly observed Mn oxidation states found in the OEC. PMID:20839797

Gorlin, Yelena; Jaramillo, Thomas F

2010-10-01

142

Mono and bi-functional arenethiols as surfactants for gold nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable gold nanoparticles stabilized by different mono and bi-functional arenethiols, namely, benzylthiol and 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, have been prepared by using a modified Brust's two-phase synthesis. The size, shape, and crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles have been determined by high-resolution electron microscopy and full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Nanocrystals diameters have been tuned in the range 2 ÷ 9 nm by

Floriana Vitale; Ilaria Fratoddi; Chiara Battocchio; Emanuela Piscopiello; Leander Tapfer; Maria Vittoria Russo; Giovanni Polzonetti; Cinzia Giannini

2011-01-01

143

Mapping and expression of a bifunctional thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase gene from maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bifunctional gene (ZmDHFR-TS) encoding dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was cloned from a Zea mays cDNA library. Both of these enzymes are involved in nucleotide biosynthesis, specifically in the formation of thymidine monophosphate (TMP). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with DHFR-TS sequences from three other plant sources revealed over 75% similarity and motifs typical of

Kevin Cox; Dominique Robertson; Roger Fites

1999-01-01

144

Purification, characterization, and identification of a novel bifunctional catalase-phenol oxidase from Scytalidium thermophilum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel bifunctional catalase with an additional phenol oxidase activity was isolated from a thermophilic fungus, Scytalidium thermophilum. This extracellular enzyme was purified ca. 10-fold with 46% yield and was biochemically characterized. The enzyme contains\\u000a heme and has a molecular weight of 320 kDa with four 80 kDa subunits and an isoelectric point of 5.0. Catalase and phenol\\u000a oxidase activities were most

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Ufuk Bakir; Simon E. V. Phillips; Michael J. McPherson; Zumrut B. Ogel

2008-01-01

145

CT-Operated Bifunctional Fluorescent Probe Based on a Pretwisted Donor–Donor–Biphenyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account the structural requirements for TICT-type sensor molecules, a general synthetic route to derive pH and cation-responsive pretwisted donor (D)–donor (D) biphenyls (b) equipped with donor receptors is developed and a first model compound containing a mono aza-15-crown-5 and a DMA receptor is synthesized, see Scheme 1. The spectroscopic properties of this new bifunctional D–D biphenyl are studied

Y. Q. Li; J. L. Bricks; U. Resch-Genger; M. Spieles; W. Rettig

2006-01-01

146

Solving bearing overheating problems  

SciTech Connect

Overheating is a major indicator, along with vibration and noise, of an underlying problem affecting a bearing or related components. Because normal operating temperatures vary widely from one application to another, no single temperature is a reliable sign of overheating in every situation. By observing an application when it is running smoothly, a technician can establish a benchmark temperature for a particular bearing arrangement. Wide deviations from this accepted norm generally indicate troublesome overheating. The list of possible causes of over-heating ranges from out-of-round housings and oversize shaft diameters to excessive lubrication and bearing preloading. These causes fall into two major categories: improper or faulty lubrication and mechanical problems, such as incorrect fits and tolerances. These are discussed along with solutions.

Jendzurski, T. [SKF Bearing Services, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

1995-05-08

147

Partial tooth gear bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

148

(S)-5-(p-Nitrobenzyl)-PCTA, a Promising Bifunctional Ligand with Advantageous Metal Ion Complexation Kinetics  

PubMed Central

A bifunctional version of PCTA (3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9,-triacetic acid) that exhibits fast complexation kinetics with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions was synthesized in reasonable yields starting from N, N?, N?-tristosyl-(S)-2-(p-nitrobenzyl)-diethylenetriamine. pH-potentiometric studies showed that the basicities of p-nitrobenzyl-PCTA and the parent ligand PCTA were similar. The stability of M(NO2-Bn-PCTA) (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) complexes was similar to that of the corresponding PCTA complexes while the stability of Ln3+ complexes of the bifunctional ligand is somewhat lower than that of PCTA chelates. The rate of complex formation of Ln(NO2-Bn-PCTA) complexes was found to be quite similar to that of PCTA, a ligand known to exhibit the fastest formation rates among all lanthanide macrocyclic ligand complexes studied to date. The acid catalyzed decomplexation kinetic studies of the selected Ln(NO2-Bn-PCTA) complexes showed that the kinetic inertness of the complexes was comparable to that of Ln(DOTA) chelates making the bifunctional ligand NO2-Bn-PCTA suitable for labeling biological vectors with radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications. PMID:19220012

Tircso, Gyula; Benyo, Eniko Tircsone; Suh, Eul Hyun; Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Kovacs, Zoltan

2009-01-01

149

A Processive Carbohydrate Polymerase That Mediates Bifunctional Catalysis Using a Single Active Site  

PubMed Central

Even in the absence of a template, glycosyltransferases can catalyze the synthesis of carbohydrate polymers of specific sequence. The paradigm has been that one enzyme catalyzes the formation of one type of glycosidic linkage, yet certain glycosyltransferases generate polysaccharide sequences composed of two distinct linkage types. In principle, bifunctional glycosyltransferases can possess separate active sites for each catalytic activity or one active site with dual activities. We encountered the fundamental question of one or two distinct active sites in our investigation of the galactosyltransferase GlfT2. GlfT2 catalyzes the formation of mycobacterial galactan, a critical cell-wall polymer composed of galactofuranose residues connected with alternating, regioisomeric linkages. We found that GlfT2 mediates galactan polymerization using only one active site that manifests dual regioselectivity. Structural modeling of the bifunctional glycosyltransferases hyaluronan synthase and cellulose synthase suggests that these enzymes also generate multiple glycosidic linkages using a single active site. These results highlight the versatility of glycosyltransferases for generating polysaccharides of specific sequence. We postulate that a hallmark of processive elongation of a carbohydrate polymer by a bifunctional enzyme is that one active site can give rise to two separate types of glycosidic bonds. PMID:22217153

May, John F.; Levengood, Matthew R.; Splain, Rebecca A.; Brown, Christopher D.; Kiessling, Laura L.

2012-01-01

150

Blood Pump Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

151

Blood Pump Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus are provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

152

Lubricant effects on bearing life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1986-01-01

153

Bearing-Cartridge Damping Seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In proposed design for improved ball-bearing cartridge, damping seal in form of thin-layer fluid journal bearing incorporated into cartridge. Damping seal acts as auxiliary bearing, relieving bearing balls of significant portions of both static and dynamic bearing loads. Damping from seal reduces dynamic loads even further by reducing amplitude of vibrations in second vibrational mode of rotor, which mode occurs when rotor turning at nearly full operating speed. Intended for use in high-pressure-oxygen turbopump of Space Shuttle main engine, also applicable to other turbomachinery bearings.

Goggins, David G.; Scharrer, Joseph K.; Chen, Wei C.

1991-01-01

154

Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.

Clingman, W. Dean

1991-01-01

155

Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

Chu, Wei-Kan

1995-04-01

156

History of ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

1981-01-01

157

The Teddy Bears' Disc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

Laurillard, Diana

1985-01-01

158

Bear vs Bee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the bear to the pot of honey, avoiding the bees. The game has 32 stages of increasing complexity.

2012-01-01

159

Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing  

DOEpatents

A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT); Lynds, Jr., Lahmer (Glastonbury, CT)

1993-01-01

160

Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this quarter, high pressure (8.1 MPa) and high temperature (up to 350[degrees]C) catalytic testing was carried out with a 10 wt% cesium doped molybdenum disulfide for 188.5 hr. The doping of the catalyst was carried out under vacuum, instead of evaporating a methanolic solution of cesium formate. This procedure proved to initially provide an active catalyst, although the catalyst

K. Klier; R. G. Herman; M. Deemer

1993-01-01

161

Magnetic bearings grow more attractive  

SciTech Connect

Advances in materials and electronics have enabled designers to devise simpler, smaller magnetic bearings. As a result, costs have dropped, widening the applications for these very-low-friction devices. Avcon (Advanced Controls Technology) has patented a permanent-magnet bias actively controlled bearing. Here high-energy rare earth permanent-magnet materials supply the basic bearing load levitation, while servo-driven electromagnets generate stabilization and centering forces for motion contol. Previous heavy-duty magnetic bearings used electromagnets entirely for suspension and control, which led to large bearings and control systems with higher power requirements. Avcon has developed several types of permanent-magnet bias bearings. The simplest is the radial repulsion bearing. Avcon's homopolar permanent-magnet bias active bearing is the most versatile of the company's designs.

Not Available

1993-10-01

162

Purification and Characterization of Bifunctional Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase from Developing Soybean Seeds1  

PubMed Central

Both in mammals and plants, excess lysine (Lys) is catabolized via saccharopine into ?-amino adipic semialdehyde and glutamate by two consecutive enzymes, Lys-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR) and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH), which are linked on a single bifunctional polypeptide. To study the control of metabolite flux via this bifunctional enzyme, we have purified it from developing soybean (Glycine max) seeds. LKR activity of the bifunctional LKR/SDH possessed relatively high Km for its substrates, Lys and ?-ketoglutarate, suggesting that this activity may serve as a rate-limiting step in Lys catabolism. Despite their linkage, the LKR and SDH enzymes possessed significantly different pH optima, suggesting that SDH activity of the bifunctional enzyme may also be rate-limiting in vivo. We have previously shown that Arabidopsis plants contain both a bifunctional LKR/SDH and a monofunctional SDH enzymes (G. Tang, D. Miron, J.X. Zhu-Shimoni, G. Galili [1997] Plant Cell 9: 1–13). In the present study, we found no evidence for the presence of such a monofunctional SDH enzyme in soybean seeds. These results may provide a plausible regulatory explanation as to why various plant species accumulate different catabolic products of Lys. PMID:10859195

Miron, Daphna; Ben-Yaacov, Sari; Reches, Dalit; Schupper, Avigail; Galili, Gad

2000-01-01

163

Compliant hydrodynamic fluid journal bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An air bearing structure is described that prevents destructive bending moments within the top foil. Welds are eliminated by mounting the top bearing foil in the bearing cartridge sleeve without using a space block. Tabs or pins at the end of the top bearing foil are restrained by slots or stops formed in the cartridge sleeve. These structural members are free to move in a direction normal to the shaft while being restrained from movement in the direction of shaft rotation.

Warren, E. L. (inventor)

1985-01-01

164

Research Trends on Magnetic Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of magnetic bearings for high-speed rotor and application in clean environment or in special circumstance have been gradually increasing. This article overviews research trends and application presented before the Eighth International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings (ISMB-8). Interesting research topics are the combined realization of motor and magnetic bearing, low loss magnetic bearings and self-sensing techniques. New application fields include

Yohji Okada; Kenzo Nonami

2003-01-01

165

First order ball bearing kinematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two first order equations are given connecting geometry and internal motions in an angular contact ball bearing. Total speed, kinematic equivalence, basic speed ratio, and modal speed ratio are defined and discussed; charts are given for the speed ratios covering all bearings and all rotational modes. Instances where specific first order assumptions might fail are discussed, and the resulting effects on bearing performance reviewed.

Kingbury, E.

1984-01-01

166

Night of the Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NOAA Ocean Exploration program strives to engage broad audiences to enhance America's environmental literacy through the excitement of ocean discovery. Increasing this literacy requires high-quality, effective collaborations between ocean explorers and America's teachers. NOAA is forming such collaborations to reach out in new ways to the public to improve the literacy of learners with respect to ocean issues. This site is a daily log of exploration in the Arctic and research on the Polar Bear.

Debenham, Casey; Timmermans, Mary-Louise

2002-08-25

167

Big Bear Solar Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is located at the end of a causeway in a mountain lake more than 2 km above sea level. The site has more than 300 sunny days a year and a natural inversion caused by the lake which makes for very clean images. BBSO is the only university observatory in the US making high-resolution observations of the Sun. Its daily images are posted at http://www.bbso.njit.e...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

168

Magnetic translator bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

169

The crystal structure reveals the molecular mechanism of bifunctional 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase/GTP cyclohydrolase II (Rv1415) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The enzymes 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase (DHBPS) and GTP cyclohydrolase II (GCHII) catalyze the initial steps of both branches of the bacterial riboflavin-biosynthesis pathway. The structures and molecular mechanisms of DHBPS and GCHII as separate polypeptides are known; however, their organization and molecular mechanism as a bifunctional enzyme are unknown to date. Here, the crystal structure of an essential bifunctional DHBPS/GCHII enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb-ribA2) is reported at 3.0?Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed two conformationally different molecules of Mtb-ribA2 in the asymmetric unit that form a dimer via their GCHII domains. Interestingly, analysis of the crystal packing revealed a long `helical-like oligomer' formed by DHBPS and GCHII functional homodimers, thus generating an `open-ended' unit-cell lattice. However, size-exclusion chromatography studies suggest that Mtb-ribA2 exists as a dimer in solution. To understand the discrepancy between the oligomerization observed in solution and in the crystal structure, the DHBPS (Mtb-DHBPS) and GCHII (Mtb-GCHII) domains of Mtb-ribA2 have been cloned, expressed and purified as His-tagged proteins. Size-exclusion chromatography studies indicated that Mtb-GCHII is a dimer while Mtb-DHBPS exists as a monomer in solution. Moreover, kinetic studies revealed that the GCHII activities of Mtb-ribA2 and Mtb-GCHII are similar, while the DHBPS activity of Mtb-ribA2 is much higher than that of Mtb-DHBPS alone. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that Mtb-ribA2 exists as a dimer formed through its GCHII domains and requires full-length Mtb-ribA2 for optimal DHBPS activity. PMID:23999287

Singh, Mirage; Kumar, Pankaj; Yadav, Savita; Gautam, Ruchi; Sharma, Nidhi; Karthikeyan, Subramanian

2013-09-01

170

Development of passive superconducting bearings. Phase 3. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the work performed by MTI under contract to Strategic Defense Initiative Organization to develop the technology of Superconducting Bearings. This work, had been supported by NASA and DARPA in addition to SDIO. As a result of this work, MTI had developed a passive superconducting bearing that is used to levitate relatively heavy rotors. It used this bearing to levitate a 7 lb rotor and spin at speeds of up to 12,000 rpm. The success of this effort indicates that the superconducting bearings have potential for transition from a mere laboratory curiosity to a functional bearing component in a wider range of practical applications such as cryoturbopumps, miniature cryocoolers and magnetic refrigerators. In addition, MTI had investigated several configurations of using superconductors to support loads along a single axis. The effort was directed to identify a specific configuration that offers a very high stiffness.

Rao, D.K.

1993-05-14

171

Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, high pressure (8.1 MPa) and high temperature (up to 350[degrees]C) catalytic testing was carried out with a 10 wt% cesium doped molybdenum disulfide for 188.5 hr. The doping of the catalyst was carried out under vacuum, instead of evaporating a methanolic solution of cesium formate. This procedure proved to initially provide an active catalyst, although the catalyst was not as active as previously reported [1] for a similarly prepared catalyst. Upon prolonged testing, deactivation of the catalyst was observed. Surprisingly, the selectivity pattern was reversed from that of the fresh catalyst, i.e. the alcohol synthesis selectivity increased with increasing reaction temperature rather than decreased. The causes of this deactivation and selectivity reversal have not yet been determined, but characterization studies are underway with this catalyst.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Deemer, M.

1993-03-01

172

Anti-backlash gear bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

173

Measurements of changes in the atmospheric partitioning of bifunctional carbonyls near a road in a suburban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifunctional carbonyls are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols through heterogenous reactions. However, the actual contributions of bifunctional carbonyls to atmospheric aerosols have been little measured because of their capacity to coexist in both the gaseous phase and the particulate phase, making it difficult to sample them in both phases simultaneously. Using a short time resolution (2 h), we measured the atmospheric partitioning of semivolatile species to understand their contributions to atmospheric aerosols. Our results indicate that equilibrium between the gaseous phase and the particulate phase was due not only to thermodynamic partitioning but also to an aging process. Fresh emissions from motor vehicles affected the partitioning, and partitioning coefficients stabilized when the aerosols aged. The contribution of bifunctional carbonyl compounds to atmospheric aerosols was 3-8 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated by thermodynamic predictions, corroborating previous findings.

Ortiz, R.; Shimada, S.; Sekiguchi, K.; Wang, Q.; Sakamoto, K.

2013-12-01

174

H6phospa-Trastuzumab: Bifunctional Methylenephosphonate-based Chelator with 89Zr, 111In and 177Lu  

PubMed Central

The acyclic chelator H6phospa and the bifunctional derivative p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa have been synthesized using nosyl protection chemistry and evaluated with 89Zr, 111In, and 177Lu. The p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa derivative was successfully conjugated to trastuzumab with isotopic dilution assays indicating 3.3 ± 0.1 chelates per antibody and in vitro cellular binding assays indicating an immunoreactivity value of 97.9 ± 2.6%. Radiolabeling of the H6phospa-trastuzumab immunoconjugate was achieved with 111In in 70–90% yields at room temperature in 30 minutes, while 177Lu under the same conditions produced more inconsistent yields of 40–80%. Stability experiments in human serum revealed the 111In-phospa-trastuzumab complex to be 52.0 ± 5.3% intact after 5 days at 37 °C, while the 177Lu-phospa-trastuzumab to be only 2.0 ± 0.3% intact. Small animal SPECT/CT imaging using mice bearing subcutaneous SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts was performed, and it was found that 111In-phospa-trastuzumab successfully identified and delineated small (~2 mm in diameter) tumors from surrounding tissues, despite visible uptake in the kidneys and bone due to moderate chelate instability. As predicted from stability assays in serum, the 177Lu-phospa-trastuzumab conjugate served as a negative control and displayed no tumor uptake, with high uptake in bones indicating rapid and complete radiometal dissociation and suggesting a potential application of H6phospa in transient lanthanide chelation for bone-delivery. Radiolabeling with 89Zr was attempted, but even with elevated temperatures of 37 °C, the maximum observed radiometal incorporation over 18 hours was 12%. It can be concluded from this work that H6phospa is not superior to the previously studied H4octapa for use with 111In and 177Lu, but improvements in 89Zr radiolabeling were observed over H4octapa, suggesting H6phospa to be an excellent starting point for elaboration of 89Zr-based radiopharmaceutical development. To our knowledge, H6phospa is the best desferrioxamine alternative for 89Zr radiolabeling to be studied to date. PMID:24104523

Price, Eric W.; Zeglis, Brian M.

2013-01-01

175

H6phospa-trastuzumab: bifunctional methylenephosphonate-based chelator with 89Zr, 111In and 177Lu.  

PubMed

The acyclic chelator H6phospa and the bifunctional derivative p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa have been synthesized using nosyl protection chemistry and evaluated with (89)Zr, (111)In, and (177)Lu. The p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa derivative was successfully conjugated to trastuzumab with isotopic dilution assays indicating 3.3 ± 0.1 chelates per antibody and in vitro cellular binding assays indicating an immunoreactivity value of 97.9 ± 2.6%. Radiolabeling of the H6phospa-trastuzumab immunoconjugate was achieved with (111)In in 70-90% yields at room temperature in 30 minutes, while (177)Lu under the same conditions produced more inconsistent yields of 40-80%. Stability experiments in human serum revealed the (111)In-phospa-trastuzumab complex to be 52.0 ± 5.3% intact after 5 days at 37 °C, while the (177)Lu-phospa-trastuzumab to be only 2.0 ± 0.3% intact. Small animal SPECT/CT imaging using mice bearing subcutaneous SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts was performed, and it was found that (111)In-phospa-trastuzumab successfully identified and delineated small (~2 mm in diameter) tumors from surrounding tissues, despite visible uptake in the kidneys and bone due to moderate chelate instability. As predicted from stability assays in serum, the (177)Lu-phospa-trastuzumab conjugate served as a negative control and displayed no tumor uptake, with high uptake in bones indicating rapid and complete radiometal dissociation and suggesting a potential application of H6phospa in transient lanthanide chelation for bone-delivery. Radiolabeling with (89)Zr was attempted, but even with elevated temperatures of 37 °C, the maximum observed radiometal incorporation over 18 hours was 12%. It can be concluded from this work that H6phospa is not superior to the previously studied H4octapa for use with (111)In and (177)Lu, but improvements in (89)Zr radiolabeling were observed over H4octapa, suggesting H6phospa to be an excellent starting point for elaboration of (89)Zr-based radiopharmaceutical development. To our knowledge, H6phospa is the best desferrioxamine alternative for (89)Zr radiolabeling to be studied to date. PMID:24104523

Price, Eric W; Zeglis, Brian M; Lewis, Jason S; Adam, Michael J; Orvig, Chris

2014-01-01

176

Damping Bearings In High-Speed Turbomachines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paper presents comparison of damping bearings with traditional ball, roller, and hydrostatic bearings in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. Concept of damping bearings described in "Damping Seals and Bearings for a Turbomachine" (MFS-28345).

Von Pragenau, George L.

1994-01-01

177

Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor  

DOEpatents

A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

Middleton, Marc G. (Wyoming, MI); Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH)

1988-01-01

178

Combining conformational sampling and selection to identify the binding mode of zinc-bound amyloid peptides with bifunctional molecules.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suggested to be related with the aggregation of amyloid ? (A?) peptides. Metal ions (e.g. Cu, Fe, and Zn) are supposed to induce the aggregation of A?. Recent development of bifunctional molecules that are capable of interacting with A? and chelating biometal ions provides promising therapeutics to AD. However, the molecular mechanism for how A?, metal ions, and bifunctional molecules interact with each other is still elusive. In this study, the binding mode of Zn(2+)-bound A? with bifunctional molecules was investigated by the combination of conformational sampling of full-length A? peptides using replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations (REMD) and conformational selection using molecular docking and classical MD simulations. We demonstrate that Zn(2+)-bound A?((1-40)) and A?((1-42)) exhibit different conformational ensemble. Both A? peptides can adopt various conformations to recognize typical bifunctional molecules with different binding affinities. The bifunctional molecules exhibit their dual functions by first preferentially interfering with hydrophobic residues 17-21 and/or 30-35 of Zn(2+)-bound A?. Additional interactions with residues surrounding Zn(2+) could possibly disrupt interactions between Zn(2+) and A?, which then facilitate these small molecules to chelate Zn(2+). The binding free energy calculations further demonstrate that the association of A? with bifunctional molecules is driven by enthalpy. Our results provide a feasible approach to understand the recognition mechanism of disordered proteins with small molecules, which could be helpful to the design of novel AD drugs. PMID:22829296

Xu, Liang; Gao, Ke; Bao, Chunyu; Wang, Xicheng

2012-08-01

179

A conserved domain in prokaryotic bifunctional FAD synthetases can potentially catalyze nucleotide transfer.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of flavin adenine dinucleotides in most prokaryotes is catalyzed by a family of bifunctional flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetases. These enzymes carry out the dual functions of phosphorylation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and its subsequent adenylylation to generate FAD. Using various sequence analysis methods, a new domain has been identified in the N-terminal region that is well conserved in all the bacterial FAD synthetases. We also identify remote similarity of this domain to the nucleotidyl transferases and, hence, this domain is suggested to be invloved in the adenylylation reaction of FAD synthetases. PMID:12517446

Krupa, Ananth; Sandhya, Kumaraswamy; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Jonnalagadda, Sobhanaditya

2003-01-01

180

Synthesis and evaluation of a bifunctional chelate for development of Bi(III)-labeled radioimmunoconjugates  

PubMed Central

A new bifunctional ligand C-DEPA was designed and synthesized as a component for antibody-targeted radiation therapy (radioimmunotherapy, RIT) of cancer. C-DEPA was conjugated to a tumor targeting antibody, trastuzumab, and the corresponding C-DEPA-trastuzumab conjugate was evaluated for radiolabeling kinetics with 205/6Bi. C-DEPA-trastuzumab conjugate rapidly bound 205/6Bi, and 205/6Bi-C-DEPA-trastuzumab conjugate was stable in human serum for 72 h. The in vitro radiolabeling kinetics and serum stability data suggest that C-DEPA is a potential chelate for preclinical RIT applications using 212Bi and 213Bi. PMID:22047687

Dadwal, Mamta; Kang, Chi Soo; Song, Hyun A; Sun, Xiang; Dai, Anzhi; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Chong, Hyun-Soon

2013-01-01

181

Bifunctional Organic Polymeric Catalysts with a Tunable Acid-Base Distance and Framework Flexibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid-base bifunctional organic polymeric catalysts were synthesized with tunable structures. we demonstrated two synthesis approaches for structural fine-tune. In the first case, the framework flexibility was tuned by changing the ratio of rigid blocks to flexible blocks within the polymer framework. In the second case, we precisely adjusted the acid-base distance by distributing basic monomers to be adjacent to acidic monomers, and by changing the chain length of acidic monomers. In a standard test reaction for the aldol condensation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde with acetone, the catalysts showed good reusability upon recycling and maintained relatively high conversion percentage.

Chen, Huanhui; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Qunlong; Li, Junhui; Yang, Shiqi; Zhu, Zhirong

2014-09-01

182

A supramolecular bifunctional artificial enzyme with superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

For constructing a bifunctional antioxidative enzyme with both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, a supramolecular artificial enzyme was successfully constructed by the self-assembly of the Mn(III)meso-tetra[1-(1-adamantyl methyl ketone)-4-pyridyl] porphyrin (MnTPyP-M-Ad) and cyclodextrin-based telluronic acid (2-CD-TeO3H) through host–guest interaction in aqueous solution. The self-assembly of the adamantyl moieties of Mn(III) porphyrin and the ?-CD cavities of 2-CD-TeO3H was

Shuangjiang Yu; Xin Huang; Lu Miao; Junyan Zhu; Yanzhen Yin; Quan Luo; Jiayu Xu; Jiacong Shen; Junqiu Liu

2010-01-01

183

Description of a magnetic bearing test fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of a microcomputer controlled magnetic bearing test fixture is presented. Parameters which are controlled are magnetic bearing current and gaps. Parameters which are measured are magnetic bearing gaps, magnetic flux in the bearing gaps, and bearing forces. The test fixture is configured for bearing elements similar to those used in a laboratory test model Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD).

Groom, Nelson J.; Poole, William L.

1987-01-01

184

Hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings in high-speed turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high speed, high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested under a previous contract. This design was then modified to incorporate hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on both the pump end and turbine end to replace the original conventional ball bearing packages. The design, analysis, turbopump modification, assembly, and testing of the turbopump with hybrid bearings is presented here. Initial design considerations and rotordynamic performance analysis was made to define expected turbopump operating characteristics and are reported. The results of testing the turbopump to speeds of 9215 rad/s (88,000 rpm) using a wide range of hydrostatic bearing supply pressures are presented. The hydrostatic bearing test data and the rotordynamic behavior of the turbopump was closely analyzed and are included in the report. The testing of hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on a turbopump to the high speed requirements has indicated the configuration concept is feasible. The program has presented a great deal of information on the technology requirements of integrating the hybrid bearing into high speed turbopump designs for improved bearing life.

Nielson, C. E.

1983-01-01

185

Spin testing of flywheel bearings and seals. Test report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flywheel bearings and seals testing performed at LMC Corporation during the months of June, July, and August 1976 is documented. The overall program objective is to develop a light-weight fiber-composite flywheel system for use in flywheel powered vehicle. These initial tests were performed to evaluate the performance of high-speed bearings and seals for that system under conditions simulating as

Wildermuth

1976-01-01

186

Gold-bearing skarns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years, a significant proportion of the mining industry's interest has been centered on discovery of gold deposits; this includes discovery of additional deposits where gold occurs in skarn, such as at Fortitude, Nevada, and at Red Dome, Australia. Under the classification of Au-bearing skarns, we have modeled these and similar gold-rich deposits that have a gold grade of at least 1 g/t and exhibit distinctive skarn mineralogy. Two subtypes, Au-skarns and byproduct Au-skarns, can be recognized on the basis of gold, silver, and base-metal grades, although many other geological factors apparently are still undistinguishable largely because of a lack of detailed studies of the Au-skarns. Median grades and tonnage for 40 Au-skarn deposits are 8.6 g/t Au, 5.0 g/t Ag, and 213,000 t. Median grades and tonnage for 50 byproduct and Au-skarn deposits are 3.7 g/t Au, 37 g/t Ag, and 330,000 t. Gold-bearing skarns are generally calcic exoskarns associated with intense retrograde hydrosilicate alteration. These skarns may contain economic amounts of numerous other commodities (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, As, Bi, W, Sb, Co, Cd, and S) as well as gold and silver. Most Au-bearing skarns are found in Paleozoic and Cenozoic orogenic-belt and island-arc settings and are associated with felsic to intermediate intrusive rocks of Paleozoic to Tertiary age. Native gold, electru, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, galena, bismuth minerals, and magnetite or hematite are the most common opaque minerals. Gangue minerals typically include garnet (andradite-grossular), pyroxene (diopside-hedenbergite), wollastonite, chlorite, epidote, quartz, actinolite-tremolite, and (or) calcite.

Theodore, Ted G.; Orris, Greta J.; Hammerstrom, Jane M.; Bliss, James D.

1991-01-01

187

Conservation of brown bear in the Alps: space use and settlement behavior of reintroduced bears  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large carnivores typically need large home ranges containing habitats patches of different quality. Consequently, their conservation requires habitat protection and management at the landscape scale. In some cases, reintroduction might be used to support remnant or restore extinct populations. This is the case for the brown bear ( Ursus arctos) in the Italian Alps. We monitored spacing behavior and settlement of reintroduced brown bears in Adamello-Brenta Natural Park, North-Italy, using radio-tracking. Habitat use, dispersion and survival were studied to evaluate the success of reintroduction and possible conflicts with man. All three males and five of seven females settled in the study area. Most bears roamed widely the first months after release, exploring the new habitat. Patterns of home range overlap between seasons and years revealed that home range use stabilized the year after first hibernation. Home ranges were larger in the mating season (May-July) than in spring or autumn. Home ranges varied between 34 and 1813 km 2 the year after release, but core-areas, where feeding activity was concentrated, were much smaller. Some bears had exclusive core-areas in summer and autumn, but most showed considerable core-area overlap with animals of the same and/or the opposite sex. Bears selected deciduous forests, mixed and conifer forests were used according to availability, and areas with anthropogenic disturbance were avoided. Most bears settled and some reproduced successfully at the release site, causing high initial population growth, suggesting that reintroduction can help to re-establish a brown bear population in the Italian Alps.

Preatoni, Damiano; Mustoni, Andrea; Martinoli, Adriano; Carlini, Eugenio; Chiarenzi, Barbara; Chiozzini, Simonetta; Van Dongen, Stefan; Wauters, Luc A.; Tosi, Guido

2005-11-01

188

Linear magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self regulating, nonfrictional, active magnetic bearing is disclosed which has an elongated cylindrical housing for containing a shaft type armature with quadrature positioned shaft position sensors and equidistantly positioned electromagnets located at one end of the housing. Each set of sensors is responsive to orthogonal displacement of the armature and is used to generate control signals to energize the electromagnets to center the armature. A bumper magnet assembly is located at one end of the housing for dampening any undesired axial movement of the armature or to axially move the armature either continuously or fixedly.

Goldowskiy, M. P.

1984-01-01

189

PNA bearing 5-azidomethyluracil  

PubMed Central

Fmoc- and Boc-protected modified monomers bearing 5-azidomethyluracil nucleobase were synthesized. Four different solid-phase synthetic strategies were tested in order to evaluate the application of this series of monomers for the solid-phase synthesis of modified PNA. The azide was used as masked amine for the introduction of amide-linked functional groups, allowing the production of a library of compounds starting from a single modified monomer. The azide function was also exploited as reactive group for the modification of PNA in solution via azide-alkyne click cycloaddition. PMID:22772040

Manicardi, Alex; Accetta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Marchelli, Rosangela; Corradini, Roberto

2012-01-01

190

Pushing the theoretical limit of Li-CF(x) batteries: a tale of bifunctional electrolyte.  

PubMed

In a typical battery, the inert electrolyte functions solely as the ionic conductor without contribution to the cell capacity. Here we demonstrate that the most energy-dense Li-CF(x) battery delivers a capacity exceeding the theoretical maximum of CF(x) with a solid electrolyte of Li3PS4 (LPS) that has dual functions: as the inert electrolyte at the anode and the active component at the cathode. Such a bifunctional electrolyte reconciles both inert and active characteristics through a synergistic discharge mechanism of CF(x) and LPS. The synergy at the cathode is through LiF, the discharge product of CF(x), which activates the electrochemical discharge of LPS at a close electrochemical potential of CF(x). Therefore, the solid-state Li-CF(x) batteries output 126.6% energy beyond their theoretic limits without compromising the stability of the cell voltage. The additional energy comes from the electrochemical discharge of LPS, the inert electrolyte. This bifunctional electrolyte revolutionizes the concept of conventional batteries and opens a new avenue for the design of batteries with unprecedented energy density. PMID:24730570

Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Li, Juchuan; Sahu, Gayatri; Dudney, Nancy; Liang, Chengdu

2014-05-14

191

Peroxisomal bifunctional protein deficiency revisited: resolution of its true enzymatic and molecular basis.  

PubMed Central

In the past few years, many patients have been described who have a defect of unknown origin in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway. Complementation analysis has been done by various groups to establish the extent of the genetic heterogeneity among the patients. These studies were based on the use of two established cell lines, one with a deficiency of acyl-CoA oxidase and one with a deficiency of l-bifunctional protein (l-BP), and they showed that most patients belong to the l-BP-deficient group. However, molecular analysis of the cDNA encoding l-BP in patients failed to show any mutations. The recent identification of a new d-specific bifunctional protein (d-BP) prompted us to reinvestigate the original patient with presumed l-BP deficiency. In a collaborative effort, we have now found that the true defect in this patient is at the level of the d-BP and not at the level of the l-BP. Our results suggest that most, if not all, patients whose condition has been diagnosed as l-BP are, in fact, d-BP deficient. We tested this hypothesis in nine patients whose condition was diagnosed as l-BP deficiency on the basis of complementation analysis and found clear-cut mutations in the d-BP cDNA from all patients. PMID:9915948

van Grunsven, E G; van Berkel, E; Mooijer, P A; Watkins, P A; Moser, H W; Suzuki, Y; Jiang, L L; Hashimoto, T; Hoefler, G; Adamski, J; Wanders, R J

1999-01-01

192

Conversion of cellulose into isosorbide over bifunctional ruthenium nanoparticles supported on niobium phosphate.  

PubMed

Considerable effort has been applied to the development of new processes and catalysts for cellulose conversion to valuable platform chemicals. Isosorbide is among the most interesting products as it can be applied as a monomer and building block for the future replacement of fossil resource-based products. A sustainable method of isosorbide production from cellulose is presented in this work. The strategy relies on a bifunctional Ru catalyst supported on mesoporous niobium phosphate in a H2 atmosphere under pressure without further addition of any soluble acid. Over 50?% yield of isosorbide with almost 100?% cellulose conversion can be obtained in 1?h. The large surface area, pore size, and strong acidity of mesoporous niobium phosphate promote the hydrolysis of cellulose and dehydration of sorbitol; additionally, the appropriate size of the supported Ru nanoparticles avoids unnecessary hydrogenolysis of sorbitol. Under a cellulose/catalyst mass ratio of 43.3, the present bifunctional catalyst could be stably used up to six times, with its mesoporous structure well preserved and without detectable Ru leaching into the reaction solution. PMID:24115374

Sun, Peng; Long, Xiangdong; He, Hao; Xia, Chungu; Li, Fuwei

2013-11-01

193

Crystal Structures of Bifunctional Penicillin-Binding Protein 4 from Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan chain of the bacterial cell wall, are the major molecular target of bacterial antibiotics. Here, we present the crystal structures of the bifunctional peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT)/transpeptidase (TP) PBP4 from Listeria monocytogenes in the apo-form and covalently linked to two ?-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin and carbenicillin. The orientation of the TP domain with respect to the GT domain is distinct from that observed in the previously reported structures of bifunctional PBPs, suggesting interdomain flexibility. In this structure, the active site of the GT domain is occluded by the close apposition of the linker domain, which supports the hypothesis that interdomain flexibility is related to the regulation of GT activity. The acylated structures reveal the mode of action of ?-lactam antibiotics toward the class A PBP4 from the human pathogen L. monocytogenes. Ampicillin and carbenicillin can access the active site and be acylated without requiring a structural rearrangement. In addition, the active site of the TP domain in the apo-form is occupied by the tartrate molecule via extensive hydrogen bond interactions with the catalytically important residues; thus, derivatives of the tartrate molecule may be useful in the search for new antibiotics to inhibit PBPs. PMID:23669378

Jeong, Jae-Hee; Kim, Yi-Seul; Rojviriya, Catleya; Ha, Sung-Chul; Kang, Beom Sik

2013-01-01

194

Rational Design and Generation of a Bimodal Bifunctional Ligand for Antibody-Targeted Radiation Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

An antibody-targeted radiation therapy (radioimmunotherapy, RIT) employs a bifunctional ligand that can effectively hold a cytotoxic metal with clinically acceptable complexation kinetics and stability while being attached to a tumor-specific antibody. Clinical exploration of the therapeutic potential of RIT has been challenged by the absence of adequate ligand, a critical component for enhancing the efficacy of the cancer therapy. To address this deficiency, the bifunctional ligand C-NETA in a unique structural class possessing both a macrocyclic cavity and a flexible acyclic moiety was designed. The practical, reproducible, and readily scalable synthetic route to C-NETA was developed, and its potential as the chelator of 212Bi, 213Bi, and 177Lu for RIT was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. C-NETA rapidly binds both Lu(III) and Bi(III), and the respective metal complexes remain extremely stable in serum for 14 days. 177Lu—C-NETA and 205/6Bi—C-NETA possess an excellent or acceptable in vivo biodistribution profile. PMID:18062661

Chong, Hyun-Soon; Ma, Xiang; Le, Thien; Kwamena, Baidoo; Milenic, Diane E.; Brady, Erik D.; Song, Hyun A.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2008-01-01

195

Bifunctional chimeric fusion proteins engineered for DNA delivery: Optimization of the protein to DNA ratio  

PubMed Central

Background Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver nucleotide-based therapeutics to cells, but this approach has produced mixed results. Ionic interactions and covalent bonds between the CPPs and the cargos may inhibit the effectiveness of the CPPs or interfere with the bioactivity of the cargos. Methods We have created a bifunctional chimeric protein that binds DNA using the p50 domain of the NF-?B transcription factor and is functionalized for delivery with the TAT CPP. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been incorporated for tracking delivery. The new chimeric protein, p50-GFP-TAT, was compared to p50-GFP, GFP-TAT and GFP as controls for the ability to transduce PC12 cells with and without oligonucleotide cargos. Results The p50-GFP-TAT construct can deliver 30bp and 293bp oligonucleotides to PC12 cells with an optimal ratio of 1.89 protein molecules per base pair of DNA length. This correlation was validated through the delivery of a fluorescent protein transgene encoded in a plasmid to PC12 cells. Conclusion Self-assembling CPP-based bifunctional fusion proteins can be engineered for the non-viral delivery of nucleotide-based cargos to mammalian cells. General significance This work represents an important step forward in the rational design of protein-based systems for the delivery of macromolecular cargos. PMID:19402206

Gao, Shan; Simon, Melissa J.; Morrison, Barclay; Banta, Scott

2009-01-01

196

MULT1E/mIL-12: a novel bifunctional protein for natural killer cell activation.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells have the potential to be effective killers of tumor cells. They are governed by inhibitory and activating receptors like NKG2D, whose ligands are normally upregulated in cells that are stressed, like cancer cells. Advanced cancer cells, however, have ways to reduce these ligands' expression, leaving them less detectable by NK cells. Along with these receptors, NK cells also require activating cytokines, like interleukin 12 (IL-12). The goal of this study is to develop a novel bi-functional fusion protein for enhanced NK cell activation. The proposed protein combines the extracellular domain of the NKG2D ligand Mouse UL-16-binding protein-like transcript 1 (MULT1E) and mouse IL-12 (mIL-12). It is hypothesized that when expressed by tumor cells, the protein will activate NK and other killer cells using the NKG2D receptor, and deliver mIL-12 to the NK cells where it can interact with the IL-12R and enhance cytotoxicity. The fusion protein, when expressed by engineered tumor cells, indeed activated NK cells in vitro as assayed by increased production of interferon-? and cytotoxicity and significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo. Although the study is preliminary, the data suggest that the MULT1E/mIL-12 bi-functional fusion protein is an effective activator of NK cells for cancer treatment. PMID:24572784

Tietje, A; Li, J; Yu, X; Wei, Y

2014-05-01

197

Production of bifunctional single-chain antibody-based fusion proteins in Pichia pastoris supernatants.  

PubMed

Recombinant antibody fusion constructs with heterologous functional domains are a promising approach to new therapeutic targeting strategies. However, expression of such constructs is mostly limited to cost and labor-intensive mammalian expression systems. Here we report on the employment of Pichia pastoris for the expression of heterologous antibody fusion constructs with green fluorescent protein, A33scFv::GFP, or with cytosine deaminase, A33scFv::CDy, their production in a biofermenter and a modified purification strategy. Combined, these approaches improved production yields by about thirty times over established standard protocols, with extracellular secretion of the fusion construct reaching 12.0 mg/l. Bifunctional activity of the fusion proteins was demonstrated by flow cytometry and an in-vitro cytotoxicity assay. With equal amounts of purified protein, the modified purification method lead to higher functional results. Our results demonstrate the suitability of methylotrophic Pichia expression systems and laboratory-scale bioreactors for the production of high quantities of bifunctionally active heterologous single-chain fusion proteins. PMID:18253756

Panjideh, Hossein; Coelho, Vânia; Dernedde, Jens; Fuchs, Hendrik; Keilholz, Ulrich; Thiel, Eckhard; Deckert, P Markus

2008-10-01

198

Facile synthesis of folate-conjugated magnetic/fluorescent bifunctional microspheres  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we investigated the functional imaging properties of magnetic microspheres composed of magnetic core and CdTe quantum dots in the silica shell functionalized with folic acid (FA). The preparation procedure included the preparation of chitosan-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs) prepared by a one-pot solvothermal method, the reaction between carboxylic and amino groups under activation of NHS and EDC in order to obtain the CdTe-CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs, and finally the growth of SiO2 shell vent the photoluminescence (PL) quenching via a Stöber method (Fe3O4-CdTe@SiO2). Moreover, in order to have a specific targeting capacity, the magnetic and fluorescent bifunctional microspheres were synthesized by bonding of SiO2 shell with FA molecules via amide reaction (Fe3O4-CdTe@SiO2-FA). The morphology, size, chemical components, and magnetic property of as-prepared composite nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The results show that the magnetic and fluorescent bifunctional microspheres have strong luminescent which will be employed for immuno-labeling and fluorescent imaging of HeLa cells. PMID:25328504

2014-01-01

199

Construction of a bifunctional enzyme fusion for the combined determination of biogenic amines in foods.  

PubMed

Biogenic amines (BAs) are a group of low-molecular-mass organic bases derived from free amino acids. Due to the undesirable effects of BAs on human health, amine oxidase-based detection methods for BAs in foods have been developed. Here, we developed a bifunctional enzyme fusion (MAPO) using a Cu(2+)-containing monoamine oxidase (AMAO2) and a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing putrescine oxidase (APUO) from Arthrobacter aurescens. It was necessary to activate MAPO with supplementary Cu(2+) ions, leading to a 6- to 12-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) for monoamines. The optimal temperatures of Cu(2+)-activated MAPO (cMAPO) for both tyramine and putrescine were 50 °C, and the optimal pH values for tyramine and putrescine were pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively, consistent with those of AMAO2 and APUO, respectively. The cMAPO showed relative specific activities of 100, 99, 32, and 32 for 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine, respectively. The tyramine-equivalent BA contents of fermented soybean pastes by cMAPO were more than 90% of the total BA determined by HPLC. In conclusion, cMAPO is fully bifunctional toward biogenic monoamines and putrescine, allowing the combined determination of multiple BAs in foods. This colorimetric determination method could be useful for point-of-care testing to screen safety-guaranteed products prior to instrumental analyses. PMID:24001036

Lee, Jae-Ick; Jang, Jun-Hyuck; Yu, Mi-Ji; Kim, Young-Wan

2013-09-25

200

Low prevalence of vancomycin- and bifunctional aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci isolated from poultry farms in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A total of 225 samples from poultry farms and the surrounding environment were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and bifunctional aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci using conventional microbiological tests and a nanoplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Three (1.3%) of the samples were found to contain vancomycin-resistant isolates (MIC>256 microg/mL) that had a vanA genotype. The three vanA positive VRE isolates were identified as different species. Only one isolate (Enterococcus faecium F 4/13_54) was sensitive to teicoplanin (MIC<0. 12-0.35 microg/mL); the other two VRE (E. faecalis A 21_35 and E. gallinarum F 5/10_1) were resistant to teicoplanin (MIC 3.6-->16 microg/mL). The vanC genotype was observed in nine (4%) of the samples collected. High-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) enterococci (with MIC ranging between 100 and 500 microg/mL) were detected in 44 samples. However, only 40 of these were found to possess the aac(6')-aph(2'') gene. The overall prevalence of VRE among the samples from the poultry farms and environment was 5.3%, but the prevalence of the clinically significant vanA VRE was 1.3%, and the prevalence of bifunctional aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci was slightly higher, at 19.5%. PMID:18187222

Chan, Yean Yean; Abd Nasir, Mohd Hafiz B; Yahaya, Mohd Azli B; Salleh, Noor Mohamad Amin B; Md Dan, Azril Deenor B; Musa, Abd Majid B; Ravichandran, M

2008-02-29

201

A Bifunctional Enzyme That Has Both Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase and Acyl Hydrolase Activities1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol, the precursor of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and an important signaling molecule. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea) MGAT gene. The soluble enzyme utilizes invariant histidine-62 and aspartate-67 residues of the acyltransferase motif for its MGAT activity. A sequence analysis revealed the presence of a hydrolase (GXSXG) motif, and enzyme assays revealed the presence of monoacylglycerol (MAG) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) hydrolytic activities, indicating the bifunctional nature of the enzyme. The overexpression of the MGAT gene in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) caused an increase in triacylglycerol accumulation. Similar to the peanut MGAT, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog (At1g52760) also exhibited both acyltransferase and hydrolase activities. Interestingly, the yeast homolog lacks the conserved HX4D motif, and it is deficient in the acyltransferase function but exhibits MAG and LPC hydrolase activities. This study demonstrates the presence of a soluble MGAT/hydrolase in plants. The predicted three-dimensional homology modeling and substrate docking suggested the presence of two separate substrate (MAG and LPC)-binding sites in a single polypeptide. Our study describes a soluble bifunctional enzyme that has both MGAT and hydrolase functions. PMID:22915575

Vijayaraj, Panneerselvam; Jashal, Charnitkaur B.; Vijayakumar, Anitha; Rani, Sapa Hima; Venkata Rao, D.K.; Rajasekharan, Ram

2012-01-01

202

The Bifunctional Pyruvate Decarboxylase/Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Thermococcus guaymasensis  

PubMed Central

The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus guaymasensis produces ethanol as a metabolic end product, and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzing the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol has been purified and characterized. However, the enzyme catalyzing the formation of acetaldehyde has not been identified. In this study an enzyme catalyzing the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate was purified and characterized from T. guaymasensis under strictly anaerobic conditions. The enzyme had both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activities. It was oxygen sensitive, and the optimal temperatures were 85°C and >95°C for the PDC and POR activities, respectively. The purified enzyme had activities of 3.8 ± 0.22?U?mg?1 and 20.2 ± 1.8?U?mg?1, with optimal pH-values of 9.5 and 8.4 for each activity, respectively. Coenzyme A was essential for both activities, although it did not serve as a substrate for the former. Enzyme kinetic parameters were determined separately for each activity. The purified enzyme was a heterotetramer. The sequences of the genes encoding the subunits of the bifunctional PDC/POR were determined. It is predicted that all hyperthermophilic ?-keto acids ferredoxin oxidoreductases are bifunctional, catalyzing the activities of nonoxidative and oxidative decarboxylation of the corresponding ?-keto acids. PMID:24982594

2014-01-01

203

Robust and intelligent bearing estimation  

DOEpatents

A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.

Claassen, John P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

204

Prototype testing of magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testing and evaluation of the performance of a magnetic bearing assembly for flywheel energy storage applications are discussed. The experimental set up for determining the passive radial stiffness, active radial stiffness, and curent force sensitivity of the coils follows the method developed by Frommer (1986). Magnetic bearings design should preclude saturation and current limiting in the desired operating range, so that the system will be linear. A larger linear range will lead to a more stable magnetic bearing.

Plant, David P.; Jayaraman, Chaitanya P.; Frommer, David A.; Kirk, James A.; Anand, Davinder K.

1987-01-01

205

Primarily Pro-bear-bility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this probability lesson plan students make predictions about the color of the bear they are likely to draw from a bag, and then draw and record the color of the bear they actually draw. Students complete this activity in cooperative learning groups and take turns removing a bear, without replacing it, and seeing if their predictions become more accurate. The lesson plan includes four student activity worksheets and extension questions and suggestions (PDF).

2006-01-01

206

Ball bearing heat analysis program (BABHAP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ball Bearing Heat Analysis Program (BABHAP) is an attempt to assemble a series of equations, some of which are non-linear algebraic systems, in a logical order, which when solved, provide a complex analysis of load distribution among the balls, ball velocities, heat generation resulting from friction, applied load, and ball spinning, minimum lubricant film thickness, and many additional characteristics of ball bearing systems. Although initial design requirements for BABHAP were dictated by the core limitations of the PDP 11/45 computer, (approximately 8K of real words with limited number of instructions) the program dimensions can easily be expanded for large core computers such as the UNIVAC 1108. The PDP version of BABHAP is also operational on the UNIVAC system with the exception that the PDP uses 029 punch and the UNIVAC uses 026. A conversion program was written to allow transfer between machines.

1978-01-01

207

Research Trends on Magnetic Bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of magnetic bearings for high-speed rotor and application in clean environment or in special circumstance have been gradually increasing. This article overviews research trends and application presented before the Eighth International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings (ISMB-8). Interesting research topics are the combined realization of motor and magnetic bearing, low loss magnetic bearings and self-sensing techniques. New application fields include small spindles for data storage devices, energy storage flywheels, and artificial heart pumps. Various new technologies are reported related to these new application fields.

Okada, Yohji; Nonami, Kenzo

208

Evaluation of shuttle turbopump bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because the high pressure turbopumps used on the space shuttle main engine (SSME) are high speed machines and rotor dynamics analysis of these units is very complicated, it was considered necessary to verify calculated turbomachinery shaft bearing loads by analysis of ball bearing load tracks. This report presents the methods used and the results of load track analysis on one set of bearings removed from a high pressure liquid oxygen turbopump which had been subjected to SSME static firing tests. This type of analysis was found useful in determining bearing operating conditions and for verifying rotor dynamics computer models.

Dufrane, K. F.; Kannel, J. W.

1978-01-01

209

Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek  

SciTech Connect

Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1992-01-01

210

The use of glass substrates with bi-functional silanes for designing micropatterned cell-secreted cytokine immunoassays  

E-print Network

The use of glass substrates with bi-functional silanes for designing micropatterned cell to microwells fabricated on mono-functional silane. The rational design of cytokine-sensing surfaces described on the surface and to integrate sensing elements next to the cells. In the present study, surfaces were

Ferrara, Katherine W.

211

Aminocyanation by the addition of N-CN bonds to arynes: chemoselective synthesis of 1,2-bifunctional aminobenzonitriles.  

PubMed

An efficient aminocyanation by the direct addition of aryl cyanamides to arynes is described, enabling incorporation of highly useful amino and cyano groups synchronously via cleavage of inert N-CN bonds, affording synthetically useful 1,2-bifunctional aminobenzonitriles. The postsynthetic functionalization of the aminocyanation products allows diverse formation of synthetically important derivatives such as drug molecule Ponstan and fused heterocycles. PMID:24325782

Rao, Bin; Zeng, Xiaoming

2014-01-01

212

Asymmetric direct vinylogous Michael addition to 2-enoylpyridine N-oxides catalyzed by bifunctional thio-urea.  

PubMed

Catalytic enantioselective direct vinylogous Michael addition of ?,?-dicyanoalkenes to 2-enoylpyridine N-oxides with a bifunctional organocatalyst is described. The methodology offers an efficient way to install an asymmetric carbon-carbon bond at the ?-position of ?,?-dicyanoalkenes in excellent regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Further, application in desymmetrization of achiral ?,?-dicyanoalkene to access highly functionalized enantioenriched cyclohexylidenemalononitrile derivatives has been demonstrated. PMID:25307167

Rout, Subhrajit; Ray, Sumit K; Unhale, Rajshekhar A; Singh, Vinod K

2014-11-01

213

Cobalt nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions.  

PubMed

Cobalt based catalysts are promising bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) operating with alkaline electrolytes. Here we report a hybrid composite of cobalt nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon (Co/N-C) via a solvothermal carbonization strategy. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped carbon and cobalt nanoparticles in the composite, the Co/N-C hybrid catalyst exhibits highly efficient bifunctional catalytic activity and excellent stability toward both ORR and OER. The ?E (oxygen electrode activity parameter for judging the overall electrocatalytic activity of a bifunctional electrocatalyst) value for Co/N-C is 0.859 V, which is smaller than those of Pt/C and most of the non-precious metal catalysts in previous studies. Furthermore, the Co/N-C composite also shows better bifunctional catalytic activity than its oxidative counterparts, which could be attributed to the high specific surface area and the efficient charge transfer ability of the composite, as well as the good synergistic effect between N-doped carbon and the Co nanoparticles in the Co/N-C composite. PMID:25369741

Su, Yunhe; Zhu, Yihua; Jiang, Hongliang; Shen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoling; Zou, Wenjian; Chen, Jianding; Li, Chunzhong

2014-12-21

214

Synthesis and characterization of bifunctional hybrid nanocomposite YPO4:5Eu@Fe3O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spherical, non-agglomerated and highly water dispersed bifunctional YPO4:5Eu@Fe3O4 nanocomposite was prepared by coprecipitation method. The nanohybrid shows characteristic induction heating under AC magnetic field by reaching the hyperthermia temperature (˜42°C) and giving red emission under 395nm excitation, characteristic of Eu3+, thus potential material for biological applications.

Prasad, Amresh I.; Singh, L. Robindro; Parchur, A. K.; Ninghthoujam, R. S.

2014-04-01

215

Reciprocal Regulation as a Source of Ultrasensitivity in Two-Component Systems with a Bifunctional Sensor Kinase  

PubMed Central

Two-component signal transduction systems, where the phosphorylation state of a regulator protein is modulated by a sensor kinase, are common in bacteria and other microbes. In many of these systems, the sensor kinase is bifunctional catalyzing both, the phosphorylation and the dephosphorylation of the regulator protein in response to input signals. Previous studies have shown that systems with a bifunctional enzyme can adjust the phosphorylation level of the regulator protein independently of the total protein concentrations – a property known as concentration robustness. Here, I argue that two-component systems with a bifunctional enzyme may also exhibit ultrasensitivity if the input signal reciprocally affects multiple activities of the sensor kinase. To this end, I consider the case where an allosteric effector inhibits autophosphorylation and, concomitantly, activates the enzyme's phosphatase activity, as observed experimentally in the PhoQ/PhoP and NRII/NRI systems. A theoretical analysis reveals two operating regimes under steady state conditions depending on the effector affinity: If the affinity is low the system produces a graded response with respect to input signals and exhibits stimulus-dependent concentration robustness – consistent with previous experiments. In contrast, a high-affinity effector may generate ultrasensitivity by a similar mechanism as phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles with distinct converter enzymes. The occurrence of ultrasensitivity requires saturation of the sensor kinase's phosphatase activity, but is restricted to low effector concentrations, which suggests that this mode of operation might be employed for the detection and amplification of low abundant input signals. Interestingly, the same mechanism also applies to covalent modification cycles with a bifunctional converter enzyme, which suggests that reciprocal regulation, as a mechanism to generate ultrasensitivity, is not restricted to two-component systems, but may apply more generally to bifunctional enzyme systems. PMID:24809699

Straube, Ronny

2014-01-01

216

Oxygen electrode bifunctional electrocatalyst NiCo2O4 spinel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant increase in energy density may be possible if a two-unit alkaline regenerative H2-O2 fuel cell is replaced with a single-unit system that uses passive means for H2O transfer and thermal control. For this single-unit system, new electrocatalysts for the O2 electrode will be required which are not only bifunctionally active but also chemically and electrochemically stable between the voltage range of about 0.7 and 1.5 V. NiCo2O4 spinel is reported to have certain characteristics that make it useful for a study of electrode fabrication techniques. High surface area NiCo2O4 powder was fabricated into unsupported, bifunctional, PTFE-bonded, porous gas fuel cell electrodes by commercial sources using varying PTFE contents and sintering temperatures. The object of this study is to measure the bifunctional activities of these electrodes and to observe what performance differences might result from different commercial electrode fabricators. O2 evolution and O2 reduction data were obtained at 80 C (31 percent KOH). An irreversible reaction (i.e., aging) occurred during O2 evolution at potentials greater than about 1.5 V. Anodic Tafel slopes of 0.06 and 0.12 V/decade were obtained for the aged electrodes. Within the range of 15 to 25 percent, the PTFE content was not a critical parameter for optimizing the electrode for O2 evolution activity. Sintering temperatures between 300 and 340 C may be adequate but heating at 275 C may not be sufficient to properly sinter the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture. Electrode disintegration was observed during O2 reduction. Transport of O2 to the NiCo2O4 surface became prohibitive at greater than about -0.02 A/sq cm. Cathodic Tafel slopes of -0.6 and -0.12 V/decade were assumed for the O2 reduction process. A PTFE content of 25 percent (or greater) appears to be preferable for sintering the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture.

Fielder, William L.; Singer, Joseph

1988-01-01

217

Polar Bears and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer reviewed article discusses how a warming climate is altering sea ice conditions, which affects polar bears in many ways, including more difficulty in getting to and hunting prey, fewer den areas and lower cub survival, increased interactions between bears and humans, and lower survival rate of the species in general.

Andrew E. Derocher (University of Alberta, Canada;)

2008-05-01

218

Corrosion-Resistant Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-lubricating bearing system withstands highly corrosive environment of wastewater-recycling unit. New bearings contain cobalt-based-alloy balls and races, graphite/polyimide polymer ball cages, and single integral polytetrafluoroethylene seals on wet sides. Materials and design prevent corrosion by acids and provide lubrication.

Zdankiewicz, E. M.; Linaburg, E. L.; Lytle, L. J.

1990-01-01

219

Zero-Deadband Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed supports for ball bearings press outer races against balls without radial clearance. Diaphragm-like axially flexible springs eliminate deadband and consequent nonlinear radial vibrational response of rotor. If shaft needs two bearings at each end, they are supported independently or connected in series by U-spring. Mechanical stops limit axial travel of shaft.

Hine, Michael J.

1988-01-01

220

Identifying Bearing Balls With Radioisotopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed scheme for identification of members of manufactured lot of bearing balls based on detection of characteristic isotopes. All balls in lot irradiated to produce easily recognized radioactive isotopes in known concentrations and/or known ratios of concentrations and known rates of decay on their surfaces. Scheme conceived to track precise bearing balls through various stages of assembly, disassembly, and processing.

Butner, Myles F.; Collins, John J.

1990-01-01

221

Service Lives Of Restored Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rebuilt units last almost as long as new ones. Report describes theoretical and experiemental studies of lifetimes of restored ball and cylindrical-roller bearings. Results of this and related studies have implications of economy and safety in modern high-speed machinery, especially in aircraft industry, where inspection and rejection or replacing of bearings are new standard practice.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1988-01-01

222

High-Performance Ball Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.

1995-01-01

223

HUMAN IMPACTS ON BEAR HABITAT USE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human effects on bear habitat use are mediated through food biomass changes, bear tolerance of humans and their impacts, and human tolerance of bears. Large- scale changes in bear food biomass have been caused by conversion of wildlands and waterways to intensive human use, and by the introduction of exotic pathogens. Bears consume virtually all human foods that have been

DAVID J. MATTSON

224

Hybrid air foil bearing with external pressurization  

E-print Network

loaded bearing under hydrostatic mode demonstrates the high potential of hybrid air foil bearings. The load capacity of the hybrid foil bearing was measured at 20,000 rpm, and compared with that of hydrodynamic foil bearing. The hybrid foil bearing has...

Park, Soongook

2009-05-15

225

Evaluation of Solid Lubricated Ball Bearing Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an evaluation of solid lubricated ball bearings with both plain (ungrooved) and grooved inner race lands. The intent of the grooves was to pump ambient air into the bearing to lower the stabilized bearing operating temperature. Nineteen tests were run at various bearing loads and speeds. Bearing stabilization temperature and torque were monitored at each operating condition.

R. D. Dayton; M. A. Sheets; J. B. Schrand

1978-01-01

226

Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.

1999-01-01

227

Space Station alpha joint bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

1987-01-01

228

Nonlinear control of magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present a variety of nonlinear controllers for the magnetic bearing that ensure both stability and robustness. We utilize techniques of discontinuous control to design novel control laws for the magnetic bearing. We present in particular sliding mode controllers, time optimal controllers, winding algorithm based controllers, nested switching controllers, fractional controllers, and synchronous switching controllers for the magnetic bearing. We show existence of solutions to systems governed by discontinuous control laws, and prove stability and robustness of the chosen control laws in a rigorous setting. We design sliding mode observers for the magnetic bearing and prove the convergence of the state estimates to their true values. We present simulation results of the performance of the magnetic bearing subject to the aforementioned control laws, and conclude with comments on design.

Pradeep, A. K.; Gurumoorthy, R.

1994-01-01

229

Acquired arteriovenous fistula in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis).  

PubMed

A captive adult male grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) was evaluated due to multifocal wounds of the skin and subcutaneous tissues sustained as a result of trauma from another grizzly bear. On presentation, one lesion that was located in the perineal region seemed to be a deep puncture with purple tissue protruding from it. This perineal wound did not heal in the same manner or rate as did the other wounds. Twenty-five days after initial detection, substantial active hemorrhage from the lesion occurred and necessitated anesthesia for examination of the bear. The entire lesion was surgically excised, which later proved curative. An acquired arteriovenous fistula was diagnosed via histopathology. Arteriovenous fistulas can develop after traumatic injury and should be considered as a potential complication in bears with nonhealing wounds. PMID:19368261

Tuttle, Allison D; MacLean, Robert A; Linder, Keith; Cullen, John M; Wolfe, Barbara A; Loomis, Michael

2009-03-01

230

SCO5745, a Bifunctional RNase J Ortholog, Affects Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

The bacterial RNases J are considered bifunctional RNases possessing both endo- and exonucleolytic activities. We have isolated an RNase J ortholog from Streptomyces coelicolor encoded by the gene sco5745. We overexpressed a decahistidine-tagged version of SCO5745 and purified the overexpressed protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. We demonstrated the presence of both 5?-to-3? exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities on the Bacillus subtilis thrS transcript. Exonucleoytic activity predominated with 5? monophosphorylated thrS, while endonucleolytic activity predominated with 5? triphosphorylated thrS. While sco5745 is the only RNase J allele in S. coelicolor, the gene is not essential. Its disruption resulted in delayed production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, overproduction of undecylprodigiosin, and diminished production of the calcium-dependent antibiotic, in comparison with the parental strain. PMID:24415725

Bralley, Patricia; Aseem, Madiha

2014-01-01

231

Bifunctional nanoparticles for SERS monitoring and magnetic intervention of assembly and enzyme cutting of DNAs  

SciTech Connect

The ability to detect and intervene in DNA assembly, disassembly, and enzyme cutting processes in a solution phase requires effective signal transduction and stimulus response. This report demonstrates a novel bifunctional strategy for the creation of this ability using gold- and silver-coated MnZn ferrite nanoparticles (MZF@Au or MZF@Ag) that impart magnetic and surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS) functionalities to these processes. The double-stranded DNA linkage of labeled gold nanoparticles with MZF@Au (or MZF@Ag) produces interparticle "hot-spots" for real-time SERS monitoring of the DNA assembly, disassembly, or enzyme cutting processes, during which the magnetic component provides an effective means for intervention in the solution. The unique combination of the nanoprobes functionalities serves a new paradigm for the design of functional nanoprobes in biomolecular recognition and intervention.

Lin, Liqin; Crew, Elizabeth; Yan, Hong; Shan, Shiyao; Skeete, Zakiya; Mott, Derrick; Krentsel, Tatiana; Yin, Jun; Chernova, Natasha A.; Luo, Jin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Li, Qingbiao; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2013-07-27

232

Design and synthesis of new bifunctional sigma-1 selective ligands with antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Herein we report the synthesis of new bifunctional sigma-1 (?1)-selective ligands with antioxidant activity. To achieve this goal, we combined the structure of lipoic acid, a universal antioxidant, with an appropriate sigma aminic moiety. Ligands 14 and 26 displayed high affinity and selectivity for ?1 receptors (Ki?1 = 1.8 and 5.5 nM; Ki?2/?1 = 354 and 414, respectively). Compound 26 exhibited in vivo antiopioid effects on kappa opioid (KOP) receptor-mediated analgesia. In rat liver and brain mitochondria (RLM, RBM), this compound significantly reduced the swelling and the oxidation of thiol groups induced by calcium ions. Our results demonstrate that the tested compound has protective effects against oxidative stress. PMID:23470245

Prezzavento, O; Arena, E; Parenti, C; Pasquinucci, L; Aricò, G; Scoto, G M; Grancara, S; Toninello, A; Ronsisvalle, S

2013-03-28

233

Fabrication of bifunctional core-shell Fe3O4 particles coated with ultrathin phosphor layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifunctional monodispersed Fe3O4 particles coated with an ultrathin Y2O3:Tb3+ shell layer were fabricated using a facile urea-based homogeneous precipitation method. The obtained composite particles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantum design vibrating sample magnetometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. TEM revealed uniform spherical core-shell-structured composites ranging in size from 306 to 330 nm with a shell thickness of approximately 25 nm. PL spectroscopy confirmed that the synthesized composites displayed a strong eye-visible green light emission. Magnetic measurements indicated that the composite particles obtained also exhibited strong superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Therefore, the inner Fe3O4 core and outer Y2O3:Tb3+ shell layer endow the composites with both robust magnetic properties and strong eye-visible luminescent properties. These composite materials have potential use in magnetic targeting and bioseparation, simultaneously coupled with luminescent imaging.

Atabaev, Timur Sh; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

2013-08-01

234

Lithium-sulphur batteries with a microporous carbon paper as a bifunctional interlayer.  

PubMed

The limitations in the cathode capacity compared with that of the anode have been an impediment to advance the lithium-ion battery technology. The lithium-sulphur system is appealing in this regard, as sulphur exhibits an order of magnitude higher capacity than the currently used cathodes. However, low active material utilization and poor cycle life hinder the practicality of lithium-sulphur batteries. Here we report a simple adjustment to the traditional lithium-sulphur battery configuration to achieve high capacity with a long cycle life and rapid charge rate. With a bifunctional microporous carbon paper between the cathode and separator, we observe a significant improvement not only in the active material utilization but also in capacity retention, without involving complex synthesis or surface modification. The insertion of a microporous carbon interlayer decreases the internal charge transfer resistance and localizes the soluble polysulphide species, facilitating a commercially feasible means of fabricating the lithium-sulphur batteries. PMID:23132016

Su, Yu-Sheng; Manthiram, Arumugam

2012-01-01

235

Mono- and bi-functional arenethiols as surfactants for gold nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization  

PubMed Central

Stable gold nanoparticles stabilized by different mono and bi-functional arenethiols, namely, benzylthiol and 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, have been prepared by using a modified Brust's two-phase synthesis. The size, shape, and crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles have been determined by high-resolution electron microscopy and full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Nanocrystals diameters have been tuned in the range 2 ÷ 9 nm by a proper variation of Au/S molar ratio. The chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and their interaction with thiols have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, the formation of networks has been observed with interconnected gold nanoparticles containing 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol as ligand. PMID:21711615

2011-01-01

236

Bi-functional biobased packing of the cassava starch, glycerol, licuri nanocellulose and red propolis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4%) and glycerol (1.0%), reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0-1%) and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%). The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage. PMID:25383783

Costa, Samantha Serra; Druzian, Janice Izabel; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; de Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Guimarães, Alaíse Gil

2014-01-01

237

Development of tartaric esters as bifunctional additives of methanol-gasoline  

PubMed Central

Background Methanol has become an alternative fuel for gasoline, which is facing a rapidly rising world demand with a limited oil supply. Methanol-gasoline has been used in China, but phase stability and vapor lock still need to be resolved in methanol-gasoline applications. In this paper, a series of tartaric esters were synthesized and used as phase stabilizers and saturation vapor pressure depressors for methanol-gasoline. Results The results showed that the phase stabilities of tartaric esters for methanol-gasoline depend on the length of the alkoxy group. Several tartaric esters were found to be effective in various gasoline-methanol blends, and the tartaric esters display high capacity to depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline. Conclusion According to the results, it can be concluded that the tartaric esters have great potential to be bifunctional gasoline-methanol additives. PMID:24731649

2014-01-01

238

On the molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein deficiency type III.  

PubMed

Molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein (D-BP) deficiency was studied with wild type and five disease-causing variants of 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase fragment of the human MFE-2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2) protein. Complementation analysis in vivo in yeast and in vitro enzyme kinetic and stability determinants as well as in silico stability and structural fluctuation calculations were correlated with clinical data of known patients. Despite variations not affecting the catalytic residues, enzyme kinetic performance (K(m), V(max) and k(cat)) of the recombinant protein variants were compromised to a varying extent and this can be judged as the direct molecular cause for D-BP deficiency. Protein stability plays an additional role in producing non-functionality of MFE-2 in case structural variations affect cofactor or substrate binding sites. Structure-function considerations of the variant proteins matched well with the available data of the patients. PMID:23308274

Mehtälä, Maija L; Lensink, Marc F; Pietikäinen, Laura P; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Glumoff, Tuomo

2013-01-01

239

Bi-Functional Biobased Packing of the Cassava Starch, Glycerol, Licuri Nanocellulose and Red Propolis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4%) and glycerol (1.0%), reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0–1%) and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%). The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage. PMID:25383783

Costa, Samantha Serra; Druzian, Janice Izabel; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; de Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Guimarães, Alaíse Gil

2014-01-01

240

Fabrication of bifunctional core-shell Fe3O4 particles coated with ultrathin phosphor layer  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional monodispersed Fe3O4 particles coated with an ultrathin Y2O3:Tb3+ shell layer were fabricated using a facile urea-based homogeneous precipitation method. The obtained composite particles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantum design vibrating sample magnetometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. TEM revealed uniform spherical core-shell-structured composites ranging in size from 306 to 330 nm with a shell thickness of approximately 25 nm. PL spectroscopy confirmed that the synthesized composites displayed a strong eye-visible green light emission. Magnetic measurements indicated that the composite particles obtained also exhibited strong superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Therefore, the inner Fe3O4 core and outer Y2O3:Tb3+ shell layer endow the composites with both robust magnetic properties and strong eye-visible luminescent properties. These composite materials have potential use in magnetic targeting and bioseparation, simultaneously coupled with luminescent imaging. PMID:23962025

2013-01-01

241

Polarization holograms in a bifunctional amorphous polymer exhibiting equal values of photoinduced linear and circular birefringences.  

PubMed

Light-controlled molecular alignment is a flexible and useful strategy introducing novelty in the fields of mechanics, self-organized structuring, mass transport, optics, and photonics and addressing the development of smart optical devices. Azobenzene-containing polymers are well-known photocontrollable materials with large and reversible photoinduced optical anisotropies. The vectorial holography applied to these materials enables peculiar optical devices whose properties strongly depend on the relative values of the photoinduced birefringences. Here is reported a polarization holographic recording based on the interference of two waves with orthogonal linear polarization on a bifunctional amorphous polymer that, exceptionally, exhibits equal values of linear and circular birefringence. The peculiar photoresponse of the material coupled with the holographic technique demonstrates an optical device capable of decomposing the light into a set of orthogonally polarized linear components. The holographic structures are theoretically described by the Jones matrices method and experimentally investigated. PMID:25187982

Provenzano, Clementina; Pagliusi, Pasquale; Cipparrone, Gabriella; Royes, Jorge; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

2014-10-01

242

Convenient Synthesis and Evaluation of Heptadentate Bifunctional Ligand for Radioimmunotherapy Applications  

PubMed Central

An efficient synthetic route to a bifunctional chelating agent C-NE3TA-NCS for antibody-targeted radioimmunotherapy (RIT) applications was developed. Various synthetic methods centered on the key reaction steps including bimolecular cyclization, ring opening reactions of aziridine and aziridinium cations, and reductive aminiation were explored to optimize the preparation of a tetraaza-based chelate TANPA and C-NE3TA analogues. Heptadentate C-NE3TA-NCS was conjugated to a tumor targeting antibody and compared to hexadentate C-NOTA-NCS for radiolabeling reaction kinetics with lanthanides for RIT. C-NE3TA-antibody conjugate displayed significantly enhanced complexation kinetics with 90Y as compared to C-NOTA-antibody conjugate. The synthetic methods for TANPA and C-NE3TA-NCS reported herein have broad applications for preparation of bifunctioanl macrocyclic chelating agents. PMID:23794941

Chong, Hyun-Soon; Sun, Xiang; Dong, Pengfei; Kang, Chi Soo

2013-01-01

243

Effects of bearing cleaning and lube environment on bearing performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Running torque data of SR6 ball bearings are presented for different temperatures and speeds. The data are discussed in contrast to generally used torque prediction models and point out the need to obtain empirical data in critical applications. Also, the effects of changing bearing washing techniques from old, universally used CFC-based systems to CFC-free aqueous/alkaline solutions are discussed. Data on wettability, torque and lubricant life using SR3 ball bearings are presented. In general, performance is improved using the new aqueous washing techniques.

Ward, Peter C.

1995-05-01

244

Structures of a bifunctional cell wall hydrolase CwlT containing a novel bacterial lysozyme and an NlpC/P60 DL-endopeptidase.  

PubMed

Tn916-like conjugative transposons carrying antibiotic resistance genes are found in a diverse range of bacteria. Orf14 within the conjugation module encodes a bifunctional cell wall hydrolase CwlT that consists of an N-terminal bacterial lysozyme domain (N-acetylmuramidase, bLysG) and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain (?-d-glutamyl-l-diamino acid endopeptidase) and is expected to play an important role in the spread of the transposons. We determined the crystal structures of CwlT from two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 (SaCwlT) and Clostridium difficile 630 (CdCwlT). These structures reveal that NlpC/P60 and LysG domains are compact and conserved modules, connected by a short flexible linker. The LysG domain represents a novel family of widely distributed bacterial lysozymes. The overall structure and the active site of bLysG bear significant similarity to other members of the glycoside hydrolase family 23 (GH23), such as the g-type lysozyme (LysG) and Escherichia coli lytic transglycosylase MltE. The active site of bLysG contains a unique structural and sequence signature (DxxQSSES+S) that is important for coordinating a catalytic water. Molecular modeling suggests that the bLysG domain may recognize glycan in a similar manner to MltE. The C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain contains a conserved active site (Cys-His-His-Tyr) that appears to be specific to murein tetrapeptide. Access to the active site is likely regulated by isomerism of a side chain atop the catalytic cysteine, allowing substrate entry or product release (open state), or catalysis (closed state). PMID:24051416

Xu, Qingping; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Lesley, Scott A; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Wilson, Ian A

2014-01-01

245

Immobilization of Wyoming bears using carfentanil and xylazine.  

PubMed

Seven grizzly (Ursus arctos; four male, three female) and three black (Ursus americanus; two male, one female) bears caught in culvert traps or leg snares were immobilized in northwestern Wyoming with carfentanil and xylazine at doses, respectively, of 0.011 ± 0.001 and 0.12 ± 0.01 mg/kg for grizzly bears and 0.014 ± 0.002 and 0.15 ± 0.04 mg/kg for black bears. These drugs were antagonized with 1 mg/kg naltrexone and 2 mg/kg tolazoline. Induction and recovery times, respectively, were 4.3 ± 0.5 and 7.1 ± 0.8 min for grizzly bears and 5.2 ± 0.4 and 9.1 ± 2.2 min for black bears. Inductions were smooth and uneventful. Recoveries were characterized initially by increased respiration followed by raising of the head, which quickly led to a full recovery, with the bears recognizing and avoiding humans and moving away, maneuvering around obstacles. All bears experienced respiratory depression, which did not significantly improve with supplemental oxygen on the basis of pulse oximetry (P=0.56). Rectal temperatures were normothermic. Carfentanil-xylazine immobilization of bears provided significant advantages over other drug regimens, including small drug volumes, predictable inductions, quick and complete recoveries, and lower costs. On the basis of these data, both grizzly and black bears can be immobilized effectively with 0.01 mg/kg carfentanil and 0.1 mg/kg xylazine. PMID:23778620

Kreeger, Terry J; Bjornlie, Dan; Thompson, Dan; Clapp, Justin; Clark, Colby; Hansen, Cole; Huizenga, Matt; Lockwood, Sam

2013-07-01

246

Conjugation reactions catalyzed by bifunctional proteins related to beta-oxidation in bile acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The conjugation reactions of hydration and dehydrogenation catalyzed by the dehydratase and dehydrogenase activities of D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase/D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional protein (DBP) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional protein (LBP) in the side chain degradation step of bile acid biosynthesis were investigated using chemically synthesized C27-bile acid CoA esters as substrates. The hydration catalyzed by DBP showed high diastereoselectivity for (24E)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy- and (24E)-3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholest-24-en-26-oyl CoA to give (24R,25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,24-tetrahydroxy- and (24R,25R)-3alpha,7alpha,24-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oyl CoAs, respectively, and the dehydrogenation catalyzed by DBP also showed high stereospecificity for the above (24R,25R)-isomers to give 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy- and 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-24-oxo-5beta-cholestan-26-oyl CoAs, respectively. On the other hand, the dehydratase activity of LBP displayed a different diastereoselectivity producing the (24S,25S)-isomer, and dehydrogenase activity of LBP was stereospecific for the (24S,25R)-isomer to give the above 24-oxo-derivative. The hydration and dehydrogenation reactions catalyzed by DBP were effectively conjugated to convert (24E)-5beta-cholestenoyl CoA to 24-oxo-5beta-cholestanoyl CoA. However, the reactions catalyzed by LBP were not conjugated. These results indicate that DBP plays an important role in the biosynthesis of bile acid. PMID:11146090

Kurosawa, T; Sato, M; Nakano, H; Fujiwara, M; Murai, T; Yoshimura, T; Hashimoto, T

2001-02-01

247

Novel 16-substituted bifunctional derivatives of huperzine B: multifunctional cholinesterase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Aim: To design novel bifunctional derivatives of huperzine B (HupB) based on the concept of dual binding site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and evaluate their pharmacological activities for seeking new drug candidates against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Novel 16-substituted bifunctional derivatives of HupB were synthesized through chemical reactions. The inhibitory activities of the derivatives toward AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were determined in vitro by modified Ellman's method. Cell viability was quantified by the reduction of MTT. Results: A new preparative method was developed for the generation of 16-substituted derivatives of HupB, and pharmacological trials indicated that the derivatives were multifunctional cholinesterase inhibitors targeting both AChE and BuChE. Among the derivatives tested, 9c, 9e, 9f, and 9i were 480 to 1360 times more potent as AChE inhibitors and 370 to 1560 times more potent as BuChE inhibitors than the parent HupB. Further preliminary pharmacological trials of derivatives 9c and 9i were performed, including examining the mechanism of AChE inhibition, the substrate kinetics of the enzyme inhibition, and protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Conclusion: Preliminary pharmacological evaluation indicated that 16-substituted derivatives of HupB, particularly 9c and 9i, would be potentially valuable new drug candidates for AD therapy, and further exploration is needed to evaluate their pharmacological and clinical efficacies. PMID:19578388

Shi, Yu-fang; Zhang, Hai-yan; Wang, Wei; Fu, Yan; Xia, Yu; Tang, Xi-can; Bai, Dong-lu; He, Xu-chang

2009-01-01

248

A novel bifunctional metabolizable linker for the conjugation of antibodies with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

A novel heterogeneous bifunctional reagent containing an ester bond, N-((4-(2-maleimidoethoxy)-succinyl)oxy)succinimide (MESS), was designed and synthesized for the conjugation of antibodies with the gallium-67 (67Ga) chelate of succinyldeferoxamine (SDF) via the ester bond. MESS was synthesized by the acylation of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)maleimide with succinic anhydride, followed by the activation of the resulting carboxylic acid to a succinimido ester. MESS possesses a maleimide group for protein conjugation and an active ester group for deferoxamine (DFO) coupling, and the two functional groups are linked via ester bonding. Conjugation of 67Ga-SDF with nonspecific human IgG was performed by reacting freshly thiolated IgG with the reaction product of MESS and DFO, followed by 67Ga labeling of the resulting conjugate using GaCl3 (67Ga-DFO-MESS-IgG). For comparison, 67Ga-DFO conjugated nonspecific human IgG with a nonmetabolizable linkage was synthesized under the same conjugation conditions as those for 67Ga-DFO-MESS-IgG, using a nonmetabolizable heterogenous bifunctional reagent (N-((6-maleimidocaproyl)oxy)succinimide, EMCS) instead of MESS (67Ga-DFO-EMCS-IgG). HPLC size-exclusion chromatography of both preparations showed a single radioactivity and UV peak corresponding to the intact IgG. Generation of 67Ga-SDF from the 67Ga-DFO-MESS-IgG was demonstrated by reverse-phase HPLC analysis and cellulose acetate electrophoresis after the incubation of 67Ga-DFO-MESS-IgG in a buffered solution containing carboxyesterase. After injection of 67Ga-DFO-MESS-IgG into mice, faster radioactivity clearance from the blood and less radioactivity accumulation in the liver, kidney, and spleen was noted than when 67Ga-DFO-EMCS-IgG was injected.

Arano, Y.; Matsushima, H.; Tagawa, M.; Koizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J.; Yokoyama, A. (Kyoto University (Japan))

1991-03-01

249

The nadI region of Salmonella typhimurium encodes a bifunctional regulatory protein.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of the nadI and pnuA genes were independently isolated on the basis of defects in repression of NAD biosynthetic genes and defects in transport nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). The mutations map at min 99 on the Salmonella chromosome, and the affected regions appear to be cotranscribed. Some pairs of nadI and pnuA mutations complement, suggesting the existence of independent functions. However, cis/trans tests with particular mutations provide evidence that both repressor and transport functions are actually performed by a single bifunctional protein. (This result confirms sequencing data of Foster and coworkers [J. W. Foster, Y. K. Park, T. Fenger, and M. P. Spector, J. Bacteriol. 172:4187-4196, 1990]). We have designated the gene for this bifunctional protein nadI and distinguish the regulatory and transport defects with phenotypic designations (R and T). When a nadI(R- T+) mutation (eliminating only repression function) is placed cis to a superrepressor mutation, nadI(Rs T-), the superrepression phenotype is lost. In contrast, placement of R- and Rs T- mutations in trans allows full superrepression. This result suggests that the transport function (eliminated by the Rs T- mutation) and the repression function are provided by the same protein. Insertion mutations in the promoter-proximal repressor region of the nadI gene eliminate transport function unless the inserted element can provide both for both transcription and translation start signals; this finding suggests that there is no transcriptional or translational start between the regions encoding repression and transport functions. PMID:1991723

Zhu, N; Roth, J R

1991-01-01

250

Proteasome inhibitors act as bifunctional antagonists of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 latency and replication  

PubMed Central

Background Existing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) effectively controls viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals but cannot completely eradicate the infection, at least in part due to the persistence of latently infected cells. One strategy that is being actively pursued to eliminate the latent aspect of HIV-1 infection involves therapies combining latency antagonists with HAART. However, discordant pharmacokinetics between these types of drugs can potentially create sites of active viral replication within certain tissues that might be impervious to HAART. Results A preliminary reverse genetic screen indicated that the proteasome might be involved in the maintenance of the latent state. This prompted testing to determine the effects of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) on latently infected cells. Experiments demonstrated that PIs effectively activated latent HIV-1 in several model systems, including primary T cell models, thereby defining PIs as a new class of HIV-1 latency antagonists. Expanding upon experiments from previous reports, it was also confirmed that PIs inhibit viral replication. Moreover, it was possible to show that PIs act as bifunctional antagonists of HIV-1. The data indicate that PIs activate latent provirus and subsequently decrease viral titers and promote the production of defective virions from activated cells. Conclusions These results represent a proof-of-concept that bifunctional antagonists of HIV-1 can be developed and have the capacity to ensure precise tissue overlap of anti-latency and anti-replication functions, which is of significant importance in the consideration of future drug therapies aimed at viral clearance. PMID:24156270

2013-01-01

251

Preparation and Characterization of Silica-Coated Magnetic-Fluorescent Bifunctional Microspheres  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional magnetic–fluorescent composite nanoparticles (MPQDs) with Fe3O4MPs and Mn:ZnS/ZnS core–shell quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated in silica spheres were synthesized through reverse microemulsion method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, vibration sample magnetometer, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Our strategy could offer the following features: (1) the formation of Mn:ZnS/ZnS core/shell QDs resulted in enhancement of the PL intensity with respect to that of bare Mn:ZnS nanocrystals due to the effective elimination of the surface defects; (2) the magnetic nanoparticles were coated with silica, in order to reduce any detrimental effects on the QD PL by the magnetic cores; and (3) both Fe3O4MPs and Mn:ZnS/ZnS core–shell QDs were encapsulated in silica spheres, and the obtained MPQDs became water soluble. The experimental conditions for the silica coating on the surface of Fe3O4nanoparticles, such as the ratio of water to surfactant (R), the amount of ammonia, and the amount of tetraethoxysilane, on the photoluminescence properties of MPQDs were studied. It was found that the silica coating on the surface of Fe3O4could effectively suppress the interaction between the Fe3O4and the QDs under the most optimal parameters, and the emission intensity of MPQDs showed a maximum. The bifunctional MPQDs prepared under the most optimal parameters have a typical diameter of 35 nm and a saturation magnetization of 4.35 emu/g at room temperature and exhibit strong photoluminescence intensity. PMID:20596403

2009-01-01

252

Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

Pfeffer, Pierre

253

Magnetic bearings at Draper Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic bearings, unlike traditional mechanical bearings, consist of a series of components which when mated together form a stabilized system. The correct design of the actuator and sensor will provide a cost effective device with low power requirements. The proper choice of a control system utilizes the variables necessary to control the system in an efficient manner. The specific application will determine the optimum design of the magnetic bearing system including the touch down bearing. Draper for the past 30 years has been a leader in all these fields. This paper summaries the results carried out at Draper in the field of magnetic bearing development. A 3-D radial magnetic bearing is detailed in this paper. Data obtained from recently completed projects using this design are included. One project was a high radial load (1000 pound) application. The second was a high speed (35,000 RPM), low loss flywheel application. The development of a low loss axial magnetic bearing is also included in this paper.

Kondoleon, A.S.; Kelleher, W.P.; Possel, P.D. [C.S. Draper Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

254

Fluid Film Bearing Code Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next generation of rocket engine turbopumps is being developed by industry through Government-directed contracts. These turbopumps will use fluid film bearings because they eliminate the life and shaft-speed limitations of rolling-element bearings, increase turbopump design flexibility, and reduce the need for turbopump overhauls and maintenance. The design of the fluid film bearings for these turbopumps, however, requires sophisticated analysis tools to model the complex physical behavior characteristic of fluid film bearings operating at high speeds with low viscosity fluids. State-of-the-art analysis and design tools are being developed at the Texas A&M University under a grant guided by the NASA Lewis Research Center. The latest version of the code, HYDROFLEXT, is a thermohydrodynamic bulk flow analysis with fluid compressibility, full inertia, and fully developed turbulence models. It can predict the static and dynamic force response of rigid and flexible pad hydrodynamic bearings and of rigid and tilting pad hydrostatic bearings. The Texas A&M code is a comprehensive analysis tool, incorporating key fluid phenomenon pertinent to bearings that operate at high speeds with low-viscosity fluids typical of those used in rocket engine turbopumps. Specifically, the energy equation was implemented into the code to enable fluid properties to vary with temperature and pressure. This is particularly important for cryogenic fluids because their properties are sensitive to temperature as well as pressure. As shown in the figure, predicted bearing mass flow rates vary significantly depending on the fluid model used. Because cryogens are semicompressible fluids and the bearing dynamic characteristics are highly sensitive to fluid compressibility, fluid compressibility effects are also modeled. The code contains fluid properties for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, and liquid nitrogen as well as for water and air. Other fluids can be handled by the code provided that the user inputs information that relates the fluid transport properties to the temperature.

1995-01-01

255

ATM CMG bearing failure analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cause or causes for the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2) were investigated. Skylab telemetry data were reviewed and presented in the form of parameter distributions. The theory that the problems were caused by marginal bearing lubrication was studied along with the effects of orbital conditions on lubricants. Bearing tests were performed to investigate the effect of lubricant or lack of lubricant in the ATM CMG bearings and the dispersion and migration of the lubricant. The vacuum and weightless conditions of space were simulated in the bearing tests. Analysis of the results of the tests conducted points to inadequate lubrication as the predominant factor causing the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2).

1975-01-01

256

A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

2002-01-01

257

Myrmecophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I used data collected during a study of radio-marked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region from 1977 to 1992 to investigate myrmecophagy by this population. Although generally not an important source of energy for the bears (averaging 8 mm long) nested in logs over small ants (6 mm long) nested under stones. Optimal conditions for consumption of ants occurred on the warmest sites with ample substrate suitable for ant nests. For ants in mounds, this occurred at low elevations at non-forested sites. For ants in logs, this occurred at low elevations or on southerly aspects where there was abundant, large-diameter, well-decomposed woody debris under an open forest canopy. Grizzly bears selected moderately decomposed logs 4a??5 dm in diameter at midpoint. Ants will likely become a more important food for Yellowstone's grizzly bears as currently important foods decline, owing to disease and warming of the regional climate.

Mattson, D.J.

2001-01-01

258

Complications of unilateral weight bearing.  

PubMed

The most common and significant complication of excessive unilateral weight bearing in adult horses is support limb laminitis. Young horses with unilateral lameness problems develop support limb laminitis infrequently compared with adult horses. PMID:19203705

Baxter, Gary M; Morrison, Scott

2008-12-01

259

Mixed-mu superconducting bearings  

DOEpatents

A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

1998-03-03

260

Mixed-mu superconducting bearings  

DOEpatents

A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Mulcahy, Thomas M. (Western Springs, IL)

1998-01-01

261

CCPI bears first fruit  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, the Bush administration launched the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCCPI) in the hope that it would develop the missing technology piece of the cleaner energy puzzle. Four years and two rounds later, the US electric power industry is seeing the first usable clean coal technologies emerge before its eyes. This article describe progress on one of the eight selected projects in the initial phase of the CCPI - led by NeuCo Inc. and carried out at Dynegy's Baldwin Energy Complex in Illinois - to increase efficiency and reduce emissions of the station's three coal-fired units with plant optimization software. In year one, a combustion/post-combustion (SCR) optimization system called CombustOpt was installed on cyclone boilers of units 1 and 2. They were also retrofitted with NeuCo's PerformanceOpt system. The fuel technology piece is MainenanceOpt to determine root causes of problems affecting unit efficiency and capacity. 5 figs.

Wicker, K.

2006-01-15

262

Bypass control valve seal and bearing life cycle test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operating characteristics of a bypass control valve seal and bearing life cycle tests are reported. Data from the initial assembly, leak, torque, and deflection tests are included along with the cycle life test results and conclusions. The equipment involved was to be used in the nuclear engine for the rocket vehicles program.

Lundback, A. V.

1972-01-01

263

Foil bearing support for high-speed rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High speed rotors are supported initially by flexible metal foil and then on an air film generated by a self-acting hydrodynamic effect. The flexibility of the bearing enables it to conform and deflect locally, wear is less severe, self-alignment and accommodation of thermal distortion is permitted.

Lazar, L.

1969-01-01

264

A practical 3D bearing-only SLAM algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a bearing only 3D SLAM algorithm which has the same complexity and optimality as the usual extended Kalman filter used in classical SLAM. We especially focus on the landmark initialization process, which relies on visual point features tracked in the sequence of acquired images: a probabilistic approach to estimate their parameters is presented. This induces a particular

Thomas Lemaire; Simon Lacroix; Joan Sola

2005-01-01

265

Automatic bearing fault pattern recognition using vibration signal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents vibration analysis techniques for fault detection in rotating machines. Rolling-element bearing defects inside a motor pump are the object of study. A dynamic model of the faults usually found in this context is presented. Initially a graphic simulation is used to produce the signals. Signal processing techniques, like frequency filters, Hilbert transform and spectral analysis are then

E. Mendel; L. Z. Mariano; I. Drago; S. Loureiro; T. W. Rauber; R. J. Batista

2008-01-01

266

Predicting Temperatures In Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer simulations speed design studies. Analyses performed in two or three dimensions. Sizes and shapes of components approximated by zones or nodes connected by gridlines. From geometric information about grids and boundary conditions, properties of bearing and lubricant materials, and information supplied by users, thermal-analysis programs generate mathematical models for thermal transport. Thermal analysis of high-speed rolling contact bearings matured so much that computerized numerical simulations replace expensive time consuming full scale experiments.

Wagner, William R.; Hemmings, Brad R.

1988-01-01

267

Lateral dampers for thrust bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

1985-01-01

268

Iterated Filters for Bearing-Only SLAM Stephen Tully, Hyungpil Moon, George Kantor, and Howie Choset  

E-print Network

Iterated Filters for Bearing-Only SLAM Stephen Tully, Hyungpil Moon, George Kantor, and Howie step for the problem of bearing-only SLAM. We focus on an undelayed approach that initializes for SLAM, but the EKF measurement update rule can often lead to a divergent state estimate due to its

Choset, Howie

269

SSME Long-life Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings for LH2 and LO2 service in turbopumps were studied as a means of improving speed and life capabilities. Four hybrid bearing configurations were designed with emphasis on achieving maximum stiffness and damping. Parallel load bearings were tested at steady-state and transient conditions with LH2 (externally fed) and LN2 (internally fed). The hydrostatic elements were tested with Freon 113 for empirical determination of dynamic characteristics. Tests using an eccentric journal for loading showed the externally and internally fed hydrostatic bearings to have significant separated coefficients of direct stiffness and damping. For the internally fed bearing, the strongly speed-dependent cross-coupling stiffness arising from fluid swirl, along with significant cross-coupling damping, resulted in low net effective stiffness and damping. The test method used can produce separated coefficients with a sufficiently elliptic journal orbit; otherwise, only net effective coefficients combining direct and cross-coupling terms can be determined. Testing with nonsynchronous excitation is recommended to avoid this restriction. Investigation of hard materials, including ceramics, is recommended as a means of eliminating the need for the rolling bearing for startup and shutdown support. The testing was performed in 1984 (LH2), 1985 (LN2) and 1985-86 (Freon).

Butner, M. F.; Murphy, B. T.

1986-01-01

270

Vertically integrated translational studies of PDX1 as a therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer via a novel bifunctional RNAi platform.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) represents a powerful, new tool for scientific investigation as well as a promising new form of targeted gene therapy, with applications currently in clinical trials. Bifunctional short hairpin RNA (shRNA) are synthetic RNAi molecules, engineered to utilize multiple endogenous RNAi pathways to specifically silence target genes. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) is a key regulator of pancreatic development, ?-cell differentiation, normal ?-cell function and pancreatic cancer. Our aim is to review the process of identifying PDX1 as a specific, potential RNAi target in pancreatic cancer, as well as the underlying mechanisms and various forms of RNAi, with subsequent testing and development of PDX1-targeted bifunctional shRNA therapy. PMID:24457987

Wu, J; Liu, S; Yu, J; Zhou, G; Rao, D; Jay, C M; Kumar, P; Sanchez, R; Templeton, N; Senzer, N; Maples, P; Nemunaitis, J; Brunicardi, F C

2014-02-01

271

Spinel Mn-Co oxide in N-doped carbon nanotubes as a bifunctional electrocatalyst synthesized by oxidative cutting.  

PubMed

The notorious instability of non-precious-metal catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution is by far the single unresolved impediment for their practical applications. We have designed highly stable and active bifunctional catalysts for reversible oxygen electrodes by oxidative thermal scission, where we concurrently rupture nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and oxidize Co and Mn nanoparticles buried inside them to form spinel Mn-Co oxide nanoparticles partially embedded in the nanotubes. Impressively high dual activity for oxygen reduction and evolution is achieved using these catalysts, surpassing those of Pt/C, RuO2, and IrO2 and thus raising the prospect of functional low-cost, non-precious-metal bifunctional catalysts in metal-air batteries and reversible fuel cells, among others, for a sustainable and green energy future. PMID:24815686

Zhao, Anqi; Masa, Justus; Xia, Wei; Maljusch, Artjom; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Clavel, Guylhaine; Xie, Kunpeng; Schlögl, Robert; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Muhler, Martin

2014-05-28

272

BEARS: Radioactive ion beams at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

BEARS (Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species) is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88 inch Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88 inch Cyclotron`s Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min {sup 11}C and 70-sec {sup 14}O, produced by (p,n) and (p,{alpha}) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88 inch Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial {sup 11}C beams of up to 2.5 {times} 10{sup 7} ions/sec and {sup 14}O beams of 3 {times} 10{sup 5} ions/sec.

Powell, J.; Guo, F.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Haustein, P.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [and others

1998-07-01

273

A novel bifunctional histone protein in Streptomyces: a candidate for structural coupling between DNA conformation and transcription during development and stress?  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic-producing Streptomyces are complex bacteria that remodel global transcription patterns and their nucleoids during development. Here, we describe a novel developmentally regulated nucleoid-associated protein, DdbA, of the genus that consists of an N-terminal DNA-binding histone H1-like domain and a C-terminal DksA-like domain that can potentially modulate RNA polymerase activity in conjunction with ppGpp. Owing to its N-terminal domain, the protein can efficiently bind and condense DNA in vitro. Loss of function of this DNA-binding protein results in changes in both DNA condensation during development and the ability to adjust DNA supercoiling in response to osmotic stress. Initial analysis of the DksA-like activity of DdbA indicates that overexpression of the protein suppresses a conditional deficiency in antibiotic production of relA mutants that are unable to synthesise ppGpp, just as DksA overexpression in Escherichia coli can suppress ppGpp0 phenotypes. The null mutant is also sensitive to oxidative stress owing to impaired upregulation of transcription of sigR, encoding an alternative sigma factor. Consequently, we propose this bifunctional histone-like protein as a candidate that could structurally couple changes in DNA conformation and transcription during the streptomycete life-cycle and in response to stress. PMID:23525459

Aldridge, Matthew; Facey, Paul; Francis, Lewis; Bayliss, Sion; Del Sol, Ricardo; Dyson, Paul

2013-01-01

274

Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts. Final technical progress report, September 12, 1991December 11, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to investigate sulfur-resistant catalysts for the conversion of synthesis gas having Hâ\\/CO ⤠1 into Câ--Câ alcohols, especially ethanol, by a highly selective and efficient pathway, while also promoting the water gas shift reaction (WGSR). The catalysts chosen are bifunctional, base-hydrogenation, sulfur-tolerant transition metal sulfides with heavy alkali, e.g. Cs{sup +}, promoter dispersed on

K. Klier; R. G. Herman; M. Deemer; M. Richards-Babb; T. Carr

1995-01-01

275

Self-association free bifunctional thiourea organocatalysts: synthesis of chiral ?-amino acids via dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic azlactones.  

PubMed

Concentration-independent high enantioselectivity in the dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of racemic azlactones affording chiral ?-aminoesters has been achieved using self-association free thiourea-based dimeric cinchona alkaloid organocatalysts. Detailed experimental studies and single crystal X-ray analysis confirmed that these bifunctional organocatalysts I do not form H-bonded self-aggregates in either solution or solid state. PMID:22159406

Oh, Joong-Suk; Lee, Ji-Woong; Ryu, Tae Hee; Lee, Jae Heon; Song, Choong Eui

2012-02-01

276

Identification and expression studies of a catalase and a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase in Frankia strain R43  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monofunctional catalase and a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase were revealed by activity staining of non-denaturing PAGE in Frankia strain R43. Both enzymes were shown to be cytoplasmatic, growth regulated and expressed mainly during the stationary growth phase. Nevertheless, low levels of constitutive expression could also be detected during the early stages of growth. Immunoblot analyses using a polyclonal antibody raised against

Fernando Tavares; Lisandro Bernardo; Anita Sellstedt

2003-01-01

277

Application of space technology to X-ray tube bearings  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work done to transfer technology, developed during the SP100 Space Reactor program, to commercial applications. The SP100 program was intended to develop a high temperature nuclear reactor power source for space applications. The specific area described in this paper is the use of high temperature bearings and lubricants under vacuum conditions. At the instigation of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a joint program was initiated between Varian Corporation and Advanced Methods and Materials Co. (AMM); with AMM providing the technical expertise in high temperature bearing technology, acquired during the Sp100 program, and Varian providing the testing and performance evaluation of the completed bearing assemblies. The Varian bearing application is X-ray tubes. The tungsten target is required to rotate within the vacuum tube with the bearings operating at temperatures in the region of 300 C. The high temperature vacuum conditions preclude the use of any organic lubricants. The desired improvements in bearing performance were in the areas of noise reduction and extended lifetime. The SP100 program had required low friction ball bearings for the Control Drive Assembly motors, clutches and brakes. These assemblies were required to operate at 540 C in hard vacuum. For the SP100 program silver coated tool steel bearings were tested along with molybdenum disulfide coated Stellite L605 races and balls with molybdenum disulfide coated Stellite L605 races with silicon nitride balls. The work described in this paper covers the results from the SP100 tests and describes the application of this technology to the Varian X-ray tubes using optimized MoS{sub 2} deposition parameters. The results of this work to date and the conclusions resulting from the endurance testing are described in detail.

Ring, P.J. [Advanced Methods and Materials Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Virshup, G.F. [Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

278

High performance lithium-ion hybrid capacitors with pre-lithiated hard carbon anodes and bifunctional cathode electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-ion hybrid capacitor is a type of energy storage device that bridge the gap between lithium-ion battery and electrical double layer capacitor. We have developed a facile approach to achieve the pre-lithiation of carbonaceous anode, and then fabricated lithium-ion hybrid capacitors with bifunctional cathode containing capacitor material (activated carbon) and battery material (LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2). The hybrid capacitor with 25 wt.% LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 addition in bifunctional cathode (denoted as LAN25) exhibits excellent rate capability and high energy density. The rate capability of LAN25 is comparable to that with pure AC cathode (denoted as LAC), while the volumetric energy density is 1.36 times higher than the latter one. The continuous galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that the lithium-ion hybrid capacitor remains more than 98% capacity after 20,000 cycles, and nearly 100% coulombic efficiency over entire cycles. The superior performance is ascribed to the synergy effect of the active components in bifunctional cathode and the effective pre-lithiation of hard carbon anode. The present work makes the study of lithium-ion hybrid capacitor easily accessible and broadens roads to hybrid devices with high energy density, high power density and long cycle life.

Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Haitao; Xu, Nansheng; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

2014-12-01

279

Design Formulas for Permanent-Magnet Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of high-energy product permanent magnet ~PM! materials has made PM magnetic bearings an attractive op- tion for applications ranging from turbo machinery to energy- storage flywheels. In small high-speed turbo compressors, bearing longevity is a problem that can be resolved with PM magnetic bearings. In space instrument applications, magnetic bearings eliminate the need for lubricants, which can contaminate

Brad Paden; Nelson Groom; James F. Antaki

2008-01-01

280

Journal gas bearing for curved surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimizing bearing length and permissible axis curvature alleviates distortion of film gap of gas lubricated journal bearing in deployment mechanisms. Required bearing length is divided into two shorter bearings interconnected by links which allow satisfactory conformity with the bent, load-carrying member.

Redmon, J. W.

1969-01-01

281

Ball Bearings Equipped for In Situ Lubrication on Demand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ systems that provide fresh lubricants to ball/race contacts on demand have been developed to prolong the operational lives of ball bearings. These systems were originally intended to be incorporated into ball bearings in mechanisms that are required to operate in outer space for years, in conditions in which lubricants tend to deteriorate and/or evaporate. These systems may also be useful for similarly prolonging bearing lifetimes on Earth. Reservoirs have been among the means used previously to resupply lubricants. Lubricant- resupply reservoirs are bulky and add complexity to bearing assemblies. In addition, such a reservoir cannot be turned on or off as needed: it supplies lubricant continuously, often leading to an excess of lubricant in the bearing. A lubricator of the present type includes a porous ring cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing (see Figure 1). Oil is stored in the porous cartridge and is released by heating the cartridge: Because the thermal expansion of the oil exceeds that of the cartridge, heating causes the ejection of some oil. A metal film can be deposited on a face of the cartridge to serve as an electrical-resistance heater. The heater can be activated in response to a measured increase in torque that signals depletion of oil from the bearing/race contacts. Because the oil has low surface tension and readily wets the bearing-ring material, it spreads over the bearing ring and eventually reaches the ball/race contacts. The Marangoni effect (a surface-tension gradient associated with a temperature gradient) is utilized to enhance the desired transfer of lubricant to the ball/race contacts during heating. For a test, a ball bearing designed for use at low speed was assembled without lubricant and equipped with a porous-ring lubricator, the resistance heater of which consumed a power of less than 1 W when triggered on by a torque-measuring device. In the test, a load of 20 lb (.89 N) was applied and the bearing was turned at a rate of 200 RPM. The lubricator control was turned on at the beginning of the test, turned off for about 800 seconds, then turned on again. As shown in Figure 2, the controlled lubricator stabilized the torque in a low range, starting immediately after initial turn-on and immediately after resumption of the lubricator control.

Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark; Predmore, Roamer

2005-01-01

282

Application of foil bearings to helium turbocompressor  

SciTech Connect

Hydrodynamic gas-lubricated foil bearings are ideal for machinery that operates at high speed or in extreme-temperature environments. As motors and generators run at higher speeds with more torque capacity, the need for commonly available, robust, high-speed, low-loss foil bearings is clear. This paper presents an application example of the successful replacement of a tape-type bearing for a bump-type bearing in a helium turbocompressor. Both bearing types are described, as are the steps involved in design and fabrication of the bump bearing, and results of comparison tests between the original and replacement bearings. Methods to analyze bump-type foil bearings with commercially available software are reviewed to further emphasize the inherent simplicity of these bearings. By providing the engineering community with the understanding needed to successfully apply foil bearings, the authors hope that the benefits and true potential of this technology will finally be realized.

Chen, H.Ming; Howarth, R.; Bernard, Geren; Theilacker, Jay C.; Soyars, William M.; /Fermilab

2001-01-01

283

Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS-FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.

2012-01-01

284

Robocentric mapping and localization in modified spherical coordinates with bearing measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new approach to robotic mapping is presented that uses modified spherical coordinates in a robot-centered reference frame and a bearing-only measurement model. The algorithm provided in this paper permits robust delay-free state initialization and is computationally more efficient than the current standard in bearing-only (delay-free initialized) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Importantly, we provide a detailed

Anders Boberg; Adrian N. Bishop; Patric Jensfelt

2009-01-01

285

Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Bearing Testing for NASA Return to Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle body flap is located beneath the main engine nozzles and is required for proper aerodynamic control during orbital descent. Routine inspection of one of four body flap actuators found one of the actuator bearings had degraded and blackened balls. A test program was initiated to demonstrate that it is acceptable to operate bearings which are degraded from operation over several flights. This test exposed the bearing to predicted flight axial loads, speeds and temperatures. Testing at 140 F has been completed, and results indicate the previously flown bearings are acceptable for up to 12 additional missions. Additional testing is underway to determine the lubricant life at various temperatures and stresses and to further understand the mechanism that caused the blacken balls. Initial results of this testing indicates that bearing life is shorten at room temperature possibly due fact that higher temperature (140 F) accelerates the flow of grease and oil into the wear surface

Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Dube, Michael J.; Jones, William R., Jr.

2006-01-01

286

The Structural Basis for a Coordinated Reaction Catalyzed by a Bifunctional Glycosyltransferase in Chondroitin Biosynthesis*  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional chondroitin synthase K4CP catalyzes glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine transfer activities and polymerizes a chondroitin chain. Here we have determined that an N-terminal region (residues 58–134) coordinates two transfer reactions and enables K4CP to catalyze polymerization. When residues 58–107 are deleted, K4CP loses polymerase activity while retaining both transfer activities. Peptide 113DWPSDL118 within this N-terminal region interacts with C-terminal peptide 677YTWEKI682. The deletion of either sequence abolishes glucuronic acid but not N-acetylgalactosamine transfer activity in K4CP. Both donor bindings and transfer activities are lost by mutating 677YTWEKI682 to 677DAWEDI682. On the other hand, acceptor substrates retain their binding to K4CP mutants. The characteristics of these K4CP mutants highlight different states of the enzyme reaction, providing an underlying structural basis for how these peptides play essential roles in coordinating the two glycosyltransferase activities for K4CP to elongate the chondroitin chain. PMID:22936799

Sobhany, Mack; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu; Sugiura, Nobuo; Kimata, Koji; Negishi, Masahiko

2012-01-01

287

Metanil yellow: a bifunctional inducer of hepatic phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Metanil yellow, a non-permitted food colour, has been found in various foodstuffs. The induction potential of metanil yellow on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450)-dependent monooxygenases and cytosolic detoxification enzymes, namely, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase (QR), was investigated. Oral administration of metanil yellow (430 mg/kg body weight) to four animals for seven days caused significant induction of hepatic P-450 (48%) and its dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (100%) activity and cytosolic GST (136%) and QR (92%) activities. Parenteral administration of metanil yellow (80 mg/kg body weight) to another set of four animals for 3 days resulted in higher induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (228%) as compared to other monooxygenases (64-92%), while GST and QR were also found to be induced (59-95%). Spectra of metanil yellow-induced microsomes showed an increase in P-450 with a shift of 2.2 nm in the soret region. The results suggest that metanil yellow acts as a bifunctional inducer of specific isozymes of P-450 and cytosolic enzymes and thus may involve the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor for this type of induction. PMID:9350229

Das, M; Ramchandani, S; Upreti, R K; Khanna, S K

1997-08-01

288

Mimivirus Collagen Is Modified by Bifunctional Lysyl Hydroxylase and Glycosyltransferase Enzyme*  

PubMed Central

Collagens, the most abundant proteins in animals, are modified by hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues and by glycosylation of hydroxylysine. Dedicated prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl hydroxylase, and collagen glycosyltransferase enzymes localized in the endoplasmic reticulum mediate these modifications prior to the formation of the collagen triple helix. Whereas collagen-like proteins have been described in some fungi, bacteria, and viruses, the post-translational machinery modifying collagens has never been described outside of animals. We demonstrate that the L230 open reading frame of the giant virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus encodes an enzyme that has distinct lysyl hydroxylase and collagen glycosyltransferase domains. We show that mimivirus L230 is capable of hydroxylating lysine and glycosylating the resulting hydroxylysine residues in a native mimivirus collagen acceptor substrate. Whereas in animals from sponges to humans the transfer of galactose to hydroxylysine in collagen is conserved, the mimivirus L230 enzyme transfers glucose to hydroxylysine, thereby defining a novel type of collagen glycosylation in nature. The presence of hydroxylysine in mimivirus proteins was confirmed by amino acid analysis of mimivirus recovered from A. polyphaga cultures. This work shows for the first time that collagen post-translational modifications are not confined to the domains of life. The utilization of glucose instead of the galactose found throughout animals as well as a bifunctional enzyme rather than two separate enzymes may represent a parallel evolutionary track in collagen biology. These results suggest that giant viruses may have contributed to the evolution of collagen biology. PMID:22045808

Luther, Kelvin B.; Hulsmeier, Andreas J.; Schegg, Belinda; Deuber, Stefan A.; Raoult, Didier; Hennet, Thierry

2011-01-01

289

Developmental Roles of D-bifunctional Protein-A Zebrafish Model of Peroxisome Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome is an intracellular organelle that responds dynamically to environmental changes. Various model organisms have been used to study the roles of peroxisomal proteins in maintaining cellular homeostasis. By taking advantage of the zebrafish model whose early stage of embryogenesis is dependent on yolk components, we examined the developmental roles of the D-bifunctional protein (Dbp), an essential enzyme in the peroxisomal ?-oxidation. The knockdown of dbp in zebrafish phenocopied clinical manifestations of its deficiency in human, including defective craniofacial morphogenesis, growth retardation, and abnormal neuronal development. Overexpression of murine Dbp rescued the morphological phenotypes induced by dbp knockdown, indicative of conserved roles of Dbp during zebrafish and mammalian development. Knockdown of dbp impaired normal development of blood, blood vessels, and most strikingly, endoderm-derived organs including the liver and pancreas - a phenotype not reported elsewhere in connection with peroxisome dysfunction. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that zebrafish might be a useful model animal to study the role of peroxisomes during vertebrate development. PMID:24552713

Kim, Yong-Il; Bhandari, Sushil; Lee, Joon No; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Kim, Se-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Cho, Meyoung; Kwak, Jong-Young; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Choe, Seong-Kyu

2014-01-01

290

Conversion of ?-carotene into astaxanthin: Two separate enzymes or a bifunctional hydroxylase-ketolase protein?  

PubMed Central

Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll of great interest in animal nutrition and human health. The market prospect in the nutraceutics industries for this health-protective molecule is very promising. Astaxanthin is synthesized by several bacteria, algae and plants from ?-carotene by the sequential action of two enzymes: a ?-carotene, 3,3'-hydroxylase that introduces an hydroxyl group at the 3 (and 3') positions of each of the two ?-ionone rings of ?-carotene, and a ?-carotene ketolase that introduces keto groups at carbons 4 and 4' of the ?-ionone rings. Astaxanthin is also produced by the yeast-like basidiomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. A gene crtS involved in the conversion of ?-carotene to astaxanthin has been cloned simultaneously by two research groups. Complementation studies of X. dendrorhous mutants and expression analysis in Mucor circinelloides reveals that the CrtS enzyme is a ?-carotene hydroxylase of the P-450 monooxygenase family that converts ?-carotene to the hydroxylated derivatives ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, but it does not form astaxanthin or the ketolated intermediates in this fungus. A bifunctional ?-carotene hydroxylase-ketolase activity has been proposed for the CrtS protein. The evidence for and against this hypothesis is analyzed in detail in this review. PMID:18289382

Martin, Juan F; Gudina, Eduardo; Barredo, Jose L

2008-01-01

291

Bifunctional compounds for controlling metal-mediated aggregation of the a?42 peptide.  

PubMed

Abnormal interactions of Cu and Zn ions with the amyloid ? (A?) peptide are proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disruption of these metal-peptide interactions using chemical agents holds considerable promise as a therapeutic strategy to combat this incurable disease. Reported herein are two bifunctional compounds (BFCs) L1 and L2 that contain both amyloid-binding and metal-chelating molecular motifs. Both L1 and L2 exhibit high stability constants for Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) and thus are good chelators for these metal ions. In addition, L1 and L2 show strong affinity toward A? species. Both compounds are efficient inhibitors of the metal-mediated aggregation of the A?(42) peptide and promote disaggregation of amyloid fibrils, as observed by ThT fluorescence, native gel electrophoresis/Western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interestingly, the formation of soluble A?(42) oligomers in the presence of metal ions and BFCs leads to an increased cellular toxicity. These results suggest that for the A?(42) peptide-in contrast to the A?(40) peptide-the previously employed strategy of inhibiting A? aggregation and promoting amyloid fibril dissagregation may not be optimal for the development of potential AD therapeutics, due to formation of neurotoxic soluble A?(42) oligomers. PMID:22452395

Sharma, Anuj K; Pavlova, Stephanie T; Kim, Jaekwang; Finkelstein, Darren; Hawco, Nicholas J; Rath, Nigam P; Kim, Jungsu; Mirica, Liviu M

2012-04-18

292

Enhanced phytoremediation of toxic metals by inoculating endophytic Enterobacter sp. CBSB1 expressing bifunctional glutathione synthase.  

PubMed

To engineer plant-bacteria symbionts for remediating complex sites contaminated with multiple metals, the bifunctional glutathione (GSH) synthase gene gcsgs was introduced into endophytic Enterobacter sp. CBSB1 to improve phytoremediation efficiency of host plant Brassica juncea. The GSH contents of shoots inoculated with CBSB1 is 0.4?Mg(-1) fresh weight. However, the GSH concentration of shoots with engineered CBSB1-GCSGS increased to 0.7?Mg(-1) fresh weight. The shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings inoculated with CBSB1-GCSGS increased 67%, 123%, and 160%, compared with seedlings without inoculation, respectively. The Cd and Pb concentration in shoots with CBSB1-GCSGS increased 48% and 59% compared with seedlings without inoculation, respectively. The inoculation of CBSB1 and CBSB1-GCSGS could increase the Cd and Pb extraction amounts of seedlings significantly compared with those without inoculation (P<0.05), the seedlings inoculated with CBSB1-GCSGS showed the highest Cd and Pb extraction amounts. It was concluded that the gcsgs gene introduced into Enterobacter sp. CBSB1 upgraded the phytoremediation efficacy of B. juncea. So the engineered Enterobacter sp. CBSB1-GCSGS showed potentials in remediation sites contaminated with complex contaminants by inoculating into remediating plants. PMID:24413047

Qiu, Zhiqi; Tan, Hongming; Zhou, Shining; Cao, Lixiang

2014-02-28

293

DEER EPR Measurements for Membrane Protein Structures via Bi-functional Spin Labels and Lipodisq Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Pulsed EPR DEER structural studies of membrane proteins in a lipid bilayer have often been hindered by difficulties in extracting accurate distances when compared to globular proteins. In this study, we employed a combination of three recently developed methodologies: 1) bi-functional spin labels (BSL), 2) SMA-Lipodisq nanoparticles, and 3) Q-band pulsed EPR measurements to obtain improved signal sensitivity, increased transverse relaxation time, and more accurate and precise distances in DEER measurements on the integral membrane protein KCNE1. The KCNE1 EPR data indicated ~2 fold increase in the transverse relaxation time for the SMA-Lipodisq nanoparticles when compared to proteoliposomes, and narrower distance distributions for the BSL when compared to the standard MTSL. The certainty of information content in DEER data obtained for KCNE1 in SMA-Lipodisq nanoparticles is comparable to that in micelles. The combination of techniques will enable researchers to potentially obtain more precise distances in cases where the traditional spin labels and membrane systems yield imprecise distance distributions. PMID:23984855

Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Troxel, Kaylee R.; Zhang, Rongfu; Smith, Hubbell J.; Dunagan, Megan M.; Swartz, Max S.; Rajan, Prashant V.; Kroncke, Brett; Sanders, Charles R.; Lorigan, Gary A.

2013-01-01

294

Bifunctional NMN adenylyltransferase/ADP ribose pyrophosphatase: structure and function in bacterial NAD metabolism  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacterial NadM-Nudix is a bifunctional enzyme containing a nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) adenylyltransferase and an ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase domain. While most members of this enzyme family, such as that from a model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp., are involved primarily in NAD savage/recycling pathways, its close homolog in a category A biodefense pathogen Francisella tularensis likely plays a central role in a recently discovered novel pathway of NAD de novo synthesis. The crystal structures of NadM-Nudix from both species, including their complexes with various ligands and catalytic metal ions, revealed detailed configurations of the substrate binding and catalytic sites in both domains. The structure of the N-terminal NadM domain may be exploited for designing new anti-tularemia therapeutics. The ADP-ribose binding site in the C-terminal Nudix domain is substantially different from that of E. coli ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase, and is more similar to human NUDT9. The latter observation provided new insights into the ligand binding mode of ADPR-gated Ca2+ channel TRPM2. PMID:18275811

Huang, Nian; Sorci, Leonardo; Zhang, Xuejun; Brautigan, Chad; Li, Xiaoqing; Raffaelli, Nadia; Magni, Giulio; Grishin, Nick V.; Osterman, Andrei; Zhang, Hong

2008-01-01

295

Purification and characterisation of a bifunctional alginate lyase from novel Isoptericola halotolerans CGMCC 5336.  

PubMed

A novel halophilic alginate-degrading microorganism was isolated from rotten seaweed and identified as Isoptericola halotolerans CGMCC5336. The lyase from the strain was purified to homogeneity by combining of ammonium sulfate fractionation and anion-exchange chromatography with a specific activity of 8409.19 U/ml and a recovery of 25.07%. This enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa. The optimal temperature and pH were 50 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. The lyase maintained stability at neutral pH (7.0-8.0) and temperatures below 50 °C. Metal ions including Na(+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Ca(2+) notably increased the activity of the enzyme. With sodium alginate as the substrate, the Km and Vmax were 0.26 mg/ml and 1.31 mg/ml min, respectively. The alginate lyase had substrate specificity for polyguluronate and polymannuronate units in alginate molecules, indicating its bifunctionality. These excellent characteristics demonstrated the potential applications in alginate oligosaccharides production with low polymerisation degrees. PMID:24053829

Dou, Wenfang; Wei, Dan; Li, Hui; Li, Heng; Rahman, Muhammad Masfiqur; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong; Ma, Yanhe

2013-11-01

296

Drosophila SPF45: A Bifunctional Protein with Roles in Both Splicing and DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

The sequence of the SPF45 protein is significantly conserved, yet functional studies have identified it as a splicing factor in animal cells and as a DNA-repair protein in plants. Using a combined genetic and biochemical approach to investigate this apparent functional discrepancy, we unify and validate both of these studies by demonstrating that the Drosophila melanogaster protein is bifunctional, with independent functions in DNA repair and splicing. We find that SPF45 associates with the U2 snRNP and that mutations that remove the C-terminal end of the protein disrupt this interaction. Although animals carrying this mutation are viable, they are nevertheless compromised in their ability to regulate Sex-lethal splicing, demonstrating that Sex-lethal is an important physiological target of SPF45. Furthermore, these mutant animals exhibit phenotypes diagnostic of difficulties in recovering from exogenously induced DNA damage. The conclusion that SPF45 functions in the DNA-repair pathway is strengthened by finding both genetic and physical interactions between SPF45 and RAD201, a previously uncharacterized member of the RecA/Rad51 protein family. Together with our finding that the fly SPF45 protein increases the survival rate of mutagen-treated bacteria lacking the RecG helicase, these studies provide the tantalizing suggestion that SPF45 has an ancient and evolutionarily conserved role in DNA repair. PMID:17154718

Chaouki, Ahmad Sami; Salz, Helen K

2006-01-01

297

Stability of the Mn photoluminescence in bifunctional ZnS:0.05Mn nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the stability of the orange band photoluminescence (PL) of bifunctional nanoparticles of Mn2+-doped ZnS at 5% (ZnS:0.05Mn). These 4-nm nanoparticles are synthesized via a one-step inorganic chemical route under ambient conditions. The phase, crystallinity, and morphology are analyzed via X-ray and electron diffractions and high-resolution electron microscopy. Based on the thermally activated carrier-transfer model, it is found that orange emission is rather stable at low temperatures and possesses thermal activation energy of ˜18 meV. The analysis of the PL decay curves suggests the coexistence of multiple lifetimes, that the shortening observed in PL lifetime is not due to the Mn2+ ions, and that the orange band decay is stable in temperature range from 10 K to 300 K. The measured M-H hysteresis loops demonstrate that ZnS:0.05Mn nanoparticles exhibit ferromagnetic ordering below 30 K, unlike its bulk counterpart. No magnetic field dependence of the Mn2+ PL intensity is observed up to 1 T. The stability of the PL signal when subject to an applied magnetic field is discussed. This study offers experimental evidence to test low-dimensional dilute magnetic semiconductor models and widens the range of applications of ZnS:Mn nanostructures beyond optoelectronics.

Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Wang, Jingzhou; Tanaka, Hiroki; Jadwisienczak, Wojciech M.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

2013-08-01

298

Directed assembly of bifunctional silica-iron oxide nanocomposite with open shell structure.  

PubMed

The synthesis of nanocomposite with controlled surface morphology plays a key role for pollutant removal from aqueous environments. The influence of the molecular size of the polyelectrolyte in synthesizing silica-iron oxide core-shell nanocomposite with open shell structure was investigated by using dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Here, poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used to promote the attachment of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) onto the silica surface to assemble a nanocomposite with magnetic and catalytic bifunctionality. High molecular weight PDDA tended to adsorb on silica colloid, forming a more extended conformation layer than low molecular weight PDDA. Subsequent attachment of IONPs onto this extended PDDA layer was more randomly distributed, forming isolated islands with open space between them. By taking amoxicillin, an antibiotic commonly found in pharmaceutical waste, as the model system, better removal was observed for silica-iron oxide nanocomposite with a more extended open shell structure. PMID:25198872

Che, Hui Xin; Yeap, Swee Pin; Osman, Mohamed Syazwan; Ahmad, Abdul Latif; Lim, JitKang

2014-10-01

299

A new bifunctional chelator enables facile biocoupling and radiolabeling as the basis for a bioconjugation kit.  

PubMed

A new tridentate bifunctional chelator, N-(-2-picolyl)(-4-hydroxy)(-3-amino)benzoic acid (PHAB), was designed to efficiently coordinate the [(99m)Tc(CO)3](+) core and facilitate coupling reactions to biomolecules. The chelator can be procured in the form of the corresponding benzotriazole ester (PHAB-OBT), which can be stored and used as a bioconjugation kit. PHAB-OBT reacts with modified carbohydrates with high selectivity and efficiency in a single step in both aqueous and organic media. As is desirable for a kit, no complicated chemical bench work is required. Glycoconjugate postlabeling resulted in neutral radiolabeled glycans with high radiochemical yields. Prelabeling approaches were assessed by successive reaction of PHAB-OBT with the [(99m)Tc(CO)3](+) core and a modified galactose model. The radiolabeled galactose was obtained in 84% yield as defined by HPLC analysis. Biodistribution of the radioactive (99m)Tc-labeled chelator, as well as the glycoconjugates, were examined in mice. Noticeably different biodistribution patterns were observed that reflect trends in the uptake of carbohydrate analogues by various organs. PMID:24723504

Barandov, Ali; Grünstein, Dan; Apostolova, Ivalaya; Buchert, Ralph; Roger, Michel; Brenner, Winfried; Abram, Ulrich; Seeberger, Peter H

2014-05-01

300

Peroxiredoxin 6: A Bifunctional Enzyme with Glutathione Peroxidase and Phospholipase A2 Activities  

PubMed Central

Abstract Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is the prototype and the only mammalian 1-Cys member of the Prdx family. Major differences from 2-Cys Prdxs include the use of glutathione (GSH) instead of thioredoxin as the physiological reductant, heterodimerization with ?GSH S-transferase as part of the catalytic cycle, and the ability either to reduce the oxidized sn-2 fatty acyl group of phospholipids (peroxidase activity) or to hydrolyze the sn-2 ester (alkyl) bond of phospholipids (phospholipase A2 [PLA2] activity). The bifunctional protein has separate active sites for peroxidase (C47, R132, H39) and PLA2 (S32, D140, H26) activities. These activities are dependent on binding of the protein to phospholipids at acidic pH and to oxidized phospholipids at cytosolic pH. Prdx6 can be phosphorylated by MAP kinases at T177, which markedly increases its PLA2 activity and broadens its pH-activity spectrum. Prdx6 is primarily cytosolic but also is targeted to acidic organelles (lysosomes, lamellar bodies) by a specific targeting sequence (amino acids 31–40). Oxidant stress and keratinocyte growth factor are potent regulators of Prdx6 gene expression. Prdx6 has important roles in both antioxidant defense based on its ability to reduce peroxidized membrane phospholipids and in phospholipid homeostasis based on its ability to generate lysophospholipid substrate for the remodeling pathway of phospholipid synthesis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 831–844. PMID:20919932

2011-01-01

301

Toward Protein Structure In Situ: Comparison of Two Bifunctional Rhodamine Adducts of Troponin C  

PubMed Central

As part of a program to develop methods for determining protein structure in situ, sTnC was labeled with a bifunctional rhodamine (BR or BSR), cross-linking residues 56 and 63 of its C-helix. NMR spectroscopy of the N-terminal domain of BSR-labeled sTnC in complex with Ca2+ and the troponin I switch peptide (residues 115–131) showed that BSR labeling does not significantly affect the secondary structure of the protein or its dynamics in solution. BR-labeling was previously shown to have no effect on the solution structure of this complex. Isometric force generation in isolated demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle into which BR- or BSR-labeled sTnC had been exchanged showed reduced Ca2+-sensitivity, and this effect was larger with the BSR label. The orientation of rhodamine dipoles with respect to the fiber axis was determined by polarized fluorescence. The mean orientations of the BR and BSR dipoles were almost identical in relaxed muscle, suggesting that both probes accurately report the orientation of the C-helix to which they are attached. The BSR dipole had smaller orientational dispersion, consistent with less flexible linkers between the rhodamine dipole and cysteine-reactive groups. PMID:17483167

Julien, Olivier; Sun, Yin-Biao; Knowles, Andrea C.; Brandmeier, Birgit D.; Dale, Robert E.; Trentham, David R.; Corrie, John E. T.; Sykes, Brian D.; Irving, Malcolm

2007-01-01

302

A Surprising Mechanistic "Switch" in Lewis Acid Activation: A Bifunctional, Asymmetric Approach to ?-Hydroxy Acid Derivatives  

PubMed Central

We report a detailed synthetic and mechanistic study of an unusual bifunctional, sequential hetero-Diels–Alder/ring-opening reaction in which chiral, metal complexed ketene enolates react with o-quinones to afford highly enantioenriched, ?-hydroxylated carbonyl derivatives in excellent yield. A number of Lewis acids were screened in tandem with cinchona alkaloid derivatives; surprisingly, trans-(Ph3P)2PdCl2 was found to afford the most dramatic increase in yield and rate of reaction. A series of Lewis acid binding motifs were explored through molecular modeling, as well as IR, UV and NMR spectroscopy. Our observations document a fundamental mechanistic “switch” – namely the formation of a tandem Lewis base/Lewis acid activated metal enolate in preference to a metal-coordinated quinone species (as observed in other reactions of o-quinone derivatives). This new method was applied to the syntheses of several pharmaceutical targets, each of which was obtained in high yield and enantioselectivity. PMID:19053448

Abraham, Ciby J.; Paull, Daniel H.; Bekele, Tefsit; Scerba, Michael T.; Dudding, Travis; Lectka, Thomas

2009-01-01

303

The determination of the rate of conjugation immunoglobuline with bifunctional chelator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work was performed under the GACR project: "Technology of preparation of radionuclides and their labelled compounds for nuclear medicine and pharmacy with the use of the reactor LVR-15" reg. no. 104/03/0499. Imaging of cell’s antigens with the use of labelled immunoglobulines allows imaging of specific receptors on cell membrane and specific tumours. It is necessary to carry out the labelling of the immunoglobulines with radionuclides of suitable physical properties, which form cations (e.g., 111In, 90Y, 177Lu) that form very strong chelates of sufficiently high stability constant preventing the dissociation of complexes or the radionuclide under “in-vivo” conditions. The immunoglobuline must be conjugated with the bifunctional chelator (BCH), which contains both chelating unit and reactive group for binding to the immunoglobuline. In our laboratory we have conjugated human IgG and monoclonal antibody CD20 with diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid dianhydride (cDTPAA). Radionuclides 90Y and 177Lu prepared on the LVR-15 reactor in NRI Rez were used for labelling. After conjugation and labelling the yields in relation to the amount of isotopic carrier have been determined.

Málek, Z.; Miler, V.; Budský, F.

2006-01-01

304

EXCITATION OF STRUCTURAL RESONANCE DUE TO A BEARING FAILURE  

SciTech Connect

Vibration due to a bearing failure in a pump created significant vibrations in a fifteen foot by fifteen foot by eight feet tall mounting platform due to excitation of resonant frequencies. In this particular application, an 18,000 pound pump was mounted to a structural steel platform. When bearing damage commenced, the platform vibrated with sufficient magnitude that conversations could not be heard within forty feet of the pump. Vibration analysis determined that the frequency of the bearing was coincident to one of the natural frequencies of the pump, which was, in turn, coincident to one of the natural frequencies of the mounting platform. This coincidence of frequencies defines resonance. Resonance creates excessive vibrations when the natural frequency of a structure is coincident to an excitation frequency. In this well documented case, the excitation frequency was related to ball bearing failures. The pump is a forty foot long vertical pump used to mix nuclear waste in 1,300,000 gallon tanks. A 300 horsepower drive motor is mounted to a structural steel platform on top of the tank. The pump hangs down into the tank from above to mix the waste and is inaccessible after installation. Initial awareness of the problem was due to increased noise from the pump. Initial vibration analysis indicated that the vibration levels of the bearing were within the expected range for this type of bearing, and the resonant condition was not obvious. Further analysis consisted of disassembly of the motor to inspect the bearings and extensive vibration monitoring. Vibration data for the bearings was obtained from the manufacturer and compared to measured vibration plots for the pump and mounting platform. Vibration data measured along the length of the pump was available from full scale testing, and vibrations were also measured at the installed pump. One of the axial frequencies of the pump, the platform frequency in the vertical direction, and the ball spin frequency for the bearing were multiples of each other. This resonant condition was detected before other damage occurred, and further damage due to the resonant condition was prevented through vibration analysis.

Leishear, R; David Stefanko, D

2007-04-30

305

Metal-on-metal bearings: the problem is edge-loading wear.  

PubMed

Metal-on-metal bearings are promoted as a low wear bearing alternative to traditional hip replacement bearings. While most in vitro studies support this, recent clinical reviews have found a significant number of early revisions in some designs of metal-on-metal bearings related to wear. Metal-on-metal bearings exhibit a bi-phasic wear pattern with high initial wear that generally settles down to low steady state wear. Previous publications from the authors have found that steady state wear occurs due to the formation of a critical conforming contact area. This contact area was found to be surprisingly constant regardless of bearing size, clearance, or even contact mode. The authors hypothesized that steady state wear may never be reached if formation of this critical conforming contact area is disrupted. Several hip simulator tests were performed to assess the wear performance of generic metal-on-metal samples at various angles of inclination. Three-dimensional modeling was performed on the generic bearing design as well as typical resurfacing and hemispherical bearing designs including various sizes and clearance ranges. Simulator results support the hypotheses, and wear rates were linear or accelerating when the critical contact area size could not be achieved due to its proximity to the rim of the bearing. Modeling studies show a correlation between bearing size and design and the maximum inclination angle allowed to reach steady state conditions. Smaller bearing size and shallower cup designs were found to reduce the maximum safe inclination angle and this corresponds to clinical observation of increased failure rates in these bearings. This simple method for assessing runaway wear risk can be utilized in the design of more robust and forgiving metal-on-metal bearings. PMID:21082578

Lee, Reginald K; Longaray, Jason; Essner, Aaron; Wang, Aiguo

2010-10-01

306

Nonlinear dynamics of attractive magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonlinear dynamics of a ferromagnetic shaft suspended by the force of attraction of 1, 2, or 4 independent electromagnets is presented. Each model includes a state variable feedback controller which has been designed using the pole placement method. The constitutive relationships for the magnets are derived analytically from magnetic circuit theory, and the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal are included using Maxwell's field relations. A rotor suspended by four electro-magnets with closed loop feedback is shown to have nine equilibrium points within the bearing clearance space. As the rotor spin speed increases, the system is shown to pass through a Hopf bifurcation (a flutter instability). Using center manifold theory, this bifurcation can be shown to be of the subcritical type, indicating an unstable limit cycle below the critical speed. The bearing is very sensitive to initial conditions, and the equilibrium position is easily upset by transient excitation. The results are confirmed by numerical simulation.

Hebbale, K. V.; Taylor, D. L.

1987-01-01

307

Wave Journal Bearing. Part 1: Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wave journal bearing concept features a waved inner bearing diameter of the non-rotating bearing side and it is an alternative to the plain journal bearing. The wave journal bearing has a significantly increased load capacity in comparison to the plain journal bearing operating at the same eccentricity. It also offers greater stability than the plain circular bearing under all operating conditions. The wave bearing's design is relatively simple and allows the shaft to rotate in either direction. Three wave bearings are sensitive to the direction of an applied stationary side load. Increasing the number of waves reduces the wave bearing's sensitivity to the direction of the applied load relative to the wave. However, the range in which the bearing performance can be varied decreases as the number of waves increases. Therefore, both the number and the amplitude of the waves must be properly selected to optimize the wave bearing design for a specific application. It is concluded that the stiffness of an air journal bearing, due to hydrodynamic effect, could be doubled and made to run stably by using a six or eight wave geometry with a wave amplitude approximately half of the bearing radial clearance.

Dimofte, Florin

1995-01-01

308

Wave journal bearing. Part 1: Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A wave journal bearing concept features a waved inner ring diameter and it is an alternative to the plain journal bearing. The wave journal bearing has a significantly increased load capacity in comparison to the plain journal bearing operating at the same eccentricity. It also offers greater stability than the plain circular bearing under all operating conditions. The wave bearing`s design is relatively simple and allows the shaft to rotate in either direction. Three wave bearings are sensitive to the direction of the applied load. Increasing the number of waves reduces the wave bearing`s sensitivity to the direction of the applied load relative to the wave. However, the range in which the bearing performance can be varied decreases as the number of waves increases. Therefore, both the number and the amplitude of the waves must be properly selected to optimize the wave bearing design for a specific application. It is concluded that the stiffness of an air journal bearing, due to hydrodynamic effect, could be doubled and made to run stably by using a six or eight wave geometry with a wave amplitude approximately half of the bearing radial clearance.

Dimofte, F. [Univ. of Toledo, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

309

Estimating Wear Of Installed Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple inspection and measurement technique makes possible to estimate wear of balls in ball bearing, without removing bearing from shaft on which installed. To perform measurement, one observes bearing cage while turning shaft by hand to obtain integral number of cage rotations and to measure, to nearest 2 degrees, number of shaft rotations producing cage rotations. Ratio between numbers of cages and shaft rotations depends only on internal geometry of bearing and applied load. Changes in turns ratio reflect changes in internal geometry of bearing provided measurements made with similar bearing loads. By assuming all wear occurs on balls, one computes effective value for this wear from change in turns ratio.

Keba, John E.; Mcvey, Scott E.

1993-01-01

310

Tardigrades: Bears of the Moss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online PowerPoint presentation is dedicated to the phylum Tardigrada. It discusses distinguishing characteristics of Tardigrades (also known as water bears), their relationship to arthropods and nematodes, internal structures, life stages, cryptobiosis, research opportunities, classification, identification, habitat, distribution, ease of study in the lab, and more. Each slide contains illustrations and descriptions of the microscopic animal.

Miller, William; College, Southwestern

311

The correct "ball bearings" data.  

PubMed

The famous data on fatigue failure times of ball bearings have been quoted incorrectly from Lieblein and Zelen's original paper. The correct data include censored values, as well as non-fatigue failures that must be handled appropriately. They could be described by a mixture of Weibull distributions, corresponding to different modes of failure. PMID:12471947

Caroni, C

2002-12-01

312

Flywheel Challenge: HTS Magnetic Bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 200 mm cylindrical engineering prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) was designed and fabricated. Measurements show that the 17 kg PM rotor can suspend safely 1000 kg in axial direction and 470 kg radially. The rationale for the bearing performance is to stabilize a 400 kg rotor of a new compact 5 kWh\\/280 kW flywheel energy storage system (COM -

F N Werfel; U Floegel-Delor; T Riedel; R Rothfeld; D Wippich; B Goebel

2006-01-01

313

Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared

F N Werfel; U Floegel-Delor; R Rothfeld; T Riedel; B Goebel; D Wippich; P Schirrmeister

2012-01-01

314

Losses of Superconductor Journal Bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-temperature superconductor (HTS) journal bearing was studied for rotational loss. Two HTS bearings support the rotor at top and bottom. The rotor weight is 4 kg and the length is about 300 mm. Both the top and bottom bearings have two permanent magnet (PM) rings with an iron pole piece separating them. Each HTS journal bearing is composed of six pieces of superconductor blocks of size 35×25×10 mm. The HTS blocks are encased in a cryochamber through which liquid nitrogen flows. The inner spool of the cryochamber is made from G-10 to reduce eddy current loss, and the rest of the cryochamber is stainless steel. The magnetic field from the PM rings is < 10 mT on the stainless part. The rotational drag was measured over the same speed range at several chamber pressures. Results indicate that a chamber pressure of 0.4 mtorr is sufficiently low to minimize windage loss, and the 10 mT design criterion for the magnetic field on the stainless part of the cryochamber is too high.

Han, Y. H.; Hull, J. R.; Han, S. C.; Jeong, N. H.; Oh, J. M.; Sung, T. H.

2004-06-01

315

Bifunctional Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase: Mechanism and Proof-of-Concept as a Novel Therapeutic Design Strategy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) is a major target for currently approved anti-HIV drugs. These drugs are divided into two classes: nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs). This study illustrates the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of a novel bifunctional RT inhibitor utilizing d4T (NRTI) and a TMC-derivative (a diarylpyrimidine NNRTI) linked via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker. HIV-1 RT successfully incorporates the triphosphate of d4T-4PEG-TMC bifunctional inhibitor in a base-specific manner. Moreover, this inhibitor demonstrates low nanomolar potency that has 4.3-fold and 4300-fold enhancement of polymerization inhibition in vitro relative to the parent TMC-derivative and d4T, respectively. This study serves as a proof-of-concept for the development and optimization of bifunctional RT inhibitors as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 viral replication. PMID:23659183

Bailey, Christopher M.; Sullivan, Todd J.; Iyidogan, Pinar; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Chung, Raymond; Ruiz-Caro, Juliana; Mohamed, Ebrahim; Jorgensen, William; Hunter, Roger; Anderson, Karen S.

2013-01-01

316

Short-bearing approximation for full journal bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A short-bearing approximation of pressure distribution in the oil film is presented which is an extension of the pressure-distribution function of Michell and Cardullo and includes end-leakage effects. Equations giving applied load, attitude angle, location and magnitude of peak film pressure, friction, and required oil flow rate as functions of the eccentricity ratio are also given. The capacity number, a basic non dimensional quantity resulting from this analysis is the product of the Sommerfeld number and the square of the length-diameter ratio. Curves determined by this analysis are compared with previously published experimental data and theoretical curves of Sommerfeld and Cameron and Wood. Conclusions reached indicate that this approximation is of practical value for analysis of short bearings.

Ocvirk, F W

1952-01-01

317

The Use of Glass Substrates with Bi-Functional Silanes for Designing Micropatterned Cell-Secreted Cytokine Immunoassays  

PubMed Central

It is often desirable to sequester cells in specific locations on the surface and to integrate sensing elements next to the cells. In the present study, surfaces were fabricated so as to position cytokine sensing domains inside non-fouling poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microwells. Our aim was to increase sensitivity of micropatterned cytokine immunoassays through covalent attachment of biorecognition molecules. To achieve this, glass substrates were functionalized with a binary mixture of acrylate- and thiol-terminated methoxysilanes. During subsequent hydrogel photopatterning step acrylate moieties served to anchor hydrogel microwells to glass substrates. Importantly, glass attachment sites within the microwells contained thiol groups that could be activated with a hetero-bifunctional cross-linker for covalent immobilization of proteins. After incubation with fluorescently-labeled avidin, microwells fabricated on a mixed acryl/thiol silane layer emitted ~6 times more fluorescence compared to microwells fabricated on an acryl silane alone. This result highlighted the advantages of covalent attachment of avidin inside the microwells. To create cytokine immunoassays, micropatterned surfaces were incubated with biotinylated IFN-? or TNF-? antibodies (Abs). Micropatterned immunoassays prepared in this manner were sensitive down to 1 ng/ml or 60 pM IFN-?. To further prove utility of this bionterface design, macrophages were seeded into 30 µm diameter microwells fabricated on either bi-functional (acryl/thiol) or monofunctional silane layers. Both types of microwells were coated with avidin and biotin-anti-TNF-? prior to cell seeding. Short mitogenic activation followed by immunostaining for TNF-? revealed that microwells created on bi-functional silane layer had 3 times higher signal due to macrophage-secreted TNF-? compared to microwells fabricated on mono-functional silane. The rational design of cytokine-sensing surfaces described here will be leveraged in the future for rapid detection of multiple cytokines secreted by individual immune cells. PMID:21550110

Seo, Jeong Hyun; Chen, Li-Jung; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Schweikert, Emile A.; Revzin, Alexander

2011-01-01

318

Radiochemical studies of 99mTc complexes of modified cysteine ligands and bifunctional chelating agents.  

PubMed

The synthesis of four novel ligands using the amino-acid cysteine and its ethyl carboxylate derivative is described. The synthetic method involves a two-step procedure, wherein the intermediate Schiff base formed by the condensation of the amino group of the cysteine substrate and salicylaldehyde is reduced to give the target ligands. The intermediates and the final products were characterized by high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Complexation studies of the ligands with 99mTc were optimized using stannous tartrate as the reducing agent under varying reaction conditions. The complexes were characterized using standard quality control techniques such as thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, and paper chromatography. Lipophilicities of the complexes were estimated by solvent extraction into chloroform. Substantial changes in net charge and lipophilicity of the 99mTc complexes were observed on substituting the carboxylic acid functionality in ligands I and II with the ethyl carboxylate groups (ligands II and IV). All the ligands formed 99mTc complexes in high yield. Whereas the complexes with ligands I and II were observed to be hydrophilic in nature and not extractable into CHCl3, ligands III and IV resulted in neutral and lipophilic 99mTc complexes. The 99mTc complex with ligand II was not stable and on storage formed a hydrophilic and nonextractable species. The biodistribution of the complexes of ligands I and II showed that they cleared predominantly through the kidneys, whereas the complexes with ligands III and IV were excreted primarily through the hepatobiliary system. No significant brain uptake was observed with the 99mTc complexes with ligands III and IV despite their favorable properties of neutrality, lipophilicity, and conversion into a hydrophilic species. These ligands offer potential for use as bifunctional chelating agents. PMID:10473195

Pillai, M R; Kothari, K; Banerjee, S; Samuel, G; Suresh, M; Sarma, H D; Jurisson, S

1999-07-01

319

The bifunctional role of Ag nanoparticles on bacteria--a MALDI-MS perspective.  

PubMed

MALDI-MS is now replacing the conventional cumbersome bacterial identification techniques with its high efficiency, reliability and rapidity. One of the methodologies facilitating increased detection sensitivity of bacterial cells by MALDI-MS is through the use of nanoparticle (NP) based affinity probes. The present paper brings out the bifunctional property of Ag NPs in acting as affinity probes at ideal concentrations and bactericidal at higher concentrations. These interactions have been explained on the basis of the studies conducted with two model bacterial systems, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens. This work highlights the importance of NP concentration when used for affinity capture of bacteria. The results of the paper indicate a critical concentration specific to every bacteria and hence the need to identify the critical concentration of affinity probes (CCAP) for a specific NP with respect to individual bacterial species before considering its use as affinity probe for bacterial studies. The CCAP for Ag NPs was identified in the present study to be 1 mL L(-1) in the case of E. coli and was 0.5 mL L(-1) for S. marcescens. So far, MALDI-MS results were categorized as qualitative only; in this paper we have used a methodology for converting the mass data to yield quantitative results. The MYSTAT software based Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests proved that these threshold values (CCAP) were statistically significant. Above these concentrations Ag NPs were found to show pronounced bactericidal activity rather than affinity probe properties. The following study also demonstrates a modified protocol in that the NPs were incubated with the bacterial cultures at low concentrations, instead of the usual method of adding NPs at high concentrations to well grown bacterial cultures. A possible mechanism for the mode of action of NPs in enhancing bacterial detection sensitivity in the MALDI-MS is also proposed in this paper. PMID:22005882

Gopal, Judy; Wu, Hui-Fen; Lee, Chia-Hsun

2011-12-01

320

Liposomal Cu-64 labeling method using bifunctional chelators: poly(ethylene glycol) spacer and chelator effects.  

PubMed

Two bifunctional Cu-64 chelators (BFCs), (6-(6-(3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionamido)hexanamido)benzyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,4,8,11-tetraacetic acid (TETA-PDP) and 4-(2-(2-pyridyldithioethyl)ethanamido)-11-carboxymethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo(6.6.2)hexadecane (CB-TE2A-PDEA), were synthesized and conjugated to long-circulating liposomes (LCLs) via attachment to a maleimide lipid. An in vitro stability assay of (64)Cu-TETA, (64)Cu-TETA-PEG2k, and (64)Cu-CB-TE2A-PEG2k liposomes showed that more than 86% of the radioactivity remains associated with the liposomal fraction after 48 h of incubation with mouse serum. The in vivo time activity curves (TAC) for the three liposomal formulations showed that approximately 50% of the radioactivity cleared from the blood pool in 16-18 h. As expected, the in vivo biodistribution and TAC data obtained at 48 h demonstrate that the clearance of radioactivity from the liver slows with the incorporation of a poly(ethylene glycol)-2k (PEG2k) brush. Our data suggest that (64)Cu-TETA and (64)Cu-CB-TE2A are similarly stable in the blood pool and accumulation of radioactivity in the liver and spleen is not related to the stability of Cu-64 chelator complex; however, clearance of Cu-64 from the liver and spleen are faster when injected as (64)Cu-TETA-chelated liposomes rather than (64)Cu-CB-TE2A-chelated liposomes. PMID:20568726

Seo, Jai Woong; Mahakian, Lisa M; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Zhang, Hua; Meares, Claude F; Ferdani, Riccardo; Anderson, Carolyn J; Ferrara, Katherine W

2010-07-21

321

Function and localization dynamics of bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins in Caulobacter crescentus.  

PubMed

The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is a complex macromolecule composed of glycan strands that are cross-linked by short peptide bridges. Its biosynthesis involves a conserved group of enzymes, the bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins (bPBPs), which contain both a transglycosylase and a transpeptidase domain, thus being able to elongate the glycan strands and, at the same time, generate the peptide cross-links. The stalked model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus possesses five bPBP paralogs, named Pbp1A, PbpC, PbpX, PbpY, and PbpZ, whose function is still incompletely understood. In this study, we show that any of these proteins except for PbpZ is sufficient for growth and normal morphogenesis when expressed at native or elevated levels, whereas inactivation of all five paralogs is lethal. Growth analyses indicate a central role of PbpX in the resistance of C. crescentus against the noncanonical amino acid d-alanine. Moreover, we show that PbpX and PbpY localize to the cell division site. Their recruitment to the divisome is dependent on the essential cell division protein FtsN and likely involves interactions with FtsL and the putative peptidoglycan hydrolase DipM. The same interaction pattern is observed for Pbp1A and PbpC, although these proteins do not accumulate at midcell. Our findings demonstrate that the bPBPs of C. crescentus are, to a large extent, redundant and have retained the ability to interact with the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machineries responsible for cell elongation, cytokinesis, and stalk growth. Nevertheless, they may preferentially act in specific peptidoglycan biosynthetic complexes, thereby facilitating the independent regulation of distinct growth processes. PMID:24532768

Strobel, Wolfgang; Möll, Andrea; Kiekebusch, Daniela; Klein, Kathrin E; Thanbichler, Martin

2014-04-01

322

Function and Localization Dynamics of Bifunctional Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Caulobacter crescentus  

PubMed Central

The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is a complex macromolecule composed of glycan strands that are cross-linked by short peptide bridges. Its biosynthesis involves a conserved group of enzymes, the bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins (bPBPs), which contain both a transglycosylase and a transpeptidase domain, thus being able to elongate the glycan strands and, at the same time, generate the peptide cross-links. The stalked model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus possesses five bPBP paralogs, named Pbp1A, PbpC, PbpX, PbpY, and PbpZ, whose function is still incompletely understood. In this study, we show that any of these proteins except for PbpZ is sufficient for growth and normal morphogenesis when expressed at native or elevated levels, whereas inactivation of all five paralogs is lethal. Growth analyses indicate a central role of PbpX in the resistance of C. crescentus against the noncanonical amino acid d-alanine. Moreover, we show that PbpX and PbpY localize to the cell division site. Their recruitment to the divisome is dependent on the essential cell division protein FtsN and likely involves interactions with FtsL and the putative peptidoglycan hydrolase DipM. The same interaction pattern is observed for Pbp1A and PbpC, although these proteins do not accumulate at midcell. Our findings demonstrate that the bPBPs of C. crescentus are, to a large extent, redundant and have retained the ability to interact with the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machineries responsible for cell elongation, cytokinesis, and stalk growth. Nevertheless, they may preferentially act in specific peptidoglycan biosynthetic complexes, thereby facilitating the independent regulation of distinct growth processes. PMID:24532768

Strobel, Wolfgang; Moll, Andrea; Kiekebusch, Daniela; Klein, Kathrin E.

2014-01-01

323

A bifunctional protein from Pseudomonas denitrificans carries cobinamide kinase and cobinamide phosphate guanylyltransferase activities.  

PubMed Central

The two consecutive activities of the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway that catalyze the conversion of cobinamide to cobinamide phosphate (cobinamide kinase) and of cobinamide phosphate to GDP-cobinamide (cobinamide phosphate guanylytransferase) were shown to be carried by the same protein in Pseudomonas denitrificans. This bifunctional protein was purified to homogeneity by high-performance liquid chromatography of extracts of a recombinant strain of this microorganism, and the sequence of the first 10 amino acid residues at the N terminus was determined. Both activities were specific to the coenzyme forms of the corrinoid substrates and exhibited an optimum pH at 8.8. Both ATP and GTP were shown to be in vitro gamma-phosphate donors for cobinamide kinase. However, competition experiments demonstrated that ATP was the preferred substrate, a result that can be explained in terms of the kinetic properties of the enzyme. Labeling experiments established that the phosphate group of cobinamide phosphate is quantitatively retained as the inner phosphate of GDP-cobinamide during the guanylyltransferase reaction. The native protein had an apparent molecular weight of 40,000, as estimated by gel filtration, and consisted of two identical subunits of Mr 20,000, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This protein had an isoelectric point of 5.35 and contained a high-affinity GTP-binding site (Kaff.(GTP) = 0.22 microM). Binding of GTP onto this site resulted in a marked increase of the affinity of cobinamide kinase for cobinamide. This property and other kinetic properties may regulate the enzyme and prevent the accumulation of cobinamide phosphate. Images PMID:1655696

Blanche, F; Debussche, L; Famechon, A; Thibaut, D; Cameron, B; Crouzet, J

1991-01-01

324

Domain Organization in Candida glabrata THI6, a Bifunctional Enzyme Required for Thiamin Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes  

SciTech Connect

THI6 is a bifunctional enzyme found in the thiamin biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of THI6 catalyzes the ligation of the thiamin thiazole and pyrimidine moieties to form thiamin phosphate, and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the phosphorylation of 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole in a salvage pathway. In prokaryotes, thiamin phosphate synthase and 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase are separate gene products. Here we report the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic THI6 along with several complexes that characterize the active sites responsible for the two chemical reactions. THI6 from Candida glabrata is a homohexamer in which the six protomers form a cage-like structure. Each protomer is composed of two domains, which are structurally homologous to their monofunctional bacterial counterparts. Two loop regions not found in the bacterial enzymes provide interactions between the two domains. The structures of different protein-ligand complexes define the thiazole and ATP binding sites of the 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase domain and the thiazole phosphate and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine pyrophosphate binding sites of the thiamin phosphate synthase domain. Our structural studies reveal that the active sites of the two domains are 40 {angstrom} apart and are not connected by an obvious channel. Biochemical studies show 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate is a substrate for THI6; however, adenosine diphospho-5{beta}-ethyl-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid, the product of THI4, is not a substrate for THI6. This suggests that an unidentified enzyme is necessary to produce the substrate for THI6 from the THI4 product.

Paul, Debamita; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (TAM)

2010-11-15

325

Enhanced Affinity Bifunctional Bisphosphonates for Targeted Delivery of Therapeutic Agents to Bone  

PubMed Central

Skeletal diseases have a major impact on the worldwide population and economy. Although several therapeutic agents and treatments are available for addressing bone diseases, they are not being fully utilized because of their uptake in non-targeted sites and related side effects. Active targeting with controlled delivery is an ideal approach for treatment of such diseases. Because bisphosphonates are known to have high affinity to bone and are being widely used in treatment of osteoporosis, they are well-suited for drug targeting to bone. In this study, a targeted delivery of therapeutic agent to resorption sites and wound healing sites of bone was explored. Towards this goal, bifunctional hydrazine-bisphosphonates (HBPs), with spacers of various lengths, were synthesized and studied for their enhanced affinity to bone. Crystal growth inhibition studies showed that these HBPs have high affinity to hydroxyapatite, and HBPs with shorter spacers bind stronger than alendronate to hydroxyapatite. The HBPs did not affect proliferation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, did not induce apoptosis, and were not cytotoxic at the concentration range tested (10?6 - 10?4 M). Furthermore, drugs can be linked to the HBPs through a hydrazone linkage that is cleavable at the low pH of bone resorption and wound healing sites, leading to release of the drug. This was demonstrated using hydroxyapatite as a model material of bone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde as a model drug. This study suggests that these HBPs could be used for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to bone. PMID:22073906

Yewle, Jivan N.; Puleo, David A.; Bachas, Leonidas G.

2011-01-01

326

Conformationally Trapping the Actin-binding Cleft of Myosin with a Bifunctional Spin Label*  

PubMed Central

We have trapped the catalytic domain of Dictyostelium (Dicty) myosin II in a weak actin-binding conformation by chemically crosslinking two engineered cysteines across the actin-binding cleft, using a bifunctional spin label (BSL). By connecting the lower and upper 50 kDa domains of myosin, the crosslink restricts the conformation of the actin-binding cleft. Crosslinking has no effect on the basal ATPase activity of isolated myosin, but it impairs rigor actin binding and actin-activation of myosin ATPase. EPR spectra of BSL provide insight into actomyosin structural dynamics. BSL is highly immobilized within the actin-binding cleft and is thus exquisitely sensitive to the global orientation and rotational motions of the myosin head. Conventional EPR shows that myosin heads bound to oriented actin filaments are highly disordered with respect to the actin filament axis, in contrast to the nearly crystalline order of myosin heads in rigor. This disorder is similar to that of weakly bound heads induced by ATP, but saturation transfer EPR shows that the disorder of crosslinked myosin is at least 100 times slower. Thus this cleft-crosslinked myosin is remarkably similar, in both actin affinity and rotational dynamics, to SH1-SH2 crosslinked BSL-myosin S1. We conclude that, whether myosin is trapped at the actin-myosin interface or in the force-generating region between the active site and lever arm, the structural state of myosin is intermediate between the weak-binding state preceding phosphate release and the strong-binding state that succeeds it. We propose that it represents the threshold of force generation. PMID:23250750

Moen, Rebecca J.; Thomas, David D.; Klein, Jennifer C.

2013-01-01

327

High Temperature, Permanent Magnet Biased Magnetic Bearings  

E-print Network

The Electron Energy Corporation (EEC) along with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is researching magnetic bearings. The purpose of this research was to design and develop a high-temperature (1000?F) magnetic bearing system...

Gandhi, Varun R.

2010-07-14

328

Detecting Wear In Ball Bearings During Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strain-gauge signals at harmonics of ball-bearing-cage frequencies signify wear. Brief report describes experiments in continuing effort to interpret vibrations of machinery in terms of wear in ball bearing.

Hine, Michael J.

1988-01-01

329

Design of a low cost hydrostatic bearing  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the design and manufacturing method for a new surface self compensating hydrostatic bearing. A lumped resistance model was used to analyze the performance of the bearing and provide guidance on laying ...

Wong, Anthony Raymond

2012-01-01

330

Self-bearing motor design & control  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the design, implementation and control of a new class of self-bearing motors. The primary thesis contributions include the design and experimental demonstration of hysteresis self-bearing motors, novel ...

Imani Nejad, Mohammad

2013-01-01

331

Hunting for 'bears' in the backyard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Micscape Magazine article offers practical hints about how to collect and study tardigrades, or water bears, from mosses in your backyard. It features a general introduction of water bears, a video, and a section of references for further reading.

Walker, Dave; Magazine, Micscape

332

Rubber bearings for precision positioning systems  

E-print Network

In this thesis we investigate the use of thin rubber sheets or laminates of metal and rubber sheets as bearings in precision positioning systems. Such bearings have the potential to replace more conventional flexures ...

Barton Martinelli, Augusto E

2005-01-01

333

49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the extent that it will leak...

2010-10-01

334

Happy Birthday Smokey Bear from Joe Acaba  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba wishes Smokey Bear a Happy Birthday. For 68 years Smokey Bear has been promoting fire safety and prevention through the message, â??Only You Can Prevent Wild...

335

Delivery of bifunctional RNAs that target an intronic repressor and increase SMN levels in an animal model of spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by the loss of survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1). A nearly identical copy gene, SMN2, is present in all SMA patients, which produces low levels of functional protein. Although the SMN2 coding sequence has the potential to produce normal, full-length SMN, ?90% of SMN2-derived transcripts are alternatively spliced and encode a truncated protein lacking the final coding exon (exon 7). SMN2, however, is an excellent therapeutic target. Previously, we developed bifunctional RNAs that bound SMN exon 7 and modulated SMN2 splicing. To optimize the efficiency of the bifunctional RNAs, a different antisense target was required. To this end, we genetically verified the identity of a putative intronic repressor and developed bifunctional RNAs that target this sequence. Consequently, there is a 2-fold mechanism of SMN induction: inhibition of the intronic repressor and recruitment of SR proteins via the SR recruitment sequence of the bifunctional RNA. The bifunctional RNAs effectively increased SMN in human primary SMA fibroblasts. Lead candidates were synthesized as 2?-O-methyl RNAs and were directly injected in the central nervous system of SMA mice. Single-RNA injections were able to illicit a robust induction of SMN protein in the brain and throughout the spinal column of neonatal SMA mice. In a severe model of SMA, mean life span was extended following the delivery of bifunctional RNAs. This technology has direct implications for the development of an SMA therapy, but also lends itself to a multitude of diseases caused by aberrant pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:19228773

Baughan, Travis D.; Dickson, Alexa; Osman, Erkan Y.; Lorson, Christian L.

2009-01-01

336

Effects of bearing deadbands on bearing loads and rotor stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generic model of a turbopump, simplified to bring out these effects is examined. This model demonstrates that bearing deadbands which are of the same order of magnitude or larger than the center-of-mass offset of a rotor due to mass imbalances cause significantly different dynamic behavior than would be expected of a linear, dynamical system. This fundamentally nonlinear behavior yields altered stability characteristics and altered bearing loading tendencies. It is shown that side forces can enhance system stability in the small, i.e., as long as the mass imbalance does not exceed some thresholds value or as long as no large, impulsive disturbances cause the motion to depart significantly from the region of stability. Limit cycles are investigated in this report and techniques for determining these limit cycles are developed. These limit cycles are the major source of bearing loading and appear in both synchronous and nonsynchronous forms. The synchronous limit cycles are driven by rotor imbalances. The nonsynchronous limit cycles (also called subsynchronous whirls) are self-excited and are the sources of instability.

1984-01-01

337

Bi-functional photonic structure in the Papilio nireus (Papilionidae): modeling by scattering-matrix optical simulations.  

PubMed

Scales of the Papilio nireus combine fluorophores confined in a natural photonic structure. By means of numerical simulations based on the scattering-matrix formalism, we reveal the bi-functional optical role of this peculiar architecture. Two aspects are considered: the absorption of an incident light flux and the emission of another luminous flux. First, results highlight a light trapping effect and a light absorption increase in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared ranges. Then, results highlight an enhanced fluorescence occurring in the spatial as well as in the frequency domain. This observation could be of great interest to design new optical devices. PMID:23037350

Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Vandenbem, Cédric; Berthier, Serge; Vigneron, Jean Pol

2012-09-24

338

Doped lanthanum nickelates with a layered perovskite structure as bifunctional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries.  

PubMed

Rechargeable metal-air batteries have attracted a great interest in recent years because of their high energy density. The critical challenges facing these technologies include the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction-evolution reactions on a cathode (air electrode). Here, we report doped lanthanum nickelates (La2NiO4) with a layered perovskite structure that serve as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte. Rechargeable lithium-air and zinc-air batteries assembled with these catalysts exhibit remarkably reduced discharge-charge voltage gaps (improved round-trip efficiency) as well as high stability during cycling. PMID:24053465

Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jung, Jong-Hyuk; Im, Won Bin; Yoon, Sukeun; Shin, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Won

2013-10-23

339

A bifunctional non-natural tetrapeptide modulates amyloid-beta peptide aggregation in the presence of Cu(ii).  

PubMed

Amyloid-beta peptide (A?) aggregation is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and metal ions such as Cu(ii) have been proposed to play a role in amyloid formation and the onset of this progressive neurodegenerative disorder. This study reports the design and characterization of a novel bifunctional non-natural tetrapeptide, Met-Asp-d-Trp-Aib, that is capable of binding copper, competing with A? for Cu(ii), and modulating A? aggregation. The study of this tetrapeptide provides further insights into the role of Cu(ii) in the A? aggregation pathway, and into the design of compounds with therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25350343

Márquez, Maripaz; Blancas-Mejía, Luis M; Campos, Adriana; Rojas, Luis; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Quintanar, Liliana

2014-12-20

340

Bears and Pipeline Construction in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious problems were encountered with bears during construction of the 1274-km-long trans-Alaska oil pipelinebetween Prudhoe Bay and Valdez. This multi-billion-dollar project traversed both black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) and grizzly bear (U. arctos L.) habitat throughout its entire length. Plans for dealing with anticipated problems with bears were often inadequate. Most (71 %) problems occurred north of the Yukon River

ERICH H. FOLLMANN; JOHN L. HECHTEL

341

Bearing fault diagnosis based on rough set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bearing defects were categorized as localized and distributed. For on-line bearing fault diagnosis, in this paper, the time-domain kurtosis calculation and the frequency domain wavelet analysis were used to extract the transitory features of non-stationary vibration signal produced by the bearing distributed defects. To distributed defects, bearing fault diagnosis was built on the reducing decision based on rough set. According

Chen Xin; Yuhua Chen; Guofeng Wang; Hu Dong

2010-01-01

342

Cartridge Bearing System for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional spin axis ball bearings have been unreliable in spacecraft, often failing by two heretofore uncontrolled processes: ball retainer instability and lubricant breakdown. The Space Cartridge Bearing System (SCBS) addresses each of these mechanisms directly, leading to a bearing system with absolute freedom from retainer instability and negligible lubricant degradation rate. The result is a reliable plug-in bearing cartridge with a definite design life.

Kingsbury, Edward P.; Hanson, Robert A.; Jones, William R.; Mohr, Terry W.

1999-01-01

343

Hydrology of the Bear Lake Basin, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bear Lake’s natural watershed is made up of relatively low mountains covered with sagebrush at lower elevations and southern exposures and fir-aspen forests at higher elevations and northern exposures. The basin is traversed by the Bear River that begins high in the Unita Mountains and flows through Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming before feeding the Great Salt Lake. The Bear River

Patsy Palacios; Chris Luecke; Justin Robinson

2007-01-01

344

Hydrodynamic squeeze-film bearings for gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental tests are conducted on squeeze-film bearings by applying electricity to piezoelectric ceramics, causing vibrations at thousands or millions of Hz that are amplified and transmitted to the bearing. Rotor operation through 24,000 rpm without whirl instability proved bearing ability to support rotor weight without hydrodynamic action.

Chiang, T.; Smith, R. L.

1970-01-01

345

Optimum energy loss in electro magnetic bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper includes weight optimization method of rotor and analysis of total power loss in radial magnetic bearing consisting of four, eight and twelve poles. Weight optimization reduces copper loss in bearing since the electromagnetic force is reduced due to optimized rotor. Further numbers of poles in magnetic bearing are varied for same electromagnetic force 350 N and stator is

Santosh Shelke; R. V. Chalam

2011-01-01

346

49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Suspension System § 229.69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not...than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in contact unless designed to...

2010-10-01

347

49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Suspension System § 229.69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not...than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in contact unless designed to...

2012-10-01

348

FOSTERING BLACK BEAR CUBS IN THE WILD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three black bear (Ursus americanus) cubs were abandoned, at approximately 2 weeks of age, on 4 February 1976, in New York State's Catskill region. The dens of 4 radio-telemetered adult female bears were located by the Department of Environmental Conservation during research on the black bear population in the Catskills. Two of the abandoned cubs were placed in the only

STEPHEN H. CLARKE; CHARLES HACKFORD

349

The Dynamic Behaviour of Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cooperation with SKF, a research project was started on the dynamics of ball bearings. The research is motivated by the demand for silent bearings in noise sensitive applications, especially in the household appliance and automotive industry. The investigations should bring a clear understanding about the role of the bearing in the application with respect to the design, the quality

J. A. Wensing

1998-01-01

350

A Spherical Gas Bearing for Airborne Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spherical gas bearing is analyzed and tested for an airborne application. The externally pressurized bearing supports an inertially stabilized 36-in aperture, infrared telescope. The bearing provides the isolation of rotary motion from the aircraft and also serves as a seal between the aircraft cabin and cavity condition at 50, 000 ft altitude. The accompanying temperature gradient of 135 F

Anton Bouvier; John C. Schmertz

1975-01-01

351

Steels For Rolling-Element Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bearing lives increased by attention to details of processing and applications. NASA technical memorandum discusses selection of steels for long-life rolling-element bearings. After brief review of advances in manufacturing, report discusses effect of cleanliness of bearing material on fatigue in rolling element. Also discusses fracture toughnesses of through-hardened and case-hardened materials.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1988-01-01

352

DAMAGE MECHANICS APPROACH FOR BEARING LIFETIME PROGNOSTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to achieve accurate bearing prognostics is critical to the optimal maintenance of rotating machinery in the interest of cost and productivity. However, techniques to real time predict the lifetime of a bearing under practical operating conditions have not been well developed. In this paper, a stiffness-based prognostic model for bearing systems based on vibration response analysis and damage

Jing Qiu; Brij B. Seth; STEVEN Y. LIANG; Cheng Zhang

2002-01-01

353

Encapsulated HTS bearings: technical and cost considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal encapsulation of HTS is one way to fabricate high-efficient HTS magnetic bearings for flywheels, motors and generators. We have been designed, manufactured and tested 200 mm axial and radial bearings for loads close to 300 kg. The maximum load to bearing weight is in the 10 to 1 ratio. At 77 K, a vacuum cryostat around the HTS reduces

F. N. Werfel; U. Floegel-Delor; T. Riedel; R. Rothfeld; D. Wippich; B. Goebel

2005-01-01

354

Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

1995-01-01

355

Surface Roughness Evolution of Ball Bearing Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate knowledge of the expected life is essential to the proper selection of ball bearings. Bearings principally fail owing to fatigue if they are properly lubricated, mounted and sealed against the entrance of dirt. Fatigue life is strongly correlated to the surface roughness. Experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of different ball bearings materials on the surface roughness,

O. Goepfert; J. Ampuero; P. Pahud; H. J. Boving

2000-01-01

356

A Laser Surface Textured Parallel Thrust Bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of a new technology of laser surface texturing (LST) in parallel thrust bearings is theoretically investigated. The surface texture has the form of micro-dimples with pre-selected diameter, depth, and area density. It can be applied to only a portion of the bearing area (partial LST) or the full bearing area (full LST). Optimum parameters of the dimples,

V. Brizmer; Y. Kligerman; I. Etsion

2003-01-01

357

Lightweight, high speed bearing balls: A concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low mass bearing balls with hardened iron-plated surfaces can eliminate problems of low fatigue strength and flexure fatigue, and lead to increased life and reliability of high speed ball bearings. Low mass balls exert lower centrifugal forces on outer race of bearing thus eliminating detrimental effect of high speed operation.

Parker, R. J.

1974-01-01

358

Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings  

DOEpatents

A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

1995-12-26

359

PANEL 5: BEARS AND HUMAN BEINGS Bears and Man in Glacier National Park,  

E-print Network

is an increas- ingly valuable ecological resource that continues to be a stronghold of the grizzly bearPANEL 5: BEARS AND HUMAN BEINGS Bears and Man in Glacier National Park, British Columbia, 1880 can only be achieved if the bear/man relationship pertaining there is fully under- stood. Thirdly

Smith, Dan

360

Fault Tolerant Homopolar Magnetic Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic suspensions (MS) satisfy the long life and low loss conditions demanded by satellite and ISS based flywheels used for Energy Storage and Attitude Control (ACESE) service. This paper summarizes the development of a novel MS that improves reliability via fault tolerant operation. Specifically, flux coupling between poles of a homopolar magnetic bearing is shown to deliver desired forces even after termination of coil currents to a subset of failed poles . Linear, coordinate decoupled force-voltage relations are also maintained before and after failure by bias linearization. Current distribution matrices (CDM) which adjust the currents and fluxes following a pole set failure are determined for many faulted pole combinations. The CDM s and the system responses are obtained utilizing 1D magnetic circuit models with fringe and leakage factors derived from detailed, 3D, finite element field models. Reliability results are presented vs. detection/correction delay time and individual power amplifier reliability for 4, 6, and 7 pole configurations. Reliability is shown for two success criteria, i.e. (a) no catcher bearing contact following pole failures and (b) re-levitation off of the catcher bearings following pole failures. An advantage of the method presented over other redundant operation approaches is a significantly reduced requirement for backup hardware such as additional actuators or power amplifiers.

Li, Ming-Hsiu; Palazzolo, Alan; Kenny, Andrew; Provenza, Andrew; Beach, Raymond; Kascak, Albert

2003-01-01

361

Skeletal manifestations of bear scavenging.  

PubMed

In many partially or fully skeletonized forensic cases, postmortem animal damage is simply attributed to rodents or carnivores; little effort is made to determine the general size or assign a genus to the scavenger. As one of the largest wild carnivores to inhabit mountainous and forested areas throughout the continental United States, Alaska, and Canada, black bears (Ursus americanus) must be considered possible suspects when skeletonized remains are located showing marks of carnivore damage. Since 1995, three cases of known bear scavenging have been referred to the Maxwell Museum's Laboratory of Human Osteology by the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator for skeletal analysis. These cases comprise a total of seven individuals, and all of the remains were deposited in high altitude forests of New Mexico along the western border with Arizona with a minimum of 4 months exposure before recovery. When analyzed, all cases shared a similar pattern of element survivorship and damage. We suggest that bears can be distinguished from members of the canid family, the other common scavenger of human remains, based on the representation of skeletal elements at the scene. Rates and patterns of damage are not as accurate as element recovery in the discrimination of scavenger genus. Use of this information should allow forensic anthropologists to better understand the postmortem taphonomic processes that shaped the skeletal remains, and hopefully prevent misdiagnoses of perimortem trauma on elements not typically scavenged by canids. PMID:10855954

Carson, E A; Stefan, V H; Powell, J F

2000-05-01

362

Polar Bears International : Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

2007-12-12

363

Polar Bears International: Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

364

Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts And Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SHABERTH computer program developed to predict steady-state and transient thermal performance of multi-bearing shaft system operating with either wet or dry friction. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives for ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Enables study of many causes of instabilities in bearings. Also provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable software tool in design and analysis of shaft bearing systems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

Woods, Claudia M.

1992-01-01

365

Equations For Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Of Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equation for thickness of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubricant film in rolling-element bearing reduced to simplified form involving only inside and outside diameters of bearing, speed of rotation, parameter related to type of lubricant, and viscosity of lubricant at temperature of bearing. In addition, experimentally derived graph of EHD-film-thickness-reduction factor as function of contact-lubricant-flow number. Accounts for lubricant starvation within Hertzian contact. Graph relating ratio of minimum film thickness to composite roughness of bearing surfaces and to lubrication-life correction factor also provided. Life-correction factor used to determine resultant life of bearing.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1993-01-01

366

Bearing/Bypass Material-Testing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System developed to test specimens in compression as well as tension while maintaining constant bearing/bypass ration. Test specimen with centrally located hole is clamped between two bearing-guide plates using one bolt. Bearing-guide plates then secured to two bearing-load cells. Test specimen independently loaded at both ends, using two separate control systems identified as applied and bypass. If two end loads unequal, difference between them reacted as bolt-bearing load on specimen. Throughout test, two control systems synchronized by common input signal (increasing voltage). As result, loads remain proportional as they increase.

Crews, John H., Jr.

1988-01-01

367

Analytical and experimental investigations of hybrid air foil bearings  

E-print Network

Air foil bearings offer several advantages over oil-lubricated bearings in high speed micro-turbomachinery. With no contact between the rotor and bearings, the air foil bearings have higher service life and consequently lesser standstills between...

Kumar, Manish

2009-05-15

368

Bifunctional polyethersulfone hollow fiber with a porous, single-layer skin for use as a bioartificial liver bioreactor.  

PubMed

A bioartificial liver bioreactor requires a bifunctional hollow fiber that is hemocompatible on one side and cytocompatible on the other side. In this study, we developed a single-layer skin polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber with smooth inner surface and rough/porous outer surface for an artificial liver bioreactor. The hemocompatibility of the inner surface was evaluated by hemolysis, complement activation and clotting time. The cytocompatibility of the outer surface with HepG2 cells was examined by morphology, proliferation and liver-specific functions. The inner surface of the PES hollow fiber exhibited lower hemolysis and complement activation than cellulose acetate (CA) hollow fiber and a prolonged blood coagulation time. HepG2 cells readily adhered to the outer surfaces of the PES hollow fibers, and proliferated to form multicellular aggregates with time. Furthermore, HepG2 cells cultured on the outer surface of the PES hollow fiber exhibited higher proliferation ability and liver-specific functions than those grown on the CA hollow fiber. These results suggest that the single-layer skin PES hollow fiber is a bifunctional hollow fiber with good hemocompatibility on the inner side and cytocompatibility on the outer side. Thus, porous and single-layer skin PES hollow fibers may have potential as materials for an artificial liver bioreactor. PMID:22584823

Zhang, Shichang; Liu, Tao; Chen, Li; Ren, Mingliang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhengguo; Wang, Yingjie

2012-08-01

369

NiCo2S4@graphene as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions.  

PubMed

Here, the hybrid of NiCo2S4 nanoparticles grown on graphene in situ is first described as an effective bifunctional nonprecious electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the alkaline medium. NiCo2S4@N/S-rGO was synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal strategy using Co(OAc)2, Ni(OAc)2, thiourea, and graphene oxide as precursors and ethylene glycol as the dispersing agent; simultaneously, traces of nitrogen and sulfur were double-doped into the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the forms of pyrrolic-N, pyridinic-N, and thiophenic-S, which are often desirable for metal-free ORR catalysts. In comparison with commercial Pt/C catalyst, NiCo2S4@N/S-rGO shows less reduction activity, much better durability, and superior methanol tolerance toward ORR in 0.1 M KOH; it reveals higher activity toward OER in both KOH electrolyte and phosphate buffer at pH 7.0. NiCo2S4@graphene demonstrated excellent overall bicatalytic performance, and importantly, it suggests a novel kind of promising nonprecious bifunctional catalyst in the related renewable energy devices. PMID:23662625

Liu, Qiao; Jin, Jutao; Zhang, Junyan

2013-06-12

370

Winged bean [Psophorcarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC] seeds as an underutilised plant source of bifunctional proteolysate and biopeptides.  

PubMed

Hypertension is one of the major causes of cardiovascular-related diseases, which is highly associated with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and oxidative stress. In this study, winged bean seed (WBS), a potential source of protein, was utilised for the production of bifunctional proteolysate and biopeptides with ACE inhibitory and antioxidative properties. An enzymatic approach was applied, coupled with pretreatment of shaking and centrifuging techniques to remove endogenous ACE inhibitors prior to proteolysis. ACE inhibition reached its highest activity, 78.5%, after 12 h proteolysis while antioxidative activities, determined using assays involving DPPH? radical scavenging activity and metal ion-chelating activity, reached peaks of 65.0% and 65.7% at 8 h and 14 h, respectively. The said bioactivities were proposed to share some common structural requirements among peptides. A two-dimensional approach was employed for characterisation of effective peptides based on hydrophobicity, using RP-HPLC, and isoelectric property, using isoelectric focusing technique. Results revealed that acidic and basic peptides with partially higher hydrophobicity provided higher ACE inhibition activity than did neutral peptides. Finally, by using Q-TOF mass spectrometry, two peptide sequences (YPNQKV and FDIRA) with ACE inhibitory and antioxidative activities were successfully matched with a database. This study indicates that the WBS proteolysate can be a potential bifunctional food ingredient as the identified biopeptides demonstrated both ACE inhibitory and antioxidative activities in vitro. PMID:24658538

Yea, Chay Shyan; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Bakar, Jamilah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Saari, Nazamid

2014-05-01

371

A Novel Bifunctional Hybrid with Marine Bacterium Alkaline Phosphatase and Far Eastern Holothurian Mannan-Binding Lectin Activities  

PubMed Central

A fusion between the genes encoding the marine bacterium Cobetia marina alkaline phosphatase (CmAP) and Far Eastern holothurian Apostichopus japonicus mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBL-AJ) was performed. Expression of the fusion gene in E. coli cells resulted in yield of soluble recombinant chimeric protein CmAP/MBL-AJ with the high alkaline phosphatase activity and specificity of the lectin MBL-AJ. The bifunctional hybrid CmAP/MBL-AJ was produced as a dimer with the molecular mass of 200 kDa. The CmAP/MBL-AJ dimer model showed the two-subunit lectin part that is associated with two molecules of alkaline phosphatase functioning independently from each other. The highly active CmAP label genetically linked to MBL-AJ has advantaged the lectin-binding assay in its sensitivity and time. The double substitution A156N/F159K in the lectin domain of CmAP/MBL-AJ has enhanced its lectin activity by 25±5%. The bifunctional hybrid holothurian's lectin could be promising tool for developing non-invasive methods for biological markers assessment, particularly for improving the MBL-AJ-based method for early detection of a malignant condition in cervical specimens. PMID:25397876

Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasily; Kovalchuk, Svetlana; Bulgakov, Alexander; Likhatskaya, Galina; Son, Oksana; Rasskazov, Valery

2014-01-01

372

Design review of fluid film bearing testers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The designs of three existing testers (Hybrid Bearing Tester, OTV Bearing Tester, and Long Life Bearing Tester) owned by NASA were reviewed for their capability to serve as a multi-purpose cryogenic fluid film bearing tester. The primary tester function is the validation of analytical predictions for fluid film bearing steady state and dynamic performance. Evaluation criteria were established for test bearing configurations, test fluids, instrumentation, and test objectives. Each tester was evaluated with respect to these criteria. A determination was made of design improvements which would allow the testers to meet the stated criteria. The cost and time required to make the design changes were estimated. A recommendation based on the results of this study was made to proceed with the Hybrid Bearing Tester.

Scharrer, Joseph K.

1993-01-01

373

Wave Journal Bearings Under Dynamic Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic behavior of the wave journal bearing was determined by running a three-wave bearing with an eccentrically mounted shaft. A transient analysis was developed and used to predict numerical data for the experimental cases. The three-wave journal bearing ran stably under dynamic loads with orbits well inside the bearing clearance. The orbits were almost circular and nearly free of the influence of, but dynamically dependent on, bearing wave shape. Experimental observations for both the absolute bearing-housing-center orbits and the relative bearing-housing-center-to-shaft-center orbits agreed well with the predictions. Moreover, the subsynchronous whirl motion generated by the fluid film was found experimentally and predicted theoretically for certain speeds.

Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin

2002-01-01

374

A practical 3D Bearing-Only SLAM algorithm Thomas Lemaire, Simon Lacroix and Joan Sol`a  

E-print Network

A practical 3D Bearing-Only SLAM algorithm Thomas Lemaire, Simon Lacroix and Joan Sol`a LAAS a bearing only 3D SLAM algorithm which has the same complexity and optimality as the usual extended kalman filter used in classical SLAM. We especially focus on the landmark initialization process, which relies

Solà, Joan

375

Chromatographic (TLC) differentiation of grizzly bear and black bear scats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While past work concluded that thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was inadequate for the separation of grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (U. americanus) scats, our study found differences adequate for species separation. A key was constructed using 19 of 40 data points recorded on each(N)=356 profiles of 178) know-species scat. Accuracy was best for late summer scats (94%). Methods for specimen preparation, analysis, and reading the TLC profiles are discussed. Factors involved in scat variation were tested.

Picton, Harold D.; Kendall, Katherine C.

1994-01-01

376

Thermoelastic behavior of a small bearing cage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The full field non contact measurement of objects undergoing testing is one of interest for manufacturers of parts which are graded on their longevity. Unfortunately, for homogenous small parts with irregular geometries, such as bearing cages, the solution for testing is typically to use only a FEA model and compliment the testing of the model with simply cyclically loading the sample until failure. To better understand the stresses and behavior of a small object Thermoelasticity can be employed in order to see in a full field technique what stress patterns exist and their correlation to a FEA model. The FEA model was measured separately from a real bearing cage and simulated in Commercial Ansys(TM). Two cases of the FEA simulation were used in order to first calibrate the thermoelastic constant to the stresses in a simple case which included no weld seam in both experimental and simulation and then in a more complex case with a weld seam compare the calibrated data with simulation data. The loading for the samples involves the utilization of a MTS machine with a cyclic sinusoidal loading scheme of 10 Hz, while the samples are loaded in 20lbf increments from 20-140 lbf with an initial load of 10 lbf. These tests are carried out for two separate cases, the first for the thermoelastic constant calibration is carried out in a simple case with the weld seam of the bearing cage at a 9pm position, outside the region of maximum stress, the second is a more detailed test with the weld seam located inside the field of view at the 6pm position. The preprocessing method utilizes software correction for uniformity in the picture adjusting for emissivity, while the post processing adjusts the thermoelastic constant as well as shifting within the image during captures and spatial averaging to reduce noise. The hardware setup shown has a stress resolution of 25 MPa and is able to resolve stresses under real time loading condition. The resulting stresses can be shown as a 3D stress map across the imaged plane and compared to the simulation data.

Planting, Eric S.

377

Increased catalytic efficiency following gene fusion of bifunctional methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes from Shewanella oneidensis.  

PubMed

Methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes MsrA and MsrB have complementary stereospecificities that reduce the S and R stereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), respectively, and together function as critical antioxidant enzymes. In some pathogenic and metal-reducing bacteria, these genes are fused to form a bifunctional methionine sulfoxide reductase (i.e., MsrBA) enzyme. To investigate how gene fusion affects the substrate specificity and catalytic activities of Msr, we have cloned and expressed the MsrBA enzyme from Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacterium and fish pathogen. For comparison, we also cloned and expressed the wild-type MsrA enzyme from S. oneidensis and a genetically engineered MsrB protein. MsrBA is able to completely reduce (i.e., repair) MetSO in the calcium regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM), while only partial repair is observed using both MsrA and MsrB enzymes together at 25 degrees C. A restoration of the normal protein fold is observed co-incident with the repair of MetSO in oxidized CaM (CaMox by MsrBA, as monitored by time-dependent increases in the anisotropy associated with the rigidly bound multiuse affinity probe 4',5'-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)fluorescein (FlAsH). Underlying the efficient repair of MetSO in CaMox is the coordinate activity of the two catalytic domains in the MsrBA fusion protein, which results in a 1 order of magnitude rate enhancement in comparison to those of the individual MsrA or MsrB enzyme alone. The coordinate binding of both domains of MsrBA permits the full repair of all MetSO in CaMox. The common expression of Msr fusion proteins in bacterial pathogens is consistent with an important role for this enzyme activity in the maintenance of protein function necessary for bacterial survival under highly oxidizing conditions associated with pathogenesis or bioremediation. PMID:17997579

Chen, Baowei; Markillie, Lye Meng; Xiong, Yijia; Mayer, M Uljana; Squier, Thomas C

2007-12-11

378

Increased Catalytic Efficiency Following Gene Fusion of Bifunctional Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Enzymes from Shewanella oneidensis  

PubMed Central

Methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes MsrA and MsrB have complementary stereospecificies that respectively reduce the S- and R-stereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO), and together function as critical antioxidant enzymes. In some pathogenic and metal -reducing bacteria these genes are fused to form a bifunctional methionine sulfoxide reductase (i.e., MsrBA) enzyme. To investigate how gene fusion affects the substrate specificity and catalytic activities of Msr, we have cloned and expressed the MsrBA enzyme from Shewanella oneidensis, a metal-reducing bacterium and fish pathogen. For comparison, we also cloned and expressed the wild-type MsrA enzyme from Shewanella oneidensis and a genetically engineered MsrB protein. MsrBA is able to completely reduce (i.e., repair) MetSO in the calcium regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM); while only partial repair is observed using both MsrA and MsrB enzymes together at 25 °C. A restoration of the normal protein fold is observed coincident with the repair of MetSO in oxidized CaM by MsrBA, as monitored by the time-dependent increases in the anisotropy associated with the rigidly bound multiuse affinity probe 4?5?-bis(1,3,2-dithoarsolan-2yl)fluorescein (FlAsH). Underlying the efficient repair of MetSO in oxidized CaM is the coordinate activity of the two catalytic domains in the MsrBA fusion protein, which results in an order of magnitude rate enhancement in comparison to the individual MsrA or MsrB enzymes alone. The coordinate binding of both domains of MsrBA permits the full repair of all MetSO in CaMox. The common expression of Msr fusion proteins in bacterial pathogens is consistent with an important role for this enzyme activity in the maintenance of protein function necessary for bacterial survival under highly oxidizing conditions associated with pathogenesis or bioremediation. PMID:17997579

Chen, Baowei; Markillie, Lye Meng; Xiong, Yijia; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

2008-01-01

379

Identifying Bearing Rotordynamic Coefficients using an Extended Kalman Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Extended Kalman Filter is developed to estimate the linearized direct and indirect stiffness and damping force coefficients for bearings in rotor-dynamic applications from noisy measurements of the shaft displacement in response to imbalance and impact excitation. The bearing properties are modeled as stochastic random variables using a Gauss-Markov model. Noise terms are introduced into the system model to account for all of the estimation error, including modeling errors and uncertainties and the propagation of measurement errors into the parameter estimates. The system model contains two user-defined parameters that can be tuned to improve the filter s performance; these parameters correspond to the covariance of the system and measurement noise variables. The filter is also strongly influenced by the initial values of the states and the error covariance matrix. The filter is demonstrated using numerically simulated data for a rotor-bearing system with two identical bearings, which reduces the number of unknown linear dynamic coefficients to eight. The filter estimates for the direct damping coefficients and all four stiffness coefficients correlated well with actual values, whereas the estimates for the cross-coupled damping coefficients were the least accurate.

Miller, Brad A.; Howard, Samuel A.

2008-01-01

380

Identifying Bearing Rotodynamic Coefficients Using an Extended Kalman Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Extended Kalman Filter is developed to estimate the linearized direct and indirect stiffness and damping force coefficients for bearings in rotor dynamic applications from noisy measurements of the shaft displacement in response to imbalance and impact excitation. The bearing properties are modeled as stochastic random variables using a Gauss-Markov model. Noise terms are introduced into the system model to account for all of the estimation error, including modeling errors and uncertainties and the propagation of measurement errors into the parameter estimates. The system model contains two user-defined parameters that can be tuned to improve the filter's performance; these parameters correspond to the covariance of the system and measurement noise variables. The filter is also strongly influenced by the initial values of the states and the error covariance matrix. The filter is demonstrated using numerically simulated data for a rotor bearing system with two identical bearings, which reduces the number of unknown linear dynamic coefficients to eight. The filter estimates for the direct damping coefficients and all four stiffness coefficients correlated well with actual values, whereas the estimates for the cross-coupled damping coefficients were the least accurate.

Miller, Brad A.; Howard, Samuel A.

2008-01-01

381

Public attitudes towards brown bears ( Ursus arctos) in Slovenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Slovenia a radical change in brown bear (Ursus arctos) management – from a policy of bear suppression to a policy of bear protection – resulted in a sharp increase in sheep predation by bears. In the bear core area in southern Slovenia, on the other hand, bears have always been present, cause little damage and are an important

Petra Kaczensky; Mateja Blazic; Hartmut Gossow

2004-01-01

382

Summary of gas bearing applications in the field of space electric power systems.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA-Lewis Research Center is investigating the technology of closed Brayton cycle electric power systems for space. The turbine-alternator-compressor power conversion unit for such a system is designated Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU). In parallel to power system testing, a BRU improvement effort was initiated. A major portion of this effort involves the testing and evaluation of different bearing systems. A description of each bearing is presented along with results of the evaluation to date and a comparison of the merits and limitations of each bearing.

Dunn, J. H.; Ream, L. W.

1972-01-01

383

Long range radio tracking of sea turtles and polar bear: Instrumentation and preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation developed for studies of path behavior of the green sea turtle and migration movement of polar bear is described. Preliminary results bearing on navigation ability in these species are presented. Both species operate in difficult environments, and the problems faced in the design of electronic instrumentation for these studies are not completely specified at this time. However, the critical factors yet to be understood are primarily related to the behavior of instrumented animals. The data obtained with these experimental techniques are included, first to illustrate the technique and, second to provide initial preliminary results bearing on animal navigation.

Baldwin, H. A.

1972-01-01

384

Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Arabidopsis Bifunctional Enzyme Dethiobiotin Synthetase-Diaminopelargonic Acid Aminotransferase: Evidence for Substrate Channeling in Biotin Synthesis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Diaminopelargonic acid aminotransferase (DAPA-AT) and dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) catalyze the antepenultimate and the penultimate steps, respectively, of biotin synthesis. Whereas DAPA-AT and DTBS are encoded by distinct genes in bacteria, in biotin-synthesizing eukaryotes (plants and most fungi), both activities are carried out by a single enzyme encoded by a bifunctional gene originating from the fusion of prokaryotic monofunctional ancestor genes. In few angiosperms, including Arabidopsis thaliana, this chimeric gene (named BIO3-BIO1) also produces a bicistronic transcript potentially encoding separate monofunctional proteins that can be produced following an alternative splicing mechanism. The functional significance of the occurrence of a bifunctional enzyme in biotin synthesis pathway in eukaryotes and the relative implication of each of the potential enzyme forms (bifunctional versus monofunctional) in the plant biotin pathway are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the BIO3-BIO1 fusion protein is the sole protein form produced by the BIO3-BIO1 locus in Arabidopsis. The enzyme catalyzes both DAPA-AT and DTBS reactions in vitro and is targeted to mitochondria in vivo. Our biochemical and kinetic characterizations of the pure recombinant enzyme show that in the course of the reaction, the DAPA intermediate is directly transferred from the DAPA-AT active site to the DTBS active site. Analysis of several structures of the enzyme crystallized in complex with and without its ligands reveals key structural elements involved for acquisition of bifunctionality and brings, together with mutagenesis experiments, additional evidences for substrate channeling. PMID:22547782

Cobessi, David; Dumas, Renaud; Pautre, Virginie; Meinguet, Celine; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Alban, Claude

2012-01-01

385

Expression of a bi-functional and thermostable amylopullulanase in transgenic rice seeds leads to autohydrolysis and altered composition of starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overexpression of bacterial-derived starch metabolic enzymes in plant starch storage organs represents a valuable strategy for improving starch quality, bioprocessing and nutritional value. Transgenic rice seeds producing a thermostable and bifunctional starch hydrolase, amylopullulanase (APU) from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E, were generated. Starch in these seeds could be hydrolyzed with optimal temperatures between 85 and 95 °C, which resulted in complete conversion

Chih-Ming Chiang; Feng-Shi Yeh; Li-Fen Huang; Tung-Hi Tseng; Mei-Chu Chung; Chang-Sheng Wang; Hu-Shen Lur; Jei-Fu Shaw; Su-May Yu

2005-01-01

386

Targeted Mutations that Ablate Either the Adenylate Cyclase or Hemolysin Function of the Bifunctional cyaA Toxin of Bordetella pertussis Abolish Virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, secretes several toxins implicated in this disease. One of these putative virulence factors is the adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin that elevates intracellular cAMP in eukaryotic cells to cytotoxic levels. This toxin is a bifunctional protein comprising both AC and hemolysin (HLY) enzymatic domains. The gene encoding the AC toxin (cyaA) is expressed

Mary K. Gross; Douglas C. Au; Arnold L. Smith; Daniel R. Storm

1992-01-01

387

Ligand replacement induced chemiluminescence for selective detection of an organophosphorus pesticide using bifunctional Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell-like nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A facile ligand replacement induced chemiluminescence method is developed for selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide parathion-methyl based on the use of bifunctional Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell-like nanoparticles to overcome the interference from coexisting substances in a real sample. PMID:25376387

Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jianping; Yang, Liang; Liu, Bianhua; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

2014-11-20

388

Phylum: Tardigrada (water bears, tardigrades)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes water bears, minute animals that can remain dormant in a dry state for over 100 years. The page addresses what they are, where they are found, their general biology, cryptobiosis, their ability to resist environmental extremes, implications and further research regarding their cryptobiosis, where they fit in with other animals, and their existence in South Africa. It also describes how someone could collect and see them. The page is part of Biodiversity Explorer, a web site hosted by Iziko Museums of Cape Town that features the diversity of life in South Africa.

Middleton, Roger; Town, Iziko M.

389

Monitoring grizzly bear population trends  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simple different equation model was developed to provide additional perspective on observed mortality and trend data on Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Records of mortalities of adult females from 1959 to 1985 were utilized, in conjunction with data on females with cubs. The overall downward trend of observed numbers of females with cubs generally agrees with the model calculations but does not adequately reflect mortality from 1970 to 1974. The model may be useful in developing a composite index of population trend.

Eberhardt, L.L.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.

1986-01-01

390

Transfer Lubrication For Cryogenic Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents evaluation of bronze-filled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), known as Salox M, as cage material for ball bearings in high-pressure turbopumps for liquid oxygen. Material evaluated as potentially longer-lived replacement for glass-filled PTFE, known as Armalon. Cage transfers PTFE to balls to form solid lubricant film. However, glass fibers in glass-filled material tend to interfere with transfer. Two cage-design concepts developed; one involves metal-reinforced cage of bronze-filled PTFE; other calls for bronze-filled PTFE inserts in metal structure.

Barber, S. A.; Kannel, J. W.; Dufrane, K. F.

1988-01-01

391

Current leads and magnetic bearings  

SciTech Connect

Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been active in a broad spectrum of activities in developing these materials for applications. Work at every stage of development has involved industrial collaboration in order to accelerate commercialization. While most of the development work has been devoted to improving the properties of current-carrying wires, some effort has been devoted to applications that can utilize HTSs with properties available now or in the near future. In this paper, I discuss advances made at my laboratory in the area of current leads and magnetic bearings.

Hull, J.R.

1993-12-31

392

Hunting Bears with a Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, students use lichens and tardigrades (water bears) to investigate their use as bioindicators of key air pollutants. When lichens are exposed to some kinds of air pollutants, especially to sulfur dioxide, the lichens are injured and die. The lichen coverage in a specified area should be a good indicator of the level of air quality. The diversity of the tardigrade species on the lichens will be used to develop another level for bioindication of air quality. Sections of this activity include: introduction, sulfur dioxide and lichens, sampling procedure for lichen coverage, tardigrade sampling, sampling procedure for tardigrades, calculating diversity using the Simpson Diversity Index, interpretation of results, and references.

Case, Steve

2010-02-10

393

Hunting Bears with a Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, students use lichens and tardigrades (water bears) to investigate their use as bioindicators of key air pollutants. When lichens are exposed to some kinds of air pollutants, especially to sulfur dioxide, the lichens are injured and die. The lichen coverage in a specified area should be a good indicator of the level of air quality. The diversity of the tardigrade species on the lichens will be used to develop another level for bioindication of air quality. Sections of this activity include: introduction, sulfur dioxide and lichens, sampling procedure for lichen coverage, tardigrade sampling, sampling procedure for tardigrades, calculating diversity using the Simpson Diversity Index, interpretation of results, and references.

Case, Steve; Excellence, The N.

394

Current Status of Hybrid Bearing Damage Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in material development and processing have led to the introduction of ceramic hybrid bearings for many applications. The introduction of silicon nitride hybrid bearings into the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, on the space shuttle main engine, led NASA to solve a highly persistent and troublesome bearing problem. Hybrid bearings consist of ceramic balls and steel races. The majority of hybrid bearings utilize Si3N4 balls. The aerospace industry is currently studying the use of hybrid bearings and naturally the failure modes of these bearings become an issue in light of the limited data available. In today s turbine engines and helicopter transmissions, the health of the bearings is detected by the properties of the debris found in the lubrication line when damage begins to occur. Current oil debris sensor technology relies on the magnetic properties of the debris to detect damage. Since the ceramic rolling elements of hybrid bearings have no metallic properties, a new sensing system must be developed to indicate the system health if ceramic components are to be safely implemented in aerospace applications. The ceramic oil debris sensor must be capable of detecting ceramic and metallic component damage with sufficient reliability and forewarning to prevent a catastrophic failure. The objective of this research is to provide a background summary on what is currently known about hybrid bearing failure modes and to report preliminary results on the detection of silicon nitride debris, in oil, using a commercial particle counter.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Morales, Wilfredo

2004-01-01

395

Freshwater Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in 1998 by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), the Freshwater Initiative aims "to protect the plants and animals dependent on freshwaters and develop solutions to key causes of freshwater biodiversity decline." To achieve this goal, Freshwater Initiative staff identifies sites that harbor critical aquatic biodiversity, targets conservation activities at several key freshwater sites, and develops expert and informative collaborations to foster freshwater conservation. The homepage is straightforward; the Strategies section outlines the Initiative's fundamental goals and approaches and identifies key regions of interest (see color map). The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) section describes IHA software (not free) used "to statistically characterize environmental regimes" (most commonly used by hydrologists and ecologists to evaluate streamflow data). Finally, a nice selection of links rounds out the site.

2001-01-01

396

The dual action gas thrust bearing - A new high load bearing concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principle of utilizing hydrodynamic effects in diverging films for improving load capacity in gas thrust bearings is discussed. A new concept of dual action bearing based on that principle is described and analyzed. The potential of the new bearing is demonstrated both analytically for an infinitely long slider and by numerical solution for a flat sector shaped thrust bearing. It is shown that the dual action bearing can extend substantially the range of load carrying capacity in gas lubricated thrust bearings and improve their efficiency.

Etsion, I.

1976-01-01

397

Prospects for Yellowstone grizzly bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent analyses of data on the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population of Yellowstone National Park and its environs suggest the likelihood of a continuing decline in numbers if losses of fully adult females are not reduced. The size of the population is not known, and a simple projection model has been used to identify some inconsistencies in the available index data. Population dynamics calculations, based on Lotka's equation or a stochastic model, indicate a continuing decrease in numbers, although continued observations through radio-telemetry are needed to verify these trends. The margin between stabilizing the population and a continued decrease appears to be roughly the loss of 2 fully adult female bears per year. At present, the risk of extirpation of this population over the next 30 years appears to be small. Continued monitoring of survivorship will be needed, particularly because "recovery" of the population may be mainly characterized by a shift in the pattern of mortality, from adults to subadults, and not necessarily a reduction in absolute number of losses.

Knight, R.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.

1987-01-01

398

Magnetic bearings - State of the art  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic bearings have existed for many years, at least in theory. Earnshaw's theorem, formulated in 1842, concerns stability of magnetic suspensions, and states that not all axes of a bearing can be stable without some means of active control. In Beam's widely referenced experiments, a tiny (1/64 in diameter) rotor was rotated to the astonishing speed of 800,000 rps while it was suspended in a magnetic field. Despite a long history, magnetic bearings have only begun to see practical application since about 1980. The development that finally made magnetic bearings practical was solid state electronics, enabling power supplies and controls to be reduced in size to where they are now comparable in volume to the bearings themselves. An attempt is made to document the current (1991) state of the art of magnetic bearings. The referenced papers are large drawn from two conferences publications published in 1988 and 1990 respectively.

Fleming, David P.

1993-01-01

399

Magnetic bearings for inertial energy storage  

SciTech Connect

The selection of a noncontacting bearing technique with no wear out phenomena and which is vacuum compatible which is the decisive factor in selecting magnetic bearings for kinetic energy storage was investigated. Unlimited cycle life without degradation is a primary goal. Storage efficiency is a key parameter which is defined as the ratio of the energy remaining to energy stored after a fixed time interval at no load conditions. Magnetic bearings, although noncontacting, are not perfectly frictionless in that magnetic losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis can occur. Practical magnetic bearings, however, deviate from perfect symmetry and have discontinuities and asymmetric flux paths either by design or when controlled in the presence of disturbances, which cause losses. These losses can be kept smaller in the bearings than in a high power motor/generator, however, are a significant factor in selecting the magnetic bearing type.

Studer, P.A.

1983-12-01

400

Magnetic bearings-state of the art  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic bearings have existed for many years, at least in theory. Earnshaw's theorem, formulated in 1842, concerns stability of magnetic suspensions, and states that not all axes of a bearing can be stable without some means of active control. In Beam's widely referenced experiments, a tiny (1/64 in diameter) rotor was rotated to the astonishing speed of 800,000 rps while it was suspended in a magnetic field. Despite a long history, magnetic bearings have only begun to see practical application since about 1980. The development that finally made magnetic bearings practical was solid state electronics, enabling power supplies and controls to be reduced in size to where they are now comparable in volume to the bearings themselves. An attempt is made to document the current (1991) state of the art of magnetic bearings. The referenced papers are large drawn from two conferences publications published in 1988 and 1990 respectively.

Fleming, David P.

1991-01-01

401

Relationship between lesions photoinduced by mono- and bi-functional furocoumarins in DNA and genotoxic effects in diploid yeast.  

PubMed

The induction of genetic effects was studied in a diploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (D7) after treatments with the monofunctional furocoumarins 7-methylpyrido[3,4-c]psoralen (MePyPs), pyrido[3,4-c]psoralen (PyPs) and 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) and the bifunctional furocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in the presence of 365-nm radiation. The DNA photobinding of radioactively labelled MePyPs, 3-CPs, 5-MOP and 8-MOP was determined in parallel. The DNA-photobinding capacity was highest for MePyPs followed in decreasing order by 5-MOP, 3-CPs and 8-MOP. At a concentration of 5 microM and 4.2 kJ/m2 of 365-nm radiation approximately 160, 66, 60 and 16 adducts per 10(6) base pairs were formed by MePyPs, 5-MOP, 3-CPs and 8-MOP, respectively. The activity of MePyPs and PyPs for the induction of lethal effects lay in the same range as that of 5-MOP whereas 8-MOP was 3 times less active and 3-CPs showed very little activity. For the induction of mitotic gene conversion and genetically altered colonies including mitotic crossing-over the order of activity was about the same as that observed for the induction of lethal effects: MePyPs greater than 5-MOP greater than PyPs greater than 8-MOP much greater than 3-CPs. Nuclear reversions were induced most effectively by 5-MOP, 8-MOP being about 3 times less effective. Up to 4 and 6 kJ/m2 of 365-nm radiation, MePyPs and PyPs, respectively, were less mutagenic than 8-MOP but became more mutagenic at higher doses. At equal survival, the pyridopsoralens were, however, clearly less mutagenic than the bifunctional furocoumarins 8-MOP and 5-MOP. By plotting the genetic data versus the number of lesions induced in DNA, it was shown that the monoadducts induced by the monofunctional furocoumarins MePyPs and 3-CPs exert a relatively low potential for the induction of lethal and nuclear genetic events as compared to photoadditions induced by the bifunctional furocoumarins 8-MOP and 5-MOP. However, at a very high density, the monoadducts induced by MePyPs became as lethal and as mutagenic as the mixture of mono- and biadducts induced by 8-MOP and 5-MOP probably due to overloading of cellular repair capacities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3897850

Averbeck, D

1985-09-01

402

Related Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

NCI research initiatives in cancer genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and nanotechnology depend on the development of new sources of high-quality human biospecimens and the identification of appropriate biospecimens in existing resources. Human biospecimens are essential resources to accelerate the development of molecular-based diagnostics and therapeutics for personalized medicine.

403

Effect of Rolling Bearing Refurbishment and Restoration on Bearing Life and Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For nearly four decades it has been a practice in commercial and military aircraft application that rolling-element bearings removed at maintenance or overhaul be reworked and returned to service. The work presented extends previously reported bearing life analysis to consider the depth (Z(45)) to maximum shear stress (45) on stressed volume removal and the effect of replacing the rolling elements with a new set. A simple algebraic relationship was established to determine the L(10) life of bearing races subject to bearing rework. Depending on the extent of rework and based upon theoretical analysis, representative life factors (LF) for bearings subject to rework ranged from 0.87 to 0.99 the lives of new bearings. Based on bearing endurance data, 92 percent of the bearing sets that would be subject to rework would result in L(10) lives equaling and/or exceeding that predicted for new bearings with the remaining 8 percent having the potential to achieve the analytically predicted life of new bearings when one of the rings is replaced at rework.. The potential savings from bearing rework varies from 53 to 82 percent that of new bearings depending on the cost, size and complexity of the bearing.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Branzai, Emanuel V.

2005-01-01

404

Cantilever mounted resilient pad gas bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas-lubricated bearing is described, employing at least one pad mounted on a rectangular cantilever beam to produce a lubricating wedge between the face of the pad and a moving surface. The load-carrying and stiffness characteristics of the pad are related to the dimensions and modulus of elasticity of the beam. The bearing is applicable to a wide variety of types of hydrodynamic bearings.

Etsion, I. (inventor)

1978-01-01

405

Acoustical properties of hydrodynamic journal bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of theoretical investigations on acoustical properties of hydrodynamic journal bearings are presented. Nonlinear analysis including rotor imbalance is performed for a rotor-bearing system in order to obtain acoustical properties of the bearing. Furthermore, a cavitation algorithm, implementing the Jakobsson–Floberg–Olsson boundary condition, is adopted to predict cavitation regions in a fluid film. Acoustical properties are investigated through frequency analysis of

Byoung-Hoo Rho; Kyung-Woong Kim

2003-01-01

406

First-order ball-bearing kinematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two first-order equations are given connecting geometry and internal motions in an angular-contact ball bearing. Total speed, kinematic equivalence, basic speed ratio, and modal speed ratio are defined and discussed; charts are given for the speed ratios covering all bearings and all rotational modes. Instances where specific first-order assumptions might fail are discussed, and the resulting effects on bearing performance reviewed.

Kingsbury, E.

1985-01-01

407

Ceramic Materials in Hybrid Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational study was conducted to make comparisons regarding heat generation, frictional torque, and ball wear between conventional all steel bearings using M50 steel balls and hybrid bearings using silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic balls. Both were modeled using M50 steel races and the study was accomplished for radially loaded bearings only. Although most realistic applications also include axial loads on

Pete Cento; Don W. Dareing

1999-01-01

408

Static forces in a superconducting magnet bearing  

SciTech Connect

Static levitation forces and stiffnesses in a superconducting bearing consisting of concentric ring magnets and a superconducting YBaCuO ring are investigated. In the field-cooled mode a levitation force of 20 N has been achieved. The axial and radial stiffnesses have values of 15 N/mm and 10 N/mm, respectively. An arrangement with two bearings supporting a high speed shaft is now under development. A possible application of superconducting magnetic bearings is flywheels for energy storage.

Stoye, P.; Fuchs, G. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany); Gawalek, W.; Goernert, P. [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany); Gladun, A. [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)

1995-11-01

409

Mechanical characteristics of a thrust magnetic bearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static and dynamic mechanical characteristics of a thrust magnetic bearing are studied owing to the inclination of the runner\\u000a disk. The application refers to a thrust magnetic bearing for a turbo-expander\\/compressor. The static tilt of the runner disk\\u000a has remarkable influence on the mechanical characteristics of thrust magnetic bearing, it can change the static load distribution\\u000a between two radial magnetic

Gang Zhang; Li-qun Chen; Lie Yu; You-bai Xie

2000-01-01

410

Notes 16. Analysis of tilting pad bearings  

E-print Network

Figure 1 shows a tilting pad journal bearing comprised of four pads. Each pad tilts about its pivot making a hydrodynamic film that generates a pressure reacting to the static load applied on the spinning journal. This type of bearing is typically... Figure 1 shows a tilting pad journal bearing comprised of four pads. Each pad tilts about its pivot making a hydrodynamic film that generates a pressure reacting to the static load applied on the spinning journal. This type of bearing is typically...

San Andres, Luis

2010-01-01

411

Oil film pressure in hydrodynamic journal bearings.  

E-print Network

??Hydrodynamic journal bearings are critical power transmission components that are carrying increasingly high loads because of the increasing power density in various machines. Therefore, knowing… (more)

Valkonen, Antti

2009-01-01

412

Permanent Magnetic Bearing for Spacecraft Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A permanent, totally passive magnetic bearing rig was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension of the rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm using an air impeller. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

Morales, Winfredo; Fusaro, Robert; Kascak, Albert

2008-01-01

413

Fractional Whirl Motion in Wave Journal Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unloaded gas, plain journal bearings experience sub-synchronous whirl motion due to fluid film instabilities and wall contact usually occurs immediately after the onset of the whirl motion. An alternative is the wave journal bearing which significantly improves bearing stability. The predicted threshold where the sub-synchronous whirl motion starts was well confirmed by the experimental observation. In addition, both a two-wave and a three-wave journal bearing can operate free of sub-synchronous whirl motion over a large range in speeds. When the sub-synchronous whirl motion occurs, both the two-wave and three-wave bearing can run in a whirl orbit well within the bearing clearance. At large clearances and wave amplitudes a two-wave bearing, unliKe other bearings, can exhibit a sub-synchronous whirl movement at both low and high speeds, but can run extremely stable and without whirl at intermediate speeds. Moreover, in these cases, the whirl frequencies are close to a quarter of the synchronous speed. The three-wave bearing can exhibit sub-synchronous whirl motion only after a specific threshold when the speed increases and the whirl frequencies are close to half of the synchronous speed.

Dimofte, Florin; Hendricks, Robert C.

1996-01-01

414

Polar Bears International: Vital Maternity Den Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes a journalist's participation in a study of polar bear denning sites in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). It is thought that cubs born in those dens play an important role in maintaining the Beaufort Sea population of polar bears. Prior to the study, no complete map existed pinpointing the ANWR's denning areas. The study data will be available to manage human activities, thus protecting the sensitive areas in which a mother polar bear may den. The study will also provide baseline data to assess how climate change may alter the distribution of polar-bear denning habitat.

415

A spherical gas bearing for airborne application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical gas bearing is analyzed and tested for an airborne application. The externally pressurized bearing supports an inertially stabilized 36-in aperture, infrared telescope. The bearing provides the isolation of rotary motion from the aircraft and also serves as a seal between the aircraft cabin and cavity condition at 50,000 ft altitude. The accompanying temperature gradient of 135 F across the 16-in.-diam bearing created special design and manufacturing considerations. Test data on the static load under temperature and vacuum environment are presented in support of the analysis.

Bouvier, A.; Schmertz, J. C.

1974-01-01

416

Technical Development Path for Foil Gas Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foil gas bearings are in widespread commercial use in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and microturbine generators and are emerging in more challenging applications such as turbochargers, auxiliary power units and propulsion gas turbines. Though not well known, foil bearing technology is well over fifty years old. Recent technological developments indicate that their full potential has yet to be realized. This paper investigates the key technological developments that have characterized foil bearing advances. It is expected that a better understanding of foil gas bearing development path will aid in future development and progress towards more advanced applications.

DellaCorte, Christopher

2008-01-01

417

White-Etching Matter in Bearing Steel. Part II: Distinguishing Cause and Effect in Bearing Steel Failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The premature failure of large bearings of the type used in wind turbines, possibly through a mechanism called "white-structure flaking", has triggered many studies of microstructural damage associated with "white-etching areas" created during rolling contact fatigue, although whether they are symptoms or causes of failure is less clear. Therefore, some special experiments have been conducted to prove that white-etching areas are the consequence, and not the cause, of damage. By artificially introducing a fine dispersion of microcracks in the steel through heat treatment and then subjecting the sample to rolling contact fatigue, manifestations of hard white-etching matter have been created to a much greater extent than samples similarly tested without initial cracks. A wide variety of characterization tools has been used to corroborate that the white areas thus created have the same properties as reported observations on real bearings. Evidence suggests that the formation mechanism of the white-etching regions involves the rubbing and beating of the free surfaces of cracks, debonded inclusions, and voids under repeated rolling contact. It follows that the focus in avoiding early failure should be in enhancing the toughness of the bearing steel in order to avoid the initial microscopic feature event.

Solano-Alvarez, W.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

2014-10-01

418

Idiosyncratic responses of grizzly bear habitat to climate change based on projected food resource changes.  

PubMed

Climate change vulnerability assessments for species of conservation concern often use species distribution and ecological niche modeling to project changes in habitat. One of many assumptions of these approaches is that food web dependencies are consistent in time and environmental space. Species at higher trophic levels that rely on the availability of species at lower trophic levels as food may be sensitive to extinction cascades initiated by changes in the habitat of key food resources. Here we assess climate change vulnerability for Ursus arctos (grizzly bears) in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains using projected changes to 17 of the most commonly consumed plant food items. We used presence-absence information from 7088 field plots to estimate ecological niches and to project changes in future distributions of each species. Model projections indicated idiosyncratic responses among food items. Many food items persisted or even increased, although several species were found to be vulnerable based on declines or geographic shifts in suitable habitat. These included Hedysarum alpinum (alpine sweet vetch), a critical spring and autumn root-digging resource when little else is available. Potential habitat loss was also identified for three fruiting species of lower importance to bears: Empetrum nigrum (crowberry), Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), and Fragaria virginiana (strawberry). A general trend towards uphill migration of bear foods may result in higher vulnerability to bear populations at low elevations, which are also those that are most likely to have human-bear conflict problems. Regardless, a wide diet breadth of grizzly bears, as well as wide environmental niches of most food items, make climate change a much lower threat to grizzly bears than other bear species such as polar bears and panda bears. We cannot exclude, however, future alterations in human behavior and land use resulting from climate change that may reduce survival rates. PMID:25154102

Roberts, David R; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

2014-07-01

419

Effects of support on bifunctional methanol oxidation pathways catalyzed by polyoxometallate keggin clusters  

SciTech Connect

H5PV2Mo10O40 polyoxometallate Keggin clusters supported on ZrO2, TiO2, SiO2, and Al2O3 are effective catalysts for CH3OH oxidation reactions to form HCHO, methyl formate (MF), and dimethoxymethane (DMM). Rates and selectivities and the structure of supported clusters depend on the surface properties of the oxide supports. Raman spectroscopy showed that Keggin structures remained essentially intact on ZrO2, TiO2, and SiO2 after treatment in air at 553 K, but decomposed to MoOx and VOx oligomers on Al2O3. Accessible protons per Keggin unit (KU) were measured during CH3OH oxidation by titration with 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine. For similar KU surface densities (0.28 0.37 KU/nm2), the number of accessible protons was larger on SiO2 than on ZrO2 and TiO2 and much smaller on Al2O3 supports, even though residual dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis rates after titrant saturation indicated that the fractional dispersion of KU was similar on the first three supports. These effects of support on structure and on H+ accessibility reflect varying extents of interaction between polyoxometallate clusters and supports. Rates of CH3OH oxidative dehydrogenation per KU were higher on ZrO2 and TiO2 than on SiO2 at similar KU surface densities (0.28 0.37 KU/nm2) and dispersion, indicating that redox properties of Keggin clusters depend on the identity of the support used to disperse them. ZrO2 and TiO2 supports appear to enhance the reducibility of anchored polyoxometallate clusters. Rates were much lower on Al2O3, because structural degradation led to less reactive MoOx and VOx domains. CH3OH reactions involve primary oxidation to form HCHO and subsequent secondary reactions to form DMM and MF. These reactions involve HCHO CH3OH acetalization steps leading to methoxymethanol (CH3OCH2OH) or hemiacetal intermediates, which condense with CH3OH on acid sites to form DMM or dehydrogenate to form MF. COx formation rates are much lower than those of other reactions, and DME forms in parallel pathways catalyzed by acid sites. Secondary reactions leading to DMM and MF are strongly influenced by the chemical properties of support surfaces. Acidic SiO2 surfaces favored DMM formation, while amphoteric or dehydrogenating surfaces on ZrO2 and TiO2 led to MF formation, as a result of the varying role of each support in directing the reactions of HCHO and CH3OH and of the CH3OCH2OH intermediates toward DMM or MF, which was confirmed using physical catalyst pure support mixtures. These support effects reflect the bifunctional pathways of CH3OH reactions. These pathways are consistent with the effects of residence time and of the partial removal of H+ sites by titration using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine.

Liu, Haichao; Iglesia, Enrique

2003-12-26

420

Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system including auxiliary bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotor-dynamic model and assess the dynamic behavior of a magnetic bearing rotor system which includes the effects of auxiliary bearings. Of particular interest is the effects of introducing sideloading into such a system during failure of the magnetic bearing. A model is developed from an experimental test facility and a number of simulation studies are performed. These results are presented and discussed.

Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

1993-01-01

421

Oil exchange between ball bearings and cotton-phenolic ball-bearing retainers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been performed that determine for the first time the transfer of oil between cotton-phenolic ball-bearing retainers and operating ball bearings. A full retainer exchanges oil with the metal parts of the bearing, probably by diffusional mixing. There is no net delivery of oil from the retainer to the metal parts of the bearing. A partially filled retainer (such as one that has been incompletely impregnated) absorbs oil from the bearing even during operation, thus drying the bearing. A fully-impregnated retainer does not deliver any significant amount of additional oil to the metal parts of a poorly lubricated bearing. The retainer will not prevent lubricant degradation and premature bearing failure under the conditions of these experiments.

Bertrand, P. A.; Carre, D. J.; Bauer, R.

1994-09-01

422

Experimental Evaluation of Journal Bearing Stability and New Gas Bearing Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been estimated that the noise levels in aircraft engine transmissions can be reduced by as much as 10 dB through the use of journal bearings. The potential benefits of lower noise levels include reduced wear, longer gear life and enhanced comfort for passengers and crew. Based on this concept the journal-thrust wave bearing was analyzed and its performance was evaluated. Numerical codes, developed over the past 30 years by Dr. Dimofte, were used to predict the performance of the bearing. The wave bearing is a fluid film bearing and therefore was analyzed using the Reynolds pressure equation. The formulation includes turbulent flow concepts and possesses a viscosity-temperature correction. The centrifugal growth of the bearing diameter and the deformation of the bearing under gear loads were also incorporated into the code. An experimental rig was developed to test the journal-thrust wave bearing.

Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin

2001-01-01

423

Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system with auxiliary bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overload or failure. An auxiliary bearing typically consists of a rolling element bearing or bushing with a clearance gap between the rotor and the inner race of the support. The dynamics of such systems can be quite complex. It is desired to develop a rotordynamic model which describes the dynamic behavior of a flexible rotor system with magnetic bearings including auxiliary bearings. The model is based upon an experimental test facility. Some simulation studies are presented to illustrate the behavior of the model. In particular, the effects of introducing sideloading from the magnetic bearing when one coil fails is studied.

Free, April M.; Flowers, George T.; Trent, Victor S.

1995-01-01

424

Contrasting past and current numbers of bears visiting Yellowstone cutthroat trout streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) were historically abundant within tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake within Yellowstone National Park and were a highly digestible source of energy and protein for Yellowstone’s grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus). The cutthroat trout population has subsequently declined since the introduction of non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and in response to effects of drought and whirling disease (Myxobolus cerebralis). The trout population, duration of spawning runs, and indices of bear use of spawning streams had declined in some regions of the lake by 1997–2000. We initiated a 3-year study in 2007 to assess whether numbers of spawning fish, black bears, and grizzly bears within and alongside stream corridors had changed since 1997– 2000. We estimated numbers of grizzly bears and black bears by first compiling encounter histories of individual bears visiting 48 hair-snag sites along 35 historically fished streams.We analyzed DNA encounter histories with Pradel-recruitment and Jolly-Seber (POPAN) capture-mark-recapture models. When compared to 1997–2000, the current number of spawning cutthroat trout per stream and the number of streams with cutthroat trout has decreased. We estimated that 48 (95% CI¼42–56) male and 23 (95% CI¼21–27) female grizzly bears visited the historically fished tributary streams during our study. In any 1- year, 46 to 59 independent grizzly bears (8–10% of estimated Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem population) visited these streams. When compared with estimates from the 1997 to 2000 study and adjusted for equal effort, the number of grizzly bears using the stream corridors decreased by 63%. Additionally, the number of black bears decreased between 64% and 84%. We also document an increased proportion of bears of both species visiting front-country (i.e., near human development) streams. With the recovery of cutthroat trout, we suggest bears that still reside within the Lake basin will readily use this high-quality food resource.

Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; , JUSTIN E. TEISBERG; , Kerry A. Gunther; , JENNIFER K. FORTIN; , CHARLES T. ROBBINS

2014-01-01

425

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a bifunctional catalase-phenol oxidase from Scytalidium thermophilum.  

PubMed

Catalase-phenol oxidase from Scytalidium thermophilum is a bifunctional enzyme: its major activity is the catalase-mediated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, but it also catalyzes phenol oxidation. To understand the structural basis of this dual functionality, the enzyme, which has been shown to be a tetramer in solution, has been purified by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography and has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. Streak-seeding was used to obtain larger crystals suitable for X-ray analysis. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 A resolution at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1) and contained one tetramer per asymmetric unit. PMID:19407383

Sutay Kocabas, Didem; Pearson, Arwen R; Phillips, Simon E V; Bakir, Ufuk; Ogel, Zumrut B; McPherson, Michael J; Trinh, Chi H

2009-05-01

426

A bi-functional device for self-powered electrochromic window and self-rechargeable transparent battery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochromic smart windows are regarded as a good choice for green buildings. However, conventional devices need external biases to operate, which causes additional energy consumption. Here we report a self-powered electrochromic window, which can be used as a self-rechargeable battery. We use aluminium to reduce Prussian blue (PB, blue in colour) to Prussian white (PW, colourless) in potassium chloride electrolyte, realizing a device capable of self-bleaching. Interestingly, the device can be self-recovered (gaining blue appearance again) by simply disconnecting the aluminium and PB electrodes, which is due to the spontaneous oxidation of PW to PB by the dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution. The self-operated bleaching and colouration suggest another important function of the device: a self-rechargeable transparent battery. Thus the PB/aluminium device we report here is bifunctional, that is, it is a self-powered electrochromic window as well as a self-rechargeable transparent battery.

Wang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Le; Jiao, Zhihui; Xie, Huaqing; Lou, Xiong Wen (David); Wei Sun, Xiao

2014-09-01

427

A bi-functional device for self-powered electrochromic window and self-rechargeable transparent battery applications.  

PubMed

Electrochromic smart windows are regarded as a good choice for green buildings. However, conventional devices need external biases to operate, which causes additional energy consumption. Here we report a self-powered electrochromic window, which can be used as a self-rechargeable battery. We use aluminium to reduce Prussian blue (PB, blue in colour) to Prussian white (PW, colourless) in potassium chloride electrolyte, realizing a device capable of self-bleaching. Interestingly, the device can be self-recovered (gaining blue appearance again) by simply disconnecting the aluminium and PB electrodes, which is due to the spontaneous oxidation of PW to PB by the dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution. The self-operated bleaching and colouration suggest another important function of the device: a self-rechargeable transparent battery. Thus the PB/aluminium device we report here is bifunctional, that is, it is a self-powered electrochromic window as well as a self-rechargeable transparent battery. PMID:25247385

Wang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Le; Jiao, Zhihui; Xie, Huaqing; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Wei Sun, Xiao

2014-01-01

428

Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Polygonum cuspidatum bifunctional chalcone synthase/benzalacetone synthase.  

PubMed

The chalcone synthase (CHS) superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) generate the backbones of a variety of plant secondary metabolites. An active bifunctional chalcone synthase/benzalacetone synthase (CHS/BAS) from Polygonum cuspidatum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminally polyhistidine-tagged fusion protein, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using polyethylene glycol 4000 as a precipitant. The production of well shaped crystals of the complex between PcPKS1 and benzalacetone was dependent on the presence of sorbitol and barium chloride as additives. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.23, b = 81.01, c = 122.89 Å, and diffracted X-rays to at least 2.0 Å resolution. PMID:23908031

Lu, Heshu; Yang, Mingfeng; Liu, Chunmei; Lu, Ping; Cang, Huaixing; Ma, Lanqing

2013-08-01

429

Graphene-cobaltite-Pd hybrid materials for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.  

PubMed

Hybrid materials comprising of Pd, MCo2O4 (where M = Mn, Co or Ni) and graphene have been prepared for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. Structural and electrochemical characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, chronoamperometry and cyclic, CO stripping, and linear sweep voltammetries. The study revealed that all the three hybrid materials are active for both methanol oxidation (MOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions in 1 M KOH. However, the Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid electrode exhibited the greatest MOR and ORR activities. This active hybrid electrode has also outstanding stability under both MOR and ORR conditions, while Pt- and other Pd-based catalysts undergo degradation under similar experimental conditions. The Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid catalyst exhibited superior ORR activity and stability compared to even Pt in alkaline solutions. PMID:24169732

Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Awasthi, Rahul; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir Kumar

2013-12-14

430

Application of bifunctional Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remove lead(II) and cadmium(II) in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetic adsorbent, EDTAD-functionalized Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been synthesized to behave as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions by adjusting the pH value of the aqueous solution to make carboxyl and amino groups protonic or non-protonic. The bifunctional Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EMS) were used to remove lead(II) and cadmium(II) in solution in a batch system. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the EMS for the heavy metal ions increased with increasing solution pH, and the maximum adsorption capacity (88.16 mg/g for Pb 2+, 40.72 mg/g for Cd 2+) at 10 °C was found to occur at pH 5.5 and 6.0, respectively. The adsorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model. The regeneration experiments revealed that the EMS could be successfully reused.

Zhang, Yunsong; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Li; wang, Meng; Zhao, Maojun

2011-09-01

431

Synthesis of a bifunctional cytidine derivative and its conjugation to RNA for in vitro selection of a cytidine deaminase ribozyme  

PubMed Central

Summary Over the past 20 years, the generation of functional RNAs by in vitro selection has become a standard technique. Apart from aptamers for simple binding of defined ligands, also RNAs for catalysis of chemical reactions have been selected. In the latter case, a key step often is the conjugation of one of the two reactants to the library, requiring suitable strategies for terminal or internal RNA functionalization. With the aim of selecting a ribozyme for deamination of cytidine, we have set up a selection scheme involving the attachment of the cytidine acting as deamination substrate to the 3'-terminus of the RNAs in the library, and library immobilization. Here, we report the synthesis of a bifunctional cytidine derivative suitable for conjugation to RNA and linkage of the conjugated library to a streptavidine-coated surface. Successful conjugation of the cytidine derivative to the 3'-terminus of a model RNA is demonstrated.

Rublack, Nico

2014-01-01

432

Movements of yellowstone grizzly bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ninety-seven grizzly bears Ursus arctos horribilis were radio-located 6299 times during 1975–1987. Annual range sizes differed by sex, age, reproductive status and amount of precipitation. Females exhibited greater fidelity to seasonal and annual ranges than males. Weaned female offspring generally remained in the vicinity of the maternal range, while weaned males often made substantial movements to unexplored country. Average total home range size was 884 km2 for females and 3757 km2 for males. Males consistently exhibited greater indices of movement and range sizes than females. All cohorts had larger mean ranges during this study than during the period 1959–1969 when the population had access to open garbage dumps. Movements and elevational distribution of all cohorts were related to availability of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis seeds. We hypothesized that females with cubs-of-the-year and yearlings were displaced from most productive habitats during seasons and years of limited food availability.

Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

1991-01-01

433

Magnetic bearing optical delay line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TNO TPD, in close cooperation with Micromega-Dynamics and Dutch Space, has developed an advanced Optical Delay Line (ODL) for use in PRIMA, GENIE and other ground based interferometers. The delay line design is modular and flexible, which makes scaling for other applications a relatively easy task. The developed technology can also be applied in future cryogenic space interferometers, such as DARWIN, and TPF-I. The ODL has a single linear motor actuator for Optical Path Difference (OPD) control, driving a two-mirror cat's eye with SiC mirrors and CFRP structure. Magnetic bearings provide frictionless and wear free operation with zero-hysteresis. The delay line has been assembled and is currently being subjected to a comprehensive test program.

van den Dool, Teun C.; Kamphues, Fred; Fouss, B.; Henrioulle, K.; Hogenhuis, Harm

2004-09-01

434

SCB initiator  

DOEpatents

A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Renlund, Anita M. (Albuquerque, NM); Stanton, Philip L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

435

Structure of the phosphotransferase domain of the bifunctional aminoglycoside-resistance enzyme AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia.  

PubMed

The bifunctional acetyltransferase(6')-Ie-phosphotransferase(2'')-Ia [AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia] is the most important aminoglycoside-resistance enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria, conferring resistance to almost all known aminoglycoside antibiotics in clinical use. Owing to its importance, this enzyme has been the focus of intensive research since its isolation in the mid-1980s but, despite much effort, structural details of AAC(6')-Ie-APH(2'')-Ia have remained elusive. The structure of the Mg2GDP complex of the APH(2'')-Ia domain of the bifunctional enzyme has now been determined at 2.3?Å resolution. The structure of APH(2'')-Ia is reminiscent of the structures of other aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, having a two-domain architecture with the nucleotide-binding site located at the junction of the two domains. Unlike the previously characterized APH(2'')-IIa and APH(2'')-IVa enzymes, which are capable of utilizing both ATP and GTP as the phosphate donors, APH(2'')-Ia uses GTP exclusively in the phosphorylation of the aminoglycoside antibiotics, and in this regard closely resembles the GTP-dependent APH(2'')-IIIa enzyme. In APH(2'')-Ia this GTP selectivity is governed by the presence of a `gatekeeper' residue, Tyr100, the side chain of which projects into the active site and effectively blocks access to the adenine-binding template. Mutation of this tyrosine residue to a less bulky phenylalanine provides better access for ATP to the NTP-binding template and converts APH(2'')-Ia into a dual-specificity enzyme. PMID:24914967

Smith, Clyde A; Toth, Marta; Bhattacharya, Monolekha; Frase, Hilary; Vakulenko, Sergei B

2014-06-01

436

Bifunctional ectodermal stem cells around the nail display dual fate homeostasis and adaptive wounding response toward nail regeneration.  

PubMed

Regulation of adult stem cells (SCs) is fundamental for organ maintenance and tissue regeneration. On the body surface, different ectodermal organs exhibit distinctive modes of regeneration and the dynamics of their SC homeostasis remain to be unraveled. A slow cycling characteristic has been used to identify SCs in hair follicles and sweat glands; however, whether a quiescent population exists in continuously growing nails remains unknown. Using an in vivo label retaining cells (LRCs) system, we detected an unreported population of quiescent cells within the basal layer of the nail proximal fold, organized in a ring-like configuration around the nail root. These nail LRCs express the hair stem cell marker, keratin 15 (K15), and lineage tracing show that these K15-derived cells can contribute to both the nail structure and peri-nail epidermis, and more toward the latter. Thus, this stem cell population is bifunctional. Upon nail plucking injury, the homeostasis is tilted with these SCs dominantly delivering progeny to the nail matrix and differentiated nail plate, demonstrating their plasticity to adapt to wounding stimuli. Moreover, in vivo engraftment experiments established that transplanted nail LRCs can actively participate in functional nail regeneration. Transcriptional profiling of isolated nail LRCs revealed bone morphogenetic protein signaling favors nail differentiation over epidermal fate. Taken together, we have found a previously unidentified ring-configured population of bifunctional SCs, located at the interface between the nail appendage organ and adjacent epidermis, which physiologically display coordinated homeostatic dynamics but are capable of rediverting stem cell flow in response to injury. PMID:25277970

Leung, Yvonne; Kandyba, Eve; Chen, Yi-Bu; Ruffins, Seth; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Kobielak, Krzysztof

2014-10-21

437

Two Bifunctional Enzymes with Ferric Reduction Ability Play Complementary Roles during Magnetosome Synthesis in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1  

PubMed Central

The bacterial strain Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 does not produce siderophores, but it absorbs a large amount of ferric iron and synthesizes magnetosomes. We demonstrated previously the presence of six types of ferric reductase isozymes (termed FeR1 through FeR6) in MSR-1. Of these isozymes, FeR5 was the most abundant and FeR6 showed the highest ferric reductase activity. In the present study, we cloned the fer5 and fer6 genes from MSR-1 and expressed them separately in Escherichia coli. FeR5 and FeR6 were shown to be bifunctional enzymes through analysis of amino acid sequence homologies, structural predictions (using data from GenBank), and detection of enzyme activities. FeR5 is a thioredoxin reductase and FeR6 is a flavin reductase, in addition to being ferric reductases. To elucidate the functions of the enzymes, we constructed two single-gene-deletion mutant strains (?fer5 and ?fer6 mutants) and a double-gene-deletion mutant strain (?fer5 ?fer6 [?fer5+6] mutant) along with its complemented strains (C5 and C6). An evaluation of phenotypic and physiological properties did not reveal significant differences between the wild-type and single-gene-deletion strains, whereas the double-gene-deletion strain showed reduced iron absorption and no magnetosome synthesis. Complementation of the double-gene-deletion strain using either fer5 or fer6 resulted in the partial recovery of magnetosome synthesis. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of fer5 and fer6 transcriptional levels in the wild-type and complemented strains demonstrated consistent transcription of the two genes and confirmed that FeR5 and FeR6 are bifunctional enzymes that play complementary roles during the process of magnetosome synthesis in MSR-1. PMID:23243303

Zhang, Chan; Meng, Xia; Li, Ningxiao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yuan; Jiang, Wei; Guan, Guohua

2013-01-01

438

A novel bifunctional pectinase from Penicillium oxalicum SX6 with separate pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase catalytic domains.  

PubMed

A multimodular pectinase of glycoside hydrolase family 28, S6A, was identified in Penicillium oxalicum SX6 that consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain of pectin methylesterase, a Thr/Ser-rich linker region, and a C-terminal catalytic domain of polygalacturonase. Recombinant S6A and its two derivatives, S6PE (the catalytic domain of pectin methylesterase) and S6PG (the catalytic domain of polygalacturonase), were produced in Pichia pastoris. S6A was a bifunctional protein and had both pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase activities. Three enzymes showed similar biochemical properties, such as optimal pH and temperature (pH 5.0 and 50 °C) and excellent stability at pH 3.5-6.0 and 40 °C. Most metal ions tested (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Li(+), Co(2+), Cr(3+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+),Mg(2+), Fe(3+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+)) enhanced the pectin methylesterase activities of S6PE and S6A, but had little or inhibitory effects on the polygalacturonase activities of S6A and S6PG. In comparison with most fungal pectin methylesterases, S6A had higher specific activity (271.1 U/mg) towards 70 % DM citrus pectin. When S6PE and S6PG were combined at the activity ratio of 1:4, the most significant synergistic effect was observed in citrus pectin degradation and degumming of sisal fiber, which is comparable with the performance of S6A (95 v.s. 100 % and 16.9 v.s. 17.2 %, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first report of gene cloning, heterologous expression, and biochemical characterization of a bifunctional pectinase with separate catalytic domains. PMID:24584459

Tu, Tao; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Ma, Rui; Wang, Yaru; Shi, Pengjun; Yang, Peilong; Meng, Kun; Yao, Bin

2014-06-01

439

Degradable polyethylenimine derivate coupled to a bifunctional peptide R13 as a new gene-delivery vector  

PubMed Central

Background To solve the efficiency versus cytotoxicity and tumor-targeting problems of polyethylenimine (PEI) used as a nonviral gene delivery vector, a degradable PEI derivate coupled to a bifunctional peptide R13 was developed. Methods First, we synthesized a degradable PEI derivate by crosslinking low-molecular-weight PEI with pluronic P123, then used tumor-targeting peptide arginine-glycine-aspartate-cysteine (RGDC), in conjunction with the cell-penetrating peptide Tat (49–57), to yield a bifunctional peptide RGDC-Tat (49–57) named R13, which can improve cell selection and increase cellular uptake, and, lastly, adopted R13 to modify the PEI derivates so as to prepare a new polymeric gene vector (P123-PEI-R13). The new gene vector was characterized in terms of its chemical structure and biophysical parameters. We also investigated the specificity, cytotoxicity, and gene transfection efficiency of this vector in ?v?3-positive human cervical carcinoma Hela cells and murine melanoma B16 cells in vitro. Results The vector showed controlled degradation, strong targeting specificity to ?v?3 receptor, and noncytotoxicity in Hela cells and B16 cells at higher doses, in contrast to PEI 25 KDa. The particle size of P123-PEI-R13/DNA complexes was around 100–250 nm, with proper zeta potential. The nanoparticles can protect plasmid DNA from being digested by DNase I at a concentration of 6 U DNase I/?g DNA. The nanoparticles were resistant to dissociation induced by 50% fetal bovine serum and 600 ?g/mL sodium heparin. P123-PEI-R13 also revealed higher transfection efficiency in two cell lines as compared with PEI 25 KDa. Conclusion P123-PEI-R13 is a potential candidate as a safe and efficient gene-delivery carrier for gene therapy. PMID:22412301

Liu, Kehai; Wang, Xiaoyu; Fan, Wei; Zhu, Qing; Yang, Jingya; Gao, Jing; Gao, Shen

2012-01-01

440

A Ball Bearing Simulator—A Tool for Accelerated Testing of Self-lubricated Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special test station was designed and developed to examine self-lubricating composite wear rate and the mechanism of transfer film formation that occur in bearings operating with composite retainers. The apparatus is constructed to approximate (a) the sliding contact between the ball separator pockets and the balls and (b) the rolling contact between bearing balls and races. The ball bearing

Michael N. Gardos; Donald F. Preston

1977-01-01

441

DYNAMICS OF A ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEM EQUIPPED WITH A HYDRODYNAMIC THRUST BEARING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a hydrodynamic thrust bearing on the dynamics of a rotor-bearing system is investigated systematically in this paper. The action of a thrust bearing is described as forces and moments in a static state and a series of dynamic coefficients in a dynamic state which are calculated from the Reynolds equation and its perturbed forms by using the

P. L. JIANG; L. Yu

1999-01-01

442

Inbreeding depression in brown bear Ursus arctos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note reports the occurrence of inbreeding depression in a captive brown bear Ursus arctos population. We analyzed studbook records of brown bears bred in Nordic zoos and found a significant reduction in litter size following an increase of inbreeding. In addition, albinism is associated with inbreeding in this population. The amount of depression is compared to that found in

Linda Laikre; Robert Andrén; Hans-Ove Larsson; Nils Ryman

1996-01-01

443

Bearing couples in total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Total hip arthroplasty is a well-established treatment for arthritis of the hip. The choice of bearing couple used for articulation should be tailored to the patient. This article reviews the history of different bearing surfaces, and outlines the advantages and disadvantages that may influence their use. PMID:20852486

Tailor, Hiteshkumar; Patel, Shelain; Patel, Rahul V; Haddad, Fares S

2010-08-01

444

CHANGES IN MORTALITY OF YELLOWSTONE'S GRIZZLY BEARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) deaths are currently used by managers to indicate trends in actual grizzly bear mortality and to judge the effectiveness of management. Two assumptions underlie these current uses: first, that recorded mortality is an unbiased indicator of actual mortality, and second, that changes in mortality after implementation of management strategies are sufficient grounds to infer

DAVID J. MATTSON