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1

Radical initiated polymerization in a bifunctional mixture via computer simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulations are performed to study the polymerization behavior in a mixture of bifunctional groups such as olefins (A) and acrylates (B) in an effective solvent (a coarse description for vegetable oil derived macromonomers (VOMMs) in solution) on a cubic lattice. A set of interactions between these units and solvent (S) constituents and their relative concentrations (pA, pB, and pS) are considered. Samples are equilibrated with Metropolis algorithm to model the perceived behavior of VOMMs. The covalent bonding between monomeric units is then implemented via reaction pathways initiated by stochastic motion of free radicals (a very small fraction). The rate of reaction shows decay patterns with the time steps (t) with power laws (i.e., Rab?t-r, r?0.4-0.8), exponential decays (i.e., Rab?e-0.001t), and their combination. Growth of A-B bonding is studied as a function of polymer concentration p=pA+pB for four different model systems appropriate for VOMMs. The data from the free radical initiated simulations are compared to the original simulations with homopolymerization. While most of the data are consistent with experimental observations, the variations are found to be model dependent.

Diamond, Keri L.; Pandey, Ras B.; Thames, Shelby F.

2004-06-01

2

Concurrent initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM.  

PubMed

Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:22294884

Munguía, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

2010-01-01

3

DISTURBANCE AND INITIAL STATE UNCERTAINTY ATTENUATION CONTROL FOR MAGNETIC BEARINGS  

E-print Network

DISTURBANCE AND INITIAL STATE UNCERTAINTY ATTENUATION CONTROL FOR MAGNETIC BEARINGS Toru Namerikawa to the magnetic bear- ing and examines the H control problem, which treats a mixed Disturbance and an Initial, active magnetic bearings allow contract-free suspension of rotors and they are used for various

4

INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF A FORCE-SENSITIVE VIBRATION ISOLATION BEARING  

E-print Network

172 Chapter 6 INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF A FORCE-SENSITIVE VIBRATION ISOLATION BEARING The theoretical-sensitive vibration isolation bearing. The concept of such a device is described, together with the design and testing of a practical force-sensitive bearing for base-isolated buildings. 6.1. The Concept of a Force

Talbot, James P.

5

Bear Cub Fund The Bear Cub Fund was initiated by the Vice Chancellor for Research to support faculty in  

E-print Network

Bear Cub Fund The Bear Cub Fund was initiated by the Vice Chancellor for Research to support of Health, National Science Foundation or other sources. Bear Cub Fund awards are designed to support, 2011 APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS: The purpose of the Bear Cub award is to fund the development

Grant, Gregory

6

Recent advances in asymmetric organocatalysis mediated by bifunctional amine-thioureas bearing multiple hydrogen-bonding donors.  

PubMed

Organocatalysis has proven to be one of the most rapidly developing and competitive research areas in asymmetric catalysis since 2000, and has become a third branch besides biocatalysis and transition metal catalysis. In this feature article, recent progress from our research group on asymmetric organocatalysis, focusing on fine-tunable amine-thiourea catalysis, is described. Design of novel bifunctional amine-thiourea organocatalysts based upon the synergistic activation strategy via multiple hydrogen bonds and their applications in asymmetric C-C, C-N, and C-S bond-forming reactions under mild conditions are discussed in detail. The most attractive feature of the newly designed fine-tunable amine-thiourea catalysts is the incorporation of multiple hydrogen bonding donors and stereogenic centers. PMID:25364797

Fang, Xin; Wang, Chun-Jiang

2015-01-25

7

BEARS: A radioactive ion beam initiative at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

BEARS is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88'' Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88'' Cyclotron's Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min {sup 11}C and 70-sec {sup 14}O, produced by (p, n) and (p, {alpha}) reactions on low-Z targets. Tests at the 88'' Cyclotron lead to projections of initial {sup 11}C beams of 2x10{sup 8} ions/sec {sup 14}O beams of 1x10{sup 6} ions/sec. Construction of BEARS is expected to be completed in the spring of 1999.

Powell, J.; Guo, F. Q.; Joosten, R.; Larimer, R.-M.; Lyneis, C. M.; McMahan, P.; Moltz, D. M.; Norman, E. B.; O'Neil, J. P.; Rowe, M. W.; VanBrocklin, H. F.; Wutte, D.; Xie, Z. Q.; Xu, X. J.; Cerny, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Haustein, P. E. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1999-06-10

8

BEARS: A radioactive ion beam initiative at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

BEARS is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88{sup {double_prime}} Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88{sup {double_prime}} Cyclotron{close_quote}s Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min {sup 11}C and 70-sec {sup 14}O, produced by (p, n) and (p, {alpha}) reactions on low-Z targets. Tests at the 88{sup {double_prime}} Cyclotron lead to projections of initial {sup 11}C beams of 2{times}10{sup 8}&hthinsp;ions/sec {sup 14}O beams of 1{times}10{sup 6}&hthinsp;ions/sec. Construction of BEARS is expected to be completed in the spring of 1999. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Powell, J.; Guo, F.Q.; Joosten, R.; Larimer, R.-M.; Lyneis, C.M.; McMahan, P.; Moltz, D.M.; Norman, E.B.; O`Neil, J.P.; Rowe, M.W.; VanBrocklin, H.F.; Wutte, D.; Xie, Z.Q.; Xu, X.J.; Cerny, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] Haustein, P.E. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1999-06-01

9

Bears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the characteristics of grizzly/brown bears and black bears? As you view the websites, please use this chart to record what you are learning about grizzly bears and black bears. For each bear, you should list 5 characteristics. Grizzly Bear and Black Bear Chart We will first begin by learning about black bears. Please go to these websites to learn some important facts about black bears. Black Bears Facts and Image Black Bear Facts for Kids Now that you have learned ...

Bledsoe, Miss

2011-04-07

10

Sequential Bearings-Only-Tracking Initiation with Particle Filtering Method  

PubMed Central

The tracking initiation problem is examined in the context of autonomous bearings-only-tracking (BOT) of a single appearing/disappearing target in the presence of clutter measurements. In general, this problem suffers from a combinatorial explosion in the number of potential tracks resulted from the uncertainty in the linkage between the target and the measurement (a.k.a the data association problem). In addition, the nonlinear measurements lead to a non-Gaussian posterior probability density function (pdf) in the optimal Bayesian sequential estimation framework. The consequence of this nonlinear/non-Gaussian context is the absence of a closed-form solution. This paper models the linkage uncertainty and the nonlinear/non-Gaussian estimation problem jointly with solid Bayesian formalism. A particle filtering (PF) algorithm is derived for estimating the model's parameters in a sequential manner. Numerical results show that the proposed solution provides a significant benefit over the most commonly used methods, IPDA and IMMPDA. The posterior Cramér-Rao bounds are also involved for performance evaluation. PMID:24453865

Hao, Chengpeng

2013-01-01

11

Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of both enantiomers of 4?substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines with the use of bifunctional thiourea-ammonium salts bearing different counterions.  

PubMed

Organoammonium salts composed of a Brønsted acid and an anilinothiourea promoted the Michael addition of ß-keto esters and ?,ß-unsaturated aldehydes in the presence of primary amines to give functionalized 1,4-dihydropyridines enantioselectively. With the use of the different Brønsted acids such as DFA and HBF(4) with the same bifunctional thiourea, both enantiomers of 4-substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine were synthesized from the same starting materials. PMID:21079568

Yoshida, Kohzo; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Takasu, Kiyosei; Takemoto, Yoshiji

2010-11-01

12

75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...bearings, cylindrical roller bearings, and spherical plain bearings and parts...Bearings, Cylindrical Roller Bearings, and Spherical Plain Bearings and Parts...orders on cylindrical roller bearings and spherical plain bearings and...

2010-01-21

13

77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear Group, LLC's application for market-based rate...

2012-08-09

14

78 FR 50410 - Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2143-000] Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC's application for...

2013-08-19

15

78 FR 2984 - Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-733-000] Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Silver Bear Power, LLC's application for market-based rate...

2013-01-15

16

Bears, Bears, Bears!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are some things you learned about bears? Use these websites to find out about bears: Parts of a Bear Polar Bears Real Story of the Three Bears The truth about bears Brown Bears Now fill in your chart! Bear Fact Sheet Listen to your teacher for further instruction on completing a book about bears! ...

Ms.beason

2011-04-16

17

76 FR 10335 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...published an antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany on May 15, 1989. See Antidumping Duty Orders: Ball Bearings, Cylindrical Roller Bearings, and Spherical Plain Bearings and Parts Thereof From...

2011-02-24

18

77 FR 66975 - Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-203-000] Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Black Bear SO, LLC's application for market-based rate...

2012-11-08

19

Bifunctional Asymmetric Catalysis  

PubMed Central

CONSPECTUS In the field of catalytic, asymmetric synthesis, there is a growing emphasis on multifunctional systems, in which multiple parts of a catalyst or multiple catalysts work together to promote a specific reaction. These efforts, in part, are result-driven, and they are also part of a movement toward emulating the efficiency and selectivity of nature’s catalysts, enzymes. In this Account, we illustrate the importance of bifunctional catalytic methods, focusing on the cooperative action of Lewis acidic and Lewis basic catalysts by the simultaneous activation of both electrophilic and nucleophilic reaction partners. For our part, we have contributed three separate bifunctional methods that combine achiral Lewis acids with chiral cinchona alkaloid nucleophiles, for example, benzoylquinine (BQ), to catalyze highly enantioselective cycloaddition reactions between ketene enolates and various electrophiles. Each method requires a distinct Lewis acid to coordinate and activate the electrophile, which in turn increases the reaction rates and yields, without any detectable influence on the outstanding enantioselectivities inherent to these reactions. To place our results in perspective, many important contributions to this emerging field are highlighted and our own reports are chronicled. PMID:18402470

PAULL, DANIEL H.; ABRAHAM, CIBY J.; SCERBA, MICHAEL T.; ALDEN-DANFORTH, ETHAN; LECTKA, THOMAS

2008-01-01

20

VARIATIONAL CONVERGENCE OF BIFUNCTIONS - Optimization ...  

E-print Network

theory of lopsided convergence for bifunctions to derive a variety of stability results for each one of ..... case when the economy also includes producers [3]. ...... There is an extensive literature dealing with the local behavior of the solutions to ...

2011-01-28

21

Initiation and propagation of coagulation from tissue factor-bearing cell monolayers to plasma: initiator cells do not regulate spatial growth rate.  

PubMed

Exposure of tissue factor (TF)-bearing cells to blood is the initial event in coagulation and intravascular thrombus formation. However, the mechanisms which determine thrombus growth remain poorly understood. To explore whether the procoagulant activity of vessel wall-bound cells regulates thrombus expansion, we studied in vitro spatial clot growth initiated by cultured human cells of different types in contact pathway-inhibited, non-flowing human plasma. Human aortic endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages and lung fibroblasts differed in their ability to support thrombin generation in microplate assay with peaks of generated thrombin of 60 +/- 53 nmol L(-1), 135 +/- 57 nmol L(-1), 218 +/- 55 nmol L(-1) and 407 +/- 59 nmol L(-1) (mean +/- SD), respectively. Real-time videomicroscopy revealed the initiation and spatial growth phases of clot formation. Different procoagulant activity of cell monolayers was manifested as up to 4-fold difference in the lag times of clot formation. In contrast, the clot growth rate, which characterized propagation of clotting from the cell surface to plasma, was largely independent of cell type (< or = 30% difference). Experiments with factor VII (FVII)-, FVIII-, FX- or FXI-deficient plasmas and annexin V revealed that (i) cell surface-associated extrinsic Xase was critical for initiation of clotting; (ii) intrinsic Xase regulated only the growth phase; and (iii) the contribution of plasma phospholipid surfaces in the growth phase was predominant. We conclude that the role of TF-bearing initiator cells is limited to the initial stage of clot formation. The functioning of intrinsic Xase in plasma provides the primary mechanism of sustained and far-ranging propagation of coagulation leading to the physical expansion of a fibrin clot. PMID:15670039

Ovanesov, M V; Ananyeva, N M; Panteleev, M A; Ataullakhanov, F I; Saenko, E L

2005-02-01

22

Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of Cyclopentanes bearing Four Stereocenters by a Rhodium Carbene–Initiated Domino Sequence  

PubMed Central

Stereoselective synthesis of a cyclopentane nucleus by convergent annulations constitutes a significant challenge for synthetic chemists. Though a number of biologically relevant cyclopentane natural products are known, more often than not, the cyclopentane core is assembled in a stepwise fashion due to lack of efficient annulation strategies. Herein, we report the rhodium-catalyzed reactions of vinyldiazoacetates with (E)-1,3-disubstituted 2-butenols generate cyclopentanes, containing four new stereogenic centers with very high levels of stereoselectivity (99% ee, >97 : 3 dr). The reaction proceeds by a carbene–initiated domino sequence consisting of five distinct steps: rhodium–bound oxonium ylide formation, [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, oxy-Cope rearrangement, enol–keto tautomerization, and finally an intramolecular carbonyl ene reaction. A systematic study is presented detailing how to control chirality transfer in each of the four stereo-defining steps of the cascade, consummating in the development of a highly stereoselective process. PMID:25082301

Parr, Brendan T.; Davies, Huw M. L.

2014-01-01

23

Poly(ether-ether-ketone) orthopedic bearing surface modified by self-initiated surface grafting of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine).  

PubMed

We investigated the production of free radicals on a poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) substrate under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The amount of the ketyl radicals produced from the benzophenone (BP) units in the PEEK molecular structure initially increased rapidly and then became almost constant. Our observations revealed that the BP units in PEEK acted as photoinitiators, and that it was possible to use them to control the graft polymerization of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC). This "self-initiated surface graft polymerization" method is very convenient in the absence of external photoinitiator. We also investigated the effects of the monomer concentration and UV irradiation time on the extent of the grafted PMPC layer. Furthermore, as an application to improving the durability of artificial hips, we demonstrated the nanometer-scale photoinduced grafting of PMPC onto PEEK and carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK (CFR-PEEK) orthopedic bearing surfaces and interfaces. A variety of test revealed significant improvements in the water wettability, frictional properties, and wear resistance of the surfaces and interfaces. PMID:23891520

Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Yamane, Shihori; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

2013-10-01

24

Local-global properties of bifunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representations of composite systems, such as bilinear programming, models of consumer\\/producer behavior, and sensitivity problems involve bifunctions (functions of two vector arguments). Such bifunctions are typically convex, pseudoconvex, or quasiconvex in each of their arguments, but not jointly convex, pseudoconvex, or quasiconvex. These functions do not in general possess the strong local-global property, namely, that every stationary point is a

Z. First; S. T. Hackman; U. Passy

1992-01-01

25

Photo-induced sequence defined macromolecules via hetero bifunctional synthons.  

PubMed

We report the first photochemical protocol for the generation of sequence defined macromolecules employing two hetero bifunctional photoreactive synthons, exploiting the orthogonal nature of photochemical - via the use of caged dienes - and thermally driven ligation protocols. We demonstrate that the iterative alternating synthon addition to an initial bifunctional core under irradiation at ambient temperature enables the generation of a macromolecule with up to 10 units (M = 3231.58 g mol(-1), ? = 1.00). The resulting macromolecules are monodisperse and feature absolute chain end fidelity. The unit-by-unit construction of the macromolecule is evidenced by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Size Exclusion Chromatography. The fundamental principle demonstrated herein paves the way for employing photochemical strategies for the design of sequence defined polymers. PMID:25500626

Zydziak, Nicolas; Feist, Florian; Huber, Birgit; Mueller, Jan O; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

2015-01-20

26

Tailored bifunctional polymer for plutonium monitoring.  

PubMed

Monitoring of actinides with sophisticated conventional methods is affected by matrix interferences, spectral interferences, isobaric interferences, polyatomic interferences, and abundance sensitivity problems. To circumvent these limitations, a self-supported disk and membrane-supported bifunctional polymer were tailored in the present work for acidity-dependent selectivity toward Pu(IV). The bifunctional polymer was found to be better than the polymer containing either a phosphate group or a sulfonic acid group in terms of (i) higher Pu(IV) sorption efficiency at 3-4 mol L(-1) HNO3, (ii) selective preconcentration of Pu(IV) in the presence of a trivalent actinide such as Am(III), and (iii) preferential sorption of Pu(IV) in the presence of a large excess of U(VI). The bifunctional polymer was formed as a self-supported matrix by bulk polymerization and also as a 1-2 ?m thin layer anchored on a microporous poly(ether sulfone) by surface grafting. The proportions of sulfonic acid and phosphate groups in both the self-supported disk and membrane-supported bifunctional polymer were found to be the same as expected from the mole proportions of monomers in polymerizing solutions used for syntheses. ? radiography by a solid-state nuclear track detector indicated fairly homogeneous anchoring of the bifunctional polymer on the surface of the membrane. Pu(IV) preconcentrated on a single bifunctional bead was used for determination of the Pu isotopic composition by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The membrane-supported bifunctional polymer was used for preconcentration and subsequent quantification of Pu(IV) by ? spectrometry using the absolute efficiency at a fixed counting geometry. The analytical performance of the membrane-supported-bifunctional-polymer-based ? spectrometry method was found to be highly reproducible for assay of Pu(IV) in a variety of complex samples. PMID:24901969

Paul, Sumana; Pandey, Ashok K; Kumar, Pranaw; Kaity, Santu; Aggarwal, Suresh K

2014-07-01

27

A bifunctional nanocarrier based on amphiphilic hyperbranched polyglycerol derivatives  

E-print Network

A bifunctional nanocarrier based on amphiphilic hyperbranched polyglycerol derivatives Indah N here report on the synthesis of a bifunctional nanocarrier system based on amphiphilic hyperbranched treatment. Introduction Nanocarrier systems based on amphiphilic macromolecules for drug delivery have

Peters, Achim

28

Contrast-enhanced MRI-guided photodynamic cancer therapy with a pegylated bifunctional polymer conjugate  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study contrast-enhanced MRI guided photodynamic therapy with a pegylated bifunctional polymer conjugate containing an MRI contrast agent and a photosensitizer for minimally invasive image-guided cancer treatment. Methods Pegylated and non-pegylated poly-(L-glutamic acid) conjugates containing mesochlorin e6, a photosensitizer, and Gd(III)-DO3A, an MRI contrast agent, were synthesized. The effect of pegylation on the biodistribution and tumor targeting was non-invasively visualized in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts with MRI. MRI-guided photodynamic therapy was carried out in the tumor bearing mice. Tumor response to photodynamic therapy was evaluated by dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and histological analysis. Results The pegylated conjugate had longer blood circulation, lower liver uptake and higher tumor accumulation than the non-pegylated conjugate as shown by MRI. Site-directed laser irradiation of tumors resulted in higher therapeutic efficacy for the pegylated conjugate than the non-pegylated conjugate. Moreover, animals treated with photodynamic therapy showed reduced vascular permeability on DCE-MRI and decreased microvessel density in histological analysis. Conclusions Pegylation of the polymer bifunctional conjugates reduced non-specific liver uptake and increased tumor uptake, resulting in significant tumor contrast enhancement and high therapeutic efficacy. The pegylated poly(L-glutamic acid) bifunctional conjugate is promising for contrast enhanced MRI guided photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment. PMID:18584312

Vaidya, Anagha; Sun, Yongen; Feng, Yi; Emerson, Lyska; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Lu, Zheng-Rong

2008-01-01

29

Genetics Home Reference: D-bifunctional protein deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... D-bifunctional protein is found in sac-like cell structures (organelles) called peroxisomes, which contain a variety of enzymes that break down many different substances. The D-bifunctional protein is involved in the ... gene mutations that cause D-bifunctional protein ...

30

Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Arabidopsis Bifunctional Enzyme Dethiobiotin  

E-print Network

Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Arabidopsis Bifunctional Enzyme Dethiobiotin by a single enzyme encoded by a bifunctional gene originating from the fusion of prokaryotic monofunctional of a bifunctional enzyme in biotin synthesis pathway in eukaryotes and the relative implication of each

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

Polar Bears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the following websites to answer questions about the rapid disappearance of polar bears in the Arctic region. Polar Bear picture Polar Bear Tracker 1: What region in the world has the fewest polar bears? 2: Using the internet as a resource, provide some reasons as to why this region is suffering from the most polar bear differences? Polar Bears Change Diet 1: Why are polar bears having to change their diets? 2: List some other factors (besides diet) in the ...

Thomas, Mr.

2010-09-27

32

Bearing system  

DOEpatents

A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

Kapich, Davorin D. (Carlsbad, CA)

1987-01-01

33

Bear Spray Safety Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

2009-01-01

34

Polar Bear Polar Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will listen for key details in a nonfiction text about polar bears. They will work at completing a graphic organizer with the teacher to help organize their thinking and understanding of key details about a text. They will also complete an independent assignment where they will draw or write two things that they learned about the topic.

Burgess, Kelly

2012-09-11

35

Bifunctional Photoacids: Remote Protonation Affecting Chemical Reactivity.  

PubMed

Reversible protonation (deprotonation) of a side-group is a useful and convenient way to affect the reactivity of large organic and biological molecules. We use bifunctional photoacids to demonstrate how the protonation state of a basic side-group (COO(-)) controls the reactivity of the main acidic group of the photoacid (OH), both in the ground and the electronic excited state of 6-carboxy derivatives of 2-naphthol. PMID:25369117

Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Pines, Dina; Huppert, Dan; Pines, Ehud

2014-11-19

36

Bear Scratch  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

When looking for a place to set up a trapping location, scientists look for existing bear sign such as scratches on trees and bear scat. Sometimes traps are set in areas that have no obvious bear sign to determine if indeed bears are present....

37

Development of Benzophenone-Alkyne Bifunctional Sigma Receptor Ligands  

PubMed Central

Sigma (?) receptors represent unique non-opioid binding sites that are associated with a broad range of disease states. Sigma-2 receptors provide a promising target for diagnostic imaging and pharmacological interventions to curb tumor progression. Most recently, the progesterone receptor (PGRMC1, 25 kDa) has been identified to contain ?2 receptor-like binding properties, highlighting the need to understand the biological function of an 18-kDa protein that exhibits ?2-like photoaffinity labeling (herein denoted as ?2-18k) but the amino acid sequence of which is not known. In order to provide novel tools for the study of the ?2-18k protein, we have developed bifunctional sigma receptor ligands that bear a benzophenone photo-crosslinking moiety and an alkyne group, to which an azide-containing biotin affinity tag can be covalently attached via click chemistry following photo-crosslink. While several compounds showed favorable ?2 binding properties, compound 22 exhibited the highest affinity (2 nM) and the greatest potency in blocking photolabeling of the ?2-18k by a radioactive photoaffinity ligand. Thus, these benzophenone-alkyne sigma receptor ligands may be amenable for studying the ?2-18k protein via chemical biology approaches. To our knowledge, these compounds represent the first reported benzophenone-containing clickable sigma receptor ligands, which may potentially serve broad applications by “plugging” in various tags. PMID:23001760

Guo, Lian-Wang; Hajipour, Abdol R.; Karaoglu, Kerim; Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Ruoho, Arnold E.

2012-01-01

38

Tethering metal ions to photocatalyst particulate surfaces by bifunctional molecular linkers for efficient hydrogen evolution.  

PubMed

A simple and versatile method for the preparation of photocatalyst particulates modified with effective cocatalysts is presented; the method involves the sequential soaking of photocatalyst particulates in solutions containing bifunctional organic linkers and metal ions. The modification of the particulate surfaces is a universal and reproducible method because the molecular linkers utilize strong covalent bonds, which in turn result in modified monolayer with a small but controlled quantity of metals. The photocatalysis results indicated that the CdS with likely photochemically reduced Pd and Ni, which were initially immobilized via ethanedithiol (EDT) as a linker, were highly efficient for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from Na2S-Na2SO3-containing aqueous solutions. The method developed in this study opens a new synthesis route for the preparation of effective photocatalysts with various combinations of bifunctional linkers, metals, and photocatalyst particulate materials. PMID:25138439

Yu, Weili; Isimjan, Tayirjan; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Anjum, Dalaver H; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Cavallo, Luigi; Garcia-Esparza, Angel T; Domen, Kazunari; Xu, Wei; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

2014-09-01

39

Bifunctional nanoarrays for probing the immune response at the single-molecule level.  

PubMed

Bifunctional nanoarrays were created to simulate the immunological synapse and probe the T-cell immune response at the single-molecule level. Sub-5?nm AuPd nanodot arrays were fabricated using both e-beam and nanoimprint lithography. The nanoarrays were then functionalized by two costimulatory molecules: antibody UCHT1 Fab, which binds to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and activates the immune response, bound to metallic nanodots; and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which enhances cell adhesion, on the surrounding area. Initial T-cell experiments show successful attachment and activation on the bifunctional nanoarrays. This nanoscale platform for single-molecule control of TCR in living T-cells provides a new approach to explore how its geometric arrangement affects T-cell activation and behavior, with potential applications in immunotherapy. This platform also serves as a general model for single-molecule nanoarrays where more than one molecular species is required. PMID:24353927

Cai, Haogang; Depoil, David; Palma, Matteo; Sheetz, Michael P; Dustin, Michael L; Wind, Shalom J

2013-11-01

40

Bifunctional nanoarrays for probing the immune response at the single-molecule level  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional nanoarrays were created to simulate the immunological synapse and probe the T-cell immune response at the single-molecule level. Sub-5?nm AuPd nanodot arrays were fabricated using both e-beam and nanoimprint lithography. The nanoarrays were then functionalized by two costimulatory molecules: antibody UCHT1 Fab, which binds to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and activates the immune response, bound to metallic nanodots; and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which enhances cell adhesion, on the surrounding area. Initial T-cell experiments show successful attachment and activation on the bifunctional nanoarrays. This nanoscale platform for single-molecule control of TCR in living T-cells provides a new approach to explore how its geometric arrangement affects T-cell activation and behavior, with potential applications in immunotherapy. This platform also serves as a general model for single-molecule nanoarrays where more than one molecular species is required. PMID:24353927

Cai, Haogang; Depoil, David; Palma, Matteo; Sheetz, Michael P.; Dustin, Michael L.; Wind, Shalom J.

2013-01-01

41

Bifunctional redox tagging of carbon nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite extensive work on the controlled surface modification of carbon with redox moieties, to date almost all available methodologies involve complex chemistry and are prone to the formation of polymerized multi-layer surface structures. Herein, the facile bifunctional redox tagging of carbon nanoparticles (diameter 27 nm) and its characterization is undertaken using the industrial dye Reactive Blue 2. The modification route is demonstrated to be via exceptionally strong physisorption. The modified carbon is found to exhibit both well-defined oxidative and reductive voltammetric redox features which are quantitatively interpreted. The method provides a generic approach to monolayer modifications of carbon and carbon nanoparticle surfaces.

Poon, Jeffrey; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Tschulik, Kristina; Palgrave, Robert G.; Compton, Richard G.

2015-01-01

42

Polar Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) International provides general information about polar bears as well as data on the movements of two radio-collared bears, along with the ice status, through a series of online maps.

2007-01-01

43

A new look at Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata of the East Midlands, UK: initial data from the Smalley open pit mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outcrops of Pennsylvanian (Duckmantian) age coal-bearing strata in the East Midlands of England are rare and have become rarer as more of the surface environment has been developed. Much of the stratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental interpretation of these strata have thus been based on subsurface data from deep mine workings and coal exploration boreholes. However, in 2009, coal mining commenced at an open pit mine near Smalley, east Derbyshire in the UK East Midlands. The mine provides a unique opportunity to carry out examination of a large-scale outcrop of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in order to undertake detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. The coals that will be exposed during working belong to the Waterloo group of seams of Duckmantian age. Initial examination of the workings has been concentrated on two successive intervals: from the basal Third Waterloo Seam to the Bottom Second Waterloo seam, and the from above the Bottom Second Waterloo seam to the Top Second Waterloo seam. The two inter-seam intervals are approximately 10-12 meters thick. Examination of the coal seams and inter-seam intervals will continue as new faces are exposed, supplemented by exploration drilling data. Initial field observations on the first sections exposed suggest that the two inter-seam intervals represent the infill of lakes formed on a fluvio-lacustrine plain, with negligible marine influence. The strata immediately above the Third Waterloo Seam consist of dark grey fissile shaly mudrocks overlain by an upward coarsening sequence of pale grey siltstones with sandy laminae and current ripples indicating unidirectional tractional flows. These pass upwards into rippled fine sandstones, cut by shallow channels towards the top. The overall inter-seam sequence is interpreted as the deposits of a lacustrine delta system that infilled a shallow lake that was initially anoxic. Once the lake had been infilled, a peat mire was able to form, now represented by the Bottom Second Waterloo Seam. The interval between the Bottom and Top Waterloo Seams contains an upward-coarsening sequence of laminated siltstones, overlain by a series of sharp-based rippled sandstones, each up to about 60 cm thick. The sharp based sandstones are interpreted as being crevasse splay deposits, which would have been fed by a nearby fluvial channel, which has not yet been located. As additional exposures are created during the lifetime of the mine, the temporal, spatial and environmental relationships of the coals and inter-seam strata will be investigated further by recording stratigraphic sections and directional data and producing photo panels. This should enable detailed paleoenvironmental reconstructions for each of the intervals investigated, which will be considered in the light of recent research on analogous ancient and recent environments. Data from adjacent former mines and coal exploration boreholes containing lateral continuations of the intervals examined will then allow the Smalley mine geology to be placed within the regional context of the East Midlands Coalfield, and enable us to consider broad scale paleoenvironmental variation across the area. It is anticipated that by enhancing our understanding of inter-seam deposits, prediction of geological conditions ahead of mining will be improved.

Sian Davies-Vollum, K.; Guion, Paul; Satterfield, Dorothy; Suthren, Roger

2010-05-01

44

Bearing fatigue investigation 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operating characteristics of large diameter rolling-element bearings in the ultra high speed regimes expected in advanced turbine engines for high performance aircraft were investigated. A high temperature lubricant, DuPont Krytox 143 AC, was evaluated at bearing speeds to 3 million DN. Compared to the results of earlier, similar tests using a MIL-L-23699 (Type II) lubricant, bearings lubricated with the high density Krytox fluid showed significantly higher power requirements. Additionally, short bearing lives were observed when this fluid was used with AISI M50 bearings in an air atmosphere. The primary mode of failure was corrosion initiated surface distress (fatigue) on the raceways. The potential of a case-carburized bearing to sustain a combination of high-tangential and hertzian stresses without experiencing race fracture was also investigated. Limited full scale bearing tests of a 120 mm bore ball bearing at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) indicated that a carburized material could sustain spalling fatigue without subsequent propagation to fracture. Planned life tests of the carburized material had to be aborted, however, because of apparent processing-induced material defects.

Nahm, A. H.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H. R.

1982-01-01

45

Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

2005-01-01

46

Thrust bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas lubricated thrust bearing is described which employs relatively rigid inwardly cantilevered spokes carrying a relatively resilient annular member or annulus. This annulus acts as a beam on which are mounted bearing pads. The resilience of the beam mount causes the pads to accept the load and, with proper design, responds to a rotating thrust-transmitting collar by creating a gas film between the pads and the thrust collar. The bearing may be arranged for load equalization thereby avoiding the necessity of gimbal mounts or the like for the bearing. It may also be arranged to respond to rotation in one or both directions.

Anderson, W. J. (inventor)

1976-01-01

47

Good bearings reduce downtime  

SciTech Connect

Points out that a poorly maintained $100 bearing can hold up the operation of a $1-million conveyor. Of all the moving parts in a coal conveyor system, few cost less or last longer than anti-friction bearings. Most modern conveyor systems are equipped with 2 types of bearings: troughing idlers, spaced at regular intervals to support the conveyor belt as it travels throughout the system, and the adaptermounted spherical roller bearing pillow blocks that are used in the head, tail, bend and takeup pulleys that drive, alter the direction of, or regulate tension in the belt to allow for repairs or splicing. Explains how pillow blocks should handle radial or axial loads, how to mount bearings correctly, and how rings prevent infiltration. Concludes that by making certain that the proper bearing types are built into the system initially, or used as replacements in case of failures, paying close attention to installation procedures and devoting adequate time to maintenance, conveyor system bearings can provide decades of problem-free service.

Kinney, J.; Foster, J.

1982-12-01

48

Bearing Cartridge Designed To Reduce Wear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bearing cartridge holding outer races of two ball bearings in turbopump designed to prevent unloading of bearings during operating transients. Cartridge and bearings replace two ball bearings, whose outer races mounted in cylinder called "isolator" and preloaded by single spring mount holding isolator and reacting radial loads. Cartridge slides axially in bore of isolator during transients and forces outer races to move as pair. Necessary to eliminate unloading because unloading initiates wear.

Krieg, Eric J.

1992-01-01

49

Polar Bear  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polar bears are long-lived, late-maturing carnivores that have relatively low rates of reproduction and natural mortality. Their populations are susceptible to disturbance from human activities, such as the exploration and development of mineral resources or hunting. Polar bear populations have been an important renewable resource available to coastal communities throughout the Arctic for thousands of years.

Amstrup, S.D.; DeMaster

1988-01-01

50

An Efficient Bifunctional Decadentate Ligand 3p-C-DEPA for Targeted Alpha Radioimmunotherapy Applications  

PubMed Central

A new bifunctional ligand 3p-C-DEPA was synthesized and evaluated for use in targeted alpha radioimmunotherapy. 3p-C-DEPA was efficiently prepared via regiospecific ring opening of an aziridinium ion and conjugated with trastuzumab. The 3p-C-DEPA-trastuzumab conjugate was extremely rapid in binding 205/6Bi, and the corresponding 205/6Bi-3p-C-DEPA-trastuzumab complex was stable in human serum. Biodistribution studies were performed to evaluate in vivo stability and tumor targeting of 205/6Bi-3p-C-DEPA-trastuzumab conjugate in tumor bearing athymic mice. 205/6Bi-3p-C-DEPA-trastuzumab conjugate displayed excellent in vivo stability and targeting as evidenced by low organ uptake and high tumor uptake. The results of the in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that 3p-C-DEPA is a promising chelator for radioimmunotherapy of 212Bi and 213Bi. PMID:21604692

Song, Hyun A; Kang, Chi Soo; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Milenic, Diane E.; Chen, Yunwei; Dai, Anzhi; Brechbiel, M. W.; Chong, Hyun-Soon

2011-01-01

51

Magnetic Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AVCON, Inc. produces advanced magnetic bearing systems for industrial use, offering a unique technological approach based on contract work done at Marshall Space Flight Center and Lewis Research Center. Designed for the turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine, they are now used in applications such as electric power generation, petroleum refining, machine tool operation and natural gas pipelines. Magnetic bearings support moving machinery without physical contact; AVCON's homopolar approach is a hybrid of permanent and electromagnets which are one-third the weight, smaller and more power- efficient than previous magnetic bearings.

1996-01-01

52

Astaxanthin diferulate as a bifunctional antioxidant.  

PubMed

Abstract Astaxanthin when esterified with ferulic acid is better singlet oxygen quencher with k2 = (1.58 ± 0.1) 10(10) L mol(- 1)s(- 1) in ethanol at 25°C compared with astaxanthin with k2 = (1.12 ± 0.01) 10(9) L mol(- 1)s(- 1). The ferulate moiety in the astaxanthin diester is a better radical scavenger than free ferulic acid as seen from the rate constant of scavenging of 1-hydroxyethyl radicals in ethanol at 25°C with a second-order rate constant of (1.68 ± 0.1) 10(8) L mol(- 1)s(- 1) compared with (1.60 ± 0.03) 10(7) L mol(- 1)s(- 1) for the astaxanthin:ferulic acid mixture, 1:2 equivalents. The mutual enhancement of antioxidant activity for the newly synthetized astaxanthin diferulate becoming a bifunctional antioxidant is rationalized according to a two-dimensional classification plot for electron donation and electron acceptance capability. PMID:25363553

Papa, T B R; Pinho, V D; Nascimento, E S P do; Santos, W G; Burtoloso, A C B; Skibsted, L H; Cardoso, D R

2015-01-01

53

Fluorescent labeling of calmodulin with bifunctional rhodamine.  

PubMed

Polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (polTIRFM) can be used to detect the spatial orientation and rotational dynamics of single molecules. polTIRFM determines the three-dimensional angular orientation and the extent of wobble of a fluorescent probe bound to the macromolecule of interest. This protocol describes how to label chicken calmodulin (CaM) with bifunctional rhodamine (BR) at two engineered cysteine (Cys) residues (P66C and A73C) so that it cross-links the two Cys sites. The resulting BR-CaM protein is then purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and concentrated by filter centrifugation. To confirm that the two Cys residues in the labeled CaM are actually cross-linked by BR, a sample of purified BR-CaM is digested by an endoproteinase and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The BR-CaM can then be used to label myosin V, which can in turn be used in a polTIRFM processive motility assay. PMID:22550304

Beausang, John F; Sun, Yujie; Quinlan, Margot E; Forkey, Joseph N; Goldman, Yale E

2012-05-01

54

Foil bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

Elrod, David A.

1993-11-01

55

Foil bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

Elrod, David A.

1993-01-01

56

Designing bifunctional NOP receptor-mu opioid receptor ligands from NOP receptor-selective scaffolds. Part I.  

PubMed

The nociceptin receptor (NOP) and its endogenous agonist, nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), members of the opioid receptor and peptide families respectively, modulate the pharmacological effects of classical opioids, particularly opioid-induced reward and nociception. We hypothesized that compounds containing both NOP and opioid receptor activity in a single molecule may have useful pharmacological profiles as non-addicting analgesics or as drug abuse medications. We report here our forays into the structure-activity relationships for discovering 'bifunctional' NOP-mu opioid receptor (MOP) ligands, starting from our NOP-selective scaffolds. This initial SAR suggests pharmacophoric elements that may be modified to modulate/increase opioid affinity, while maintaining high affinity for the NOP receptor, to result in potent bifunctional small-molecule NOP/MOP ligands. PMID:23623415

Zaveri, Nurulain T; Jiang, Faming; Olsen, Cris; Polgar, Willma E; Toll, Lawrence

2013-06-01

57

Designing Bifunctional NOP receptor-mu opioid receptor ligands from NOP receptor-selective scaffolds. Part I  

PubMed Central

The nociceptin receptor (NOP) and its endogenous agonist, nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), members of the opioid receptor and peptide families respectively, modulate the pharmacological effects of classical opioids, particularly opioid-induced reward and nociception. We hypothesized that compounds containing both NOP and opioid receptor activity in a single molecule may have useful pharmacological profiles as non-addicting analgesics or as drug abuse medications. We report here our forays into the structure-activity relationships for discovering `bifunctional' NOP-mu opioid receptor (MOP) ligands, starting from our NOP-selective scaffolds. This initial SAR suggests pharmacophoric elements that may be modified to modulate/increase opioid affinity, while maintaining high affinity for the NOP receptor, to result in potent bifunctional small-molecule NOP/MOP ligands. PMID:23623415

Zaveri, Nurulain; Jiang, Faming; Olsen, Cris; Polgar, Willma; Toll, Lawrence

2013-01-01

58

Cave Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Decoding an ancient cave bear. A two-ton, thirteen-foot cave bear, extinct for ten thousand years, has just experienced a rebirth of sorts. From a tooth and a bone, scientists have recovered its entire genetic code.Eddy Rubin, director of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute, says finding genuine cave bear DNA was like looking for a needle in a haystack. The haystack were all the other organisms that were living in the bones and in the tooth of this ancient creature. And the needle was the little bit of the ancient creature's genome DNA, or genes.They used state-of-the-art computer technology to separate the bear genes from the clutter. Jurassic Park fans should note that they can't clone a new cave bear, nor can they recover DNA from creatures as old as the dinosaurs. But they do hope to reconstruct the genetic code of Neanderthals, our closest non-human relatives, to better understand how our own species evolved. This resource contains detailed text description of the research as well as likes for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2005-08-15

59

Availability of ground water for large-scale use in the Malad Valley-Bear River areas of southeastern Idaho: an initial assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five areas within the Bear River drainage of southeastern Idaho offer potential for further development of ground water--the valley north of Bear Lake, north of Soda Springs, Gem Valley, Cache Valley in Idaho, and Malad Valley in Idaho. Saturated deposits north of Bear Lake are too fine-textured to yield large quantities to wells; the areas north of Soda Springs and in Gem Valley would provide large yields, but at the expense of current beneficial discharge. Northern Cache Valley has small areas of high yield in the northwestern part, but total annual yield would be only about 20,000 acre-feet and seasonal water-level fluctuation would be large. Malad Valley contains a large aquifer system within valley fill underlying about 75 square miles. The aquifer system is several hundred feet thick, and contains about 1.8 million acre-feet of water in storage in the top 300 feet of saturated thickness. Average annual recharge to the valley-fill aquifer is about 64,000 acre-feet. Lowering of the water level 100 feet uniformly over the valley area would theoretically yield about 300,000 acre-feet from storage and salvage a present-day large nonbeneficial discharge. Sufficient water to irrigate all lands in a planned project near Samaria could be pumped with a maximum 200-foot pumping lift and then delivered by gravity flow. Such pumping would cause water-level lowering of a few feet to a few tens of feet in present artesian areas, and would cause many present-day artesian wells to cease flowing at land surface. Chemical-quality problems in Malad Valley seem not to be sufficient to prohibit development and use of the ground-water resource.

Burnham, W.L.; Harder, A.H.; Dion, N.P.

1969-01-01

60

Bear Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

Science Update;

2004-03-08

61

Bifunctional covalent organic frameworks with two dimensional organocatalytic micropores.  

PubMed

We report the successful incorporation of bifunctional (acid/base) catalytic sites in the crystalline organocatalytic porous COF (2,3-DhaTph). Due to the presence of acidic (catachol) and basic (porphyrin) sites, 2,3-DhaTph shows significant selectivity, reusability, and excellent ability to perform the cascade reaction. PMID:25408225

Shinde, Digambar Balaji; Kandambeth, Sharath; Pachfule, Pradip; Kumar, Raya Rahul; Banerjee, Rahul

2015-01-01

62

The role of garnet in (Y+REE) mobility during fluid-initiated, localized, solid state dehydration of an amphibole-bearing migmatised granitic gneiss to charnockite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On either side of 1 m wide granitic pegmatoid dyke, Söndrum stone quarry, Halmstad, SW Sweden, extends a 2.5-3 m wide Opx-bearing dehydration zone (DZ) (650-700 °C; 800 MPa; Opx-Cpx-Bt-Amph-Gt-allanite), which overprints the gneissic banding of the surrounding migmatised granitic gneiss (MGG) (Amph-Bt-Gt-allanite) (Harlov et al., 2006, J Petrol 47, 3). Whole-rock chemistry indicates that dehydration of the MGG was predominantly isochemical. Exceptions include (Y+HREE), Ba, Sr, and F, which are markedly depleted throughout the DZ while LREE-bearing allanite remains unaltered. Systematic trends in the Gt, Bt, Amph, and FAp mineral chemistry across the DZ include depletion in Fe, (Y+HREE), Na, K, F, and Cl, and enrichment in Mg, Mn, Ca, and Ti. Fluid inclusion data suggest that the solid state dehydration event was due to advective transport of a CO2-rich fluid with a minor Cl and F component originating from a tectonic fracture represented today by the pegmatoid dyke. LA-ICPMS analysis of (Y+REE) in Gt (NIST 612 Glass standard; for operating conditions cf. Anczkiewicz et al. 2012 Chem Geol 318-319, 16) across the traverse indicates at least two distinct populations of Gt from the DZ variably depleted in (Y+HREE) and LREE (Fig. 1) by an order of magnitude compared to Gt in the MGG (Fig. 2). Depletion most likely is the result of (Y+HREE) and LREE partitioning from the Gt into the dehydrating fluid to complex with F and Cl. Variable depletion suggests preferred inter-granular pathways for fluid flow through the DZ during the dehydration event allowing some Gt grains greater exposure to the fluid than other Gt grains.

Harlov, D. E.; Anczkiewicz, R.; Johansson, L.

2013-12-01

63

Tooling Converts Stock Bearings To Custom Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for reworking stock bearings saves time and produces helicopter-rotor bearings ground more precisely. Split tapered ring at one end of threaded bolt expands to hold inside of inner race bearing assembly; nut, at other end of bolt, adjusts amount of spring tension. Piece of hardware grasps bearing firmly without interfering with grinding operation. Operation produces bearing of higher quality than commercially available bearings.

Fleenor, E. N., Jr.

1983-01-01

64

A Review on Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grease lubrication is widely applied to rolling bearings. The consistency of grease prevents it from leaking out of the bearing, makes it easy to use, and will give it good sealing properties. The same consistency prevents an optimal lubrication performance. Most of the grease is pushed out of the bearing during the initial phase of bearing operation and no longer

Piet M. Lugt

2009-01-01

65

Isotopically-coded short-range hetero-bifunctional photo-reactive crosslinkers for studying protein structure.  

PubMed

The resolution and the fidelity of a protein structural model, constructed using crosslinking data, is dependent on the crosslinking distance constraints. Most of the popular amine-reactive NHS-ester crosslinkers are limited in their capacity to provide short distance constraints because of the rarity of lysine residues occurring in close proximity in the protein structure. To solve this problem, hetero-bifunctional crosslinkers containing both a photo-reactive functional group and an NHS-ester group can be used to enable non-specific crosslinking within the proximity of these lysine residues. Here we develop three such isotopically-coded hetero-bifunctional photo-reactive crosslinkers, bearing azido, diazirine or benzophenone photo-reactive groups (azido-benzoic-acid-succinimide (ABAS)-(12)C6/(13)C6, succinimidyl-diazirine (SDA)-(12)C5/(13)C5, and carboxy-benzophenone-succinimide (CBS)-(12)C6/(13)C6, respectively). These crosslinkers were validated using several model proteins/peptides and were then applied to study the structure of the native ?-synuclein protein. In that case the ABAS crosslinker proved to be the most suitable, with 10 crosslinks being found in the native ?-synuclein structure. PMID:25192908

Brodie, Nicholas I; Makepeace, Karl A T; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V; Borchers, Christoph H

2014-09-01

66

Recent progress in asymmetric bifunctional catalysis using multimetallic systems.  

PubMed

The concept of bifunctional catalysis, wherein both partners of a bimolecular reaction are simultaneously activated, is very powerful for designing efficient asymmetric catalysts. Catalytic asymmetric processes are indispensable for producing enantiomerically enriched compounds in modern organic synthesis, providing more economical and environmentally benign results than methods requiring stoichiometric amounts of chiral reagents. Extensive efforts in this field have produced many asymmetric catalysts, and now a number of reactions can be rendered asymmetric. We have focused on the development of asymmetric catalysts that exhibit high activity, selectivity, and broad substrate generality under mild reaction conditions. Asymmetric catalysts based on the concept of bifunctional catalysis have emerged as a particularly effective class, enabling simultaneous activation of multiple reaction components. Compared with conventional catalysts, bifunctional catalysts generally exhibit enhanced catalytic activity and higher levels of stereodifferentiation under milder reaction conditions, attracting much attention as next-generation catalysts for prospective practical applications. In this Account, we describe recent advances in enantioselective catalysis with bifunctional catalysts. Since our identification of heterobimetallic rare earth-alkali metal-BINOL (REMB) complexes, we have developed various types of bifunctional multimetallic catalysts. The REMB catalytic system is effective for catalytic asymmetric Corey-Chaykovsky epoxidation and cyclopropanation. A dinucleating Schiff base has emerged as a suitable multidentate ligand for bimetallic catalysts, promoting catalytic syn-selective nitro-Mannich, anti-selective nitroaldol, and Mannich-type reactions. The sugar-based ligand GluCAPO provides a suitable platform for polymetallic catalysts; structural elucidation revealed that their higher order polymetallic structures are a determining factor for their function in the catalytic asymmetric Strecker reaction. Rational design identified a related ligand, FujiCAPO, which exhibits superior performance in catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of cyanide to enones and a catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder-type reaction. The combination of an amide-based ligand with a rare earth metal constitutes a unique catalytic system: the ligand-metal association is in equilibrium because of structural flexibility. These catalytic systems are effective for asymmetric amination of highly coordinative substrate as well as for Mannich-type reaction of alpha-cyanoketones, in which hydrogen bonding cooperatively contributes to substrate activation and stereodifferentiation. Most of the reactions described here generate stereogenic tetrasubstituted carbons or quaternary carbons, noteworthy accomplishments even with modern synthetic methods. Several reactions have been incorporated into the asymmetric synthesis of therapeutics (or their candidate molecules) such as Tamiflu, AS-3201 (ranirestat), GRL-06579A, and ritodrine, illustrating the usefulness of bifunctional asymmetric catalysis. PMID:19435320

Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Kanai, Motomu; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoya

2009-08-18

67

Polar Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this episode of the Podcast of Life, host Ari Daniel Shapiro relates two close calls with polar bears. Listen as Heather Cray recalls how, dumped by a storm on a small Arctic island without a shotgun, she got an unexpected wake-up call. And when researcher Steve Amstrup accidentally crashed through the roof of a polar bearâs den, no one could predict what happened next. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

68

Synthesis and structures of tridentate ketoiminate zinc complexes bearing trifluoromethyl substituents that act as L-lactide ring opening polymerization initiators.  

PubMed

A series of NNO ketoimines bearing trifluoromethyl substituents were synthesized from the Schiff base condensation of 1,3-diketones (1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexanedione, 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione, and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione, 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetone) and 8-aminoquinoline or 8-amino-2-methylquinoline and isolated in 40-70% yield. The ketoimines were combined with zinc bis-(trimethylsilyl)amide to prepare a zinc amide complex in 41% yield or were combined with zinc bis-(trimethylsilyl)amide and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol to prepare zinc phenoxide complexes in 81-94% yield. The ketoimines and zinc complexes were characterized with (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F NMR, absorbance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. The mononuclear solid state structures of the zinc amide and phenoxide complexes showed tridentate coordination of the zinc center by the ketoiminate and monodentate coordination by the amide or phenoxide. The zinc complexes were assessed for their ability to catalyze the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide into poly-lactic acid (PLA) with some complexes reaching 100% conversion in 3 h. As the monomer to catalyst ratio increased, the molecular weight of the isolated polymeric material increased in a nearly linear fashion while retaining a narrow molecular weight distribution. Homonuclear decoupled (1)H NMR spectra of the isolated polymeric material showed the retention of stereochemistry in the isotactic poly-L-lactic acid. Kinetic studies, where the substituents on the ketoiminate and quinolyl moiety were varied, showed that lower electron density on the Zn metal center yielded lower ROP catalytic activity than their electron rich counterparts. The complexes are proposed to use the coordination-insertion mechanism for living polymerization of L-lactide. PMID:23435405

Rezayee, Nomaan M; Gerling, Kimberly A; Rheingold, Arnold L; Fritsch, Joseph M

2013-04-21

69

Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator.  

PubMed

Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety. PMID:25308055

Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

70

Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind–solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

2014-10-01

71

Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

2011-01-01

72

Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications  

SciTech Connect

American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 42 references, 4 tables.

Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

1984-03-13

73

Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications  

SciTech Connect

American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1 M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 44 references, 4 tables.

Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

1985-01-01

74

Synthesis of novel camphor-derived bifunctional thiourea organocatalysts.  

PubMed

Synthesis and catalyst performance of 2,3- (types and ) and 2,8-disubstituted (type ) thiourea bifunctional organocatalysts was attempted. The synthesis of catalyst of type has, so far, not been realized, while catalysts of type , i.e., the 2,3-exo- and the 2-endo-3-exo-thiourea catalysts, were prepared in six steps starting from (+)-camphor. The catalysts of type were prepared from (+)-camphor in eight steps. All the potential catalysts as well as most of the intermediate products were carefully structurally characterized. The thiourea bifunctional organocatalysts were tested in a model reaction of Michael addition of dimethyl malonate to trans-?-nitrostyrene. Chirality 27:39-52, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25283890

Ri?ko, Sebastijan; Golobi?, Amalija; Svete, Jurij; Stanovnik, Branko; Grošelj, Uroš

2015-01-01

75

Bifunctional air electrodes containing elemental iron powder charging additive  

DOEpatents

A bifunctional air electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer essentially comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon; (ii) elemental iron particles having a particle size of between about 25 microns and about 700 microns diameter; (iii) an oxygen evolution material; (iv) a nonwetting agent; and (v) a catalyst, where at least one current collector is formed into said composite.

Liu, Chia-tsun (Monroeville, PA); Demczyk, Brian G. (Rostrover Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Gongaware, Paul R. (Penn Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1982-01-01

76

Novel 99 m Tc radiopharmaceuticals with bifunctional chelating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the main radionuclide used for preparing radiopharmaceuticals throughout the world is 99m\\u000a Tc, thanks to its optimal nuclear-physical characteristics and ready availability. Several approaches are used for tethering\\u000a this radionuclide to biomolecules (peptides, antibodies, etc.); one of them involves the use of so-called bifunctional chelating\\u000a agents (BCAs). These compounds are capable both of binding 99m\\u000a Tc and of linking

A. Ya. Maruk; A. B. Bruskin; G. E. Kodina

2011-01-01

77

Potent antitumor bifunctional DNA alkylating agents, synthesis and biological activities of 3a-aza-cyclopenta[a]indenes.  

PubMed

A series of bifunctional DNA interstrand cross-linking agents, bis(hydroxymethyl)- and bis(carbamates)-8H-3a-azacyclopenta[a]indene-1-yl derivatives were synthesized for antitumor evaluation. The preliminary antitumor studies revealed that these agents exhibited potent cytotoxicity in vitro and antitumor therapeutic efficacy against human tumor xenografts in vivo. Furthermore, these derivatives have little or no cross-resistance to either Taxol or Vinblastine. Remarkably, complete tumor remission in nude mice bearing human breast carcinoma MX-1 xenograft by 13a,b and 14g,h and significant suppression against prostate adenocarcinoma PC3 xenograft by 13b were achieved at the maximum tolerable dose with relatively low toxicity. In addition, these agents induce DNA interstrand cross-linking and substantial G2/M phase arrest in human non-small lung carcinoma H1299 cells. The current studies suggested that these agents are promising candidates for preclinical studies. PMID:19576785

Kakadiya, Rajesh; Dong, Huajin; Lee, Pei-Chih; Kapuriya, Naval; Zhang, Xiuguo; Chou, Ting-Chao; Lee, Te-Chang; Kapuriya, Kalpana; Shah, Anamik; Su, Tsann-Long

2009-08-01

78

Shadow enhancers enable Hunchback bifunctionality in the Drosophila embryo  

PubMed Central

Hunchback (Hb) is a bifunctional transcription factor that activates and represses distinct enhancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Hb can activate and repress the same enhancer. Computational models predicted that Hb bifunctionally regulates the even-skipped (eve) stripe 3+7 enhancer (eve3+7) in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We measured and modeled eve expression at cellular resolution under multiple genetic perturbations and found that the eve3+7 enhancer could not explain endogenous eve stripe 7 behavior. Instead, we found that eve stripe 7 is controlled by two enhancers: the canonical eve3+7 and a sequence encompassing the minimal eve stripe 2 enhancer (eve2+7). Hb bifunctionally regulates eve stripe 7, but it executes these two activities on different pieces of regulatory DNA—it activates the eve2+7 enhancer and represses the eve3+7 enhancer. These two “shadow enhancers” use different regulatory logic to create the same pattern. PMID:25564665

Staller, Max V.; Vincent, Ben J.; Bragdon, Meghan D. J.; Lydiard-Martin, Tara; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H.

2015-01-01

79

Shadow enhancers enable Hunchback bifunctionality in the Drosophila embryo.  

PubMed

Hunchback (Hb) is a bifunctional transcription factor that activates and represses distinct enhancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Hb can activate and repress the same enhancer. Computational models predicted that Hb bifunctionally regulates the even-skipped (eve) stripe 3+7 enhancer (eve3+7) in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We measured and modeled eve expression at cellular resolution under multiple genetic perturbations and found that the eve3+7 enhancer could not explain endogenous eve stripe 7 behavior. Instead, we found that eve stripe 7 is controlled by two enhancers: the canonical eve3+7 and a sequence encompassing the minimal eve stripe 2 enhancer (eve2+7). Hb bifunctionally regulates eve stripe 7, but it executes these two activities on different pieces of regulatory DNA-it activates the eve2+7 enhancer and represses the eve3+7 enhancer. These two "shadow enhancers" use different regulatory logic to create the same pattern. PMID:25564665

Staller, Max V; Vincent, Ben J; Bragdon, Meghan D J; Lydiard-Martin, Tara; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H

2015-01-20

80

Bifunctional aluminum catalyst for CO2 fixation: regioselective ring opening of three-membered heterocyclic compounds.  

PubMed

Regioselective ring opening of three-membered heterocyclic compounds (epoxides or N-substituted aziridines) at various temperatures was observed in coupling reactions with CO2 by the use of an aluminum-salen catalyst in conjunction with intramolecular quaternary ammonium salts as cocatalysts, affording the corresponding five-membered cyclic products with complete configuration retention at the methine carbon. Notably, this bifunctional aluminum-based catalyst exhibited nearly 100% regioselectivity for the ring opening at the methylene C-O bond for various terminal epoxides. This was true for those bearing an electron-withdrawing group, such as styrene oxide or epichlorohydrin, thereby affording the synthesis of various enantiopure cyclic carbonates that have previously been obtained only rarely by other methods. An intramolecular cooperative catalysis is suggested to contribute to the high activity and excellent stereochemistry control observed. Surprisingly, the highly selective ring opening at the methine carbon of N-substituted aziridines was found in the coupling with CO2, predominantly giving 5-substituted oxazolininones with retention of configuration as a result of double inversion at the methine carbon. PMID:25238647

Ren, Wei-Min; Liu, Ye; Lu, Xiao-Bing

2014-10-17

81

Chromium(VI) removal via reduction-sorption on bi-functional silica adsorbents.  

PubMed

Organically-modified silica gels bearing mercaptopropyl and ethylenediaminetriacetate groups (SiO2-SH/ED3A) have been used for reduction and subsequent sequestration of Cr(VI) species. The uptake mechanism involves Cr(VI) reduction by thiol groups (SH) and further immobilization of the so-generated Cr(III) species via complexation to the ethylenediaminetriacetate moieties (ED3A). The most appropriate pH range (1-3) for complete Cr(VI) reduction-sorption by SiO2-SH/ED3A originates from the balance between full reduction of Cr(VI) by SH, requiring low pH values, and quantitative complexation of Cr(III) by ED3A, which is favored in less acidic media. Such bi-functional adsorbents are considerably more effective at removal of Cr(VI) than those simply modified with thiol groups alone. The whole reduction-sorption process was characterized by fast kinetics, thus permitting efficient use of the SiO2-SH/ED3A adsorbent in dynamic conditions (column experiments). Monitoring the amount of immobilized chromium species on the solid was achieved using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Studying the influence of ionic strength and presence of heavy metals revealed few interference on Cr(VI) removal. PMID:23500426

Zaitseva, Nataliya; Zaitsev, Vladimir; Walcarius, Alain

2013-04-15

82

Optimal Synchronizability of Bearings  

E-print Network

Bearings are mechanical dissipative systems that, when perturbed, relax toward a synchronized (bearing) state. Here we find that bearings can be perceived as physical realizations of complex networks of oscillators with ...

Seybold, Hansjorg

83

Laser glazed bearings  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade high power, reliable, carbon dioxide lasers have become commercially available. Laser glazing is a process in which a focused laser beam is used to melt a very small portion of a component. As the beam moves away from the melted region, the underlying mass of the component causes the liquid pool to rapidly solidify. A major advantage of laser glazing is that the refined structure is only created in areas where high load carrying capacity is required. Initially rods manufactured from BG 42 and M 50 steels were laser glazed. Laser glazing transformed the normal, fine grain, martensitic steel matrix into a very fine dendritic microstructure. The carbides in the laser glazed material were greatly reduced in size due to very rapid solidification. Using a standard ball/rod rolling contact fatigue tester, enhanced rolling contact fatigue life was realized from the laser glazing process. LM 12749 tapered roller bearing cones were fabricated from M 50 high speed steel and laser glazed. At 200% catalog load, the L{sub 15.9%} life of the laser glazed M 50 bearings was 370% greater than the wrought cones. Similarly, when tested at 300% catalog load, the laser glazed bearings had L{sub 15.9%} life 580% greater than the wrought cones. Laser processing has been applied to 440 C stainless steel. In this alloy similar reduction in the size and distribution of large chromium carbides was achieved. The glazed 440 C was approximately 20 Knoop hardness points higher than the wrought alloy. Examples and properties of glazed microstructures in ball bearings and other alloy systems are discussed.

Hetzner, D.W. [Timken Co., Canton, OH (United States)

1998-12-31

84

REDUCTIVE ACTIVATION OF DIOXYGEN FOR DEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER BY BIFUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bifunctional aluminum is prepared by sulfating aluminum metal with sulfuric acid. The use of bifunctional aluminum to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the presence of dioxygen has been examined using batch systems. Primary degradation products were tert-butyl alcohol, ...

85

Bifunctional Phage-Based Pretargeted Imaging of Human Prostate Carcinoma Bifunctional Phage Based Pretargeted Imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction Two-step and three-step pretargeting systems utilizing biotinylated prostate tumor-homing bacteriophage (phage) and 111In-radiolabeled- streptavidin or biotin were developed for use in cancer radioimaging. The in vivo selected prostate carcinoma-specific phage (G1) displaying up to five copies of the peptide IAGLATPGWSHWLAL, was the focus of the present study. Methods The ability of G1 phage to extravasate and target prostate tumor cells was investigated using immunohistochemistry. G1 phage were biotinylated, streptavidin was conjugated to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and biotin was conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Biodistribution studies and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging of xenografted PC-3 tumors via two-step pretargeted 111In-labeled streptavidin and three-step pretargeted 111In-labeled biotin were performed in SCID mice to determine the optimal pretargeting method. Results The ability of G1 phage to extravasate the vasculature and bind directly to human PC-3 prostate carcinoma tumor cells in vivo was demonstrated via immunocytochemical analysis. Comparative biodistribution studies of the two-step and three-step pretargeting strategies indicated increased PC-3 human prostate carcinoma tumor uptake in SCID mice of 4.34 ±0.26 %ID/g at 0.5 hours post-injection of 111In radiolabeled biotin (utilized in a three-step protocol) compared to that of 0.67 ±0.06 %ID/g at twenty four hour postinjection of 111In radiolabeled streptavidin (employed in a two-step protocol). In vivo SPECT/CT imaging of xenografted PC-3 tumors in SCID mice with the three-step pretargeting method was superior to that of the two-step pretargeting method, and, importantly, blocking studies demonstrated specificity of tumor uptake of 111In-labeled biotin in the three-step pretargeting scheme. Conclusion This study demonstrates the use of multivalent bifunctional phage in a three-step pretargeting system for prostate cancer radioimaging. PMID:19720291

Newton-Northup, Jessica R.; Figueroa, Said D.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Deutscher, Susan L.

2009-01-01

86

Magnetic perturbation inspection of inner bearing races  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 100 inner race bearings were inspected nondestructively prior to endurance testing. Two of the bearings which failed during testing spalled at the sites of subsurface inclusions previously detected by using magnetic field perturbation. At other sites initially judged to be suspect, subsurface inclusion-nucleated cracking was observed. Inspection records and metallurgical sectioning results are presented and discussed.

Barton, J. R.; Lankford, J.

1972-01-01

87

Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to Propanediol Over Ru: Polyoxometalate Bifunctional Catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruthenium-doped (5 wt%) acidic heteropoly salt Cs2.5H0.5[PW12O40] (CsPW) is an active bifunctional catalyst for the one-pot hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) in liquid\\u000a phase, providing 96% selectivity to 1,2-PDO at 21% glycerol conversion at 150 °C and an unprecedented low hydrogen pressure\\u000a of 5 bar. Rhodium catalyst, 5%Rh\\/CsPW, although less active, shows considerable selectivity to 1,3-PDO (7.1%), with 1,2-PDO\\u000a being the main

Abdullah Alhanash; Elena F. Kozhevnikova; Ivan V. Kozhevnikov

2008-01-01

88

Enantioselective Iodolactonization of Disubstituted Olefinic Acids Using a Bifunctional Catalyst  

PubMed Central

The enantioselective iodolactonizations of a series of diversely-substituted olefinic carboxylic acids are promoted by a BINOL-derived, bifunctional catalyst. Reactions involving 5-alkyl- and 5-aryl-4(Z)-pentenoic acids and 6-alkyl- and 6-aryl-5(Z)-hexenoic acids provide the corresponding ?- and ?-lactones having stereogenic C–I bonds in excellent yields and >97:3 er. Significantly, this represents the first organocatalyst that promotes both bromo- and iodolactonization with high enantioselectivities. The potential of this catalyst to induce kinetic resolutions of racemic unsaturated acids is also demonstrated. PMID:23199100

Fang, Chao; Paull, Daniel H.; Hethcox, J. Caleb; Shugrue, Christopher R.; Martin, Stephen F.

2012-01-01

89

Getting Your Bearings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of friction and how ball bearings reduce friction. Learners investigate different uses for ball bearings, how the design has changed over time to incorporate roller bearings, test friction using marbles, and identify the use of ball bearings in everyday items.

IEEE

2013-08-30

90

Passive magnetic bearing configurations  

DOEpatents

A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2011-01-25

91

Bearings for Your Whirligig  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experiment with friction and make bearings for a whirligig! This activity is a nice introduction to friction and bearings and demonstrates why bearings are useful for spinning. A related video show Vollis Simpson, an artist who creates kinetic sculptures and whirligigs, explain how he uses bearings in all of his spinning pieces so that they move smoothly.

Science Musuem of Minnesota

1995-01-01

92

Restoration of bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process consisting of grinding raceways to oversize but original quality condition and installing new oversize balls or bearings restores wornout ball and roller bearings to original quality, thereby doubling their operating life. Evaluations reveal process results in restoration of 90% of replaced bearings at less than 50% of new-bearing costs.

Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Hanau, H.

1977-01-01

93

Rolling-Element Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

1983-01-01

94

Introduction to ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of a ball bearing is to provide a relative positioning and rotational freedom while transmitting a load between two structures, usually a shaft and a housing. For high rotational speeds (e.g., in gyroscope ball bearings) the purpose can be expanded to include rotational freedom with practically no wear in the bearing. This condition can be achieved by separating the bearing parts with a coherent film of fluid known as an elastohydrodynamic film. This film can be maintained not only when the bearing carries the load on a shaft, but also when the bearing is preloaded to position the shaft to within micro- or nano-inch accuracy and stability. Background information on ball bearings is provided, different types of ball bearings and their geometry and kinematics are defined, bearing materials, manufacturing processes, and separators are discussed. It is assumed, for the purposes of analysis, that the bearing carries no load.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1981-01-01

95

Divergent evolution of a bifunctional de novo protein.  

PubMed

Primordial proteins, the evolutionary ancestors of modern sequences, are presumed to have been minimally active and nonspecific. Following eons of selective pressure, these early progenitors evolved into highly active and specific proteins. While evolutionary trajectories from poorly active and multifunctional generalists toward highly active specialists likely occurred many times in evolutionary history, such pathways are difficult to reconstruct in natural systems, where primordial sequences are lost to time. To test the hypothesis that selection for enhanced activity leads to a loss of promiscuity, we evolved a de novo designed bifunctional protein. The parental protein, denoted Syn-IF, was chosen from a library of binary patterned 4-helix bundles. Syn-IF was shown previously to rescue two different auxotrophic strains of E. coli: ?ilvA and ?fes. These two strains contain deletions for proteins with very different biochemical functions; IlvA is involved in isoleucine biosynthesis, while Fes is involved in iron assimilation. In two separate experiments, Syn-IF, was evolved for faster rescue of either ?ilvA or ?fes. Following multiple rounds of mutagenesis, two new proteins were selected, each capable of rescuing the selected function significantly faster than the parental protein. In each case, the evolved protein also lost the ability to rescue the unselected function. In both evolutionary trajectories, the original bifunctional generalist was evolved into a monofunctional specialist with enhanced activity. PMID:25420677

Smith, Betsy A; Mularz, Ann E; Hecht, Michael H

2015-02-01

96

[Development of bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals for targeted imaging and therapy].  

PubMed

In vivo radiopharmaceuticals have two different uses - for nuclear diagnostic imaging and for internal radiation therapy. For nuclear diagnostic imaging, it is necessary to make the difference of radioactivity levels between in the target regions and in the other regions at an early time after administration. For internal radiation therapy, a more selective accumulation of the radioactivity to the target regions is required to minimize an adverse effect. In order to achieve the highly selective accumulation of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals, it is necessary to find an appropriate target molecule in the first place and design a compound which can recognize the target molecule and stably label it with radionuclide. There are several proposed approaches to chemical design for this purpose. However, even with the specific recognition and stable radiolabel, targeted imaging and therapy are not necessarily achieved. We have been developing in vivo radiopharmaceuticals based on a chemical design called "bifunctional radiopharmaceutical." Bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals have the recognition site of the target molecule and binding site for the radionuclide independently in one molecule. This review summarizes our examples of chemical design of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals to achieve the targeted imaging and therapy. PMID:18057782

Mukai, Takahiro

2007-12-01

97

Polar bears, antibiotics, and the evolving ribosome Nobel Lecture  

E-print Network

Polar bears, antibiotics, and the evolving ribosome Nobel Lecture Ada Yonath Angew Chem Int Ed Engl Lectures DOI: 10.1002/anie.201001297 Hibernating Bears, Antibiotics, and the Evolving Ribosome (Nobel. The Initial Step: Hibernating Bears Stimulated Ribosome Crystallization 4344 3. Strategies Taken

Yonath, Ada E.

98

Preparation of Pt/Irx(IrO2)10 - x bifunctional oxygen catalyst for unitized regenerative fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifunctional Pt/Irx(IrO2)10 - x (x < 10) catalyst for unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) has been prepared by depositing Pt on Irx(IrO2)10 - x support which is obtained initially from Adams fusion method. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that ultrafine and narrow distributed Pt/Ir3(IrO2)7 nanocomposites are formed. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that among the series of catalysts studied, Pt/Ir3(IrO2)7 catalyst possesses the highest electrochemical surface area (24.74 m2 g-1) and the highest activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) (21.71 mA mg-1 at 0.85 V). Meanwhile, considerably high activity towards oxygen evolution reaction (OER) (42.35 mA mg-1 at 1.55 V) is also observed for Pt/Ir3(IrO2)7 catalyst. Kinetic analyses indicate that ORR on Pt/Ir3(IrO2)7 catalyst follows four-electron mechanism. This work opens a new way to fabricate efficient bifunctional oxygen catalyst for URFC.

Kong, Fan-Dong; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Ge-Ping; Zhang, Na; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Du, Chun-Yu

2012-07-01

99

Sulfur electrode modified by bifunctional nafion/?-Al2O3 membrane for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium sulfur batteries have brought significant advancement to the current state-of-art battery technologies due to their high theoretical specific energy of 1675 mAh g-1. However, the rapid capacity degradation, mainly caused by polysulfide dissolution, remains a significant challenge prior to practical applications. In this work, a sulfur cathode modified by bifunctional nafion/?-Al2O3 membrane has been successfully prepared, which can remarkably immobilize the polysulfides within the unique cathode structure due to its ions selectivity and absorbent capacity. A high initial discharge capacity of 1448.0 mAh g-1 can be achieved at 1C and 788.6 mAh g-1 preserved after 200 cycles, indicating a slow degradation. Furthermore, the coulombic efficiency maintains as high as 97% during cycling. The excellent electrochemical properties can be attributed to the bifunctional and stable membrane which can dramatically reduce the shuttle effect and keep integrated even after charging-discharging for 200 cycles.

Liu, Xiaoyan; Shan, Zhongqiang; Zhu, Kunlei; Du, Jiangyong; Tang, Qiwei; Tian, Jianhua

2015-01-01

100

Bearing Failure Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shaker Research Corporation, under a contract with NASA, produced a test vehicle that measures resonant frequency of railroad roller bearings to identify source of bearings defects. Marshall scientists have developed a detection concept based on fact that bearing defects themselves excite resonant frequency of rolling elements of bearing as they impact the defect. By detecting resonant frequency and subsequently analyzing character of the signal, bearing defects may be detected and identified as to source. The bearing fault detector will help eliminate this cause of derailments.

1976-01-01

101

Application of the Ugi four-component reaction to the synthesis of ditopic bifunctional chelating agents.  

PubMed

The Ugi four-component reaction (Ugi 4CR) was exploited for the first time to obtain in a single synthetic step bifunctional ditopic chelators by using DOTA monoamide (DOTAMA) derivatives as amino and acid components. A number of ditopic systems in which the two DOTAMA units are connected by a central alpha-acylaminoamide group were synthesized by reacting different aldehydes, isocyanides and two DOTAMA chelates containing amino and acid functionalities. Variation of the components allows the insertion of another functional group into the alpha-acylaminoamide skeleton for further conjugation to biomolecules. The optimal reaction conditions were found by using methanol as solvent and ultrasound irradiation at a power of 60 W (20 kHz) for 3 h. The Gd(III) complexes of the dimeric ligands L1 and L2 (bearing a cyclohexyl ring and an octadecyl chain on the central alpha-acylaminoamide moiety, respectively) were fully characterized in aqueous media by relaxometric techniques with varying temperature and magnetic field strength. The relaxivity of Gd(2)L1 and Gd(2)L2 (in the aggregated form), at 20 MHz and 310 K, are 5.6 and 20.0 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. The enhanced value found for Gd(2)L2 indicates that this lipophilic complex forms micelles at concentrations <0.1 mM. Finally, the binding of Gd(2)L2 to human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by proton relaxometry, and the affinity constant of the complex and the relaxivity of the macromolecular adduct (r(1p)(b) = 38.1 mM(-1) s(-1); 20 MHz and 310 K) derived. PMID:19830289

Tei, Lorenzo; Gugliotta, Giuseppe; Avedano, Stefano; Giovenzana, Giovanni B; Botta, Mauro

2009-11-01

102

GSK-3?: A Bifunctional Role in Cell Death Pathways  

PubMed Central

Although glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3?) was originally named for its ability to phosphorylate glycogen synthase and regulate glucose metabolism, this multifunctional kinase is presently known to be a key regulator of a wide range of cellular functions. GSK-3? is involved in modulating a variety of functions including cell signaling, growth metabolism, and various transcription factors that determine the survival or death of the organism. Secondary to the role of GSK-3? in various diseases including Alzheimer's disease, inflammation, diabetes, and cancer, small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3? are gaining significant attention. This paper is primarily focused on addressing the bifunctional or conflicting roles of GSK-3? in both the promotion of cell survival and of apoptosis. GSK-3? has emerged as an important molecular target for drug development. PMID:22675363

Jacobs, Keith M.; Bhave, Sandeep R.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Thotala, Dinesh

2012-01-01

103

BIFUNCTIONAL ALUMINUN: A PERMEABLE BARRIER MATERIAL FOR THE DEGRADATION OF MTBE  

EPA Science Inventory

Bifunctional aluminum is an innovative remedial material for the treatment of gasoline oxygenates in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs represent a promising environmental technology for remediation of groundwater contamination. Although zero-valent metals (ZVM) have been...

104

Bifunctional chelates of RH-105 and AU199 as potential radiotherapeutic agents  

SciTech Connect

Research is presented on new bifunctional chelating ligand systems with stability on the macroscopic and radiochemical levels. The synthesis of the following complexes are described: rhodium 105, palladium 109, and gold 198.

Droege, P.

1997-03-01

105

Charge conductivity in peptides: Dynamic simulations of a bifunctional model supporting experimental data  

E-print Network

Charge conductivity in peptides: Dynamic simulations of a bifunctional model supporting previous finding and the given mechanism of charge and electron transfer in polypeptides are here integrated in a bifunc- tional model involving electronic charge transfer coupled to special internal

Sheu, Sheh-Yi

106

Experiments with needle bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

Ferretti, Pericle

1933-01-01

107

Tracking Polar Bears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the USGS Alaska Science Center, track the movements of a polar bear as it migrates across the changing Arctic sea ice and compare the paths of four different polar bears.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2008-01-17

108

Mechanical spin bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spin bearing assembly including, a pair of mutually opposing complementary bearing support members having mutually spaced apart bearing support surfaces which may be, for example, bearing races and a set of spin bearings located therebetween. Each spin bearing includes a pair of end faces, a central rotational axis passing through the end faces, a waist region substantially mid-way between the end faces and having a first thickness dimension, and discrete side surface regions located between the waist region and the end faces and having a second thickness dimension different from the first thickness dimension of the waist region and wherein the side surface regions further have respective curvilinear contact surfaces adapted to provide a plurality of bearing contact points on the bearing support members.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

109

Polar Bears Change Diet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast from 2001 explains how polar bears have adjusted their diet due to the climate warming around Hudson Bay, Canada. The ringed seals that polar bears normally eat have been harder for polar bears to get to, due to disappearing ice. This has forced polar bears to begin eating harbor seals and bearded seals. The clip is 4 minutes and 15 seconds in length.

Schneider, Doug

2007-12-12

110

Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using a bifunctional hybridization probe  

DOEpatents

A method for detecting and isolating a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids is provided using a bifunctional hybridization probe capable of hybridizing to the target sequence that includes a detectable marker and a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent. A kit is also provided for detecting a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids using a bifunctional hybridization probe according to this method.

Lucas, Joe N. (San Ramon, CA); Straume, Tore (Tracy, CA); Bogen, Kenneth T. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2000-01-01

111

Tracking Polar Bears  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Movements of 9 satellite-collared adult female polar bears were tracked in February, 2010 by satellite telemetry. Bears were collared in 2007, 2008, and 2009 on the spring-time sea ice of the southern Beaufort Sea or on the autumn pack ice in 2009. Polar bear satellite telemetry data are shown with ...

2010-04-13

112

Good bearings reduce downtime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Points out that a poorly maintained $100 bearing can hold up the operation of a $1-million conveyor. Of all the moving parts in a coal conveyor system, few cost less or last longer than anti-friction bearings. Most modern conveyor systems are equipped with 2 types of bearings: troughing idlers, spaced at regular intervals to support the conveyor belt as it

J. Kinney; J. Foster

1982-01-01

113

Grizzly bears and forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's growing demand for timber is increasing road development in once roadless forest ecosystems. Roads create both local changes in plant communities and landscape-level changes in forest connectivity. Roads also increase human access, which can be detrimental to species such as grizzly bears. Because most grizzly bear mortalities occur near roads, we examined grizzly bear attractants near roads, which could

C. L. Roever; M. S. Boyce; G. B. Stenhouse

2008-01-01

114

1-Way Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-way bearing is provided having sprags and rolling bearings both disposed between an inner and an outer race. The sprags may comprise three-dimensional sprags for preventing rotation in a non-preferential direction. The roll- ing bearings may comprise thrust rollers for transmitting axial, tilt, and radial loads between the inner and outer races.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

115

Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

Olson, Gregory B.

1995-01-01

116

Imaging Cancer Using PET – the Effect of the Bifunctional Chelator on the Biodistribution of a 64Cu-Labeled Antibody  

PubMed Central

Introduction Use of copper radioisotopes in antibody radiolabeling is challenged by reported loss of the radionuclide from the bifunctional chelator used to label the protein. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the thermodynamic stability of the 64Cu-complexes of five commonly used bifunctional chelators (BFCs) and the biodistribution of an antibody labeled with 64Cu using these chelators in tumor-bearing mice. Methods The chelators (p-NH2-Bn-NOTA, BAT-6, p-NH2-Bn-DOTA, DOTA, and SarAr) were conjugated to the anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18, and the conjugated antibody was labeled with 64Cu and injected into mice bearing subcutaneous human melanoma tumors (M21) (n = 3-5 for each study). Biodistribution data were obtained from PET images acquired at 1, 24 and 48 hours post-injection, and at 48 hours post-injection a full ex vivo biodistribution study was carried out. Results The biodistribution, including tumor targeting, was similar for all the radioimmunoconjugates. At 48 h post-injection, the only statistically significant differences in radionuclide uptake (p < 0.05) were between blood, liver, spleen and kidney. For example, liver uptake of [64Cu]ch14.18-p-NH2-Bn-NOTA was 4.74 ± 0.77 per cent of the injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), and for [64Cu]ch14.18-SarAr was 8.06 ± 0.77 %ID/g. Differences in tumor targeting correlated with variations in tumor size rather than which BFC was used. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that differences in the thermodynamic stability of these chelator-Cu(II) complexes were not associated with significant differences in uptake of the tracer by the tumor. However, there were significant differences in tracer concentration in other tissues, including those involved in clearance of the radioimmunoconjugate (e.g., liver and spleen). PMID:21220127

Dearling, Jason L.J.; Voss, Stephan D.; Dunning, Patricia; Snay, Erin; Fahey, Frederic; Smith, Suzanne V.; Huston, James S.; Meares, Claude F.; Treves, S. Ted; Packard, Alan B.

2010-01-01

117

Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

1994-01-01

118

Bearing load analysis and control of a motorized high speed spindle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angular contact ball bearings are the most popular bearing type used in the high speed spindle for machining centers. Because the bearing load is increased rapidly with the raised spindle speed due to the centrifugal force and temperature raise, proper initial preload and especially operating-induced load control of the angular ball bearing is important to the rigidity, accuracy and life

Jenq-Shyong Chen; Kwan-Wen Chen

2005-01-01

119

Homogeneous and label-free detection of microRNAs using bifunctional strand displacement amplification-mediated hyperbranched rolling circle amplification.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an emerging class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases including cancers. Here, we develop a homogeneous and label-free method for sensitive detection of let-7a miRNA based on bifunctional strand displacement amplification (SDA)-mediated hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA). The binding of target miRNA with the linear template initiates the bifunctional SDA reaction, generating two different kinds of triggers which can hybridize with the linear template to initiate new rounds of SDA reaction for the production of more and more triggers. In the meantime, the released two different kinds of triggers can function as the first and the second primers, respectively, to initiate the HRCA reaction whose products can be simply monitored by a standard fluorometer with SYBR Green I as the fluorescent indicator. The proposed method exhibits high sensitivity with a detection limit of as low as 1.8 × 10(-13) M and a large dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude from 0.1 pM to 10 nM, and it can even discriminate the single-base difference among the miRNA family members. Moreover, this method can be used to analyze the total RNA samples from the human lung tissues and might be further applied for sensitive detection of various proteins, small molecules, and metal ions in combination with specific aptamers. PMID:24903889

Zhang, Li-rong; Zhu, Guichi; Zhang, Chun-yang

2014-07-01

120

Bearings: Technology and needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

Anderson, W. J.

1982-01-01

121

The Incredible Water Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich Micscape Magazine article explores how water bears can be found almost everywhere yet are still unknown to almost everybody, why there are relatively few light microscope photographs of water bears in the literature and on the Web, and how light microscopy can outperform scanning electron microscopy when viewing these animals. It includes a list of historical references, early sketches, and colorful images of water bears, also known as tardigrades.

Mach, Martin; Magazine, Micscape

122

Robust and intelligent bearing estimation  

SciTech Connect

As the monitoring thresholds of global and regional networks are lowered, bearing estimates become more important to the processes which associate (sparse) detections and which locate events. Current methods of estimating bearings from observations by 3-component stations and arrays lack both accuracy and precision. Methods are required which will develop all the precision inherently available in the arrival, determine the measurability of the arrival, provide better estimates of the bias induced by the medium, permit estimates at lower SNRs, and provide physical insight into the effects of the medium on the estimates. Initial efforts have focused on 3-component stations since the precision is poorest there. An intelligent estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEE for Search, Estimate, and Evaluation, adaptively exploits all the inherent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve optimal results. In particular, the approach uses a consistent and robust mathematical framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, and to withdraw metrics helpful in choosing the best estimate(s) or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable. The approach is conceptually superior to current methods, particular those which rely on real values signals. The method has been evaluated to a considerable extent in a seismically active region and has demonstrated remarkable utility by providing not only the best estimates possible but also insight into the physical processes affecting the estimates. It has been shown, for example, that the best frequency at which to make an estimate seldom corresponds to the frequency having the best detection SNR and sometimes the best time interval is not at the onset of the signal. The method is capable of measuring bearing dispersion, thereby withdrawing the bearing bias as a function of frequency. The lowest measurable frequency in the dispersion pattern is often a near error free bearing. These latter features should be helpful in calibrating the stations for frequency dependent biases induced by the earth. Future efforts will enhance the SEE algorithm and will also evaluate it using larger station data sets.

Claassen, J.P.

1998-07-01

123

Bearing restoration by grinding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

1976-01-01

124

Linear magnetic bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear magnetic bearing system having electromagnetic vernier flux paths in shunt relation with permanent magnets, so that the vernier flux does not traverse the permanent magnet, is described. Novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing having electromagnetic flux paths that bypass high reluctance permanent magnets. Particular novelty is believed to reside in providing a linear magnetic bearing with a pair of axially spaced elements having electromagnets for establishing vernier x and y axis control. The magnetic bearing system has possible use in connection with a long life reciprocating cryogenic refrigerator that may be used on the space shuttle.

Studer, P. A. (inventor)

1983-01-01

125

Magnetic-plasmonic bifunctional CoO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the synthesis of CoO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles by chemical reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of Co nanoparticles in oleylamine (OAm). OAm plays multiple roles as a surfactant, solvent, and reducing agent. The mechanism of surface-activated heterogeneous nucleation and growth on the preformed seeds has been proposed. At the same time, the Co nanoparticles are oxidized to form hollow CoO nanoparticles through the Kirkendall effect. The resulting CoO-Ag heterostructures display mushroom-like morphology, Ag nanoparticle as ‘cap’ attached on the ‘stem’ of hollow CoO nanoparticles. The size of Ag domains in the heterostructure nanoparticles can be tuned by controlling the volume of Co nanoparticles. The plasmonic absorption and the magnetization of the bifunctional nanoparticles were investigated. The combination of the hollow structure of the CoO and the surface plasmon resonances of the Ag domains may make them suitable for catalysis, drug delivery, therapy, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Yang, Jianhui; Cao, Beibei; Liu, Bin

2014-03-01

126

Gold-Copper Nanoparticles: Nanostructural Evolution and Bifunctional Catalytic Sites  

SciTech Connect

Understanding of the atomic-scale structure is essential for exploiting the unique catalytic properties of any nanoalloy catalyst. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of the nanoscale alloying of gold-copper (AuCu) nanoparticles and its impact on the surface catalytic functions. Two pathways have been explored for the formation of AuCu nanoparticles of different compositons, including wet chemical synthesis from mixed Au- and Cu-precursor molecules, and nanoscale alloying via an evolution of mixed Au- and Cu-precursor nanoparticles near the nanoscale melting temperatures. For the evolution of mixed precursor nanoparticles, synchrotron x-ray based in-situ real time XRD was used to monitor the structural changes, revealing nanoscale alloying and reshaping towards an fcc-type nanoalloy (particle or cube) via a partial melting–resolidification mechanism. The nanoalloys supported on carbon or silica were characterized by in-situ high-energy XRD/PDFs, revealing an intriguing lattice "expanding-shrinking" phenomenon depending on whether the catalyst is thermochemically processed under oxidative or reductive atmosphere. This type of controllable structural changes is found to play an important role in determining the catalytic activity of the catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation reaction. The tunable catalytic activities of the nanoalloys under thermochemically oxidative and reductive atmospheres are also discussed in terms of the bifunctional sites and the surface oxygenated metal species for carbon monoxide and oxygen activation.

Yin, Jun; Shan, Shiyao; Yang, Lefu; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Petkov, Valeri; Cai, Fan; Ng, Mei; Luo, Jin; Chen, Bing H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2012-12-12

127

Identification of a Bifunctional Maize C- and O-Glucosyltransferase*  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids accumulate in plant vacuoles usually as O-glycosylated derivatives, but several species can also synthesize flavonoid C-glycosides. Recently, we demonstrated that a flavanone 2-hydroxylase (ZmF2H1, CYP93G5) converts flavanones to the corresponding 2-hydroxy derivatives, which are expected to serve as substrates for C-glycosylation. Here, we isolated a cDNA encoding a UDP-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT708A6), and its activity was characterized by in vitro and in vivo bioconversion assays. In vitro assays using 2-hydroxyflavanones as substrates and in vivo activity assays in yeast co-expressing ZmF2H1 and UGT708A6 show the formation of the flavones C-glycosides. UGT708A6 can also O-glycosylate flavanones in bioconversion assays in Escherichia coli as well as by in vitro assays with the purified recombinant protein. Thus, UGT708A6 is a bifunctional glycosyltransferase that can produce both C- and O-glycosidated flavonoids, a property not previously described for any other glycosyltransferase. PMID:24045947

Falcone Ferreyra, María Lorena; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Casas, María Isabel; Labadie, Guillermo; Grotewold, Erich; Casati, Paula

2013-01-01

128

A bifunctional tRNA import receptor from Leishmania mitochondria  

PubMed Central

In kinetoplastid protozoa, import of cytosolic tRNAs into mitochondria occurs through tRNAs interacting with membrane-bound proteins, the identities of which are unknown. The inner membrane RNA import complex of Leishmania tropica contains multiple proteins and is active for import in vitro. RIC1, the largest subunit of this complex, is structurally homologous to the conserved ? subunit of F1 ATP synthase. The RIC1 gene complemented an atpA mutation in Escherichia coli. Antisense-mediated knockdown of RIC1/F1? in Leishmania resulted in depletion of several mitochondrial tRNAs belonging to distinct subsets (types I and II) that interact cooperatively or antagonistically within the import complex. The knockdown-induced defect in import of type I tRNAs was rectified in a reconstituted system by purified RIC1/F1? alone, but recovery of type II tRNA import additionally required a type I tRNA. RIC1/F1? formed stable complexes with type I, but not type II, tRNAs through the cooperation of its nucleotide binding and C-terminal domains. Thus, RIC1/F1? is a type I tRNA import receptor. As expected of a bifunctional protein, RIC1/F1? is shared by both the import complex and by respiratory complex V. Alternative use of ancient respiratory proteins may have been an important step in the evolution of tRNA import. PMID:16714384

Goswami, Srikanta; Dhar, Gunjan; Mukherjee, Saikat; Mahata, Bidesh; Chatterjee, Saibal; Home, Pratik; Adhya, Samit

2006-01-01

129

Domain structure of bi-functional selenoprotein P  

PubMed Central

Human selenoprotein P (SeP), a selenium-rich plasma glycoprotein, is presumed to contain ten selenocysteine residues; one of which is located at the 40th residue in the N-terminal region and the remaining nine localized in the C-terminal third part. We have shown that SeP not only catalyses the reduction of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide by glutathione [Saito, Hayashi, Tanaka, Watanabe, Suzuki, Saito and Takahashi (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 2866–2871], but also supplies its selenium to proliferating cells [Saito and Takahashi (2002) Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 5746–5751]. Treatment of SeP with plasma kallikrein resulted in a sequential limited proteolysis (Arg-235–Gln-236 and Arg-242–Asp-243). The N-terminal (residues 1–235) and C-terminal (residues 243–361) fragments exhibited enzyme activity and selenium-supply activity respectively. These results confirm that SeP is a bi-functional protein and suggest that the first selenocysteine residue is the active site of the enzyme and the remaining nine residues function as a selenium supplier. PMID:15117283

2004-01-01

130

Single flexible nanofiber to achieve simultaneous photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctionality.  

PubMed

In order to develop new-type multifunctional composite nanofibers, Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP bifunctional composite nanofibers with simultaneous photoluminescence and electrical conductivity have been successfully fabricated via electrospinning technology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as a matrix to construct composite nanofibers containing different amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and polyaniline (PANI). X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), fluorescence spectroscopy and a Hall effect measurement system are used to characterize the morphology and properties of the composite nanofibers. The results indicate that the bifunctional composite nanofibers simultaneously possess excellent photoluminescence and electrical conductivity. Fluorescence emission peaks of Eu(3+) ions are observed in the Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers. The electrical conductivity reaches up to the order of 10(-3) ?S/cm. The luminescent intensity and electrical conductivity of the composite nanofibers can be tuned by adjusting the amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and PANI. The obtained photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers are expected to possess many potential applications in areas such as microwave absorption, molecular electronics, biomedicine and future nanomechanics. More importantly, the design concept and construction technique are of universal significance to fabricate other bifunctional one-dimensional naonomaterials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817327

Sheng, Shujuan; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Lv, Nan; Wang, Jinxian; Yu, Wensheng; Liu, Guixia

2015-02-01

131

Past Performance analysis of HPOTP bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past performance analysis conducted on three High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) bearings from the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. Metallurgical analysis of failed bearing balls and races, and wear track and crack configuration analyses were carried out. In addition, one bearing was tested in laboratory at very high axial loads. The results showed that the cracks were surface initiated and propagated into subsurface locations at relatively small angles. Subsurface cracks were much more extensive than was appeared on the surface. The location of major cracks in the races corresponded to high radial loads rather than high axial loads. There was evidence to suggest that the inner races were heated to elevated temperatures. A failure scenario was developed based on the above findings. According to this scenario the HPOTP bearings are heated by a combination of high loads and high coefficient of friction (poor lubrication). Different methods of extending the HPOTP bearing life are also discussed. These include reduction of axial loads, improvements in bearing design, lubrication and cooling, and use of improved bearing materials.

Bhat, B. N.; Dolan, F. J.

1982-01-01

132

Adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate – a multifaceted modulator of bifunctional 3?-phospho-adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate synthases and related enzymes  

PubMed Central

All sulfation reactions rely on active sulfate in the form of 3?-phospho-adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS). In fungi, bacteria, and plants, the enzymes responsible for PAPS synthesis, ATP sulfurylase and adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase, reside on separate polypeptide chains. In metazoans, however, bifunctional PAPS synthases catalyze the consecutive steps of sulfate activation by converting sulfate to PAPS via the intermediate APS. This intricate molecule and the related nucleotides PAPS and 3?-phospho-adenosine-5?-phosphate modulate the function of various enzymes from sulfation pathways, and these effects are summarized in this review. On the ATP sulfurylase domain that initially produces APS from sulfate and ATP, APS acts as a potent product inhibitor, being competitive with both ATP and sulfate. For the APS kinase domain that phosphorylates APS to PAPS, APS is an uncompetitive substrate inhibitor that can bind both at the ATP/ADP-binding site and the PAPS/APS-binding site. For human PAPS synthase 1, the steady-state concentration of APS has been modelled to be 1.6 ?m, but this may increase up to 60 ?m under conditions of sulfate excess. It is noteworthy that the APS concentration for maximal APS kinase activity is 15 ?m. Finally, we recognized APS as a highly specific stabilizer of bifunctional PAPS synthases. APS most likely stabilizes the APS kinase part of these proteins by forming a dead-end enzyme–ADP–APS complex at APS concentrations between 0.5 and 5 ?m; at higher concentrations, APS may bind to the catalytic centers of ATP sulfurylase. Based on the assumption that cellular concentrations of APS fluctuate within this range, APS can therefore be regarded as a key modulator of PAPS synthase functions. PMID:23517310

Mueller, Jonathan W; Shafqat, Naeem

2013-01-01

133

AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.

Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

1990-01-01

134

Hollow rolling element bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low mass rolling element with a lightweight core and hollow center was developed for use in bearings. The core is plated so as to provide a hard surface and increase the life and reliability of the high speed ball bearings.

Parker, R. J. (inventor)

1973-01-01

135

Grizzly bears and forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the occurrence and fruit production of 13 grizzly bear foods in west-central Alberta, Canada, to better understand use of clearcuts by grizzly bears. Comparisons were made between clearcuts and upland forest stands, while specific models describing food or fruit occurrence within clearcuts were developed from canopy, clearcut age, scarification, and terrain-related variables using logistic regression. Ants, Equisetum spp.,

S. E. Nielsen; R. H. M. Munro; E. L. Bainbridge; G. B. Stenhouse; M. S. Boyce

2004-01-01

136

ALASKAN POLAR BEAR DENNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Information on 35 overwinter maternity dens of Alaskan polar bears (Ursus maritimnus Phipps) and on 101 female polar bears with cubs, recently emerged from dens, was obtained by aerial and ground surveys, interviews with Arctic coast residents, and literature review. Pregnant females form snow dens in October and November and give birth in December and January. Females and cubs

Jack W. Lentfer; Richard J. Hensel

137

Grizzly bears and forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timber harvesting and oil and gas extraction create ecological change beyond just the footprint of the resource extraction. These activities also create a permanent network of roads that can have lasting effects on forest ecology. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) suffer higher mortality when in close proximity to roads, yet bears in the foothills of west-central Alberta, continue to use these

C. L. Roever; M. S. Boyce; G. B. Stenhouse

2008-01-01

138

OTV bearing deflection investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal of the Bearing Deflectometer Investigation was to gain experience in the use of fiber optic displacement probe technology for bearing health monitoring in a liquid hydrogen turbo pump. The work specified in this Task Order was conducted in conjunction with Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory Contract F04611-86-C-0010. APD conducted the analysis and design coordination to provide a displacement probe design compatible with the XLR-134 liquid hydrogen turbo pump assembly (TPA). Specifications and requirements of the bearing deflectometer were established working with Mechanical Technology Instruments, Inc. (MTI). The TPA design accommodated positioning of the probe to measure outer race cyclic deflections of the pump inlet bearing. The fiber optic sensor was installed as required in the TPA and sensor output was recorded during the TPA testing. Data review indicated that no bearing deflection signature could be differentiated from the inherent system noise. Alternate sensor installations were not investigated, but might yield different results.

Reimer, B. L.; Diepenbrock, R. T.; Millis, M. G.

1993-01-01

139

Synthesis and characterization of hafnium and molybdenum bifunctional initiators for the preparation of triblock copolymers  

E-print Network

Chapter 1. Three monofunctional mixed alkyl hafnium complexes containing the (MesNpy)2 ligand ([(MesitylNCH2)2CMe(2-CsH4N)]2) were synthesized. (MesNpy)Hf(Neo)R ((2b), R = Me; Neo = CH2CMe2Ph) and (MesNpy)Hf(CH2TMS)(R), ...

Gabert, Andrea Jennifer

2007-01-01

140

Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

Shao, Yanqiu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China) [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); College of Chemistry, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157012 (China); Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan, Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

2012-03-15

141

Evolution of conifer diterpene synthases: diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in lodgepole pine and jack pine involves monofunctional and bifunctional diterpene synthases.  

PubMed

Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

2013-02-01

142

Bioconjugates of rhizavidin with single domain antibodies as bifunctional immunoreagents.  

PubMed

Use of the avidin-biotin binding interaction for immunoassay applications is widespread. One advantageous immunoreagent is the recombinant fusion of an antibody fragment with a biotin binding protein. These genetic fusions alleviate the need to prepare chemical conjugates to achieve molecules that combine target recognition with signal transduction or to facilitate the directional immobilization of the binding element. In order for such a fusion protein to be useful, however, it must be able to be produced in good yield. Unfortunately, recombinant production of avidin or streptavidin as well as bioconjugates derived thereof has been problematic. An alternative biotin binding molecule called rhizavidin has been described, which forms a homodimer instead of a tetramer, but it has not been evaluated in genetic fusions with antibody binding domains. Single domain antibodies, the variable domain derived from camelid heavy chain only antibodies, offer binding domains with high affinity, and solubility that are well expressed in Escherichia coli. In this work, we prepared an anti-ricin single domain antibody - rhizavidin bioconjugate and evaluated it on the basis of its production in E. coli and on its activity in comparison to a streptavidin core bioconjugate and unfused single domain antibody. The single domain antibody-rhizavidin bioconjugate produced much better than its streptavidin core counterparts, yielding an average of 14 mg/L, a 20-fold improvement. When used in assays the rhizavidin conjugate provided the same desirable characteristics as the streptavidin core fusion as both capture and detection reagents. Since rhizavidin and single domain antibodies both display impressive thermal stabilities their fusion provides a route to achieve robust bifunctional immunoreagents. PMID:24946086

Liu, Jinny L; Zabetakis, Dan; Walper, Scott A; Goldman, Ellen R; Anderson, George P

2014-09-01

143

Physical properties of bifunctional BST/LSMO nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the fabrication of bifunctional nanocomposites consisting of ferroelectric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) at different concentrations via a high-temperature solid state route. The structural, dielectric, electrical, magnetodielectric (MD), magnetoelectric (ME) and magnetic properties of BST/LSMO nanocomposites were systematically investigated over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The X-Ray Diffraction analyses reveal the nanocrystalline nature of the heterostructures, wherein both perovskite phases co-exist. No parasitic phases were observed. The study of the dielectric properties shows that the nanocomposites exhibit relaxor ferroelectric character, with ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperatures around 287-292 K that do not follow the Curie-Weiss law. The electrical measurements indicate that ac conductivities of the nanocomposites follow the Jonscher's universal power law, with activation energies of 0.42-0.63 eV based on Arrhenius-type behavior at high temperatures. The nanocomposites exhibit well-defined ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at room temperature (RT). The MD and ME measurements at RT indicate that BST/LSMO exhibits a nonlinear ME effect at low frequencies, with a threshold near 0.5 T. The magnetocapacitance (MCp) measurements evidence a quadratic dependence on magnetic field, further confirming the multiferroic nature of BST/LSMO. The order of MCp was found to be ˜7% per Tesla. The analysis of the MCp measurements indicates that one of the BST/LSMO compositions studied can be considered as a new multiferroic compound.

Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Martinez, Ricardo; Morell, Gerardo

2014-02-01

144

Physical properties of bifunctional BST/LSMO nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

We report the fabrication of bifunctional nanocomposites consisting of ferroelectric Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) and ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) at different concentrations via a high-temperature solid state route. The structural, dielectric, electrical, magnetodielectric (MD), magnetoelectric (ME) and magnetic properties of BST/LSMO nanocomposites were systematically investigated over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The X-Ray Diffraction analyses reveal the nanocrystalline nature of the heterostructures, wherein both perovskite phases co-exist. No parasitic phases were observed. The study of the dielectric properties shows that the nanocomposites exhibit relaxor ferroelectric character, with ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperatures around 287–292?K that do not follow the Curie-Weiss law. The electrical measurements indicate that ac conductivities of the nanocomposites follow the Jonscher's universal power law, with activation energies of 0.42–0.63?eV based on Arrhenius-type behavior at high temperatures. The nanocomposites exhibit well-defined ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at room temperature (RT). The MD and ME measurements at RT indicate that BST/LSMO exhibits a nonlinear ME effect at low frequencies, with a threshold near 0.5?T. The magnetocapacitance (MC{sub p}) measurements evidence a quadratic dependence on magnetic field, further confirming the multiferroic nature of BST/LSMO. The order of MC{sub p} was found to be ?7% per Tesla. The analysis of the MC{sub p} measurements indicates that one of the BST/LSMO compositions studied can be considered as a new multiferroic compound.

Beltran-Huarac, Juan, E-mail: baristary26@gmail.com; Morell, Gerardo [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Martinez, Ricardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Cayey Campus, Cayey, Puerto Rico 00737 (United States)

2014-02-28

145

Touchdown Ball-Bearing System for Magnetic Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The torque-limited touchdown bearing system (TLTBS) is a backup mechanical-bearing system for a high-speed rotary machine in which the rotor shaft is supported by magnetic bearings in steady-state normal operation. The TLTBS provides ball-bearing support to augment or supplant the magnetic bearings during startup, shutdown, or failure of the magnetic bearings. The TLTBS also provides support in the presence of conditions (in particular, rotational acceleration) that make it difficult or impossible to control the magnetic bearings or in which the magnetic bearings are not strong enough (e.g., when the side load against the rotor exceeds the available lateral magnetic force).

Kingsbury, Edward P.; Price, Robert; Gelotte, Erik; Singer, Herbert B.

2003-01-01

146

Ball and Roller Bearings. A Teaching Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual provides a subject reference for ball and roller bearings. The following topics are included: (1) bearing nomenclature, (2) bearing uses, (3) bearing capacities, (4) shop area working conditions, (5) bearing removal, (6) bearing cleaning and inspection, (7) bearing replacement, (8) bearing lubrication, (9) bearing installation, (10)…

American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

147

One of the TNF superfamily members: bifunctional protein, TNFR2-Fc-IL-1ra.  

PubMed

Many anti-inflammatory agents have been exploited for the treatment of inflammatory diseases by targeting the most potent proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). Theoretically, simultaneous neutralization or blocking two important inflammatory mediators might achieve a synergistic therapeutic effect. A recombinant fusion protein, TNFR2-Fc-IL-1ra (TFI), was developed as bifunctional inflammatory inhibitor. TFI was able to strongly neutralize TNF activity and to antagonize IL-1 receptor in the cell binding inhibition assays, suggesting that TFI could be used as a bifunctional ligand with enhanced anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:24788185

Xie, Bo

2014-01-01

148

A general route to synthesize water-dispersive noble metal-iron oxide bifunctional hybrid nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This communication describes a simple, general route for preparing bifunctional hybrid nanoparticles based on direct adsorption and spontaneous reduction of Ag(+) and Pd(2+) onto the surface of carbon-encapsulated superparamagnetic colloidal nanoclusters. Because of the existence of carbon coating and surface hydrophilic carboxyl, the bifunctional hybrid nanoparticles show excellent water-dispersity. In addition, the size (35 nm-86 nm) and number of Ag nanocrystals can be tuned by changing the molar ratios and reaction concentration between Ag(+) and nanoclusters. PMID:22080415

Wang, Hui; Sun, Yubing; Yu, Yifei; Chen, Jian; Li, Ran; Cheng, Kai; Chen, Qianwang

2012-01-14

149

The Polar Bear Tracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new Web site from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) International explores how polar bears are affected by global warming. Data on the movements of two radio-collared bears can be viewed, along with the ice status, through a series of online maps. This is an interesting site with valuable information and a nice balance of maps, photos, and text. The animation of the polar bear tracking data is a really neat feature, but is best viewed by advancing through the stages manually because the rapid speed of the film makes it difficult to comprehend.

2002-01-01

150

Ball Bearing Mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Load-deflection relationships for different types of elliptical contacts such as those found in a ball bearing are developed. Simplified expressions that allow quick calculations of deformation to be made simply from a knowledge of the applied load, the material properties, and the geometry of the contacting elements are presented. Ball bearings subjected to radial, thrust and combined ball loads are analyzed. A design criterion for fatigue life of ball bearings is developed. The section of a satisfactory lubricant, as well as describing systems that provide a constant flow of lubricant to the contact, is considered.

Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

1981-01-01

151

High speed hybrid bearing comprising a fluid bearing and a rolling bearing convected in series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of an antifriction bearing and a process by which its fatigue life may be extended. The method involves a rotating shaft supported by a fluid bearing and a rolling element bearing coupled in series. Each bearing turns at a fraction of the rotational speed of the shaft. The fluid bearing is preferably conical, thereby providing thrust and radial load support in a single bearing structure.

Anderson, W. J. (inventor)

1973-01-01

152

Optimal Synchronizability of Bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bearings are mechanical dissipative systems that, when perturbed, relax toward a synchronized (bearing) state. Here we find that bearings can be perceived as physical realizations of complex networks of oscillators with asymmetrically weighted couplings. Accordingly, these networks can exhibit optimal synchronization properties through fine-tuning of the local interaction strength as a function of node degree [Motter, Zhou, and Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016116 (2005)PLEEE81539-3755]. We show that, in analogy, the synchronizability of bearings can be maximized by counterbalancing the number of contacts and the inertia of their constituting rotor disks through the mass-radius relation, m˜r?, with an optimal exponent ?=?× which converges to unity for a large number of rotors. Under this condition, and regardless of the presence of a long-tailed distribution of disk radii composing the mechanical system, the average participation per disk is maximized and the energy dissipation rate is homogeneously distributed among elementary rotors.

Araújo, N. A. M.; Seybold, H.; Baram, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.

2013-02-01

153

New spherical roller bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes SKF’s three new spherical roller bearings, E for smoother running, VA 405 to resist vibration and CARB for axial displacement and misalignment. Gives a paper mill as an example of the successful use of CARB.

Bill Wilson

1995-01-01

154

Protecting Bear While Tranqualized  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The kerchief over the bear's eyes protects it from dust and debris and reduces visual stimulation. The small tubing in its nose, known as a nasal cannula, delivers oxygen to the animal while it is tranquilized....

155

PCs and Polar Bears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article looks at the growing energy consumption from consumer electronics and the increases it may cause in greenhouse gases and global warming. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-01-01

156

Investigation of Pressurized Wave Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wave bearing has been pioneered and developed by Dr. Dimofte over the past several years. This bearing will be the main focus of this research. It is believed that the wave bearing offers a number of advantages over the foil bearing, which is the bearing that NASA is currently pursuing for turbomachinery applications. The wave bearing is basically a journal bearing whose film thickness varies around the circumference approximately sinusoidally, with usually 3 or 4 waves. Being a rigid geometry bearing, it provides precise control of shaft centerlines. The wave profile also provides good load capacity and makes the bearing very stable. Manufacturing techniques have been devised that should allow the production of wave bearings almost as cheaply as conventional full-circular bearings.

Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin

2003-01-01

157

Rocketdyne LOX bearing tester program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cause, or causes, for the Space Shuttle Main Engine ball wear were unknown, however, several mechanisms were suspected. Two testers were designed and built for operation in liquid oxygen to empirically gain insight into the problems and iterate solutions in a timely and cost efficient manner independent of engine testing. Schedules and test plans were developed that defined a test matrix consisting of parametric variations of loading, cooling or vapor margin, cage lubrication, material, and geometry studies. Initial test results indicated that the low pressure pump thrust bearing surface distress is a function of high axial load. Initial high pressure turbopump bearing tests produced the wear phenomenon observed in the turbopump and identified an inadequate vapor margin problem and a coolant flowrate sensitivity issue. These tests provided calibration data of analytical model predictions to give high confidence in the positive impact of future turbopump design modification for flight. Various modifications will be evaluated in these testers, since similar turbopump conditions can be produced and the benefit of the modification will be quantified in measured wear life comparisons.

Keba, J. E.; Beatty, R. F.

1988-01-01

158

The Great Bear Rainforest Spirit Bears, Grizzlies and Ancient Forests  

E-print Network

The Great Bear Rainforest Spirit Bears, Grizzlies and Ancient Forests September 16 ­ 22, 2015 the verdant coastline of British Columbia. Migrating salmon and hungry coastal bears go together like popcorn at the movies and the Great Bear Rainforest is one of the world's best places to witness this primordial drama

de Leon, Alex R.

159

Vinyl sulfone bifunctional derivatives of DOTA allow sulfhydryl- or amino-directed coupling to antibodies. Conjugates retain immunoreactivity and have similar biodistributions.  

PubMed

We have synthesized a bifunctional vinyl sulfone-cysteineamido derivative of DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) that can be conjugated to the sulfhydryls of mildly reduced recombinant antibody (chimeric anti-CEA antibody cT84.66) at pH 7 or to the amino groups of lysine residues at pH 9. The conjugation is sulfhydryl specific at pH 7 (case 1), and amino specific at pH 9 (case 2) as long as the antibody has no free sulhydryl groups. At a molar ratio of 50 BCA (bifunctional chelating agent) to mAb, the number of chelates conjugated is 0.8 for case 1, and 4.6 for case 2. The resulting conjugates can be radiolabeled with (111)In to high specific activity (5 mCi/mg) with high efficiency (>95%) at 43 degrees C in 60 min. The radiolabeled conjugates retained >95% immunoreactivity and are stable in serum containing 1mM DTPA over 3 d. When the radiolabeled conjugates were injected into nude mice bearing LS174T human colon tumor xenografts, over 40% ID/g accumulated in tumors during the period 24-72h. Tumor-to-blood ratios were 4.5, 3.5, and 2.5 for the sulfhydryl coupled conjugate at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively, and 2.7, 2.5, and 2.3 for the amino-coupled conjugate at the same time points. For other organs the biodistributions were nearly identical whether the conjugates were attached via sulfhydryl or amino groups. These novel BCAs are easy to synthesize, offer versatile conjugation options, and give equivalent biodistributions that result in high tumor uptake and good tumor-to-blood ratios. PMID:11792185

Li, Lin; Tsai, Shih-Wa; Anderson, Anne-Line; Keire, David A; Raubitschek, Andrew A; Shively, John E

2002-01-01

160

Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing  

DOEpatents

A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

2002-01-01

161

Magnetic bearing and motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic bearing for passively suspending a rotatable element subjected to axial and radial thrust forces is disclosed. The magnetic bearing employs a taut wire stretched along the longitudinal axis of the bearing between opposed end pieces and an intermediate magnetic section. The intermediate section is segmented to provide oppositely directed magnetic flux paths between the end pieces and may include either an axially polarized magnets interposed between the segments. The end pieces, separated from the intermediate section by air gaps, control distribution of magnetic flux between the intermediate section segments. Coaxial alignment of the end pieces with the intermediate section minimizes magnetic reluctance in the flux paths endowing the bearing with self-centering characteristics when subjected to radial loads. In an alternative embodiment, pairs of oppositely wound armature coils are concentrically interposed between segments of the intermediate section in concentric arcs adjacent to radially polarized magnets to equip a magnetic bearing as a torsion drive motor. The magnetic suspension bearing disclosed provides long term reliability without maintenance with application to long term space missions such as the VISSR/VAS scanning mirror instrument in the GOES program.

Studer, P. A. (inventor)

1983-01-01

162

Immobilization and chelation of metal complexes with bifunctional phosphine ligands: a solid-state NMR study  

E-print Network

.5747 Garching, Germany 29Si CP MAS NMR shows that a transition-metalcomplex with two bifunctional phosphine or an addition reaction to surface siloxane groups takes place.'3 This can be seen in the 29Si CP MAS NMR-state NMR study Klaus D. Behringer and Janet Blumel" Anorganisch-chemisches Institut der TU Miinchen, 8

Bluemel, Janet

163

Formation of ceramophilic chitin and biohybrid materials enabled by a genetically engineered bifunctional protein.  

PubMed

A bifunctional protein composed of a highly negatively charged oyster shell protein and a chitin-binding domain enabled the formation of biohybrid materials through non-covalent surface modification of chitin nanofibres. The results demonstrate that specific biomolecular interactions offer a route for the formation of biosynthetic materials. PMID:24871427

Malho, Jani-Markus; Heinonen, Hanna; Kontro, Inkeri; Mushi, Ngesa E; Serimaa, Ritva; Hentze, Hans-Peter; Linder, Markus B; Szilvay, Géza R

2014-07-14

164

An Asymmetric, Bifunctional Catalytic Approach to Non-Natural r-Amino Acid Derivatives  

E-print Network

An Asymmetric, Bifunctional Catalytic Approach to Non-Natural r-Amino Acid Derivatives Daniel H that dramatically increases the reaction rate and the yield of these non-natural amino acid precursors while). As previously described,5 these 1,4-benzoxazinone products are readily converted into R-amino acid derivatives

Lectka, Thomas

165

Stable cycling of lithium sulfide cathodes through strong affinity with a bifunctional binder  

E-print Network

Stable cycling of lithium sulfide cathodes through strong affinity with a bifunctional binder Zhi lithium­sulfur batteries have attracted great interest in recent years because of their high theoretical specific energy, which is several times that of current lithium-ion batteries. Compared to sulfur, fully

Cui, Yi

166

Selective Bifunctional Modification of a Non-catenated Metal-Organic Framework Material via "Click" Chemistry  

E-print Network

to the pivotal role played by organic chemistry in its study, there is a noticeable want of participation and independently with different organic molecules. Recently, Sharpless' "click" chemistry10 has been suggestedSelective Bifunctional Modification of a Non-catenated Metal-Organic Framework Material via "Click

167

American Black Bear: Ursus americanus  

E-print Network

3/21/2011 1 USFWS American Black Bear: Ursus americanus www.bear.org LDWF Historic Distribution Bear: Ursus americanus Louisiana Florida Eastern Olympic New Mexico California Cinnamon Mexican: Ursus americanus luteolus American black bear Historically abundant in Louisiana, eastern Texas

Gray, Matthew

168

Splined Ball-Bearing Carrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ball-bearing carrier includes splined outer surface mating with slightly larger splined inner surface of housing and provides constant deadband, unaffected by movements of other components. Deadband needed to establish radial spring rate and provide for axial movement of bearing for thrust balance. Bearing carrier and bearing intended for use in high-pressure turbopump.

Moore, Jerry H.

1992-01-01

169

Analysis of the harmonics losses and bearing load for motorized high speed spindle part I: Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angular contact bearings are the most popular type of bearings used in the motorized high speed spindle. An initial preload and operating-induced load control are managed to ensure its rigidity, but the centrifugal force and temperature will rise with the rapid increase of spindle speed. Although the centrifugal force and thermo induced bearings load are applied on the spindle assembly.

Shih-Chang Chen; Yu-Ling Juan; Chia-Hui Tang; Ching-Feng Chang; Tsair-Rong Chen

2010-01-01

170

Iterated Filters for Bearing-Only SLAM Stephen Tully, Hyungpil Moon, George Kantor, and Howie Choset  

E-print Network

Iterated Filters for Bearing-Only SLAM Stephen Tully, Hyungpil Moon, George Kantor, and Howie step for the problem of bearing-only SLAM. We focus on an undelayed approach that initializes a landmark after only one bearing measurement. Traditionally, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) has been used

Choset, Howie

171

49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding...Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding...issuing a PIE, the initiating official bears the burden of proof. (b) This...

2010-10-01

172

Non-synchronous vibration of a Jeffcott rotor due to internal radial clearance in roller bearings  

E-print Network

Non-synchronous vibration of a Jeffcott rotor due to internal radial clearance in roller bearings St West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada Abstract Internal radial clearance (IRC) in roller bearings the risk of bearing durability so that initial clearance is often on the high side and then reduced

Boyer, Edmond

173

49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding...Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding...issuing a PIE, the initiating official bears the burden of proof. (b) This...

2011-10-01

174

49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding...Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding...issuing a PIE, the initiating official bears the burden of proof. (b) This...

2013-10-01

175

49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding...Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding...issuing a PIE, the initiating official bears the burden of proof. (b) This...

2012-10-01

176

Partial tooth gear bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

177

Blood Pump Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

178

Blood Pump Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus are provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

179

BEARS conference UC Berkeley  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Berkeley EECS Annual Research Symposium (BEARS) is a conference hosted by UC Berkeley's Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences department in the College of Engineering. This website provides the agenda for the 2005 BEARS (held on February 10 and 11) along with information on the presenters and abstracts and video footage of their presentations. The conference highlights work from EECS scientists on "advances enabling computing and communications to connect diverse aspects of our world." Topics include: wireless networks, optical communication, the future of the internet, embedded software, machine learning, security, and trust.

180

Development testing of high temperature bearings for SP100 control drive assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial phases of two distinct SP-100 control drive assembly bearing test programs were successfully completed at elevated temperature in vacuum. The first was for the reflector drive line spherical self-aligning bearings. Each bearing consisted of a carbon-graphite ball mounted on an aluminum oxide-coated Ta-10%W shaft, captured by an aluminum oxide-coated Ta-10%W socket. One set of these bearings was exposed to

Alfred W. Dalcher; Christian G. Kjaer-Olsen; Carlos Martinez; Stanley Y. Ogawa; Dwight R. Springer; Robert Yaspo

1992-01-01

181

Development testing of high temperature bearings for SP100 control drive assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial phases of two distinct SP-100 control drive assembly bearing test programs were successfully completed at elevated temperature in vacuum. The first was for the reflector drive line spherical self-aligning bearings. Each bearing consisted of a carbon-graphite ball mounted on an aluminum oxide-coated Ta-10%W shaft, captured by an aluminum oxide-coated Ta-10%W socket. One set of these bearings was exposed to

Alfred W. Dalcher; Christian G. Kjaer-Olsen; Carlos Martinez; Stanley Y. Ogawa; Dwight R. Springer; Robert Yaspo

1992-01-01

182

Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.

Clingman, W. Dean

1991-01-01

183

Bearing-Cartridge Damping Seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In proposed design for improved ball-bearing cartridge, damping seal in form of thin-layer fluid journal bearing incorporated into cartridge. Damping seal acts as auxiliary bearing, relieving bearing balls of significant portions of both static and dynamic bearing loads. Damping from seal reduces dynamic loads even further by reducing amplitude of vibrations in second vibrational mode of rotor, which mode occurs when rotor turning at nearly full operating speed. Intended for use in high-pressure-oxygen turbopump of Space Shuttle main engine, also applicable to other turbomachinery bearings.

Goggins, David G.; Scharrer, Joseph K.; Chen, Wei C.

1991-01-01

184

Lubricant effects on bearing life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.

1986-01-01

185

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration  

SciTech Connect

NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

van Dam, J.

2011-10-01

186

History of ball bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

1981-01-01

187

Bear vs Bee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the bear to the pot of honey, avoiding the bees. The game has 32 stages of increasing complexity.

2012-01-01

188

Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

Chu, Wei-Kan

1995-01-01

189

Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing  

DOEpatents

A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT); Lynds, Jr., Lahmer (Glastonbury, CT)

1993-01-01

190

Introduction to magnetic bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-axis suspension has several advantages over single axis system, in that it provides control of an object with precision in two or three orthogonal axes. In this report, we discuss the primary use of magnetic-bearing suspension and it's relevance to what was formally known as NASA's Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS). This system is an experimental pointing system with

Lori Skowronski; Anne Bisese

1993-01-01

191

Oregon Zoo Polar Bear  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tasul, an Oregon Zoo polar bear, sports a high-tech collar that will help researchers study her endangered wild counterparts in the Arctic. Photo by Michael Durham, courtesy of the Oregon Zoo. Photo by Michael Durham, courtesy of the Oregon Zoo....

192

Robust control of nitrogen assimilation by a bifunctional enzyme in E. coli.  

PubMed

Bacteria regulate the assimilation of multiple nutrients to enable growth. How is balanced utilization achieved, despite fluctuations in the concentrations of the enzymes that make up the regulatory circuitry? Here we address this question by studying the nitrogen system of E. coli. A mechanism based on the avidity of a bifunctional enzyme, adenylyltransferase (AT/AR), to its multimeric substrate, glutamine synthetase, is proposed to maintain a robust ratio between two key metabolites, glutamine and ?-ketoglutarate. This ratio is predicted to be insensitive to variations in protein levels of the core circuit and to the rate of nitrogen utilization. We find using mass spectrometry that the metabolite ratio is robust to variations in protein levels and that this robustness depends on the bifunctional enzyme. Moreover, robustness carries through to the bacteria growth rate. Interrupting avidity by adding a monofunctional AT/AR mutant to the native system abolishes robustness, as predicted by the proposed mechanism. PMID:21211727

Hart, Yuval; Madar, Daniel; Yuan, Jie; Bren, Anat; Mayo, Avraham E; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Alon, Uri

2011-01-01

193

Design and applications of bifunctional small molecules: Why two heads are better than one  

PubMed Central

Induction of protein-protein interactions is a daunting challenge, but recent studies show promise for small molecules that specifically bring two or more protein molecules together for enhanced or novel biological effect. The first such bifunctional molecules were the rapamycin- and FK506-based “Chemical Inducers of Dimerization”, but the field has since expanded with new molecules and new applications in chemical genetics and cell biology. Examples include coumermycin-mediated gyrase B dimerization, proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules (PROTACS), drug hybrids, and strategies for exploiting multivalency in toxin binding and antibody recruitment. This review discusses these and other advances in the design and use of bifunctional small molecules, and potential strategies for future systems. PMID:19112665

Corson, Timothy W.; Aberle, Nicholas; Crews, Craig M.

2009-01-01

194

Measuring ball-bearing loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contour of wear-path boundary in bearing race gives precise information about magnitude, direction and imbalance of load. Simple tool measures height of path perimeter as bearing race is rotated manually on flat surface.

Butner, M. F.

1980-01-01

195

Vygotsky and the Three Bears  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peggy Kulczewski, a kindergarten classroom teacher, remembers the day when students enjoyed a story she told them from the book "The Three Bears". The students' discussion about comparison of the bears was very helpful to the whole group.

Kulczewski, Peggy

2004-01-01

196

Synthesis of acid-base bifunctional mesoporous materials by oxidation and thermolysis  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: A novel and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of acid-base bifunctional catalyst. The obtained sample of SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acids exhibits excellent catalytic activity in aldol condensation reaction. Research highlights: {yields} Synthesize acid-base bifunctional mesoporous materials SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}. {yields} Oxidation and then thermolysis to generate acidic site and basic site. {yields} Exhibit good catalytic performance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. -- Abstract: A novel and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of acid-base bifunctional catalyst SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}. This method was achieved by co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) carbamicacid-1-methylcyclohexylester (3TAME) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), followed by oxidation and then thermolysis to generate acidic site and basic site. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrographs (TEM) show that the resultant materials keep mesoporous structure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), back titration, solid-state {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR and solid-state {sup 29}Si MAS NMR confirm that the organosiloxanes were condensed as a part of the silica framework. The bifunctional sample (SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}) containing amine and sulfonic acids exhibits excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes.

Yu, Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Zou, Yongcun [State Key Laboratory of Inoranic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistryg, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Inoranic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistryg, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wu, Shujie; Liu, Heng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan, Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)

2011-06-15

197

Bifunctional anthracene derivatives as non-doped blue emitters and hole-transporters for electroluminescent devices.  

PubMed

New highly fluorescent bifunctional anthracenes showed high thermal and electrochemical stability, and great potential as both blue emitters and hole-transporters for OLEDs. Deep-blue and Alq3-based green devices with maximum efficiencies and CIE coordinates of 1.65 and 6.25 cd A(-1), and (0.15, 0.16) and (0.26, 0.49) were achieved, respectively. PMID:21614369

Thangthong, A-monrat; Meunmart, Duangratchaneekorn; Prachumrak, Narid; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Keawin, Tinnagon; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Promarak, Vinich

2011-07-01

198

6-Hydrazinonicotinamide Derivatives as Bifunctional Coupling Agents for 99m Tc-Labeling of Small Biomolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

99mTc-labeled small biomolecules are a class of receptor-based, target specific radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of various diseases, such as cancer, thrombosis, infection and inflammation. To label a small biomolecule with 99mTc, a bifunctional coupling agent (BFC) is needed so that the 99mTc can be tightly attached to the biomolecule and can localize at the site of the diseased tissue. For

Shuang Liu

199

QSAR modeling of bifunctional quinolonyl diketo acid derivatives as integrase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent interests in the development of novel and potent bifunctional quinolonyl diketo acid derivatives as integrase inhibitors\\u000a for the treatment of HIV-1 infection-inhibiting 3? processing and strand transfer in the virus have been explored using classical\\u000a Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) tools in an attempt to delve into the quantitative contribution pattern\\u000a of different substituent in the diketo quinoline

Sonal Dubey; Nahid Abbas; G. Goutham; Pradnya A. Bhosle

200

Mono and bi-functional arenethiols as surfactants for gold nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable gold nanoparticles stabilized by different mono and bi-functional arenethiols, namely, benzylthiol and 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, have been prepared by using a modified Brust's two-phase synthesis. The size, shape, and crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles have been determined by high-resolution electron microscopy and full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Nanocrystals diameters have been tuned in the range 2 ÷ 9 nm by

Floriana Vitale; Ilaria Fratoddi; Chiara Battocchio; Emanuela Piscopiello; Leander Tapfer; Maria Vittoria Russo; Giovanni Polzonetti; Cinzia Giannini

2011-01-01

201

Regulation of lipid homeostasis by the bifunctional SREBF2-miR33a locus.  

PubMed

The sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF2) gene is a bifunctional locus encoding SREBP-2, a well-known transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, and microRNA-33a, which has recently been shown to reduce expression of proteins involved in export of cholesterol and ?-oxidation of fatty acids, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity and fine-tuning to regulation of lipid homeostasis. PMID:21356514

Bommer, Guido T; MacDougald, Ormond A

2011-03-01

202

Regulation of lipid homeostasis by the bifunctional SREBF2-miR33a locus  

PubMed Central

The sterol regulatory element-binding factor-2 (SREBF2) gene is a bifunctional locus encoding SREBP-2, a well-known transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, and microRNA-33a, which has recently been shown to reduce expression of proteins involved in export of cholesterol and ?-oxidation of fatty acids, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity and fine-tuning to regulation of lipid homeostasis. PMID:21356514

Bommer, Guido T.; MacDougald, Ormond A.

2011-01-01

203

A self-lubricating bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved bearing structure is described which includes a permanently magnetized porous body filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant for extending the operational life of self-lubricating bearings. The bearing structure is characterized by a permanently magnetized retainer formed of a porous material and filled with an interstitial magnetic lubricant, whereby the pores serve as lubricant reservoirs from which the lubricant continuously is delivered to a film disposed between contiguous bearing surfaces.

Whitaker, A. F. (inventor)

1974-01-01

204

Compliant hydrodynamic fluid journal bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An air bearing structure is described that prevents destructive bending moments within the top foil. Welds are eliminated by mounting the top bearing foil in the bearing cartridge sleeve without using a space block. Tabs or pins at the end of the top bearing foil are restrained by slots or stops formed in the cartridge sleeve. These structural members are free to move in a direction normal to the shaft while being restrained from movement in the direction of shaft rotation.

Warren, E. L. (inventor)

1985-01-01

205

Redirecting NK cells mediated tumor cell lysis by a new recombinant bifunctional protein.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells are at the crossroad between innate and adaptive immunity and play a major role in cancer immunosurveillance. NK cell stimulation depends on a balance between inhibitory and activating receptors, such as the stimulatory lectin-like receptor NKG2D. To redirect NK cells against tumor cells, we designed bifunctional proteins able to specifically bind tumor cells and to induce their lysis by NK cells, after NKG2D engagement. To this aim, we used the 'knob into hole' heterodimerization strategy, in which 'knob' and 'hole' variants were generated by directed mutagenesis within the CH3 domain of human IgG1 Fc fragments fused to an anti-CEA or anti-HER2 scFv or to the H60 murine ligand of NKG2D, respectively. We demonstrated the capacity of the bifunctional proteins produced to specifically coat tumor cells surface with H60 ligand. Most importantly, we demonstrated that these bifunctional proteins were able to induce an NKG2D-dependent and antibody-specific tumor cell lysis by murine NK cells. Overall, the results show the possibility to redirect NK cytotoxicity to tumor cells by a new format of recombinant bispecific antibody, opening the way of potential NK cell-based cancer immunotherapies by specific activation of the NKG2D receptor at the tumor site. PMID:18790793

Germain, Claire; Campigna, Emmanuelle; Salhi, Imed; Morisseau, Sébastien; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Pèlegrin, André; Robert, Bruno

2008-11-01

206

Bifunctional Electrophiles Cross-Link Thioredoxins with Redox Relay Partners in Cells  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin protects cells against oxidative damage by reducing disulfide bonds in improperly oxidized proteins. Previously, we found that the baker's yeast cytosolic thioredoxin Trx2 undergoes cross-linking to form several protein-protein complexes in cells treated with the bifunctional electrophile divinyl sulfone (DVSF). Here, we report that the peroxiredoxin Tsa1 and the thioredoxin reductase Trr1, both of which function in a redox relay network with thioredoxin, become cross-linked in complexes with Trx2 upon DVSF treatment. Treatment of yeast with other bifunctional electrophiles, including diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DAD), mechlorethamine (HN2), and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), resulted in the formation of similar cross-linked complexes. Cross-linking of Trx2 and Tsa1 to other proteins by DVSF and DAD is dependent on modification of the active site Cys residues within these proteins. In addition, the human cytosolic thioredoxin, cytosolic thioredoxin reductase, and peroxiredoxin 2 form cross-linked complexes to other proteins in the presence of DVSF, although each protein shows different susceptibilities to modification by DAD, HN2, and DEB. Taken together, our results indicate that bifunctional electrophiles potentially disrupt redox homeostasis in yeast and human cells by forming cross-linked complexes between thioredoxins and their redox partners. PMID:23414292

Naticchia, Matthew R.; Brown, Haley A.; Garcia, Francisco J.; Lamade, Andrew M.; Justice, Samantha L.; Herrin, Rachelle P.; Morano, Kevin A.; West, James D.

2013-01-01

207

Bifunctional electrophiles cross-link thioredoxins with redox relay partners in cells.  

PubMed

Thioredoxin protects cells against oxidative damage by reducing disulfide bonds in improperly oxidized proteins. Previously, we found that the baker's yeast cytosolic thioredoxin Trx2 undergoes cross-linking to form several protein-protein complexes in cells treated with the bifunctional electrophile divinyl sulfone (DVSF). Here, we report that the peroxiredoxin Tsa1 and the thioredoxin reductase Trr1, both of which function in a redox relay network with thioredoxin, become cross-linked in complexes with Trx2 upon DVSF treatment. Treatment of yeast with other bifunctional electrophiles, including diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DAD), mechlorethamine (HN2), and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), resulted in the formation of similar cross-linked complexes. Cross-linking of Trx2 and Tsa1 to other proteins by DVSF and DAD is dependent on modification of the active site Cys residues within these proteins. In addition, the human cytosolic thioredoxin, cytosolic thioredoxin reductase, and peroxiredoxin 2 form cross-linked complexes to other proteins in the presence of DVSF, although each protein shows different susceptibilities to modification by DAD, HN2, and DEB. Taken together, our results indicate that bifunctional electrophiles potentially disrupt redox homeostasis in yeast and human cells by forming cross-linked complexes between thioredoxins and their redox partners. PMID:23414292

Naticchia, Matthew R; Brown, Haley A; Garcia, Francisco J; Lamade, Andrew M; Justice, Samantha L; Herrin, Rachelle P; Morano, Kevin A; West, James D

2013-03-18

208

(S)-5-(p-Nitrobenzyl)-PCTA, a Promising Bifunctional Ligand with Advantageous Metal Ion Complexation Kinetics  

PubMed Central

A bifunctional version of PCTA (3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9,-triacetic acid) that exhibits fast complexation kinetics with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions was synthesized in reasonable yields starting from N, N?, N?-tristosyl-(S)-2-(p-nitrobenzyl)-diethylenetriamine. pH-potentiometric studies showed that the basicities of p-nitrobenzyl-PCTA and the parent ligand PCTA were similar. The stability of M(NO2-Bn-PCTA) (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) complexes was similar to that of the corresponding PCTA complexes while the stability of Ln3+ complexes of the bifunctional ligand is somewhat lower than that of PCTA chelates. The rate of complex formation of Ln(NO2-Bn-PCTA) complexes was found to be quite similar to that of PCTA, a ligand known to exhibit the fastest formation rates among all lanthanide macrocyclic ligand complexes studied to date. The acid catalyzed decomplexation kinetic studies of the selected Ln(NO2-Bn-PCTA) complexes showed that the kinetic inertness of the complexes was comparable to that of Ln(DOTA) chelates making the bifunctional ligand NO2-Bn-PCTA suitable for labeling biological vectors with radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications. PMID:19220012

Tircsó, Gyula; Benyó, Enik? Tircsóné; Suh, Eul Hyun; Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Kovács, Zoltán

2009-01-01

209

Fracture analysis of HPOTP bearing balls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fracture analysis conducted on four HPOTP (High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump) bearing balls from the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) is described. Nondestructive evaluation, optical microscopy, and transmission microscopy techniques were used in the analysis. The cracks are initiated at or close to the ball surface under conditions of high cyclic stresses and high coefficient of friction. The cracks lead to spalls and subsequent crack propagation occurs by fatigue mode under concentrated loading of cyclic nature.

Bhat, B. N.

1981-01-01

210

First order ball bearing kinematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two first order equations are given connecting geometry and internal motions in an angular contact ball bearing. Total speed, kinematic equivalence, basic speed ratio, and modal speed ratio are defined and discussed; charts are given for the speed ratios covering all bearings and all rotational modes. Instances where specific first order assumptions might fail are discussed, and the resulting effects on bearing performance reviewed.

Kingbury, E.

1984-01-01

211

Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

Burke-Veliz, A.; Wang, D.; Wahdy, N.; Reed, P. A. S.; Merritt, D.; Syngellakis, S.

2009-08-01

212

Passive magnetic bearing system  

DOEpatents

An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

Post, Richard F.

2014-09-02

213

Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings  

DOEpatents

Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

Post, Richard F

2014-06-24

214

Magnetic bearing and motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

215

Big Bear Solar Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is located at the end of a causeway in a mountain lake more than 2 km above sea level. The site has more than 300 sunny days a year and a natural inversion caused by the lake which makes for very clean images. BBSO is the only university observatory in the US making high-resolution observations of the Sun. Its daily images are posted at http://www.bbso.njit.e...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

216

The Polar Bear Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, which is similar to Petals Around the Rose (cataloged separately), a player rolls 5 dice and asks the participants, âHow many polar bears are around the ice holes?â The participants try to figure out the riddle (rules of the game) by studying the dice arrangements and the answers that correspond. This webpage extends the game to have players also determine the number of fish and plankton.

2010-10-24

217

Night of the Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NOAA Ocean Exploration program strives to engage broad audiences to enhance America's environmental literacy through the excitement of ocean discovery. Increasing this literacy requires high-quality, effective collaborations between ocean explorers and America's teachers. NOAA is forming such collaborations to reach out in new ways to the public to improve the literacy of learners with respect to ocean issues. This site is a daily log of exploration in the Arctic and research on the Polar Bear.

Debenham, Casey; Timmermans, Mary-Louise

2002-08-25

218

Bears in a Boat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math activity, learners are challenged to create aluminum foil boats that will hold plastic bears until the boats sink. The lesson serves as a fun, hands-on way to collect data. Data from two attempts is collected and used to make two class box-and-whisker plots with some surprising results. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Rubillo, Jim

2012-01-01

219

Grizzly bears and forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined if clearcuts were selected as habitats by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos L.) in west-central Alberta during three seasons: hypophagia, early hyperphagia, and late hyperphagia. Our objectives were to describe seasonal habitat selection of clearcuts using resource selection functions at two scales. At the first scale, we assessed patch or third-order selection by comparing use (radiotelemetry) with study area-wide

Scott E. Nielsen; Mark S. Boyce; Gordon B. Stenhouse

2004-01-01

220

Anti-backlash gear bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

221

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROSTATIC JOURNAL BEARING WITH SLIT-STEP COMPENSATION  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the mathematical modeling and initial testing of an oil-hydrostatic bearing that derives compensation from both a central radial slit where fluid enters and stepped clearances near each end. Bearings using either a radial slit or stepped clearances for compensation were well studied over forty years ago by Donaldson. These bearings have smooth bores uninterrupted with multiple recesses around the circumference. The present slit-step bearing achieves the best of both types with somewhat higher hydrostatic stiffness than the slit bearing and fluid shear drag lower than the step bearing. This is apparent in TABLE 1, which compares calculated values of initial (i.e., centered) hydrostatic stiffness for each type. The slit-step bearing is one of several types being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for possible use on the Precision Optical Grinder and Lathe (POGAL).

Hale, L C; Donaldson, R R; Castro, C; Chung, C A; Hopkins, D J

2006-07-28

222

Hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings in high-speed turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high speed, high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested under a previous contract. This design was then modified to incorporate hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on both the pump end and turbine end to replace the original conventional ball bearing packages. The design, analysis, turbopump modification, assembly, and testing of the turbopump with hybrid bearings is presented here. Initial design considerations and rotordynamic performance analysis was made to define expected turbopump operating characteristics and are reported. The results of testing the turbopump to speeds of 9215 rad/s (88,000 rpm) using a wide range of hydrostatic bearing supply pressures are presented. The hydrostatic bearing test data and the rotordynamic behavior of the turbopump was closely analyzed and are included in the report. The testing of hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on a turbopump to the high speed requirements has indicated the configuration concept is feasible. The program has presented a great deal of information on the technology requirements of integrating the hybrid bearing into high speed turbopump designs for improved bearing life.

Nielson, C. E.

1983-01-01

223

Kalman Filter Behavior in Bearings-Only Tracking Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extended Kalman filter applied to bearings-only target tracking is theoretically analyzed. Closed-form expressions for the state vector and its associated covariance matrix are introduced, and subsequently used to demonstrate how bearing and range estimation errors can interact to cause filter instability (i.e., premature covariance collapse and divergence). Further investigation reveals that conventional initialization techniques often precipitate such anomalous behavior.

Vincent Aidala

1979-01-01

224

Fretting fatigue mechanism of bearing cap bolted joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fretting fatigue is a common type of failure of the bearing cap bolted joints. This paper proposes a methodology to analyze the fretting fatigue mechanism of the bearing cap bolted joint. A biaxially loading system was designed to simulate fretting fatigue failure under typical engine working condition. Meanwhile, a submodel was developed in the finite element calculation to analyze the contact status and stress distribution of the structural models. The test result shows that long inclined cracks (about 650 ?m long, orientation at 17°-34°) initiate at the middle region of the contact interface. As the increase of the bolt pretension load (from 6000 N to 10 000 N), the crack initial location is getting away from the bolt screw, and the fretting fatigue lives is increasing (from 7.8 × 105 to 6.0 × 106). With the fatigue phenomenon and the stress field analysis result, it concludes that the crack initiation is governed by the maximum shear stress; the bolt pretension load and the additional rotate torque caused by the bearing load are the two main factors which affect the fretting fatigue mechanism of the bearing cap bolted joints. It is beneficial to fretting fatigue lives of the bearing cap joints by increasing the bolt pretension load and restraining the oscillation of the bearing cap.

Li, Xin; Zuo, Zhengxing; Qin, Wenjie

2014-05-01

225

Fretting fatigue mechanism of bearing cap bolted joints.  

PubMed

Fretting fatigue is a common type of failure of the bearing cap bolted joints. This paper proposes a methodology to analyze the fretting fatigue mechanism of the bearing cap bolted joint. A biaxially loading system was designed to simulate fretting fatigue failure under typical engine working condition. Meanwhile, a submodel was developed in the finite element calculation to analyze the contact status and stress distribution of the structural models. The test result shows that long inclined cracks (about 650 ?m long, orientation at 17°-34°) initiate at the middle region of the contact interface. As the increase of the bolt pretension load (from 6000 N to 10,000 N), the crack initial location is getting away from the bolt screw, and the fretting fatigue lives is increasing (from 7.8 × 10(5) to 6.0 × 10(6)). With the fatigue phenomenon and the stress field analysis result, it concludes that the crack initiation is governed by the maximum shear stress; the bolt pretension load and the additional rotate torque caused by the bearing load are the two main factors which affect the fretting fatigue mechanism of the bearing cap bolted joints. It is beneficial to fretting fatigue lives of the bearing cap joints by increasing the bolt pretension load and restraining the oscillation of the bearing cap. PMID:24880414

Li, Xin; Zuo, Zhengxing; Qin, Wenjie

2014-05-01

226

Development of hybrid bearing system with thrust superconducting magnetic bearing and radial active electromagnetic bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A superconducting/electromagnetic hybrid bearing system is currently under development and test. This system consists of a thrust superconducting magnetic bearing and a double radial active electromagnetic bearing/motor devices. The thrust bearing has been designed using NdFeB permanent magnets levitating on a set of superconducting monoliths of YBCO, prepared by top seeded melt texturing technique, which supports the weight of the rotor. The bearing/motor devices were conceived as 4-pole 2-phase induction machine using stator windings for delivering torque and radial positioning simultaneously. Using this superconducting axial bearing and the active bearings for the rotor radial positioning, a fully levitating vertical-shaft inductive machine has been tested. The tests were successful in reaching a controlled levitation up to 6,300 rpm.

Nicolsky, R.; Pereira, A. S.; de Andrade, R.; David, D. F. B.; Santisteban, J. A.; Stephan, R. M.; Ripper, A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Strasser, T.

227

Dialogue for Kids Wild About Bears Sleepy Bear Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each winter, bears hunker down, slow their metabolisms, and pretty much wait out the winter in the safety of some sort of den. This lesson plan, from Idaho Public Television, is a fun way to illustrate to children (probably elementary grades primarily) the process of hibernation. At this site, educators are given the complete lesson plan instructions as well as several links to all sorts of great resources, including links to information on: Bear Diet, Home Range, Reproduction, Bear Research, People and Bears, more Classroom Activities, and more. And, the great addition to the site is a link to a 30-minute video about bears. While the site is somewhat focused on Idaho-specific bear information, teachers should be able to easily integrate the lesson no matter where you are.

228

Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

1994-05-01

229

High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

2014-12-01

230

Linear magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self regulating, nonfrictional, active magnetic bearing is disclosed which has an elongated cylindrical housing for containing a shaft type armature with quadrature positioned shaft position sensors and equidistantly positioned electromagnets located at one end of the housing. Each set of sensors is responsive to orthogonal displacement of the armature and is used to generate control signals to energize the electromagnets to center the armature. A bumper magnet assembly is located at one end of the housing for dampening any undesired axial movement of the armature or to axially move the armature either continuously or fixedly.

Goldowskiy, M. P.

1984-01-01

231

PNA bearing 5-azidomethyluracil  

PubMed Central

Fmoc- and Boc-protected modified monomers bearing 5-azidomethyluracil nucleobase were synthesized. Four different solid-phase synthetic strategies were tested in order to evaluate the application of this series of monomers for the solid-phase synthesis of modified PNA. The azide was used as masked amine for the introduction of amide-linked functional groups, allowing the production of a library of compounds starting from a single modified monomer. The azide function was also exploited as reactive group for the modification of PNA in solution via azide-alkyne click cycloaddition. PMID:22772040

Manicardi, Alex; Accetta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Marchelli, Rosangela; Corradini, Roberto

2012-01-01

232

Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC ) based solvents, such as Freon and 1,1,1, Trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanisms. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change to new ODC-free cleaners for the precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0* 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

Jett, Timothy Raymond; Thom, Robert L.

1998-01-01

233

Labeling Biomolecules with Radiorhenium - a Review of the Bifunctional Chelators  

PubMed Central

For radiotherapy, biomolecules such as intact antibodies, antibody fragments, peptides, DNAs and other oligomers have all been labeled with radiorhenium (186Re and 188Re). Three different approaches have been employed that may be referred to as direct, indirect and integral labeling. Direct labeling applies to proteins and involves the initial reduction of endogenous disulfide bridges to provide chelation sites. Indirect labeling can apply to most biomolecules and involves the initial attachment of an exogenous chelator. Finally, integral labeling is a special case applying only to small molecules in which the metallic radionuclide serves to link two parts of a biomolecule together in forming the labeled complex. While the number of varieties for the direct and integral radiolabeling approaches is rather limited, a fairly large and diverse number of chelators have been reported in the case of indirect labeling. Our objective herein is to provide an overview of the various chelators that have been used in the indirect labeling of biomolecules with radiorhenium, including details on the labeling procedures, the stability of the radiolabel and, where possible, the influence of the label on biological properties. PMID:17504162

Liu, Guozheng; Hnatowich, Donald J.

2007-01-01

234

Multivalent Bifunctional Chelator Scaffolds for Gallium-68 Based Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Probe Design: Signal Amplification via Multivalency  

PubMed Central

The role of the multivalent effect has been well recognized in the design of molecular imaging probes towards the desired imaging signal amplification. Recently we reported a bifunctional chelator (BFC) scaffold design, which provides a simple and versatile approach to impart multivalency to radiometal based nuclear imaging probes. In this work, we report a series of BFC scaffolds (tBu3-1-COOH, tBu3-2-(COOH)2 and tBu3-3-(COOH)3) constructed on the framework of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) for 68Ga-based PET probe design and signal amplification via multivalent effect. For proof of principle, a known integrin ?v?3 specific ligand (c(RGDyK)) was used to build the corresponding NOTA conjugates (H31, H32, and H33), which present 1 – 3 copies of c(RGDyK) peptide, respectively, in a systematic manner. Using the integrin ?v?3 binding affinities (IC50 values), the enhanced specific binding was observed for multivalent conjugates (H32: 43.9 ± 16.1 nM; H33: 14.7 ± 5.0 nM) as compared to their monovalent counterpart (H31: 171 ± 60 nM) and the intact c(RGDyK) peptide (204 ± 76 nM). The obtained conjugates were efficiently labeled with 68Ga3+ within 30 min at room temperature in high radiochemical yields (> 95%). The in vivo evaluation of the labeled conjugates, 68Ga-1, 68Ga-2 and 68Ga-3, was performed using male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing integrin ?v?3 positive PC-3 tumor xenografts (n = 3). All 68Ga -labeled conjugates showed high in vivo stability with no detectable metabolites found by radio-HPLC within 2 h post-injection (p.i.). The PET signal amplification in PC-3 tumor by multivalent effect was clearly displayed by the tumor uptake of the 68Ga-labeled conjugates (68Ga-3: 2.55 ± 0.50%ID/g; 68Ga-2: 1.90 ± 0.10 %ID/g; 68Ga-1: 1.66 ± 0.15 %ID/g) at 2 h p.i. In summary, we have designed and synthesized a series of NOTA-based BFC scaffolds with signal amplification properties, which may find potential applications in diagnostic gallium radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:21740059

Singh, Ajay N.; Liu, Wei; Hao, Guiyang; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Anjali; Öz, Orhan K.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Sun, Xiankai

2011-01-01

235

H6phospa-Trastuzumab: Bifunctional Methylenephosphonate-based Chelator with 89Zr, 111In and 177Lu  

PubMed Central

The acyclic chelator H6phospa and the bifunctional derivative p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa have been synthesized using nosyl protection chemistry and evaluated with 89Zr, 111In, and 177Lu. The p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa derivative was successfully conjugated to trastuzumab with isotopic dilution assays indicating 3.3 ± 0.1 chelates per antibody and in vitro cellular binding assays indicating an immunoreactivity value of 97.9 ± 2.6%. Radiolabeling of the H6phospa-trastuzumab immunoconjugate was achieved with 111In in 70–90% yields at room temperature in 30 minutes, while 177Lu under the same conditions produced more inconsistent yields of 40–80%. Stability experiments in human serum revealed the 111In-phospa-trastuzumab complex to be 52.0 ± 5.3% intact after 5 days at 37 °C, while the 177Lu-phospa-trastuzumab to be only 2.0 ± 0.3% intact. Small animal SPECT/CT imaging using mice bearing subcutaneous SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts was performed, and it was found that 111In-phospa-trastuzumab successfully identified and delineated small (~2 mm in diameter) tumors from surrounding tissues, despite visible uptake in the kidneys and bone due to moderate chelate instability. As predicted from stability assays in serum, the 177Lu-phospa-trastuzumab conjugate served as a negative control and displayed no tumor uptake, with high uptake in bones indicating rapid and complete radiometal dissociation and suggesting a potential application of H6phospa in transient lanthanide chelation for bone-delivery. Radiolabeling with 89Zr was attempted, but even with elevated temperatures of 37 °C, the maximum observed radiometal incorporation over 18 hours was 12%. It can be concluded from this work that H6phospa is not superior to the previously studied H4octapa for use with 111In and 177Lu, but improvements in 89Zr radiolabeling were observed over H4octapa, suggesting H6phospa to be an excellent starting point for elaboration of 89Zr-based radiopharmaceutical development. To our knowledge, H6phospa is the best desferrioxamine alternative for 89Zr radiolabeling to be studied to date. PMID:24104523

Price, Eric W.; Zeglis, Brian M.

2013-01-01

236

Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek  

SciTech Connect

Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1992-01-01

237

Ball bearing heat analysis program (BABHAP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ball Bearing Heat Analysis Program (BABHAP) is an attempt to assemble a series of equations, some of which are non-linear algebraic systems, in a logical order, which when solved, provide a complex analysis of load distribution among the balls, ball velocities, heat generation resulting from friction, applied load, and ball spinning, minimum lubricant film thickness, and many additional characteristics of ball bearing systems. Although initial design requirements for BABHAP were dictated by the core limitations of the PDP 11/45 computer, (approximately 8K of real words with limited number of instructions) the program dimensions can easily be expanded for large core computers such as the UNIVAC 1108. The PDP version of BABHAP is also operational on the UNIVAC system with the exception that the PDP uses 029 punch and the UNIVAC uses 026. A conversion program was written to allow transfer between machines.

1978-01-01

238

Primarily Pro-bear-bility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this probability lesson plan students make predictions about the color of the bear they are likely to draw from a bag, and then draw and record the color of the bear they actually draw. Students complete this activity in cooperative learning groups and take turns removing a bear, without replacing it, and seeing if their predictions become more accurate. The lesson plan includes four student activity worksheets and extension questions and suggestions (PDF).

2006-01-01

239

Characterization of modular bifunctional processive endoglucanase Cel5 from Hahella chejuensis KCTC 2396.  

PubMed

Cel5 from marine Hahella chejuensis is composed of glycoside hydrolase family-5 (GH5) catalytic domain (CD) and two carbohydrate binding modules (CBM6-2). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The optimum endoglucanase and xylanase activities of recombinant Cel5 were observed at 65 °C, pH 6.5 and 55 °C, pH 5.5, respectively. It exhibited K m of 1.8 and 7.1 mg/ml for carboxymethyl cellulose and birchwood xylan, respectively. The addition of Ca(2+) greatly improved thermostability and endoglucanase activity of Cel5. The Cel5 retained 90 % of its endoglucanase activity after 24 h incubation in presence of 5 M concentration of NaCl. Recombinant Cel5 showed production of cellobiose after hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates (soluble/insoluble) and methylglucuronic acid substituted xylooligosaccharides after hydrolysis of glucuronoxylans by endo-wise cleavage. These results indicated that Cel5 as bifunctional enzyme having both processive endoglucanase and xylanase activities. The multidomain structure of Cel5 is clearly distinguished from the GH5 bifunctional glycoside hydrolases characterized to date, which are single domain enzymes. Sequence analysis and homology modeling suggested presence of two conserved binding sites with different substrate specificities in CBM6-2 and a single catalytic site in CD. Residues Glu132 and Glu219 were identified as key catalytic amino acids by sequence alignment and further verified by using site directed mutagenesis. CBM6-2 plays vital role in catalytic activity and thermostability of Cel5. The bifunctional activities and multiple substrate specificities of Cel5 can be utilized for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into soluble sugars. PMID:24343767

Ghatge, Sunil Subhash; Telke, Amar Anandrao; Kang, Seo-Hee; Arulalapperumal, Venkatesh; Lee, Keun-Woo; Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu; Um, Youngsoon; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Seon-Won

2014-05-01

240

Evaluation of shuttle turbopump bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because the high pressure turbopumps used on the space shuttle main engine (SSME) are high speed machines and rotor dynamics analysis of these units is very complicated, it was considered necessary to verify calculated turbomachinery shaft bearing loads by analysis of ball bearing load tracks. This report presents the methods used and the results of load track analysis on one set of bearings removed from a high pressure liquid oxygen turbopump which had been subjected to SSME static firing tests. This type of analysis was found useful in determining bearing operating conditions and for verifying rotor dynamics computer models.

Dufrane, K. F.; Kannel, J. W.

1978-01-01

241

Spin bearing retainer design optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics behavior of spin bearings for momentum wheels (control-moment gyroscope, reaction wheel assembly) is critical to satellite stability and life. Repeated bearing retainer instabilities hasten lubricant deterioration and can lead to premature bearing failure and/or unacceptable vibration. These instabilities are typically distinguished by increases in torque, temperature, audible noise, and vibration induced by increases into the bearing cartridge. Ball retainer design can be optimized to minimize these occurrences. A retainer was designed using a previously successful smaller retainer as an example. Analytical methods were then employed to predict its behavior and optimize its configuration.

Boesiger, Edward A.; Warner, Mark H.

1991-01-01

242

Ecological overlap of sympatric sun bears and Asiatic black bears in tropical forest, Thailand.  

E-print Network

??Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) are ecologically similar species with broadly overlapping distributions in mainland Southeast Asia. Using bear sign… (more)

Steinmetz, Robert George

2009-01-01

243

Creation through Immobilization: A New Family of High Performance Heterogeneous Bifunctional Iminophosphorane (BIMP) Superbase Organocatalysts.  

PubMed

An immobilized chiral bifunctional iminophosphorane superbase organocatalyst has been developed and applied in a range of challenging enantioselective reactions. A unique feature of this novel catalytic system is that the final step creation of the iminophosphorane occurs at the point of immobilization. The utility of the immobilized catalyst system was demonstrated in the nitro-Mannich reaction of ketimines as well as the conjugate addition of high pKa 1,3-dicarbonyl pro-nucleophiles to nitrostyrene. Catalyst recycling was also demonstrated. PMID:25459386

Goldys, Anna M; Núñez, Marta G; Dixon, Darren J

2014-12-19

244

Facile one-pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles stabilized with bifunctional amino/siloxy ligands  

SciTech Connect

A method for the direct one-pot synthesis of amine-stabilized gold nanoparticles using 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine (TMSP dien) is described. The amine groups of this bifunctional molecule act as a stabilizer for gold nanoparticles as they form by reduction of HAuCl{sub 4}. Highly stable gold nanoparticles with sizes tunable between 8 and 20 nm can be readily obtained. This method is quite simple to implement and environmentally benign as there is no need to add an external reducing reagent. The incorporated siloxy functionality was subsequently used to form a silica shell around the gold particle.

Zhu, Haoguo [ORNL; Pan, Zhengwei [ORNL; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2005-01-01

245

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of bifunctional ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase–glutatione synthetase from Streptococcus agalactiae  

PubMed Central

?-Glutamylcysteine synthetase–glutathione synthetase (?GCS-GS) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes two consecutive steps of ATP-dependent peptide formation in glutathione biosynthesis. Streptococcus agalactiae ?GCS-GS is a target for the development of potential therapeutic agents. ?GCS-GS was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals grew to dimensions of 0.3 × 0.2 × 0.2?mm under reducing conditions with 5?mM TCEP. X-ray data were collected to 2.8?Å resolution from a tetragonal crystal that belonged to space group I41. PMID:19574637

Nakashima, Yasunori; Nii, Hiroshi; Janowiak, Blythe E.; Griffith, Owen W.; Hibi, Takao

2009-01-01

246

Bifunctional organic polymeric catalysts with a tunable acid-base distance and framework flexibility.  

PubMed

Acid-base bifunctional organic polymeric catalysts were synthesized with tunable structures. we demonstrated two synthesis approaches for structural fine-tune. In the first case, the framework flexibility was tuned by changing the ratio of rigid blocks to flexible blocks within the polymer framework. In the second case, we precisely adjusted the acid-base distance by distributing basic monomers to be adjacent to acidic monomers, and by changing the chain length of acidic monomers. In a standard test reaction for the aldol condensation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde with acetone, the catalysts showed good reusability upon recycling and maintained relatively high conversion percentage. PMID:25267260

Chen, Huanhui; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Qunlong; Li, Junhui; Yang, Shiqi; Zhu, Zhirong

2014-01-01

247

Bifunctional Organic Polymeric Catalysts with a Tunable Acid-Base Distance and Framework Flexibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid-base bifunctional organic polymeric catalysts were synthesized with tunable structures. we demonstrated two synthesis approaches for structural fine-tune. In the first case, the framework flexibility was tuned by changing the ratio of rigid blocks to flexible blocks within the polymer framework. In the second case, we precisely adjusted the acid-base distance by distributing basic monomers to be adjacent to acidic monomers, and by changing the chain length of acidic monomers. In a standard test reaction for the aldol condensation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde with acetone, the catalysts showed good reusability upon recycling and maintained relatively high conversion percentage.

Chen, Huanhui; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Qunlong; Li, Junhui; Yang, Shiqi; Zhu, Zhirong

2014-09-01

248

Highly enantioselective, intermolecular hydroamination of allenyl esters catalyzed by bifunctional phosphinothioureas.  

PubMed

Bifunctional phosphinothiourea catalysts have been developed successfully for the highly regio- and enantioselective ?-hydroamination of allenyl and propargyl esters with N-methoxy carbamate nucleophiles to yield ?,?-unsaturated ?-amino acid ester products. In the case of propargyl ester substrates, the reaction proceeds through reversible phosphinothiourea-catalyzed isomerization to the corresponding allenyl ester. The high enantioselectivity of the process is attributed to a cooperative conjugate addition of a thiourea-bound carbamate anion to a vinyl phosphonium ion resulting from covalent activation of the allenyl ester substrate. PMID:25496451

Fang, Yuan-Qing; Tadross, Pamela M; Jacobsen, Eric N

2014-12-31

249

Novel 3-nitrotriazole-based amides and carbinols as bifunctional antichagasic agents.  

PubMed

3-Nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-based amides with a linear, rigid core and 3-nitrotriazole-based fluconazole analogues were synthesized as dual functioning antitrypanosomal agents. Such compounds are excellent substrates for type I nitroreductase (NTR) located in the mitochondrion of trypanosomatids and, at the same time, act as inhibitors of the sterol 14?-demethylase (T. cruzi CYP51) enzyme. Because combination treatments against parasites are often superior to monotherapy, we believe that this emerging class of bifunctional compounds may introduce a new generation of antitrypanosomal drugs. In the present work, the synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of such compounds is discussed. PMID:25580906

Papadopoulou, Maria V; Bloomer, William D; Lepesheva, Galina I; Rosenzweig, Howard S; Kaiser, Marcel; Aguilera-Venegas, Benjamín; Wilkinson, Shane R; Chatelain, Eric; Ioset, Jean-Robert

2015-02-12

250

The polar bear phenomena  

SciTech Connect

Results from measuring the thermal profile of polar bear pelts, reflectiveness of the pelts, and total thermal conversion data lead to the conclusion that the pelts from an ultra-efficient thermal diode for solar-thermal conversion. The transfer of the thermal energy from the surface of the fur to the skin where it is absorbed cannot be thermal, and therefore must be radiative. This process must have an efficiency of better than 90:0090 percent to account for measured values. The radiative transfer process is not known at present. To understand it, a detailed knowledge of the microscopic parameters of the pelts must be obtained. This is the current thrust of the polar solar research. If the process can be understood and synthesized,it will provide a major breakthrough in the area of solar-thermal energy conversion.

Maw, P.K. (United Kingdom Ingersoll-Rand Sales Company, Ltd., Horwich, Bolton Lancashire, BL6 6JN (GB)); Lane, M.T.

1990-02-01

251

Polar Bears and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer reviewed article discusses how a warming climate is altering sea ice conditions, which affects polar bears in many ways, including more difficulty in getting to and hunting prey, fewer den areas and lower cub survival, increased interactions between bears and humans, and lower survival rate of the species in general.

Andrew E. Derocher (University of Alberta, Canada;)

2008-05-01

252

Carbon Nanotube Linear Bearing Nanoswitches  

E-print Network

Carbon Nanotube Linear Bearing Nanoswitches V. V. Deshpande, H.-Y. Chiu, H. W. Ch. Postma, C. Miko-friction bearing capabilities of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to realize nanoelectromechanical switches geometry remain important obstacles to the miniaturization of me- chanical systems. Carbon nanotubes

Bockrath, Marc

253

High-Performance Ball Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.

1995-01-01

254

Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

Robertson, Glen A.

1994-01-01

255

Thermally Activated Seizure of Angular Contact Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations have been developed relating friction-power to bearing element temperatures for the particular case of prelubricated or lightly lubricated ball bearings. An expression is derived for the change in relative dimensions of an angular contact bearing, as determined by the temperature gradient across the bearing. A second expression is found for the accommodation of the bearing to expansion, this accommodation

R. A. Burton; H. E. Staph

1967-01-01

256

HUMAN IMPACTS ON BEAR HABITAT USE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human effects on bear habitat use are mediated through food biomass changes, bear tolerance of humans and their impacts, and human tolerance of bears. Large- scale changes in bear food biomass have been caused by conversion of wildlands and waterways to intensive human use, and by the introduction of exotic pathogens. Bears consume virtually all human foods that have been

DAVID J. MATTSON

257

Space Station alpha joint bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

1987-01-01

258

Nonlinear control of magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present a variety of nonlinear controllers for the magnetic bearing that ensure both stability and robustness. We utilize techniques of discontinuous control to design novel control laws for the magnetic bearing. We present in particular sliding mode controllers, time optimal controllers, winding algorithm based controllers, nested switching controllers, fractional controllers, and synchronous switching controllers for the magnetic bearing. We show existence of solutions to systems governed by discontinuous control laws, and prove stability and robustness of the chosen control laws in a rigorous setting. We design sliding mode observers for the magnetic bearing and prove the convergence of the state estimates to their true values. We present simulation results of the performance of the magnetic bearing subject to the aforementioned control laws, and conclude with comments on design.

Pradeep, A. K.; Gurumoorthy, R.

1994-01-01

259

77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project Nos. 2710-061; 2712-078] Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and...

2012-11-26

260

Evaluation of K(HYNIC)2 as A Bifunctional Chelator for 99mTc-Labeling of Small Biomolecules  

PubMed Central

This study sought to evaluate K(HYNIC)2 (K = lysine and HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl) as a bifunctional chelator for 99mTc-labeling of biomolecule. In this study, four K(HYNIC)2–conjugated cyclic RGD peptides, K(HYNIC)2-RGD2 (RGD2 = E[c(RGDfK)]2), K(HYNIC)2-3G-RGD2 (3G-RGD2 = Gly-Gly-Gly-E[Gly-Gly-Gly-c(RGDfK)]2), K(HYNIC)2-2P-RGD2 (2P-RGD2 = E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2, and PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid), and K(HYNIC)2-3P-RGD2 (3P-RGD2 = PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2) were prepared, and evaluated for their integrin ?v?3 binding affinity. IC50 values were determined to be 47 ± 2, 35 ± 2, 37 ± 2, 85 ± 2 and 422 ± 15 nM for K(HYNIC)2-2P-RGD2, K(HYNIC)2-3P-RGD2, K(HYNIC)2-3G-RGD2, K(HYNIC)2-RGD2 and c(RGDyK), respectively, against 125I-echistatin bound to U87MG cells. Macrocyclic complexes [99mTc(K(HYNIC)2-RGD2)(tricine)] (1), [99mTc(K(HYNIC)2-3G-RGD2)(tricine)] (2), [99mTc(K(HYNIC)2-2P-RGD2)(tricine)] (3), and [99mTc(K(HYNIC)2-3P-RGD2)(tricine)] (4) were prepared, and evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma xenografts for their tumor targeting capability and biodistribution. It was found that 1 – 4 all had high solution stability and more than two isomers, as evidenced by the presence of multiple radiometric peaks in their radio-HPLC chromatograms. The tumor uptake of 1 – 4 was 3.78 ± 0.81, 7.46 ± 1.68, 9.74 ± 1.65 and 8.59 ± 1.52 %ID/g, respectively, which was completely consistent with trend of integrin ?v?3 binding affinity for cyclic RGD peptides. Replacing [99mTc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3?,3?-trisulfonate) with [99mTc(K(HYNIC)2)(tricine)] had little impact on radiotracer tumor uptake; but it had significant effect on the uptake of radiotracer in kidneys, lungs and spleen. The tumor was clearly visualized by SPECT/CT with excellent contrast in a glioma-bearing mouse administered with 4. K(HYNIC)2 would be particularly useful for 99mTc-labeling of small biomolecules with one or more disulfide linkages. PMID:23521129

Ji, Shundong; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Guoqiang; Liu, Shuang

2013-01-01

261

Ambient air measurements of six bifunctional carbonyls in a suburban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-molecular-weight carbonyl compounds, generated by photochemical reactions in the atmosphere and found in the exhaust of motor vehicles, have recently come to the attention of researchers because some of them are suspected carcinogens or mutagens. Six bifunctional carbonyl compounds were detected and measured in a suburban site 30 km northwest of the Tokyo metropolitan area. Samples were taken on five sunny days between 2 August and 11 August 2003 with a low-volume denuder and three-filter tandem system using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) as a sorbent. Bifunctional carbonyls were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after two derivatization processes with PFBHA and N, O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The average total (gas plus particle) concentrations were 162.8 ng m - 3 for pyruvic acid, 113.7 ng m - 3 for methylglyoxal, 36.0 ng m - 3 for glycolaldehyde and 58.6 ng m - 3 for glyoxal.

Ortiz, Ricardo; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiko; Wang, Qingyue; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

2006-12-01

262

Pushing the Theoretical Limit of Li-CFx Batteries: A Tale of Bi-functional Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

In a typical battery, electrodes deliver capacities less or equal the theoretical maxima of the electrode materials.1 The inert electrolyte functions solely as the ionic conductor without contribution to the cell capacity because of its distinct mono-function in the concept of conventional batteries. Here we demonstrate that the most energy-dense Li-CFx battery2 delivers a capacity exceeding the theoretical maximum of CFx with a solid electrolyte of Li3PS4 (LPS) that has dual functions: as the inert electrolyte at the anode and the active component at the cathode. Such a bi-functional electrolyte reconciles both inert and active characteristics through a synergistic discharge mechanism of CFx and LPS. Li3PS4 is known as an inactive solid electrolyte with a broad electrochemical window over 5 V.3 The synergy at the cathode is through LiF, the discharge product of CFx, which activates the electrochemical discharge of LPS at a close electrochemical potential of CFx. Therefore, the solid-state Li-CFx batteries output 126.6% energy beyond their theoretic limits without compromising the stability of the cell voltage. The extra energy comes from the electrochemical discharge of LPS, the inert electrolyte. This bi-functional electrolyte revolutionizes the concept of conventional batteries and opens a new avenue for the design of batteries with an unprecedentedly high energy density.

Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

263

The Bifunctional Pyruvate Decarboxylase/Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Thermococcus guaymasensis  

PubMed Central

The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus guaymasensis produces ethanol as a metabolic end product, and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzing the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol has been purified and characterized. However, the enzyme catalyzing the formation of acetaldehyde has not been identified. In this study an enzyme catalyzing the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate was purified and characterized from T. guaymasensis under strictly anaerobic conditions. The enzyme had both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activities. It was oxygen sensitive, and the optimal temperatures were 85°C and >95°C for the PDC and POR activities, respectively. The purified enzyme had activities of 3.8 ± 0.22?U?mg?1 and 20.2 ± 1.8?U?mg?1, with optimal pH-values of 9.5 and 8.4 for each activity, respectively. Coenzyme A was essential for both activities, although it did not serve as a substrate for the former. Enzyme kinetic parameters were determined separately for each activity. The purified enzyme was a heterotetramer. The sequences of the genes encoding the subunits of the bifunctional PDC/POR were determined. It is predicted that all hyperthermophilic ?-keto acids ferredoxin oxidoreductases are bifunctional, catalyzing the activities of nonoxidative and oxidative decarboxylation of the corresponding ?-keto acids. PMID:24982594

2014-01-01

264

Bifunctional graphene/?-Fe?O? hybrid aerogels with double nanocrystalline networks for enzyme immobilization.  

PubMed

Highly porous hosting materials with conducting (favorable to electron transfer) and magnetic (favorable to product separation) bicontinuous networks should possess great potentials for immobilization of various enzymes in the field of biocatalytic engineering, but the synthesis of such materials is still a great challenge. Herein, bifunctional graphene/?-Fe2 O3 hybrid aerogels with quite low density (30-65 mg cm(-3) ), large specific surface area (270-414 m(2) g(-1) ), high electrical conductivity (0.5-5 × 10(-2) S m(-1) ), and superior saturation magnetization (23-54 emu g(-1) ) are fabricated. Single networks of either graphene aerogels or ?-Fe2 O3 aerogels are obtained by etching of the hybrid aerogels with acid solution or calcining of the hybrid aerogels in air, indicative of the double networks of the as-synthesized graphene/?-Fe2 O3 hybrid aerogels for the first time. The resulting bifunctional aerogels are used to immobilize ?-glucuronidase for biocatalytic transformation of glycyrrhizin into glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide or glycyrrhetinic acid, with high biocatalytic activity and definite repeatability. PMID:23423944

Chen, Liang; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Xuetong; Li, Chun

2013-07-01

265

Facile synthesis of folate-conjugated magnetic/fluorescent bifunctional microspheres.  

PubMed

In this paper, we investigated the functional imaging properties of magnetic microspheres composed of magnetic core and CdTe quantum dots in the silica shell functionalized with folic acid (FA). The preparation procedure included the preparation of chitosan-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs) prepared by a one-pot solvothermal method, the reaction between carboxylic and amino groups under activation of NHS and EDC in order to obtain the CdTe-CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs, and finally the growth of SiO2 shell vent the photoluminescence (PL) quenching via a Stöber method (Fe3O4-CdTe@SiO2). Moreover, in order to have a specific targeting capacity, the magnetic and fluorescent bifunctional microspheres were synthesized by bonding of SiO2 shell with FA molecules via amide reaction (Fe3O4-CdTe@SiO2-FA). The morphology, size, chemical components, and magnetic property of as-prepared composite nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The results show that the magnetic and fluorescent bifunctional microspheres have strong luminescent which will be employed for immuno-labeling and fluorescent imaging of HeLa cells. PMID:25328504

Shen, Mao; Jia, Wenping; Lin, Caiping; Fan, Guodong; Jin, Yangmin; Chen, Xiaoying; Chen, Guang

2014-01-01

266

Construction of a bifunctional enzyme fusion for the combined determination of biogenic amines in foods.  

PubMed

Biogenic amines (BAs) are a group of low-molecular-mass organic bases derived from free amino acids. Due to the undesirable effects of BAs on human health, amine oxidase-based detection methods for BAs in foods have been developed. Here, we developed a bifunctional enzyme fusion (MAPO) using a Cu(2+)-containing monoamine oxidase (AMAO2) and a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing putrescine oxidase (APUO) from Arthrobacter aurescens. It was necessary to activate MAPO with supplementary Cu(2+) ions, leading to a 6- to 12-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) for monoamines. The optimal temperatures of Cu(2+)-activated MAPO (cMAPO) for both tyramine and putrescine were 50 °C, and the optimal pH values for tyramine and putrescine were pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively, consistent with those of AMAO2 and APUO, respectively. The cMAPO showed relative specific activities of 100, 99, 32, and 32 for 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine, respectively. The tyramine-equivalent BA contents of fermented soybean pastes by cMAPO were more than 90% of the total BA determined by HPLC. In conclusion, cMAPO is fully bifunctional toward biogenic monoamines and putrescine, allowing the combined determination of multiple BAs in foods. This colorimetric determination method could be useful for point-of-care testing to screen safety-guaranteed products prior to instrumental analyses. PMID:24001036

Lee, Jae-Ick; Jang, Jun-Hyuck; Yu, Mi-Ji; Kim, Young-Wan

2013-09-25

267

Crystal Structures of Bifunctional Penicillin-Binding Protein 4 from Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan chain of the bacterial cell wall, are the major molecular target of bacterial antibiotics. Here, we present the crystal structures of the bifunctional peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT)/transpeptidase (TP) PBP4 from Listeria monocytogenes in the apo-form and covalently linked to two ?-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin and carbenicillin. The orientation of the TP domain with respect to the GT domain is distinct from that observed in the previously reported structures of bifunctional PBPs, suggesting interdomain flexibility. In this structure, the active site of the GT domain is occluded by the close apposition of the linker domain, which supports the hypothesis that interdomain flexibility is related to the regulation of GT activity. The acylated structures reveal the mode of action of ?-lactam antibiotics toward the class A PBP4 from the human pathogen L. monocytogenes. Ampicillin and carbenicillin can access the active site and be acylated without requiring a structural rearrangement. In addition, the active site of the TP domain in the apo-form is occupied by the tartrate molecule via extensive hydrogen bond interactions with the catalytically important residues; thus, derivatives of the tartrate molecule may be useful in the search for new antibiotics to inhibit PBPs. PMID:23669378

Jeong, Jae-Hee; Kim, Yi-Seul; Rojviriya, Catleya; Ha, Sung-Chul; Kang, Beom Sik

2013-01-01

268

Synthesis, conjugation, and radiolabeling of a novel bifunctional chelating agent for (225)Ac radioimmunotherapy applications.  

PubMed

225Ac (t(1/2) = 10 days) is an alternative alpha-emitter that has been proposed for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) due to its many favorable properties, such as half-life and mode of decay. The factor limiting use of (225)Ac in RIT is the lack of an acceptably stable chelate for in vivo applications. Herein is described the first reported bifunctional chelate for (225)Ac that has been evaluated for stability for in vivo applications. The detailed synthesis of a bifunctional chelating agent 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7,10,13, 16-hexaazacyclohexadecane- 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaacetic acid (HEHA-NCS) is reported. This ligand was conjugated to three monoclonal antibodies, CC49, T101, and BL-3 with chelate-to-protein ratios between 1.4 and 2. The three conjugates were radiolabeled with (225)Ac, and serum stability study of the [(225)Ac]BL-3-HEHA conjugate was performed. PMID:10898572

Chappell, L L; Deal, K A; Dadachova, E; Brechbiel, M W

2000-01-01

269

Facile synthesis of folate-conjugated magnetic/fluorescent bifunctional microspheres  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we investigated the functional imaging properties of magnetic microspheres composed of magnetic core and CdTe quantum dots in the silica shell functionalized with folic acid (FA). The preparation procedure included the preparation of chitosan-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs) prepared by a one-pot solvothermal method, the reaction between carboxylic and amino groups under activation of NHS and EDC in order to obtain the CdTe-CS-coated Fe3O4 NPs, and finally the growth of SiO2 shell vent the photoluminescence (PL) quenching via a Stöber method (Fe3O4-CdTe@SiO2). Moreover, in order to have a specific targeting capacity, the magnetic and fluorescent bifunctional microspheres were synthesized by bonding of SiO2 shell with FA molecules via amide reaction (Fe3O4-CdTe@SiO2-FA). The morphology, size, chemical components, and magnetic property of as-prepared composite nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The results show that the magnetic and fluorescent bifunctional microspheres have strong luminescent which will be employed for immuno-labeling and fluorescent imaging of HeLa cells. PMID:25328504

2014-01-01

270

A method to fabricate the bifunctional bent optical probes of AF/PSTM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an Atomic Force / Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (AF/PSTM) to eliminate the optical false image caused by topography of sample in PSTM. The key element of this system is bi-functional bent optical fiber probe, which can both be an optical cantilever and a device to collect the evanescent wave in near field of samples. In this paper, we derived a method to fabricate the bi-functional bent optical probes of AF/PSTM using communication optical fibers. The heated pulling combined with chemical etching method is proposed and developed. Fiber probes with an apex having a diameter smaller than 100nm could be produced with a controlled cone angles vary from 40 to 90 degrees. The back of the probe is finally coated with aluminum to enhance the reflection and with SiO2 to prevent Al film from oxidating in the atmosphere. This method is straightforward and fast. Using probes made with this method, the images of biology samples are obtained and the image separation is realized.

Pan, Shi; Song, Linfeng; Wu, Shifa; Huo, Xin; Li, Yinli; Sun, Wei

2005-02-01

271

Initiation Matlab Initiation Matlab  

E-print Network

;10/30 Initiation à Matlab >> 1:0.33:3 ans = Columns 1 through 5 1.0000 1.3300 1.6600 1.9900 2.3200 Columns 6:0.33:3 ans = Columns 1 through 5 1.0000 1.3300 1.6600 1.9900 2.3200 Columns 6 through 7 2.6500 2.9800 >> 2

Ezziani, Abdelaâziz

272

Bifunctional staining for ex vivo determination of area at risk in rabbits with reperfused myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

AIM: To develop a method for studying myocardial area at risk (AAR) in ischemic heart disease in correlation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). METHODS: Nine rabbits were anesthetized, intubated and subjected to occlusion and reperfusion of the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) to induce myocardial infarction (MI). ECG-triggered cMRI with delayed enhancement was performed at 3.0 T. After euthanasia, the heart was excised with the LCx re-ligated. Bifunctional staining was performed by perfusing the aorta with a homemade red-iodized-oil (RIO) dye. The heart was then agar-embedded for ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging and sliced into 3 mm-sections. The AAR was defined by RIO-staining and digital radiography (DR). The perfusion density rate (PDR) was derived from DR for the AAR and normal myocardium. The MI was measured by in vivo delayed enhancement (iDE) and ex vivo delayed enhancement (eDE) cMRI. The AAR and MI were compared to validate the bifunctional straining for cardiac imaging research. Linear regression with Bland-Altman agreement, one way-ANOVA with Bonferroni’s multiple comparison, and paired t tests were applied for statistics. RESULTS: All rabbits tolerated well the surgical procedure and subsequent cMRI sessions. The open-chest occlusion and close-chest reperfusion of the LCx, double suture method and bifunctional staining were successfully applied in all animals. The percentage MI volumes globally (n = 6) and by slice (n = 25) were 36.59% ± 13.68% and 32.88% ± 12.38% on iDE, and 35.41% ± 12.25% and 32.40% ± 12.34% on eDE. There were no significant differences for MI determination with excellent linear regression correspondence (rglobal = 0.89; rslice = 0.9) between iDE and eDE. The percentage AAR volumes globally (n = 6) and by slice (n = 25) were 44.82% ± 15.18% and 40.04% ± 13.64% with RIO-staining, and 44.74% ± 15.98% and 40.48% ± 13.26% by DR showing high correlation in linear regression analysis (rglobal = 0.99; rslice = 1.0). The mean differences of the two AAR measurements on Bland-Altman were almost zero, indicating RIO-staining and DR were essentially equivalent or inter-replaceable. The AAR was significantly larger than MI both globally and slice-by-slice (P < 0.01). After correction with the background and the blank heart without bifunctional staining (n = 3), the PDR for the AAR and normal myocardium was 32% ± 15% and 35.5% ± 35%, respectively, which is significantly different (P < 0.001), suggesting that blood perfusion to the AAR probably by collateral circulation was only less than 10% of that in the normal myocardium. CONCLUSION: The myocardial area at risk in ischemic heart disease could be accurately determined postmortem by this novel bifunctional staining, which may substantially contribute to translational cardiac imaging research. PMID:25237621

Feng, Yuanbo; Ma, Zhan-Long; Chen, Feng; Yu, Jie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Xie, Yi; Li, Yue; Ni, Yicheng

2013-01-01

273

Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

Pfeffer, Pierre

274

Synthesis and characterization of bifunctional hybrid nanocomposite YPO4:5Eu@Fe3O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spherical, non-agglomerated and highly water dispersed bifunctional YPO4:5Eu@Fe3O4 nanocomposite was prepared by coprecipitation method. The nanohybrid shows characteristic induction heating under AC magnetic field by reaching the hyperthermia temperature (˜42°C) and giving red emission under 395nm excitation, characteristic of Eu3+, thus potential material for biological applications.

Prasad, Amresh I.; Singh, L. Robindro; Parchur, A. K.; Ninghthoujam, R. S.

2014-04-01

275

USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Scientist Taking Measurements Along Bear Creek - Photo taken by Heidi Koontz, USGS Communications, Friday, Sept. 13. USGS scientist Ben Glass conducting current profiler measurements along Bear Creek near Bear Creek Lake in Morrison, Colo....

276

Alex the Bear Goes to Child Care  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Tools » Meet Alex the Bear Meet Alex the Bear, a new friend of Child Care Aware® Going ... experience for both children and parents. Alex the Bear, the newest friend of Child Care Aware®, seeks ...

277

Magnetic Bearings at Draper Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic bearings, unlike traditional mechanical bearings, consist of a series of components mated together to form a stabilized system. The correct design of the actuator and sensor will provide a cost effective device with low power requirements. The proper choice of a control system utilizes the variables necessary to control the system in an efficient manner. The specific application will determine the optimum design of the magnetic bearing system including the touch down bearing. Draper for the past 30 years has been a leader in all these fields. This paper summarizes the results carried out at Draper in the field of magnetic bearing development. A 3-D radial magnetic bearing is detailed in this paper. Data obtained from recently completed projects using this design are included. One project was a high radial load (1000 pound) application. The second was a high speed (35,000 rpm), low loss flywheel application. The development of a low loss axial magnetic bearing is also included in this paper.

Kondoleon, Anthony S.; Kelleher, William P.; Possel, Peter D.

1996-01-01

278

SSME turbopump bearing analytical study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three shuttle pump bearings operating under severe overspeed and shut-down conditions are evaluated. The specific parameters investigated include outer race stresses, cage stresses, cage-race drag, bearing heating, and crush loading. A quasi-dynamic version of the BASDAP computer code was utilized which involved the calculation of ball-race forces (inner and outer), contact pressures, contact dimensions, and contact angles as a function of (1) axial load, (2) radial load, and (3) centrifugal load on the bearing. Generally, radial loads on the order of 13,300 N (3000 pounds) per bearing or 26,700 N (6000 pounds) per bearing pair, could be expected to cause severe problems to any of the bearings with a 17,800 N (4000 pounds) axial load. Further, when possible temperature excursions are considered, even a load of 8900 N (2000 pounds) may be excessive. However, high momentary radial loads with a 3800 N (850 pounds) axial load would not be anticipated to cause catastrophic failure of the fuel pump bearing.

Kannel, J. W.; Merriman, T.

1980-01-01

279

Analysis of foil bearings for high speed operation in cryogenic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objective of this project is to develop analysis tools which are required for the design of foil bearings to be used in cryogenic applications. During the second year of this project, a general analysis approach and code for journal bearings operating under steady state conditions will be completed. This will be followed by the initiation of an investigation into transient behavior of foil bearings to determine their performance in rotor systems. Foil bearings have been proposed as an alternative to rolling element bearings for use in cryogenic turbopumps in liquid propellant rocket engines. This type of bearing offers several advantages over rolling element bearings since they would use the cryogenic pump fluid for a lubricant and have structural flexibility. These bearings have the potential of high reliability and long life. The bearing surface is constructed of a 'foil' which resists deflection by a combination of bending, membrane, and elastic foundation effects. The relative motion between the rotating shaft and the foil causes pressure in the fluid film to develop. This pressure deflects the the foil surface away from the shaft. Once a full fluid film is established between the foil and the rotor shaft, contact no longer takes place and there is no subsequent wear of the surfaces. The flexible foil structure of the bearing allows it to compensate for minor tolerance and manufacturing defects. This same flexibility also has a significant effect on the dynamic performance of the rotor-bearing system.

Carpino, Marc

1991-01-01

280

Random bearings and their stability.  

PubMed

Self-similar space-filling bearings have been proposed some time ago as models for the motion of tectonic plates and appearance of seismic gaps. These models have two features which, however, seem unrealistic, namely, high symmetry in the arrangement of the particles, and lack of a lower cutoff in the size of the particles. In this work, an algorithm for generating random bearings in both two and three dimensions is presented. Introducing a lower cutoff for the sizes of the particles, the instabilities of the bearing under an external force such as gravity, are studied. PMID:16384225

Mahmoodi Baram, Reza; Herrmann, Hans J

2005-11-25

281

Experimental analysis of journal bearings  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a comprehensive technique which could be applied to almost any rotating equipment to identify and diagnose journal bearing problems that relate to metal-to-metal bearing surface contact. Orbital measurements that describe bearing parameters in different modes of operation were experimentally obtained and analyzed. Such parameters may include: attitude angle, minimum oil film thickness, and the possibility of metal-to-metal rubbing occurrence. The general outline of the presented experimental technique was substantiated using the Raimondi-Boyd well documented design charts and good correlation between experimental and analytical results was obtained.

Elkholy, A.H. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Elshakweer, A. [Global Engineering Technology, Kitchener, Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-31

282

Grease Inhibits Stress-Corrosion Cracking In Bearing Race  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coating with suitable grease found to inhibit stress-corrosion cracking in bore of inner race of ball-bearing assembly operating in liquid oxygen. Protects bore and its corner radii from corrosion-initiating and -accelerating substances like moisture and contaminants, which enter during assembly. Operating life extended at low cost, and involves very little extra assembly time.

Beatty, Robert F.; Mcvey, Scott E.

1991-01-01

283

Understanding the benefits of long travel constant contact side bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, a comprehensive test program was conducted under the AAR strategic research initiatives program by the Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI), Pueblo, Colorado, to determine the best types of constant contact side bearings (CCSBs) for use in 10 different North American freight cars. Test results indicated that long travel (LT) CCSB designs generally provided the best overall performance, which

D. Iler

2006-01-01

284

Oxygen electrode bifunctional electrocatalyst NiCo2O4 spinel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant increase in energy density may be possible if a two-unit alkaline regenerative H2-O2 fuel cell is replaced with a single-unit system that uses passive means for H2O transfer and thermal control. For this single-unit system, new electrocatalysts for the O2 electrode will be required which are not only bifunctionally active but also chemically and electrochemically stable between the voltage range of about 0.7 and 1.5 V. NiCo2O4 spinel is reported to have certain characteristics that make it useful for a study of electrode fabrication techniques. High surface area NiCo2O4 powder was fabricated into unsupported, bifunctional, PTFE-bonded, porous gas fuel cell electrodes by commercial sources using varying PTFE contents and sintering temperatures. The object of this study is to measure the bifunctional activities of these electrodes and to observe what performance differences might result from different commercial electrode fabricators. O2 evolution and O2 reduction data were obtained at 80 C (31 percent KOH). An irreversible reaction (i.e., aging) occurred during O2 evolution at potentials greater than about 1.5 V. Anodic Tafel slopes of 0.06 and 0.12 V/decade were obtained for the aged electrodes. Within the range of 15 to 25 percent, the PTFE content was not a critical parameter for optimizing the electrode for O2 evolution activity. Sintering temperatures between 300 and 340 C may be adequate but heating at 275 C may not be sufficient to properly sinter the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture. Electrode disintegration was observed during O2 reduction. Transport of O2 to the NiCo2O4 surface became prohibitive at greater than about -0.02 A/sq cm. Cathodic Tafel slopes of -0.6 and -0.12 V/decade were assumed for the O2 reduction process. A PTFE content of 25 percent (or greater) appears to be preferable for sintering the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture.

Fielder, William L.; Singer, Joseph

1988-09-01

285

Oxygen electrode bifunctional electrocatalyst NiCo2O4 spinel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant increase in energy density may be possible if a two-unit alkaline regenerative H2-O2 fuel cell is replaced with a single-unit system that uses passive means for H2O transfer and thermal control. For this single-unit system, new electrocatalysts for the O2 electrode will be required which are not only bifunctionally active but also chemically and electrochemically stable between the voltage range of about 0.7 and 1.5 V. NiCo2O4 spinel is reported to have certain characteristics that make it useful for a study of electrode fabrication techniques. High surface area NiCo2O4 powder was fabricated into unsupported, bifunctional, PTFE-bonded, porous gas fuel cell electrodes by commercial sources using varying PTFE contents and sintering temperatures. The object of this study is to measure the bifunctional activities of these electrodes and to observe what performance differences might result from different commercial electrode fabricators. O2 evolution and O2 reduction data were obtained at 80 C (31 percent KOH). An irreversible reaction (i.e., aging) occurred during O2 evolution at potentials greater than about 1.5 V. Anodic Tafel slopes of 0.06 and 0.12 V/decade were obtained for the aged electrodes. Within the range of 15 to 25 percent, the PTFE content was not a critical parameter for optimizing the electrode for O2 evolution activity. Sintering temperatures between 300 and 340 C may be adequate but heating at 275 C may not be sufficient to properly sinter the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture. Electrode disintegration was observed during O2 reduction. Transport of O2 to the NiCo2O4 surface became prohibitive at greater than about -0.02 A/sq cm. Cathodic Tafel slopes of -0.6 and -0.12 V/decade were assumed for the O2 reduction process. A PTFE content of 25 percent (or greater) appears to be preferable for sintering the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture.

Fielder, William L.; Singer, Joseph

1988-01-01

286

A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

2002-01-01

287

ATM CMG bearing failure analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cause or causes for the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2) were investigated. Skylab telemetry data were reviewed and presented in the form of parameter distributions. The theory that the problems were caused by marginal bearing lubrication was studied along with the effects of orbital conditions on lubricants. Bearing tests were performed to investigate the effect of lubricant or lack of lubricant in the ATM CMG bearings and the dispersion and migration of the lubricant. The vacuum and weightless conditions of space were simulated in the bearing tests. Analysis of the results of the tests conducted points to inadequate lubrication as the predominant factor causing the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2).

1975-01-01

288

Mixed-mu superconducting bearings  

DOEpatents

A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Mulcahy, Thomas M. (Western Springs, IL)

1998-01-01

289

BEARS: radioactive ion beams at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

BEARS is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88'' Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88'' Cyclotron's Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min {sup 11}C and 70-sec {sup 14}O, produced by (p,n) and (p, {alpha}) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88'' Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial {sup 11}C beams of up to 2.5x10{sup 7} ions/sec and {sup 14}O beams of 3x10{sup 5} ions/sec.

Powell, J.; Guo, F. Q.; Joosten, R.; Larimer, R.-M.; Lyneis, C.; Moltz, D. M.; Norman, E. B.; O'Neil, J. P.; Rowe, M. W.; VanBrocklin, H. F.; Xie, Z. Q.; Xu, X. J.; Cerny, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Haustein, P. E. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1998-12-21

290

BEARS: radioactive ion beams at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

BEARS is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88{sup {double_prime}} Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88{sup {double_prime}} Cyclotron{close_quote}s Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min {sup 11}C and 70-sec {sup 14}O, produced by (p,n) and (p, {alpha}) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88{sup {double_prime}} Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial {sup 11}C beams of up to 2.5{times}10{sup 7}ions/sec and {sup 14}O beams of 3{times}10{sup 5}ions/sec. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Powell, J.; Guo, F.Q.; Joosten, R.; Larimer, R.-M.; Lyneis, C.; Moltz, D.M.; Norman, E.B.; O`Neil, J.P.; Rowe, M.W.; VanBrocklin, H.F.; Xie, Z.Q.; Xu, X.J.; Cerny, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] Haustein, P.E. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1998-12-01

291

Design of Ga-DOTA-based bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals: two functional moieties can be conjugated to radiogallium-DOTA without reducing the complex stability.  

PubMed

From the X-ray crystal structures of Ga-DOTA chelates, we were able to deduce that two free carboxylate groups of the radiogallium-DOTA complex may be utilized for coupling to functional moieties that recognize molecular targets for in vivo imaging without reducing the radiogallium-complex stability. Thus, we designed 2,2'-[4,10-bis(2-{[2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl]amino}-2-oxoethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diyl]diacetic acid (DOTA-MN2) (7), employing a metronidazole moiety as the recognition site of hypoxic lesions, based on the drug design concept of bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. Coupling of DOTA-bis(tert-butyl)ester 5 with 1-(2-aminoethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole dihydrochloride, followed by deprotection, afforded the required 7 (DOTA-MN2). (67)Ga-labeling was carried out by reaction of DOTA-MN2 with (67)Ga-citrate. When (67)Ga-DOTA-MN2 was incubated in phosphate-buffered saline or mouse plasma, no measurable decomposition occurred over a 24-h period. In biodistribution experiments in NFSa tumor-bearing mice, (67)Ga-DOTA-MN2 displayed not only a significant tumor uptake, but also rapid blood clearance and low accumulations in nontarget tissues, resulting in high target-to-nontarget ratios of radioactivity. These results indicate the potential benefits of the drug design of (67)Ga-DOTA-MN2. The present findings provide helpful information for the development of radiogallium-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT and PET studies. PMID:19481944

Mukai, Takahiro; Suwada, Jun; Sano, Kohei; Okada, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Maeda, Minoru

2009-07-01

292

Structures of a bifunctional cell-wall hydrolase CwlT containing a novel bacterial lysozyme and an NlpC/P60 dl-endopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Tn916-like conjugative transposons carrying antibiotic resistance genes are found in a diverse range of bacteria. Orf14 within the conjugation module encodes a bifunctional cell-wall hydrolase CwlT that consists of an N-terminal bacterial lysozyme domain (N-acetylmuramidase, bLysG) and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain (?-d-glutamyl-l-diamino acid endopeptidase) and is expected to play an important role in the spread of the transposons. We determined the crystal structures of two CwlT from pathogens Staphylococcus aureus mu50 (SaCwlT) and Clostridium difficile 630 (CdCwlT). These structures reveal that NlpC/P60 and LysG domains are compact and conserved modules, connected by a short flexible linker. The LysG domain represents a novel family of widely distributed bacterial lysozymes. The overall structure and the active site of bLysG bear significant similarity to other members of the glycoside hydrolase family 23 (GH23), such as the g-type lysozyme (LysG) and Escherichia coli lytic transglycosylase MltE. The active site of bLysG contains a unique structural and sequence signature (DxxQSSES+S) that is important for coordinating a catalytic water. Molecular modeling suggests that the bLysG domain may recognize glycan in a similar manner to MltE. The C-terminal NlpC/P60 domain contains a conserved active site (Cys-His-His-Tyr) that appears to be specific for tetrapeptide. Access to the active site is likely regulated by isomerism of a side chain atop the catalytic cysteine, allowing substrate entry or product release, or closing during catalysis. PMID:24051416

Xu, Qingping; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L.; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Lesley, Scott A.; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

2013-01-01

293

Testing and Lubrication for Single Race Bearings  

SciTech Connect

Three ES and H-compatible lubricants (Environment, Safety and Health) for single race bearing applications and one hybrid-material single race bearings were evaluated and compared against single race bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in stronglink mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, bearings lubricated with titanium carbide (TiC) on the balls, bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and bearings lubricated with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. The bearings were maintained in a preloaded state in bearing cartridges during cycling and vibration tests. Bearings with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings lubricated with Vydax and were the best performing candidate. All candidates were suitable for low preload applications. Bearings with TiC coated balls and bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers performed well at high preloads, though not as well as bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposition of MoS{sub 2}. Bearings with silicon nitride balls were not suitable for high preload applications.

Steinhoff, R.G.

1998-03-04

294

Lateral dampers for thrust bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

1985-01-01

295

CCPI bears first fruit  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, the Bush administration launched the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCCPI) in the hope that it would develop the missing technology piece of the cleaner energy puzzle. Four years and two rounds later, the US electric power industry is seeing the first usable clean coal technologies emerge before its eyes. This article describe progress on one of the eight selected projects in the initial phase of the CCPI - led by NeuCo Inc. and carried out at Dynegy's Baldwin Energy Complex in Illinois - to increase efficiency and reduce emissions of the station's three coal-fired units with plant optimization software. In year one, a combustion/post-combustion (SCR) optimization system called CombustOpt was installed on cyclone boilers of units 1 and 2. They were also retrofitted with NeuCo's PerformanceOpt system. The fuel technology piece is MainenanceOpt to determine root causes of problems affecting unit efficiency and capacity. 5 figs.

Wicker, K.

2006-01-15

296

Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Bearing Testing For NASA Return to Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle body flap is located beneath the main engine nozzles and is required for proper aerodynamic control during orbital descent. Routine inspection of one of four body flap actuatols found one of the actuator bearings had degraded and blackened balls. A test program was initiated to demonstrate that it is acceptable to operate bearings which are degraded from operation over several flights. This test exposed the bearing to predicted flight axial loads, speeds and temperatures. Testing has been completed, and results indicate the previously flown bearings are acceptable for up to 12 additional missions.

Jett, Timothy R.; Thom, Robert L.; Moore, Lewis E.; Gibson, Howard G.; Hall, Phillip B.; Predmore, Roamer E.

2005-01-01

297

SSME Long-life Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings for LH2 and LO2 service in turbopumps were studied as a means of improving speed and life capabilities. Four hybrid bearing configurations were designed with emphasis on achieving maximum stiffness and damping. Parallel load bearings were tested at steady-state and transient conditions with LH2 (externally fed) and LN2 (internally fed). The hydrostatic elements were tested with Freon 113 for empirical determination of dynamic characteristics. Tests using an eccentric journal for loading showed the externally and internally fed hydrostatic bearings to have significant separated coefficients of direct stiffness and damping. For the internally fed bearing, the strongly speed-dependent cross-coupling stiffness arising from fluid swirl, along with significant cross-coupling damping, resulted in low net effective stiffness and damping. The test method used can produce separated coefficients with a sufficiently elliptic journal orbit; otherwise, only net effective coefficients combining direct and cross-coupling terms can be determined. Testing with nonsynchronous excitation is recommended to avoid this restriction. Investigation of hard materials, including ceramics, is recommended as a means of eliminating the need for the rolling bearing for startup and shutdown support. The testing was performed in 1984 (LH2), 1985 (LN2) and 1985-86 (Freon).

Butner, M. F.; Murphy, B. T.

1986-01-01

298

"Click" chemistry mildly stabilizes bifunctional gold nanoparticles for sensing and catalysis.  

PubMed

A large family of bifunctional 1,2,3-triazole derivatives that contain both a polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain and another functional fragment (e.g., a polymer, dendron, alcohol, carboxylic acid, allyl, fluorescence dye, redox-robust metal complex, or a ?-cyclodextrin unit) has been synthesized by facile "click" chemistry and mildly coordinated to nanogold particles, thus providing stable water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the size range 3.0-11.2?nm with various properties and applications. In particular, the sensing properties of these AuNPs are illustrated through the detection of an analogue of a warfare agent (i.e., sulfur mustard) by means of a fluorescence "turn-on" assay, and the catalytic activity of the smallest triazole-AuNPs (core of 3.0?nm) is excellent for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in water. PMID:24891131

Li, Na; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Na; Echeverria, María; Moya, Sergio; Salmon, Lionel; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier

2014-07-01

299

Mono- and bi-functional arenethiols as surfactants for gold nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization  

PubMed Central

Stable gold nanoparticles stabilized by different mono and bi-functional arenethiols, namely, benzylthiol and 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, have been prepared by using a modified Brust's two-phase synthesis. The size, shape, and crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles have been determined by high-resolution electron microscopy and full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Nanocrystals diameters have been tuned in the range 2 ÷ 9 nm by a proper variation of Au/S molar ratio. The chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and their interaction with thiols have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, the formation of networks has been observed with interconnected gold nanoparticles containing 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol as ligand. PMID:21711615

2011-01-01

300

Development of tartaric esters as bifunctional additives of methanol-gasoline  

PubMed Central

Background Methanol has become an alternative fuel for gasoline, which is facing a rapidly rising world demand with a limited oil supply. Methanol-gasoline has been used in China, but phase stability and vapor lock still need to be resolved in methanol-gasoline applications. In this paper, a series of tartaric esters were synthesized and used as phase stabilizers and saturation vapor pressure depressors for methanol-gasoline. Results The results showed that the phase stabilities of tartaric esters for methanol-gasoline depend on the length of the alkoxy group. Several tartaric esters were found to be effective in various gasoline-methanol blends, and the tartaric esters display high capacity to depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline. Conclusion According to the results, it can be concluded that the tartaric esters have great potential to be bifunctional gasoline-methanol additives. PMID:24731649

2014-01-01

301

SCO5745, a Bifunctional RNase J Ortholog, Affects Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

The bacterial RNases J are considered bifunctional RNases possessing both endo- and exonucleolytic activities. We have isolated an RNase J ortholog from Streptomyces coelicolor encoded by the gene sco5745. We overexpressed a decahistidine-tagged version of SCO5745 and purified the overexpressed protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. We demonstrated the presence of both 5?-to-3? exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities on the Bacillus subtilis thrS transcript. Exonucleoytic activity predominated with 5? monophosphorylated thrS, while endonucleolytic activity predominated with 5? triphosphorylated thrS. While sco5745 is the only RNase J allele in S. coelicolor, the gene is not essential. Its disruption resulted in delayed production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, overproduction of undecylprodigiosin, and diminished production of the calcium-dependent antibiotic, in comparison with the parental strain. PMID:24415725

Bralley, Patricia; Aseem, Madiha

2014-01-01

302

SCO5745, a bifunctional RNase J ortholog, affects antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor.  

PubMed

The bacterial RNases J are considered bifunctional RNases possessing both endo- and exonucleolytic activities. We have isolated an RNase J ortholog from Streptomyces coelicolor encoded by the gene sco5745. We overexpressed a decahistidine-tagged version of SCO5745 and purified the overexpressed protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. We demonstrated the presence of both 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities on the Bacillus subtilis thrS transcript. Exonucleoytic activity predominated with 5' monophosphorylated thrS, while endonucleolytic activity predominated with 5' triphosphorylated thrS. While sco5745 is the only RNase J allele in S. coelicolor, the gene is not essential. Its disruption resulted in delayed production of the antibiotic actinorhodin, overproduction of undecylprodigiosin, and diminished production of the calcium-dependent antibiotic, in comparison with the parental strain. PMID:24415725

Bralley, Patricia; Aseem, Madiha; Jones, George H

2014-03-01

303

Investigation of the role of linker moieties in bifunctional tacrine hybrids.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurological disorder with multiple inter-connected factors playing roles in the onset and progression of the disease. One strategy currently being explored for the development of new therapeutics for AD involves linking tacrine, a known acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, to another drug to create bifunctional hybrids. The role and influence on activity of the linker moiety in these hybrids remains ill-defined. In this study, three series of 6-chlorotacrine with linkers varying in terminal functional group and length were synthesized, evaluated for AChE inhibition, and compared to tacrine and 6-chlorotacrine-mefenamic acid hybrids. Out of the compounds with terminal amine, methyl, and hydroxyl moieties tested, several highly potent molecules (low nanomolar IC50 values) comprised of linkers with terminal amines were identified. These 6-chlorotacrine with linkers were significantly more potent than tacrine alone and were often more potent than similar 6-chlorotacrine-mefenamic acid hybrids. PMID:23535563

Eckroat, Todd J; Green, Keith D; Reed, Rebecca A; Bornstein, Joshua J; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

2013-06-15

304

Fixation of carbon dioxide and related small molecules by a bifunctional frustrated pyrazolylborane Lewis pair.  

PubMed

The bifunctional frustrated Lewis pair 1-[bis(pentafluorophenyl)boryl]-3,5-di-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazole (1) was employed for small molecule fixation by reaction with carbon dioxide, paraformaldehyde, tert-butyl isocyanate, tert-butyl isothiocyanate, methyl isothiocyanate and benzonitrile, affording the adducts 3-8 as zwitterionic, bicyclic boraheterocycles. Treatment of 1 with tert-butyl isocyanide gave the isocyanide-borane complex 9, whereas the zwitterionic alkynylborate 10 was formed by C-H bond activation of phenylacetylene. The molecular structures of all products 3-10 were established by X-ray diffraction analyses. DFT calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory revealed that CO(2) fixation by 1 and formation of the adduct 3 is strongly exothermic and proceeds with a low energy barrier of approximately 7.3 kcal mol(-1) via an intermediate van der Waals complex. PMID:22588317

Theuergarten, Eileen; Schlösser, Janin; Schlüns, Danny; Freytag, Matthias; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

2012-08-14

305

Bifunctional nanoparticles for SERS monitoring and magnetic intervention of assembly and enzyme cutting of DNAs  

SciTech Connect

The ability to detect and intervene in DNA assembly, disassembly, and enzyme cutting processes in a solution phase requires effective signal transduction and stimulus response. This report demonstrates a novel bifunctional strategy for the creation of this ability using gold- and silver-coated MnZn ferrite nanoparticles (MZF@Au or MZF@Ag) that impart magnetic and surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS) functionalities to these processes. The double-stranded DNA linkage of labeled gold nanoparticles with MZF@Au (or MZF@Ag) produces interparticle "hot-spots" for real-time SERS monitoring of the DNA assembly, disassembly, or enzyme cutting processes, during which the magnetic component provides an effective means for intervention in the solution. The unique combination of the nanoprobes functionalities serves a new paradigm for the design of functional nanoprobes in biomolecular recognition and intervention.

Lin, Liqin; Crew, Elizabeth; Yan, Hong; Shan, Shiyao; Skeete, Zakiya; Mott, Derrick; Krentsel, Tatiana; Yin, Jun; Chernova, Natasha A.; Luo, Jin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Li, Qingbiao; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2013-07-27

306

Chimeric gene construct coding for bi-functional enzyme endowed with endoglucanase and phytase activities.  

PubMed

Phytase and endoglucanase enzymes are being widely used as feed additives in poultry industry. In our earlier studies, the Bacillus phytase, when expressed in Escherichia coli, was found in inclusion bodies, whereas endoglucanase was found in active soluble form. Herein, we report the development of a chimeric gene construct coding for ~73 kDa fusion protein and its over-expression in E. coli in soluble form. The novel enzyme exhibited both endoglucanase and phytase activities across broad pH (4.0-8.0) and temperature (25-75 degrees C) ranges. As such, the bi-functional enzyme seems promising and might serve as a potential feed additive for enhanced nutrition uptake in monogastric animals. PMID:18987844

Reddy, V Arunodai; Venu, K; Rao, D E C S; Rao, K V; Reddy, V D

2009-02-01

307

Bi-functional biobased packing of the cassava starch, glycerol, licuri nanocellulose and red propolis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4%) and glycerol (1.0%), reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0-1%) and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%). The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage. PMID:25383783

Costa, Samantha Serra; Druzian, Janice Izabel; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; de Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Guimarães, Alaíse Gil

2014-01-01

308

Development and computational modeling of novel bifunctional organophosphorus extractants for lanthanoid separation  

SciTech Connect

Novel organophosphorus extractants, which have two functional groups in the molecular structure, have been developed for the separation of lanthanoids using the liquid-liquid extraction technique. The separation efficiency and extractability of the novel extractants were investigated for nine lanthanoids. These bifunctional extractants have an extremely high extractability to all the lanthanoids compared to those of commercially available organophosphorus extractants. Two isomers having an identical chemical formulation show significantly different behaviors in lanthanoid extraction. This means that the extraction and separation abilities are quite sensitive to the structure of the spacer connecting the two functional groups. The authors also discuss the experimental results with a computational modeling by means of molecular mechanics and semiempirical molecular orbital methods. The novel molecular mechanics (MM) calculation program MOMEC enables them to analyze the stable conformation of a series of lanthanoid complexes. The calculation suggests that the structural effect of the spacer is one of the decisive factors for enhancing selectivity and extractability in lanthanoid extraction.

Goto, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Uezu, Kazuya; Nakashio, Fumiyuki [Kyushu Univ., Hakozaki, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology] [Kyushu Univ., Hakozaki, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Inoue, Katsutoshi [Saga Univ., Honjyo, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry] [Saga Univ., Honjyo, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

1999-08-01

309

Growth and optical characterization of colloidal CdTe nanoparticles capped by a bifunctional molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thiol-capped CdTe nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution by wet chemical route. CdTe nanoparticles with bifunctional molecule mercaptoacetic acid as a stabilizer were synthesized at pH?11.2 and using potassium tellurite as tellurium source. The effect of refluxing time on the preparation of these samples was measured using UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence analysis. By increasing the refluxing time the UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence results show that the band edge emission is redshifted. The synthesized thiol-capped CdTe were characterized with FT-IR, TEM and TG-DTA. The particle size was calculated by the effective mass approximation (EMA). The role of precursors, their composition, pH and reaction procedure on the development of nanoparticles are analyzed.

Abd El-sadek, M. S.; Moorthy Babu, S.

2010-08-01

310

Fabrication of bifunctional core-shell Fe3O4 particles coated with ultrathin phosphor layer  

PubMed Central

Bifunctional monodispersed Fe3O4 particles coated with an ultrathin Y2O3:Tb3+ shell layer were fabricated using a facile urea-based homogeneous precipitation method. The obtained composite particles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantum design vibrating sample magnetometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. TEM revealed uniform spherical core-shell-structured composites ranging in size from 306 to 330 nm with a shell thickness of approximately 25 nm. PL spectroscopy confirmed that the synthesized composites displayed a strong eye-visible green light emission. Magnetic measurements indicated that the composite particles obtained also exhibited strong superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Therefore, the inner Fe3O4 core and outer Y2O3:Tb3+ shell layer endow the composites with both robust magnetic properties and strong eye-visible luminescent properties. These composite materials have potential use in magnetic targeting and bioseparation, simultaneously coupled with luminescent imaging. PMID:23962025

2013-01-01

311

Fabrication of bifunctional core-shell Fe3O4 particles coated with ultrathin phosphor layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifunctional monodispersed Fe3O4 particles coated with an ultrathin Y2O3:Tb3+ shell layer were fabricated using a facile urea-based homogeneous precipitation method. The obtained composite particles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantum design vibrating sample magnetometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. TEM revealed uniform spherical core-shell-structured composites ranging in size from 306 to 330 nm with a shell thickness of approximately 25 nm. PL spectroscopy confirmed that the synthesized composites displayed a strong eye-visible green light emission. Magnetic measurements indicated that the composite particles obtained also exhibited strong superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Therefore, the inner Fe3O4 core and outer Y2O3:Tb3+ shell layer endow the composites with both robust magnetic properties and strong eye-visible luminescent properties. These composite materials have potential use in magnetic targeting and bioseparation, simultaneously coupled with luminescent imaging.

Atabaev, Timur Sh; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

2013-08-01

312

Novel 16-substituted bifunctional derivatives of huperzine B: multifunctional cholinesterase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Aim: To design novel bifunctional derivatives of huperzine B (HupB) based on the concept of dual binding site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and evaluate their pharmacological activities for seeking new drug candidates against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Novel 16-substituted bifunctional derivatives of HupB were synthesized through chemical reactions. The inhibitory activities of the derivatives toward AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were determined in vitro by modified Ellman's method. Cell viability was quantified by the reduction of MTT. Results: A new preparative method was developed for the generation of 16-substituted derivatives of HupB, and pharmacological trials indicated that the derivatives were multifunctional cholinesterase inhibitors targeting both AChE and BuChE. Among the derivatives tested, 9c, 9e, 9f, and 9i were 480 to 1360 times more potent as AChE inhibitors and 370 to 1560 times more potent as BuChE inhibitors than the parent HupB. Further preliminary pharmacological trials of derivatives 9c and 9i were performed, including examining the mechanism of AChE inhibition, the substrate kinetics of the enzyme inhibition, and protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Conclusion: Preliminary pharmacological evaluation indicated that 16-substituted derivatives of HupB, particularly 9c and 9i, would be potentially valuable new drug candidates for AD therapy, and further exploration is needed to evaluate their pharmacological and clinical efficacies. PMID:19578388

Shi, Yu-fang; Zhang, Hai-yan; Wang, Wei; Fu, Yan; Xia, Yu; Tang, Xi-can; Bai, Dong-lu; He, Xu-chang

2009-01-01

313

Ball Bearings Equipped for In Situ Lubrication on Demand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ systems that provide fresh lubricants to ball/race contacts on demand have been developed to prolong the operational lives of ball bearings. These systems were originally intended to be incorporated into ball bearings in mechanisms that are required to operate in outer space for years, in conditions in which lubricants tend to deteriorate and/or evaporate. These systems may also be useful for similarly prolonging bearing lifetimes on Earth. Reservoirs have been among the means used previously to resupply lubricants. Lubricant- resupply reservoirs are bulky and add complexity to bearing assemblies. In addition, such a reservoir cannot be turned on or off as needed: it supplies lubricant continuously, often leading to an excess of lubricant in the bearing. A lubricator of the present type includes a porous ring cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing (see Figure 1). Oil is stored in the porous cartridge and is released by heating the cartridge: Because the thermal expansion of the oil exceeds that of the cartridge, heating causes the ejection of some oil. A metal film can be deposited on a face of the cartridge to serve as an electrical-resistance heater. The heater can be activated in response to a measured increase in torque that signals depletion of oil from the bearing/race contacts. Because the oil has low surface tension and readily wets the bearing-ring material, it spreads over the bearing ring and eventually reaches the ball/race contacts. The Marangoni effect (a surface-tension gradient associated with a temperature gradient) is utilized to enhance the desired transfer of lubricant to the ball/race contacts during heating. For a test, a ball bearing designed for use at low speed was assembled without lubricant and equipped with a porous-ring lubricator, the resistance heater of which consumed a power of less than 1 W when triggered on by a torque-measuring device. In the test, a load of 20 lb (.89 N) was applied and the bearing was turned at a rate of 200 RPM. The lubricator control was turned on at the beginning of the test, turned off for about 800 seconds, then turned on again. As shown in Figure 2, the controlled lubricator stabilized the torque in a low range, starting immediately after initial turn-on and immediately after resumption of the lubricator control.

Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark; Predmore, Roamer

2005-01-01

314

Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device  

DOEpatents

A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

Fincke, James R. (Rigby, ID)

1982-01-01

315

Liquid oxygen cooled bearing ignition potential assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump bearings have shown evidence of heavy oxidation on the surfaces of the balls and races. Extensive analyses were performed to assess the ignition potential in the bearing system during normal and off-nominal operation. Test programs and analyses were used to determine the bearing thermal condition and bearing material ignition characteristics.

Page, Arthur T.; Goode, Brian K.; Owen, James W.

1990-01-01

316

Damping Seals And Bearings For A Turbomachine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved design for support of rotor in turbopump integrates ball bearings with damping seals and damping bearings. Reduces radial (side) loads on ball bearings, making it possible to increase contact angles to withstand increased transient axial loads. Service lives of bearings prolonged.

Von Pragenau, George L.

1990-01-01

317

Ball-and-Socket-Bearing Wear Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Series of experiments to measure wear life of spherical bearing summarized. Report designed to establish clearance, contour, finish, and lubricant parameters for highly-loaded, compact plain spherical bearing. Information useful in design of bearings for helicopter control linkages, business machines, nuclear reactor, and rotor bearings.

Graham, W. G.

1984-01-01

318

International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek  

E-print Network

International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek October 20 ­ 24, 2009 Bear Creek Mountain Resort of Community and Economic Development #12;International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek October 20-24, 2009 Bear Creek Mountain Resort Macungie, PA USA WORKSHOP PROGRAM TUESDAY, OCTOBER 20, 2009 3:00 p

Gilchrist, James F.

319

Hunting for grizzly bears By Andrew Findlay  

E-print Network

Hunting for grizzly bears By Andrew Findlay Publish Date: June 26, 2008 The Zodiac glides along environmentalists, First Nations, and bear-viewing companies believe the province is risking international shame for grizzly bears." Armed with the results of the poll, conservationists, First Nations, and grizzly-bear

Gross, Mart

320

SMOKEY THE BEAR SUTRA Gary Snyder  

E-print Network

SMOKEY THE BEAR SUTRA Gary Snyder Once in the Jurassic about 150 million years ago, the Great Sun THE BEAR. A handsome smokey­colored brown bear standing on his hind legs, show­ ing that he is aroused and watchful. Bearing in his right paw the Shovel that digs to the truth beneath ap­ pearances; cuts the roots

Alexander, Roger K.

321

Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF) was designed and built to evaluate compact, lightweight magnetic bearings for use in the SSME's (space shuttle main engine) liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen turbopumps. State of the art and tradeoff studies were conducted which indicated that a hybrid permanent magnet bias homopolar magnetic bearing design would be smaller, lighter, and much more efficient than conventional industrial bearings. A test bearing of this type was designed for the test rig for use at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (-320 F). The bearing was fabricated from state-of-the-art materials and incorporated into the CMBTF. Testing at room temperature was accomplished at Avcon's facility. These preliminary tests indicated that this magnetic bearing is a feasible alternative to older bearing technologies. Analyses showed that the hybrid magnetic bearing is one-third the weight, considerably smaller, and uses less power than previous generations of magnetic bearings.

1992-01-01

322

Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Bearing Testing for NASA Return to Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle body flap is located beneath the main engine nozzles and is required for proper aerodynamic control during orbital descent. Routine inspection of one of four body flap actuators found one of the actuator bearings had degraded and blackened balls. A test program was initiated to demonstrate that it is acceptable to operate bearings which are degraded from operation over several flights. This test exposed the bearing to predicted flight axial loads, speeds and temperatures. Testing at 140 F has been completed, and results indicate the previously flown bearings are acceptable for up to 12 additional missions. Additional testing is underway to determine the lubricant life at various temperatures and stresses and to further understand the mechanism that caused the blacken balls. Initial results of this testing indicates that bearing life is shorten at room temperature possibly due fact that higher temperature (140 F) accelerates the flow of grease and oil into the wear surface

Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Dube, Michael J.; Jones, William R., Jr.

2006-01-01

323

Investigations of a bearing fault detector for railroad bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laboratory tests are described which were conducted on new and damaged bearings to determine the feasibility of using high-frequency vibration as a diagnostic tool. A high-frequency band pass filter and demodulator was assembled to permit field measurements of the high-frequency vibrations. Field tests were conducted on an actual truck and on an axle assembly run in a grease test rig. These field tests were directed toward demonstration of the suitability and capabilities of the high-frequency technique for field application. Two specific areas of field application were identified as being cost effective for railroad use. One area is the examination of railroad roller bearings at a derailment site, and the second is as a wayside detector to supplement present hot box detectors for defective roller bearings.

Wilson, D. S.; Frarey, J. L.

1975-01-01

324

International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek  

E-print Network

International Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek October 2­5, 2012 Bear Creek Mountain Resort Workshop on Interfaces at Bear Creek October 2­5, 2012 Bear Creek Mountain Resort Macungie, PA USA WORKSHOP PROGRAM TUESDAY, OCTOBER 2, 2012 3:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. Arrival at the Inn at Bear Creek 6:00 p.m. - 8:00 p

Gilchrist, James F.

325

A Fatigue Life Comparison of Two-Row Tapered Roller Bearings and Spherical Roller Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were run to compare the fatigue life of two-row tapered roller bearings to that of spherical roller bearings. Both bearing types had an outer diameter of 110 mm with the spherical roller bearing having a 22 percent larger dynamic radial load rating than the tapered roller bearings. All tests were run at 165 percent of the respective two-row dynamic

Harry Zantopulos; Joel Z. Russell

1999-01-01

326

Identification of the pgmG Gene, Encoding a Bifunctional Protein with Phosphoglucomutase and Phosphomannomutase Activities, in the Gellan Gum-Producing Strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461  

PubMed Central

The pgmG gene of Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461, the industrial gellan gum-producing strain, was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a 50,059-Da polypeptide that has phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphomannomutase (PMM) activities and is 37 to 59% identical to other bifunctional proteins with PGM and PMM activities from gram-negative species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgC. Purified PgmG protein showed a marked preference for glucose-1-phosphate (G1P); the catalytic efficiency was about 50-fold higher for G1P than it was for mannose-1-phosphate (M1P). The estimated apparent Km values for G1P and M1P were high, 0.33 and 1.27 mM, respectively. The pgmG gene allowed the recovery of alginate biosynthetic ability in a P. aeruginosa mutant with a defective algC gene. This result indicates that PgmG protein can convert mannose-6-phosphate into M1P in the initial steps of alginate biosynthesis and, together with other results, suggests that PgmG may convert glucose-6-phosphate into G1P in the gellan pathway. PMID:10788412

Videira, Paula A.; Cortes, Luísa L.; Fialho, Arsénio M.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

2000-01-01

327

EXCITATION OF STRUCTURAL RESONANCE DUE TO A BEARING FAILURE  

SciTech Connect

Vibration due to a bearing failure in a pump created significant vibrations in a fifteen foot by fifteen foot by eight feet tall mounting platform due to excitation of resonant frequencies. In this particular application, an 18,000 pound pump was mounted to a structural steel platform. When bearing damage commenced, the platform vibrated with sufficient magnitude that conversations could not be heard within forty feet of the pump. Vibration analysis determined that the frequency of the bearing was coincident to one of the natural frequencies of the pump, which was, in turn, coincident to one of the natural frequencies of the mounting platform. This coincidence of frequencies defines resonance. Resonance creates excessive vibrations when the natural frequency of a structure is coincident to an excitation frequency. In this well documented case, the excitation frequency was related to ball bearing failures. The pump is a forty foot long vertical pump used to mix nuclear waste in 1,300,000 gallon tanks. A 300 horsepower drive motor is mounted to a structural steel platform on top of the tank. The pump hangs down into the tank from above to mix the waste and is inaccessible after installation. Initial awareness of the problem was due to increased noise from the pump. Initial vibration analysis indicated that the vibration levels of the bearing were within the expected range for this type of bearing, and the resonant condition was not obvious. Further analysis consisted of disassembly of the motor to inspect the bearings and extensive vibration monitoring. Vibration data for the bearings was obtained from the manufacturer and compared to measured vibration plots for the pump and mounting platform. Vibration data measured along the length of the pump was available from full scale testing, and vibrations were also measured at the installed pump. One of the axial frequencies of the pump, the platform frequency in the vertical direction, and the ball spin frequency for the bearing were multiples of each other. This resonant condition was detected before other damage occurred, and further damage due to the resonant condition was prevented through vibration analysis.

Leishear, R; David Stefanko, D

2007-04-30

328

Designing bifunctional NOP receptor-mu opioid receptor ligands from NOP-receptor selective scaffolds. Part II.  

PubMed

The nociceptin opioid receptor (NOP) and its endogenous peptide ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ have been shown to modulate the pharmacological effects of the classical opioid receptor system. Suppression of opioid-induced reward associated with mu-opioid receptor (MOP)-mediated analgesia, without decreasing anti-nociceptive efficacy, can potentially be achieved with NOP agonists having bifunctional agonist activity at MOP, to afford 'non-addicting' analgesics. In Part II of this series, we describe a continuing structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of the NOP-selective piperidin-4-yl-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one scaffold, to obtain bifunctional activity at MOP, and a suitable ratio of NOP/MOP agonist activity that produces a non-addicting analgesic profile. The SAR reported here is focused on the influence of various piperidine nitrogen aromatic substituents on the ratio of binding affinity and intrinsic activity at both the NOP and MOP receptors. PMID:24657054

Journigan, V Blair; Polgar, Willma E; Khroyan, Taline V; Zaveri, Nurulain T

2014-04-15

329

A bifunctional endoglucanase/endoxylanase from Cellulomonas flavigena with potential use in industrial processes at different pH.  

PubMed

Cellulomonas flavigena CDBB-531 was found to secrete a bifunctional cellulase/xylanase with a molecular mass of 49 kDa and pI 4.3. This enzyme was active on Remazol brilliant blue-carboxymethylcellulose (RBB-CMC) and Remazol brilliant blue-xylan (RBB-X). Based on thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the degradation products, the cellulase activity produced glucose, cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose from CMC as the substrate. When xylan from birchwood was used, end products were xylose, arabinose, and xylobiose. The bifunctional enzyme showed a pH optimum of 6 for cellulase activity and 9 for xylanase activity, which pointed out that this enzyme had separate sites for each activity. In both cases, the apparent optimum temperature was 50 degrees C. The predicted amino acid sequence of purified protein showed similarity with the catalytic domain of several glycosyl hydrolases of family 10. PMID:18379842

Pérez-Avalos, Odilia; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M; Salgado, Luis M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

2008-07-01

330

'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

331

Synergistic Bifunctional Catalyst Design based on Perovskite Oxide Nanoparticles and Intertwined Carbon Nanotubes for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery Applications.  

PubMed

Advanced morphology of intertwined core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (IT-CCBC) is introduced where perovskite lanthanum nickel oxide nanoparticles (LaNiO3 NP) are encapsulated by high surface area network of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) to produce highly active and durable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications. The unique composite morphology of IT-CCBC not only enhances the charge transport property by providing rapid electron-conduction pathway but also facilitates in diffusion of hydroxyl and oxygen reactants through the highly porous framework. Confirmed by electrochemical half-cell testing, IT-CCBC in fact exhibits very strong synergy between LaNiO3 NP and NCNT demonstrating bifunctionality with significantly improved catalytic activities of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Furthermore, when compared to the state-of-art catalysts, IT-CCBC outperforms Pt/C and Ir/C in terms of ORR and OER, respectively, and shows improved electrochemical stability compared to them after cycle degradation testing. The practicality of the catalyst is corroborated by testing in a realistic rechargeable zinc-air battery utilizing atmospheric air in ambient conditions, where IT-CCBC demonstrates superior charge and discharge voltages and long-term cycle stability with virtually no battery voltage fading. These improved electrochemical properties of the catalyst are attributed to the nanosized dimensions of LaNiO3 NP controlled by simple hydrothermal technique, which enables prolific growth of and encapsulation by highly porous NCNT network. The excellent electrochemical results presented in this study highlight IT-CCBC as highly efficient and commercially viable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications. PMID:25494945

Lee, Dong Un; Park, Hey Woong; Park, Moon Gyu; Ismayilov, Vugar; Chen, Zhongwei

2015-01-14

332

Bifunctional modulating effects of an indigo dimer (bisindigotin) to CYP1A1 induction in H4IIE cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we measured and characterized the bifunctional effects of a newly identified natural compound-bisindigotin (SLY-1), isolated from leaf extracts of Isatis indigotica, to CYP1A1\\/EROD activities in H4IIE cells. The compound, SLY-1 (1?M) elicited a transitory and significant induction of CYP1A1 RNA\\/protein levels and EROD activities in the cells. Maximum levels of CYP1A1 expression and EROD induction were attained

K. P. Lai; N. K. Mak; X. Wei; R. N. S. Wong; M. H. Wong; Chris K. C. Wong

2006-01-01

333

Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.  

PubMed

A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:22372510

Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

2012-04-11

334

Study of Catcher Bearings for High Temperature Magnetic Bearing Application  

E-print Network

the mechanical integrity of the components of the test rig. ? Due to extremely small air gap (about 0.030 inches or 30 mils) the magnetic bearings need to be installed with very little tolerance for concentricity. ? Study of the properties of Graphalloy...

Narayanaswamy, Ashwanth

2011-08-08

335

Application of computational fluid dynamics on cavitation in journal bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Journal bearings are applied in internal combustion engines due to their favourable wearing quality and operating characteristics. Under certain operating conditions damage of the journal bearing can occur caused by cavitation. The cavitation reduces the load capacity and leads to material erosion. Experimental investigations of cavitating flows in dimension of real journal bearing are difficult to realize or almost impossible caused by the small gap and transient flow conditions. Therefore numerical simulation is a very helpful engineering tool to research the cavitation behaviour. The CFD-Code OpenFOAM is used to analyse the flow field inside the bearing. The numerical cavitation model based on a bubble dynamic approach and requires necessary initial parameter for the calculation, such as nuclei bubble diameter, the number of nuclei and two empirical constants. The first part of this paper shows the influence of these parameters on the solution. For the adjustment of the parameters an experiment of Jakobsson et.al. [1] was used to validate the numerical flow model. The parameters have been varied according to the method Design of Experiments (DoE). With a defined model equation the parameters determined, to identify the parameter for CFD-calculations in comparison to the experimental values. The second part of the paper presents investigations on different geometrical changes in the bearing geometry. The effect of these geometrical changes on cavitation was compared with experimental results from Wollfarth [2] and Garner et.al. [3].

Riedel, Marco; Schmidt, Marcus; Reinke, Peter; Nobis, Matthias; Redlich, Marcel

2014-03-01

336

Wave Journal Bearing. Part 1: Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wave journal bearing concept features a waved inner bearing diameter of the non-rotating bearing side and it is an alternative to the plain journal bearing. The wave journal bearing has a significantly increased load capacity in comparison to the plain journal bearing operating at the same eccentricity. It also offers greater stability than the plain circular bearing under all operating conditions. The wave bearing's design is relatively simple and allows the shaft to rotate in either direction. Three wave bearings are sensitive to the direction of an applied stationary side load. Increasing the number of waves reduces the wave bearing's sensitivity to the direction of the applied load relative to the wave. However, the range in which the bearing performance can be varied decreases as the number of waves increases. Therefore, both the number and the amplitude of the waves must be properly selected to optimize the wave bearing design for a specific application. It is concluded that the stiffness of an air journal bearing, due to hydrodynamic effect, could be doubled and made to run stably by using a six or eight wave geometry with a wave amplitude approximately half of the bearing radial clearance.

Dimofte, Florin

1995-01-01

337

Biological and Conformational Evaluation of Bifunctional Compounds for Opioid Receptor Agonists and Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonists Possessing Two Penicillamines  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain states and tolerance to opioids can result from system changes in the CNS, such as up-regulation of the NK1 receptor and substance P, which have anti-opioid effects in ascending or descending pain-signaling pathways. Bifunctional compounds, possessing both the NK1 antagonist pharmacophore and the opioid agonist pharmacophore with delta-selectivity, could counteract these system changes to have significant analgesic efficacy without undesirable side effects. As a result of the introduction of cyclic and topological constraints with penicillamines, 2 (Tyr-cyclo[D-Pen-Gly-Phe-Pen]-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-[3?,5?-(CF3)2-Bzl]) was found as the best bifunctional compound with effective NK1 antagonist and potent opioid agonist activities, and 1400-fold delta-selectivity over the mu-receptor. The NMR structural analysis of 2 revealed that the relative positioning of the two connected pharmacophores as well as its cyclic and topological constraints might be responsible for its excellent bifunctional activities as well as its significant delta-opioid selectivity. Together with the observed high metabolic stability, 2 could be considered as a valuable research tool and possibly a promising candidate for a novel analgesic drug. PMID:20617791

Yamamoto, Takashi; Nair, Padma; Jacobsen, Neil E.; Kulkarni, Vinod; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-wu; Navratilova, Edita; Yamamura, Henry I.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Porreca, Frank; Lai, Josephine; Hruby, Victor J.

2010-01-01

338

Activity modulation of core and shell in nanozeolite@enzyme bi-functional catalyst for dynamic kinetic resolution.  

PubMed

A core-shell nanozeolite@enzyme bi-functional catalyst is prepared by using nanozeolite ? as acidic core and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as enzyme shell for the purpose of dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR), and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) is used as interlayer to compart core and shell. The activities of core and shell in bi-functional catalyst are modulated to achieve the matching between racemization and kinetic resolution (KR) rates in DKR, i.e., a slow racemization rate on core while a fast KR rate on shell. Nanozeolite ? with intermediate SiO2/Al2O3 ratio provides proper acid amount for racemization step. A relatively thick layer of PDDA not only improves the activity of CALB by its coverage for surface acidic sites but also limits the accessibility and diffusion of substrate towards the acidic core. The CALB shell with larger immobilized amount and higher enzyme activity offers enhanced driving force of DKR process, leading to higher conversion, selectivity and yield. The preparation and activity modulation of core-shell catalyst provide an ideal method to improve the catalytic performance of bi-functional catalyst. PMID:25454421

Li, Xiang; Yan, Yueer; Wang, Wanlu; Zhang, Yahong; Tang, Yi

2015-01-15

339

Estimating Wear Of Installed Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple inspection and measurement technique makes possible to estimate wear of balls in ball bearing, without removing bearing from shaft on which installed. To perform measurement, one observes bearing cage while turning shaft by hand to obtain integral number of cage rotations and to measure, to nearest 2 degrees, number of shaft rotations producing cage rotations. Ratio between numbers of cages and shaft rotations depends only on internal geometry of bearing and applied load. Changes in turns ratio reflect changes in internal geometry of bearing provided measurements made with similar bearing loads. By assuming all wear occurs on balls, one computes effective value for this wear from change in turns ratio.

Keba, John E.; Mcvey, Scott E.

1993-01-01

340

Active magnetic bearings give systems a lift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the active magnetic bearings currently being used in such specialized applications as centrifugal compressors for natural gas pumps are more expensive than conventional bearings, they furnish improved machine service life, controlled damping of high-speed rotors to eliminate critical-speed vibrations, and the obviation of lubrication systems. Attention is presently given to magnetic bearings used by the electric power industry, homopolar magnetic radial and thrust bearings, weapon-system and gas turbine engine applications of magnetic bearings, and the benefits of magnetic bearings for energy-storage flywheels.

O'Connor, Leo

1992-07-01

341

Gradient Tempering Of Bearing Races  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gradient-tempering process increases fracture toughness and resistance to stress-corrosion cracking of ball-bearing races made of hard, strong steels and subject to high installation stresses and operation in corrosive media. Also used in other applications in which local toughening of high-strength/low-toughness materials required.

Parr, Richardson A.

1991-01-01

342

High performance rolling element bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high performance rolling element bearing (5) which is particularly suitable for use in a cryogenically cooled environment, comprises a composite cage (45) formed from glass fibers disposed in a solid lubricant matrix of a fluorocarbon polymer. The cage includes inserts (50) formed from a mixture of a soft metal and a solid lubricant such as a fluorocarbon polymer.

Bursey, Jr., Roger W. (Inventor); Olinger, Jr., John B. (Inventor); Owen, Samuel S. (Inventor); Poole, William E. (Inventor); Haluck, David A. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

343

Fuzzy control of magnetic bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of an adaptive fuzzy control algorithm implemented on a VLSI chip for the control of a magnetic bearing was considered. The architecture of the adaptive fuzzy controller is similar to that of a neural network. The performance of the fuzzy controller is compared to that of a conventional controller by computer simulation.

Feeley, J. J.; Niederauer, G. M.; Ahlstrom, D. J.

1991-01-01

344

Toxicity of Polar Bear Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACCORDING to information from the Eskimos, and records from Arctic travellers, bad effects may follow the consumption, by men and dogs, of the livers of polar bear, bearded seal, Greenland fox and Eskimo huskies, whereas livers of other Arctic mammals can usually be eaten without injury.

Kaare Rodahl

1949-01-01

345

Satellite monitoring of black bear.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

1971-01-01

346

Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

Singh, Arnant P.

2008-01-01

347

Tardigrades: Bears of the Moss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online PowerPoint presentation is dedicated to the phylum Tardigrada. It discusses distinguishing characteristics of Tardigrades (also known as water bears), their relationship to arthropods and nematodes, internal structures, life stages, cryptobiosis, research opportunities, classification, identification, habitat, distribution, ease of study in the lab, and more. Each slide contains illustrations and descriptions of the microscopic animal.

Miller, William; College, Southwestern

348

Cloning and characterization of bifunctional enzyme farnesyl diphosphate/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background Isoprenoids are the most diverse and abundant group of natural products. In Plasmodium falciparum, isoprenoid synthesis proceeds through the methyl erythritol diphosphate pathway and the products are further metabolized by farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), turning this enzyme into a key branch point of the isoprenoid synthesis. Changes in FPPS activity could alter the flux of isoprenoid compounds downstream of FPPS and, hence, play a central role in the regulation of a number of essential functions in Plasmodium parasites. Methods The isolation and cloning of gene PF3D7_18400 was done by amplification from cDNA from mixed stage parasites of P. falciparum. After sequencing, the fragment was subcloned in pGEX2T for recombinant protein expression. To verify if the PF3D7_1128400 gene encodes a functional rPfFPPS protein, its catalytic activity was assessed using the substrate [4-14C] isopentenyl diphosphate and three different allylic substrates: dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate or farnesyl diphosphate. The reaction products were identified by thin layer chromatography and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. To confirm the product spectrum formed of rPfFPPS, isoprenic compounds were also identified by mass spectrometry. Apparent kinetic constants KM and Vmax for each substrate were determined by Michaelis–Menten; also, inhibition assays were performed using risedronate. Results The expressed protein of P. falciparum FPPS (rPfFPPS) catalyzes the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate, as well as geranylgeranyl diphosphate, being therefore a bifunctional FPPS/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) enzyme. The apparent KM values for the substrates dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate were, respectively, 68?±?5 ?M, 7.8?±?1.3 ?M and 2.06?±?0.4 ?M. The protein is expressed constitutively in all intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum, demonstrated by using transgenic parasites with a haemagglutinin-tagged version of FPPS. Also, the present data demonstrate that the recombinant protein is inhibited by risedronate. Conclusions The rPfFPPS is a bifunctional FPPS/GGPPS enzyme and the structure of products FOH and GGOH were confirmed mass spectrometry. Plasmodial FPPS represents a potential target for the rational design of chemotherapeutic agents to treat malaria. PMID:23734739

2013-01-01

349

Hybrid bearings for turbopumps and the like  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In rocket engines power is usually obtained by burning fuel and oxidizer which are mixed, pressurized, and directed to a combustion chamber by means of turbopumps. Roller bearings are generally used in these turbopumps, but because of bearing demands hydrostatic bearings were proposed. The use of such bearings is quite feasible because during flight hydrostatic lubrication can reduce roller bearing wear. A disadvantage of such proposals is that during startup, acceleration, and shutdown high pressure fluids are not available for hydrostatic bearings. The fluid lubrication film is not always present in bearings of turbopumps. During these periods a second bearing is required to carry the load. This requirement suggests the use of hybrid bearings in rocket engine turbopumps. Such duplex bearings were provided, but when their inner races are keyed to the shaft or journal two of them are required. And such duplex bearings do not wear evenly. A hybrid hydrostatic-rolling element bearing was provided wherein the rolling element bearing is locked on the stationary housing rather than on the rotating journal.

Justak, John F. (inventor); Owens, Gregg R. (inventor)

1994-01-01

350

Fracture of mobile unicompartmental knee bearings: a parametric finite element study.  

PubMed

Cases of fractured mobile unicompartmental knee bearings have recently been reported. The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanics behind these fractures and to examine the influence of different design modifications. A parametric finite element model was used to examine the influence of different geometrical factors on the stresses within the bearing. Crack initiation occurred clinically in the centre of the bearing; this correlated with the position of the maximum von Mises stress. Tensile stresses, thought to propagate the fatigue crack, were maximal at the medial-lateral sides of the bearing, and the tensile vectors were normal to the fracture direction observed clinically. Fully congruent femoral articulation on the bearing, use of a thicker bearing size, and minimising wear of the component reduced the risk of fracture. For example, an unworn 6.5-mm-thick bearing (no clinical fractures reported) had 21.6% lower medial-lateral tensile stress compared to an unworn 3.5 mm bearing (five clinical fractures reported). In turn, an unworn 3.5 mm bearing had 34.3% lower tensile stress compared to a 3.5 mm bearing after 1.9 mm wear (average linear wear reported for clinically fractured bearings). The fracture risk was also reduced when the radio-opaque marker wire was positioned further from the centre of the bearing, and when marker balls were used instead of marker wires (19% reduction in tensile stress in some regions). These results indicate the importance of minimising component wear; the data also support the current component design which uses posterior marker balls instead of marker wires, and the continuing use of a congruous femoral component. PMID:23940210

Pegg, Elise C; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant G; O'Connor, John J; Gill, Harinderjit S

2013-11-01

351

Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

Hopkins, John B., III; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

2012-01-01

352

High Temperature, Permanent Magnet Biased Magnetic Bearings  

E-print Network

The Electron Energy Corporation (EEC) along with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is researching magnetic bearings. The purpose of this research was to design and develop a high-temperature (1000?F) magnetic bearing system...

Gandhi, Varun R.

2010-07-14

353

Detecting Wear In Ball Bearings During Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strain-gauge signals at harmonics of ball-bearing-cage frequencies signify wear. Brief report describes experiments in continuing effort to interpret vibrations of machinery in terms of wear in ball bearing.

Hine, Michael J.

1988-01-01

354

Rubber bearings for precision positioning systems  

E-print Network

In this thesis we investigate the use of thin rubber sheets or laminates of metal and rubber sheets as bearings in precision positioning systems. Such bearings have the potential to replace more conventional flexures ...

Barton Martinelli, Augusto E

2005-01-01

355

A Preliminary Foil Gas Bearing Performance Map  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent breakthrough improvements in foil gas bearing load capacity, high temperature tribological coatings and computer based modeling have enabled the development of increasingly larger and more advanced Oil-Free Turbomachinery systems. Successful integration of foil gas bearings into turbomachinery requires a step wise approach that includes conceptual design and feasibility studies, bearing testing, and rotor testing prior to full scale system level demonstrations. Unfortunately, the current level of understanding of foil gas bearings and especially their tribological behavior is often insufficient to avoid developmental problems thereby hampering commercialization of new applications. In this paper, a new approach loosely based upon accepted hydrodynamic theory, is developed which results in a "Foil Gas Bearing Performance Map" to guide the integration process. This performance map, which resembles a Stribeck curve for bearing friction, is useful in describing bearing operating regimes, performance safety margins, the effects of load on performance and limiting factors for foil gas bearings.

DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.; Bruckner, Robert J.; Howard, S. Adam

2006-01-01

356

Design of a low cost hydrostatic bearing  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the design and manufacturing method for a new surface self compensating hydrostatic bearing. A lumped resistance model was used to analyze the performance of the bearing and provide guidance on laying ...

Wong, Anthony Raymond

2012-01-01

357

Self-bearing motor design & control  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the design, implementation and control of a new class of self-bearing motors. The primary thesis contributions include the design and experimental demonstration of hysteresis self-bearing motors, novel ...

Imani Nejad, Mohammad

2013-01-01

358

Hunting for 'bears' in the backyard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Micscape Magazine article offers practical hints about how to collect and study tardigrades, or water bears, from mosses in your backyard. It features a general introduction of water bears, a video, and a section of references for further reading.

Walker, Dave; Magazine, Micscape

359

Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

2014-01-01

360

Toward Protein Structure In Situ: Comparison of Two Bifunctional Rhodamine Adducts of Troponin C  

PubMed Central

As part of a program to develop methods for determining protein structure in situ, sTnC was labeled with a bifunctional rhodamine (BR or BSR), cross-linking residues 56 and 63 of its C-helix. NMR spectroscopy of the N-terminal domain of BSR-labeled sTnC in complex with Ca2+ and the troponin I switch peptide (residues 115–131) showed that BSR labeling does not significantly affect the secondary structure of the protein or its dynamics in solution. BR-labeling was previously shown to have no effect on the solution structure of this complex. Isometric force generation in isolated demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle into which BR- or BSR-labeled sTnC had been exchanged showed reduced Ca2+-sensitivity, and this effect was larger with the BSR label. The orientation of rhodamine dipoles with respect to the fiber axis was determined by polarized fluorescence. The mean orientations of the BR and BSR dipoles were almost identical in relaxed muscle, suggesting that both probes accurately report the orientation of the C-helix to which they are attached. The BSR dipole had smaller orientational dispersion, consistent with less flexible linkers between the rhodamine dipole and cysteine-reactive groups. PMID:17483167

Julien, Olivier; Sun, Yin-Biao; Knowles, Andrea C.; Brandmeier, Birgit D.; Dale, Robert E.; Trentham, David R.; Corrie, John E. T.; Sykes, Brian D.; Irving, Malcolm

2007-01-01

361

Bifunctional Crosslinking Agents Enhance Anion Exchange Membrane Efficacy for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.  

PubMed

A series of cross-linked fluorinated poly (aryl ether oxadiazole) membranes (FPAEOM) derivatized with imidazolium groups were prepared. Poly (N-vinylimidazole) (PVI) was used as the bifunctional cross-linking agent to: a) lower vanadium permeability, b) enhance dimensional stability, and c) concomitantly provide added ion exchange capacity in the resultant anion exchange membranes. At a molar ratio of PVI to FPAEOM of 1.5, the resultant membrane (FPAEOM-1.5 PVI) had an ion exchange capacity of 2.2 meq g-1, a vanadium permeability of 6.8×10-7 cm2 min-1, a water uptake of 68 wt.%, and an ionic conductivity of 22.0 mS cm-1, all at 25°C. Single cells prepared with the FPAEOM-1.5 PVI membrane exhibited a higher coulombic efficiency (> 92%) and energy efficiency (> 86%) after 40 test cycles in vanadium redox flow battery. The imidazolium cation showed high chemical stability in highly acidic and oxidizing vanadium solution as opposed to poor stability in alkaline solutions. Based on our DFT studies, this was attributed to the lower HOMO energy (-7.265 eV) of the HSO4- ion (compared to the OH- ion; -5.496 eV) and the larger HOMO-LUMO energy gap (6.394 eV) of dimethylimidazolium bisulfate ([DMIM] [HSO4]) as compared to [DMIM] [OH] (5.387 eV). PMID:24884171

Wang, Wenpin; Xu, Min; Wang, Shubo; Xie, Xiaofeng; Lv, Yafei; Ramani, Vijay K

2014-06-01

362

Bi-functional cross-linking reagents efficiently capture protein-DNA complexes in Drosophila embryos  

PubMed Central

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is widely used for mapping DNA-protein interactions across eukaryotic genomes in cells, tissues or even whole organisms. Critical to this procedure is the efficient cross-linking of chromatin-associated proteins to DNA sequences that are in close proximity. Since the mid-nineties formaldehyde fixation has been the method of choice. However, some protein-DNA complexes cannot be successfully captured for ChIP using formaldehyde. One such formaldehyde refractory complex is the developmentally regulated insulator factor, Elba. Here we describe a new embryo fixation procedure using the bi-functional cross-linking reagents DSG (disuccinimidyl glutarate) and DSP (dithiobis[succinimidyl propionate). We show that unlike standard formaldehyde fixation protocols, it is possible to capture Elba association with insulator elements in 2–5 h embryos using this new cross-linking procedure. We show that this new cross-linking procedure can also be applied to localize nuclear proteins that are amenable to ChIP using standard formaldehyde cross-linking protocols, and that in the cases tested the enrichment was generally superior to that achieved using formaldehyde cross-linking. PMID:24135698

Aoki, Tsutomu; Wolle, Daniel; Preger-Ben Noon, Ella; Dai, Qi; Lai, Eric C; Schedl, Paul

2014-01-01

363

The Golgi localized bifunctional UDP-rhamnose/UDP-galactose transporter family of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall that plays a key role in plant growth, structural integrity, and defense. The cell wall is a complex and diverse structure that is mainly composed of polysaccharides. The majority of noncellulosic cell wall polysaccharides are produced in the Golgi apparatus from nucleotide sugars that are predominantly synthesized in the cytosol. The transport of these nucleotide sugars from the cytosol into the Golgi lumen is a critical process for cell wall biosynthesis and is mediated by a family of nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs). Numerous studies have sought to characterize substrate-specific transport by NSTs; however, the availability of certain substrates and a lack of robust methods have proven problematic. Consequently, we have developed a novel approach that combines reconstitution of NSTs into liposomes and the subsequent assessment of nucleotide sugar uptake by mass spectrometry. To address the limitation of substrate availability, we also developed a two-step reaction for the enzymatic synthesis of UDP–l-rhamnose (Rha) by expressing the two active domains of the Arabidopsis UDP–l-Rha synthase. The liposome approach and the newly synthesized substrates were used to analyze a clade of Arabidopsis NSTs, resulting in the identification and characterization of six bifunctional UDP–l-Rha/UDP–d-galactose (Gal) transporters (URGTs). Further analysis of loss-of-function and overexpression plants for two of these URGTs supported their roles in the transport of UDP–l-Rha and UDP–d-Gal for matrix polysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:25053812

Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Moreno, Ignacio; Temple, Henry; Herter, Thomas; Link, Bruce; Doñas-Cofré, Daniela; Moreno, Adrián; Saéz-Aguayo, Susana; Blanco, Francisca; Mortimer, Jennifer C.; Schultink, Alex; Reiter, Wolf-Dieter; Dupree, Paul; Pauly, Markus; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Scheller, Henrik V.; Orellana, Ariel

2014-01-01

364

Bifunctional Sensing Characteristics of Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesized Atomic-Layered MoS2.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) atomic layers have a strong potential to be adopted for 2D electronic components due to extraordinary and novel properties not available in their bulk foams. Unique properties of the MoS2, including quasi-2D crystallinity, ultrahigh surface-to-volume, and a high absorption coefficient, have enabled high-performance sensor applications. However, implementation of only a single-functional sensor presents a limitation for various advanced multifunctional sensor applications within a single device. Here, we demonstrate the charge-transfer-based sensitive (detection of 120 ppb of NO2) and selective gas-sensing capability of the chemical vapor deposition synthesized MoS2 and good photosensing characteristics, including moderate photoresponsivity (?71 mA/W), reliable photoresponse, and rapid photoswitching (<500 ms). A bifunctional sensor within a single MoS2 device to detect photons and gas molecules in sequence is finally demonstrated, paving a way toward a versatile sensing platform for a futuristic multifunctional sensor. PMID:25575096

Cho, Byungjin; Kim, Ah Ra; Park, Youngjin; Yoon, Jongwon; Lee, Young-Joo; Lee, Sangchul; Yoo, Tae Jin; Kang, Chang Goo; Lee, Byoung Hun; Ko, Heung Cho; Kim, Dong-Ho; Hahm, Myung Gwan

2015-02-01

365

Preparation and characterization of bifunctional Ti-Fe kaolinite composite for Cr(VI) removal.  

PubMed

A novel bifunctional Ti-Fe kaolinite composite with excellent adsorption and photocatalytic properties was synthesized by a simple precipitation method. X-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscope analysis confirmed the existence of rutile phase TiO2 and amorphous iron in the composite. The specific surface area of the Ti-Fe kaolinite composite is 5.5 times higher than that of the original kaolinite. The composite was used as an adsorbent as well as photocatalyst for Cr(VI) removal. The results indicate that the low pH is favorable to the Cr(VI) removal by the composite and the removal rate of Cr(VI) reached 87% at pH 3.0. Visible light irradiation obviously increased the removal of Cr(VI) by the composite and greatly shortened reaction equilibrium time, which may be attributed to the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by TiO2 associated with simultaneous redox cycle of Fe(III)/Fe(II). Various common co-existing ions did not show obvious effects on the removal of Cr(VI) by the composite. The composite exhibited very high stability for the Cr(VI) removal. The adsorption models and thermodynamics of Cr(VI) onto the composite were studied. PMID:25514646

Fida, Hussain; Guo, Sheng; Zhang, Gaoke

2015-03-15

366

Bifunctional isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase: a missing link in the evolution of beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenases comprise 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and homoisocitrate dehydrogenase. They share a high degree of amino acid sequence identity and occupy equivalent positions in the amino acid biosynthetic pathways for leucine, glutamate, and lysine, respectively. Therefore, not only the enzymes but also the whole pathways should have evolved from a common ancestral pathway. In Pyrococcus horikoshii, only one pathway of the three has been identified in the genomic sequence, and PH1722 is the sole beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase gene. The organism does not require leucine, glutamate, or lysine for growth; the single pathway might play multiple (i.e., ancestral) roles in amino acid biosynthesis. The PH1722 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the substrate specificity of the recombinant enzyme was investigated. It exhibited activities on isocitrate and homoisocitrate at near equal efficiency, but not on 3-isopropylmalate. PH1722 is thus a novel, bifunctional beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase, which likely plays a dual role in glutamate and lysine biosynthesis in vivo. PMID:15845397

Miyazaki, Kentaro

2005-05-27

367

Bifunctional Lipocalin Ameliorates Murine Immune Complex-induced Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Molecules that simultaneously inhibit independent or co-dependent proinflammatory pathways may have advantages over conventional monotherapeutics. OmCI is a bifunctional protein derived from blood-feeding ticks that specifically prevents complement (C)-mediated C5 activation and also sequesters leukotriene B4 (LTB4) within an internal binding pocket. Here, we examined the effect of LTB4 binding on OmCI structure and function and investigated the relative importance of C-mediated C5 activation and LTB4 in a mouse model of immune complex-induced acute lung injury (IC-ALI). We describe two crystal structures of bacterially expressed OmCI: one binding a C16 fatty acid and the other binding LTB4 (C20). We show that the C5 and LTB4 binding activities of the molecule are independent of each other and that OmCI is a potent inhibitor of experimental IC-ALI, equally dependent on both C5 inhibition and LTB4 binding for full activity. The data highlight the importance of LTB4 in IC-ALI and activation of C5 by the complement pathway C5 convertase rather than by non-C proteases. The findings suggest that dual inhibition of C5 and LTB4 may be useful for treatment of human immune complex-dependent diseases. PMID:23625922

Roversi, Pietro; Ryffel, Bernhard; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Maillet, Isabelle; Teixeira, Mauro; Ahmat, Nurfilza; Paesen, Guido C.; Lissina, Olga; Boland, Wilhelm; Ploss, Kerstin; Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Leonhartsberger, Susanne; Lea, Susan M.; Nunn, Miles A.

2013-01-01

368

A Surprising Mechanistic “Switch” in Lewis Acid Activation: A Bifunctional, Asymmetric Approach to ?-Hydroxy Acid Derivatives  

PubMed Central

We report a detailed synthetic and mechanistic study of an unusual bifunctional, sequential hetero-Diels–Alder/ring-opening reaction in which chiral, metal complexed ketene enolates react with o-quinones to afford highly enantioenriched, ?-hydroxylated carbonyl derivatives in excellent yield. A number of Lewis acids were screened in tandem with cinchona alkaloid derivatives; surprisingly, trans-(Ph3P)2PdCl2 was found to afford the most dramatic increase in yield and rate of reaction. A series of Lewis acid binding motifs were explored through molecular modeling, as well as IR, UV and NMR spectroscopy. Our observations document a fundamental mechanistic “switch” – namely the formation of a tandem Lewis base/Lewis acid activated metal enolate in preference to a metal-coordinated quinone species (as observed in other reactions of o-quinone derivatives). This new method was applied to the syntheses of several pharmaceutical targets, each of which was obtained in high yield and enantioselectivity. PMID:19053448

Abraham, Ciby J.; Paull, Daniel H.; Bekele, Tefsit; Scerba, Michael T.; Dudding, Travis; Lectka, Thomas

2009-01-01

369

Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase operates in planta as a bifunctional enzyme with chrysanthemol synthase activity.  

PubMed

Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1'-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 ?m. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ?100 ?m, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12-0.16 ?g h(-1) g(-1) fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate. PMID:25378387

Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A

2014-12-26

370

Directed assembly of bifunctional silica-iron oxide nanocomposite with open shell structure.  

PubMed

The synthesis of nanocomposite with controlled surface morphology plays a key role for pollutant removal from aqueous environments. The influence of the molecular size of the polyelectrolyte in synthesizing silica-iron oxide core-shell nanocomposite with open shell structure was investigated by using dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Here, poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was used to promote the attachment of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) onto the silica surface to assemble a nanocomposite with magnetic and catalytic bifunctionality. High molecular weight PDDA tended to adsorb on silica colloid, forming a more extended conformation layer than low molecular weight PDDA. Subsequent attachment of IONPs onto this extended PDDA layer was more randomly distributed, forming isolated islands with open space between them. By taking amoxicillin, an antibiotic commonly found in pharmaceutical waste, as the model system, better removal was observed for silica-iron oxide nanocomposite with a more extended open shell structure. PMID:25198872

Che, Hui Xin; Yeap, Swee Pin; Osman, Mohamed Syazwan; Ahmad, Abdul Latif; Lim, JitKang

2014-10-01

371

Employing bifunctional enzymes for enhanced extraction of bioactives from plants: flavonoids as an example.  

PubMed

A cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach was developed to improve the extraction of active ingredients from plants, in which a bifunctional enzyme was employed for not only facilitating cell wall degradation but also increasing the bioactivity of target compounds in the extract. In the aqueous extraction of flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae radix, Trichoderma viride cellulase, a commercial cell-wall-degrading enzyme, was found to efficiently deglycosylate liquiritin and isoliquiritin, which are of high content but low bioactivity, into their aglycones that have much higher physiological activities for dietary and medicinal uses. Under optimized conditions, the extraction yield of liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin aglycones reached 4.23 and 0.39 mg/g of dry weight (dw) with 6.51- and 3.55-fold increases, respectively. The same approach was expanded to the extraction of flavonoids from Scutellariae radix using Penicillium decumbens naringinase, where enhanced production of more bioactive bacalein and wogonin was achieved via enzymatic deglycosylation of bacalin and wogonoside. PMID:23869387

Xu, Ming-Shu; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Wen-Quan; Liu, Si-Qin

2013-08-21

372

Molecular characterization of bifunctional hydroxymethyldihydropterin pyrophosphokinase-dihydropteroate synthase from Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

A 2118-base pair gene encoding the bifunctional hydroxymethyldihydropterin pyrophosphokinase-dihydropteroate syntheses of Plasmodium falciparum (pfPPPK-DHPS) was expressed under the control of the T5 promoter in a DHPS-deficient Escherichia coli strain. The enzyme was purified to near homogeneity using nickel affinity chromatography followed by gel filtration and migrates as an intense band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with apparent mass of approximately 83 kDa. Gel filtration suggested that the native pfPPPK-DHPS might exist as a tetramer of identical subunits. The enzyme was found to be Mg2+ - and ATP-dependent and had optimal temperature ranging from 37 to 45 degrees C with peak activity at pH 10. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride at 0.2 and 0.4 M, respectively, activated the activity of the enzyme but higher salt concentrations were inhibitory. Guanidine-HCl and urea inhibited the enzyme activity by 50% at 0.25 and 0.9 M, respectively. Kinetic properties of the recombinant pfPPPK-DHPS were investigated. Sulfathiazole and dapsone were potent inhibitors of pfPPPK-DHPS, whilst sulfadoxine, sulfanilamide, sulfacetamide and p-aminosalicylic acid were less inhibitory. Our construct provides an abundant source of recombinant pfPPPK-DHPS for crystallization and drug screening. PMID:15279950

Kasekarn, Waraporn; Sirawaraporn, Rachada; Chahomchuen, Thippayarat; Cowman, Alan F; Sirawaraporn, Worachart

2004-09-01

373

Herinase: a novel bi-functional fibrinolytic protease from the monkey head mushroom, Hericium erinaceum.  

PubMed

Herinase, a new bi-functional fibrinolytic metalloprotease, was purified from a medicinal and edible mushroom Hericium erinaceum. The enzyme was monomeric with a molecular mass of 51 kDa. Analysis of fibrin zymography showed an active band with a similar molecular mass. The N-terminal sequence of herinase VPSSFRTTITDAQLRG was highly distinguished from known fibrinolytic enzymes. Moreover, the enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by EDTA and EGTA, indicating that herinase is a metalloprotease. Herinase exhibited high specificity for the substrate t-PA followed by plasmin. The K(m) and V(max) values for H-D-Ile-Pro-Arg-PNA were found to be 4.7 mg and 26.7 U/ml respectively. Similarly, fibrin plate assays revealed that it was able to degrade fibrin clot directly and also able to activate plasminogen. Herinase provoked a rapid degradation of fibrin and fibrinogen ? chains and slower degradation of ? chains. It had no activity on the ? chains of fibrin and fibrinogen. This result suggests that herinase could possibly contain higher amount of ?-fibrinogenase. The activity of herinase was stimulated by metal ions such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+), but inhibited by Cu(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+). Herinase exhibited maximum activity at 30 °C and pH 7.0. These results demonstrate that herinase could be a novel fibrinolytic enzyme. PMID:23564433

Choi, Bong-Suk; Sapkota, Kumar; Choi, Jun-Hui; Shin, Chang-ho; Kim, Seung; Kim, Sung-Jun

2013-06-01

374

Bifunctional Coupling Agents for Radiolabeling of Biomolecules and Target-Specific Delivery of Metallic Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

Receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals are of great current interest in early molecular imaging and radiotherapy of cancers, and provide a unique tool for target-specific delivery of radionuclides to the diseased tissues. In general, a target-specific radiopharmaceutical can be divided into four parts: targeting biomolecule (BM), pharmacokinetic modifying (PKM) linker, bifunctional coupling or chelating agent (BFC), and radionuclide. The targeting biomolecule serves as a “carrier” for specific delivery of the radionuclide. PKM linkers are used to modify radiotracer excretion kinetics. BFC is needed for radiolabeling of biomolecules with a metallic radionuclide. Different radiometals have significant difference in their coordination chemistry, and require BFCs with different donor atoms and chelator frameworks. Since the radiometal chelate can have a significant impact on physical and biological properties of the target-specific radiopharmaceutical, its excretion kinetics can be altered by modifying the coordination environment with various chelators or coligand, if needed. This review will focus on the design of BFCs and their coordination chemistry with technetium, copper, gallium, indium, yttrium and lanthanide radiometals. PMID:18538888

Liu, Shuang

2008-01-01

375

Bifunctional nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy-based leukemia biomarker detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wilms tumor gene (WT1) is a biomarker overexpressed in more than 90% of acute myeloid leukemia patients. Fast and sensitive detection of the WT1 in blood samples would allow monitoring of the minimal residual disease during clinical remission and would permit early detection of a potential relapse in acute myeloid leukemia. In this work, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) based detection of the WT1 sequence using bifunctional, magnetic core - gold shell nanoparticles is presented. The classical co-precipitation method was applied to generate magnetic nanoparticles which were coated with a gold shell after modification with aminopropyltriethoxy silane and subsequent deposition of gold nanoparticle seeds. Simple hydroquinone based reduction procedure was applied for the shell growing in water based reaction mixture at room temperature. Thiolated ssDNA probes of the WT1 sequence were immobilized as capture oligonucleotides on the gold surface. Malachite green was applied both for testing the amplification performance of the core-shell colloidal SERS substrate and also as label dye of the target DNA sequence. The SERS enhancer efficacy of the core-shell nanomaterial was compared with the efficacy of classical spherical gold particles produced using the conventional citrate reduction method. The core-shell particles were found not only to provide an opportunity for facile separation in a heterogeneous reaction system but also to be superior regarding robustness as SERS enhancers.

Mehn, Dora; Morasso, Carlo; Vanna, Renzo; Schiumarini, Domitilla; Bedoni, Marzia; Ciceri, Fabio; Gramatica, Furio

2014-03-01

376

Smoothelin-like 1 protein is a bifunctional regulator of the progesterone receptor during pregnancy.  

PubMed

During pregnancy, uterine smooth muscle (USM) coordinately adapts its contractile phenotype in order to accommodate the developing fetus and then prepare for delivery. Herein we show that SMTNL1 plays a major role in pregnancy to promote adaptive responses in USM and that this process is specifically mediated through interactions of SMTNL1 with the steroid hormone receptor PR-B. In vitro and in vivo SMTNL1 selectively binds PR and not other steroid hormone receptors. The physiological relationship between the two proteins was also established in global gene expression and transcriptional reporter studies in pregnant smtnl1(-/-) mice and by RNA interference in progesterone-sensitive cell lines. We show that the contraction-associated and progestin-sensitive genes (oxytocin receptor, connexin 43, and cyclooxygenase-2) and prolactins are down-regulated in pregnant smtnl1(-/-) mice. We suggest that SMTNL1 is a bifunctional co-regulator of PR-B signaling and thus provides a molecular mechanism whereby PR-B is targeted to alter gene expression patterns within USM cells to coordinately promote alterations in USM function during pregnancy. PMID:21771785

Bodoor, Khaldon; Lontay, Beata; Safi, Rachid; Weitzel, Douglas H; Loiselle, David; Wei, Zhengzheng; Lengyel, Szabolcs; McDonnell, Donald P; Haystead, Timothy A

2011-09-01

377

Discovery of a bifunctional acyltransferase responsible for ornithine lipid synthesis in Serratia proteamaculans.  

PubMed

Ornithine lipids (OLs) are phosphorus-free membrane lipids that can be formed by many bacteria but that are absent from archaea and eukaryotes. A function for OLs in stress conditions and in host-bacteria interactions has been shown in some bacteria. Some bacterial species have been described that can form OLs, but lack the known genes (olsBA) involved in its biosynthesis, which implied the existence of a second pathway. Here we describe the bifunctional protein OlsF from Serratia proteamaculans involved in OL formation. Expression of OlsF and its homologue from Flavobacterium johnsoniae in Escherichia coli causes OL formation. Deletion of OlsF in S.?proteamaculans caused the absence of OL formation. Homologues of OlsF are widely distributed among ?-, ?- and ?-Proteobacteria and in the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes group of bacteria, including several well-studied pathogens for which the presence of OLs has not been suspected, such as for example Vibrio cholerae and Klebsiella pneumonia. Using genomic data, we predict that about 50% of bacterial species can form OLs. PMID:25040623

Vences-Guzmán, Miguel Ángel; Guan, Ziqiang; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; Bermúdez-Barrientos, José Roberto; Geiger, Otto; Sohlenkamp, Christian

2014-07-15

378

Improvement of L-arginine production by overexpression of a bifunctional ornithine acetyltransferase in Corynebacterium crenatum.  

PubMed

Ornithine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.35; OATase) gene (argJ) from the L-arginine-producing mutant Corynebacterium crenatum SYPA5-5 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Analysis of the argJ sequence revealed that the argJ coded a polypeptide of 388 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 39.7 kDa. In this study, the function of the OATase (argJ) of C. crenatum SYPA5-5 has been identified as a conserved ATML sequence for the autolysis of the protein to ?- and ?-subunits. When the argJ regions corresponding to the ?- and ?-subunits were cloned and expressed separately in E. coli BL21, OATase activities were abolished. At the same time, a functional study revealed that OATase from C. crenatum SYPA5-5 was a bifunctional enzyme with the functions of acetylglutamate synthase (EC 2.3.1.1, NAGS) and acetylornithine deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.16, AOase) activities. In order to investigate the effects of the overexpression of the argJ gene on L: -arginine production, the argJ gene was inserted into pJCtac to yield the recombinant shuttle plasmid pJCtac-argJ and then transformed into C. crenatum SYPA5-5. The results showed that the engineered strains could not only express more OATase (90.9%) but also increase the production of L: -arginine significantly (16.8%). PMID:21785983

Dou, Wenfang; Xu, Meijuan; Cai, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Rao, Zhiming; Xu, Zhenghong

2011-10-01

379

Bi-functional cross-linking reagents efficiently capture protein-DNA complexes in Drosophila embryos.  

PubMed

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is widely used for mapping DNA-protein interactions across eukaryotic genomes in cells, tissues or even whole organisms. Critical to this procedure is the efficient cross-linking of chromatin-associated proteins to DNA sequences that are in close proximity. Since the mid-nineties formaldehyde fixation has been the method of choice. However, some protein-DNA complexes cannot be successfully captured for ChIP using formaldehyde. One such formaldehyde refractory complex is the developmentally regulated insulator factor, Elba. Here we describe a new embryo fixation procedure using the bi-functional cross-linking reagents DSG (disuccinimidyl glutarate) and DSP (dithiobis[succinimidyl propionate). We show that unlike standard formaldehyde fixation protocols, it is possible to capture Elba association with insulator elements in 2-5 h embryos using this new cross-linking procedure. We show that this new cross-linking procedure can also be applied to localize nuclear proteins that are amenable to ChIP using standard formaldehyde cross-linking protocols, and that in the cases tested the enrichment was generally superior to that achieved using formaldehyde cross-linking. PMID:24135698

Aoki, Tsutomu; Wolle, Daniel; Preger-Ben Noon, Ella; Dai, Qi; Lai, Eric C; Schedl, Paul

2014-01-01

380

Platinum-gold nanoparticles: a highly active bifunctional electrocatalyst for rechargeable lithium-air batteries.  

PubMed

PtAu nanoparticles (NPs) were shown to strongly enhance the kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in rechargeable Li-O(2) cells. Li-O(2) cells with PtAu/C were found to exhibit the highest round-trip efficiency reported to date. During ORR via xLi(+) + O(2) + xe(-) --> Li(x)O(2), the discharge voltage with PtAu/C was considerably higher than that of pure carbon and comparable to that of Au/C. During OER via Li(x)O(2) --> xLi(+) + O(2) + xe(-), the charge voltages with PtAu/C fell in the range from 3.4 to 3.8 V(Li), which is slightly lower than obtained with Pt. It is hypothesized that PtAu NPs exhibit bifunctional catalytic activity, having surface Au and Pt atoms primarily responsible for ORR and OER kinetics in Li-O(2) cells, respectively. PMID:20527774

Lu, Yi-Chun; Xu, Zhichuan; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Chen, Shuo; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Shao-Horn, Yang

2010-09-01

381

Label-Free SERS Detection of Small Proteins Modified to Act as Bifunctional Linkers  

PubMed Central

Two double-cysteine mutants of a small protein judiciously modified so that the cysteines appear at axially opposite sides of the native fold were prepared such that different axes were defined in the two mutants. Upon reduction, the disulfide bonds are broken, and the proteins act as bifunctional ligands toward Ag nanoparticles, encouraging their assembly into nanoparticle dimers and small aggregates such that, when excited with laser light, the proteins are automatically located at electromagnetic hot spots within the aggregates. Because the protein molecules are small (~2.3 nm) and because the electromagnetic energy at a hot spot tends to increase as the size of the interparticle gap decreases, this nanoparticle–protein–nanoparticle geometry significantly enhances the Raman emission at the metallic surface. Exploiting this effect, we have recorded surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of the proteins at near-single-molecule level. The observed SERS spectra were dominated by the vibrations of molecular groups near the anchor points of the proteins. PMID:19424458

Pavel, Ioana; McCarney, Evan; Elkhaled, Adam; Morrill, Andrew; Plaxco, Kevin; Moskovits, Martin

2009-01-01

382

Bifunctional (64)Cu-labelled macrobicyclic cage amine isothiocyanates for immuno-positron emission tomography.  

PubMed

New macrobicyclic cage amine or "sarcophagine" (sar) bifunctional chelators have been synthesised that form copper complexes of exceptional in vivo stability and incorporate isothiocyanate (-NCS) functional groups for conjugation to an antibody. The chelators were synthesised from the methyl-capped complex [Mg(II)(CH3)(NH2)sar](2+). Coordination of Mg(II) within the cavity of the cage amine ligand protects the secondary amine atoms from reacting with the -NCS functional groups. Two different [Mg(II)(NCS-sar)](2+) derivatives were conjugated to the HER2/neu-targeting antibody trastuzumab and the progress of the reaction monitored by electrospray mass spectrometry. The Mg(II) ion was removed from the immunoconjugates under mild conditions (0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 6). Labelling of the (CH3)(p-NCS-Ph)sar-trastuzumab conjugate with (64)Cu(II), a radioisotope suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), was fast (?5 min) and easily performed at room temperature with high radiochemical purity (>95%). Biodistribution and PET imaging studies in vivo showed that (64)Cu-labelled (CH3)(p-NCS-Ph)sar-trastuzumab maintained high stability under physiological conditions with high and selective uptake in a HER2-positive cancer cell line. The stability of the copper complex and the 12.7 h half-life of the radioisotope allows clear visualisation of tumours out to 48 h. PMID:25351329

Paterson, Brett M; Buncic, Gojko; McInnes, Lachlan E; Roselt, Peter; Cullinane, Carleen; Binns, David S; Jeffery, Charmaine M; Price, Roger I; Hicks, Rodney J; Donnelly, Paul S

2014-10-29

383

Skeletal isomerization of n-heptane and hydroisomerization of benzene over bifunctional heteropoly compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroisomerization of benzene and skeletal isomerization of n-heptane have been studied using various 2wt.% Pt-promoted solid acids such as Pt–Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 (Pt–Cs2.5), SiO2 supported Pt–Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 (Pt–Cs2.5\\/SiO2), Pt–SO42?\\/ZrO2, Pt–WO3\\/ZrO2, and Pt–H-? zeolite. The catalytic activity for the formation of methylcyclopentane in the hydroisomerization of benzene was in order of Pt–Cs2.5\\/SiO2>Pt–Cs2.5>Pt–WO3\\/ZrO2>Pt–SO42?\\/ZrO2. The highest activity of Pt–Cs2.5\\/SiO2 among these bifunctional catalysts would be due

Atsuyuki Miyaji; Toshio Okuhara

2003-01-01

384

An auto-biotinylated bifunctional protein nanowire for ultra-sensitive molecular biosensing.  

PubMed

In order to obtain an ultra-sensitive molecular biosensor, we designed an auto-biotinylated bifunctional protein nanowire (bFPNw) based on the self-assembly of a yeast amyloid protein, Sup35, to which protein G and a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) were genetically fused. These auto-biotinylated bFPNws can transfer hundreds of commercially available diagnostic enzymes to an antigen-antibody complex via the biotin-avidin system, greatly enhancing the sensitivity of immune-biosensing. Compared to our previously reported seeding-induced bFPNws (Men et al., 2009), these auto-biotinylated bFPNws gave greater signal amplification, reduced non-specific binding and improved stability. The auto-biotinylated self-assembled bFPNw molecular biosensors were applied to detect Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) F1 antigen and showed a 2000- to 4000-fold increase in sensitivity compared to traditional immunoassays, demonstrating the potential use of these self-assembling protein nanowires in biosensing. PMID:20970983

Men, Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Guo, Yong-Chao; Zhu, Duan-Hao; Bi, Li-Jun; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Cui, Zong-Qiang; Wei, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xian-En

2010-12-15

385

Mercury in polar bears from Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Alaskan polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle and liver samples collected in 1972 were analyzed for total mercury. Bears north of Alaska had more mercury than bears west of Alaska. The only difference between young and adult animals was in the northern area where adults had more mercury in liver tissue than young animals. Levels were probably not high enough to be a serious threat to bears.

Lentfer, J.W.; Galster, W.A.

1987-04-01

386

Predation of Svalbard reindeer by polar bears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are believed to be obligate predators on marine mammals, and particularly, on two species of seals. This paper reports on\\u000a observations of polar bears preying (n=7) and scavenging (n=6) on Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhyncus). Similar to their closest evolutionary ancestor, the brown bear (U. arctos), polar bears are opportunistic and will prey on ungulates. Reindeer

Andrew E. Derocher; Øystein Wiig; Georg Bangjord

2000-01-01

387

Bearing fault diagnosis based on rough set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bearing defects were categorized as localized and distributed. For on-line bearing fault diagnosis, in this paper, the time-domain kurtosis calculation and the frequency domain wavelet analysis were used to extract the transitory features of non-stationary vibration signal produced by the bearing distributed defects. To distributed defects, bearing fault diagnosis was built on the reducing decision based on rough set. According

Chen Xin; Yuhua Chen; Guofeng Wang; Hu Dong

2010-01-01

388

Cartridge Bearing System for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional spin axis ball bearings have been unreliable in spacecraft, often failing by two heretofore uncontrolled processes: ball retainer instability and lubricant breakdown. The Space Cartridge Bearing System (SCBS) addresses each of these mechanisms directly, leading to a bearing system with absolute freedom from retainer instability and negligible lubricant degradation rate. The result is a reliable plug-in bearing cartridge with a definite design life.

Kingsbury, Edward P.; Hanson, Robert A.; Jones, William R.; Mohr, Terry W.

1999-01-01

389

49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Suspension System § 229.69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not...than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in contact unless designed to...

2010-10-01

390

49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Suspension System § 229.69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not...than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in contact unless designed to...

2012-10-01

391

Minimizing electric bearing currents in ASD systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, an increase in bearing failures has been seen in ASD-fed electric motors, as well as in gearboxes, and other connected machinery, caused by electric current flow through such bearings. The theories presented in this paper focus on bearing currents in ASDs of the voltage source pulse width modulated (PWM) type, for use with AC induction motors, although

P. J. Link

1999-01-01

392

Bearing Wear in Large Thermal Gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents results of study of bearing distress resulting from malfunction of spring-preloading arrangements. Study examined effect of thermal growth on wear depth of bearing. Report considers bearing-failure modes, relationships between growth and wear, maximum stresses as function of load, and effect of thermal growth on spring-load deflections.

Kannel, J. W.

1984-01-01

393

Induction Motors Bearing Failures Detection and Diagnosis  

E-print Network

331 1 Induction Motors Bearing Failures Detection and Diagnosis Using a RBF ANN Park Pattern Based Method I. Y. Ã?nel, I. enol and M. E. H. Benbouzid Abstract--This paper deals with the problem of bearing detection and diagnosis process. Experimental tests with artificial bearing damages results show

Boyer, Edmond

394

Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

O'Connell, Jean

2011-01-01

395

36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236 Section 13...Brooks Camp Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an...

2012-07-01

396

36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236 Section 13...Brooks Camp Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an...

2014-07-01

397

36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236 Section 13...Brooks Camp Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an...

2010-07-01

398

36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236 Section 13...Brooks Camp Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an...

2011-07-01

399

Bear Gulch: An Exceptional Upper Carboniferous Plattenkalk  

E-print Network

9 Bear Gulch: An Exceptional Upper Carboniferous Plattenkalk James W. Hagadorn T he upper mississippian bear gulch beds of central Montana constitute one of the lesser-known conservation Lager- stätten in this deposit. The Bear Gulch Beds are a lensoidal unit of fine-grained limestone, or Plattenkalk, very similar

Hagadorn, Whitey

400

Philanthropy fuels Cal's future Bears without borders  

E-print Network

Philanthropy fuels Cal's future Bears without borders Hope for Japan BerkeleyThePromiseof S p r i n: Philanthropy fuels Cal's future 9 Bears without borders: Berkeley's impact around the world Cal Campus to Cal 29 Making Connections 32 Bear Perspective Around the world at Berkeley #12;Around Cal Milestone

Kammen, Daniel M.

401

36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236 Section 13...Brooks Camp Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an...

2013-07-01

402

THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH. Hudson Beare Building.  

E-print Network

THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH. Hudson Beare Building. (King's Buildings). A GUIDE TO ACCESS AND FACILITIES. Address: Hudson Beare Building, King's Buildings, Edinburgh, E,H,9 3,J,F. Telephone number: 0131 650 5687. Campus map link: http://www.ed.ac.uk/maps/buildings/hudson-beare-building #12;Page 1

Edinburgh, University of

403

Hydrology of the Bear Lake Basin, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bear Lake’s natural watershed is made up of relatively low mountains covered with sagebrush at lower elevations and southern exposures and fir-aspen forests at higher elevations and northern exposures. The basin is traversed by the Bear River that begins high in the Unita Mountains and flows through Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming before feeding the Great Salt Lake. The Bear River

Patsy Palacios; Chris Luecke; Justin Robinson

2007-01-01

404

Bearing diagnosis based on Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram-Schmidt method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology is developed for defect type identification in rolling element bearings using the integrated Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram-Schmidt (MTGS) method. Vibration data recorded from bearings with seeded defects on outer race, inner race and balls are processed in time, frequency, and time-frequency domains. Eleven damage identification parameters (RMS, Peak, Crest Factor, and Kurtosis in time domain, amplitude of outer race, inner race, and ball defect frequencies in FFT spectrum and HFRT spectrum in frequency domain and peak of HHT spectrum in time-frequency domain) are computed. Using MTGS, these damage identification parameters (DIPs) are fused into a single DIP, Mahalanobis distance (MD), and gain values for the presence of all DIPs are calculated. The gain value is used to identify the usefulness of DIP and the DIPs with positive gain are again fused into MD by using Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization process (GSP) in order to calculate Gram-Schmidt Vectors (GSVs). Among the remaining DIPs, sign of GSVs of frequency domain DIPs is checked to classify the probable defect. The approach uses MTGS method for combining the damage parameters and in conjunction with the GSV classifies the defect. A Defect Occurrence Index (DOI) is proposed to rank the probability of existence of a type of bearing damage (ball defect/inner race defect/outer race defect/other anomalies). The methodology is successfully validated on vibration data from a different machine, bearing type and shape/configuration of the defect. The proposed methodology is also applied on the vibration data acquired from the accelerated life test on the bearings, which established the applicability of the method on naturally induced and naturally progressed defect. It is observed that the methodology successfully identifies the correct type of bearing defect. The proposed methodology is also useful in identifying the time of initiation of a defect and has potential for implementation in a real time environment.

Shakya, Piyush; Kulkarni, Makarand S.; Darpe, Ashish K.

2015-02-01

405

White-etching matter in bearing steel Part 2: Distinguishing cause and eect in bearing steel  

E-print Network

White-etching matter in bearing steel Part 2: Distinguishing cause and eect in bearing steel of Cambridge, U.K Abstract The premature failure of large bearings of the type used in wind turbines, possibly as reported observations on real bearings. Evidence suggests that the formation mechanism of the white

Cambridge, University of

406

Bear Necessities: Myrmecophagy by grizzly bears in north-central British Columbia.  

E-print Network

Bear Necessities: Myrmecophagy by grizzly bears in north-central British Columbia. B. Staffan George, BC, Canada 2University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Introduction ·The grizzly bear (Ursus Grizzly Bear Habitat Inventory Project (http://web.unbc.ca/parsnip-grizzly/), an ambitious multi

Lindgren, Staffan

407

Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings  

DOEpatents

A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

1995-12-26

408

Rolling element bearings in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the advances in tribology that have been associated with aerospace mechanisms are discussed. The needs of aerospace have been the dominant forces leading to improvements in understanding and applying tribology technology. In the past two decades improvements in understanding bearing torque, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, lubricant distribution, cage stability, and transfer film lubricants have been made. It is anticipated that further developments will be made in response to future aerospace requirements.

Kannel, J. W.; Dufrane, K. F.

1986-01-01

409

RUBBER BEARINGS FOR DOWNHOLE PUMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis of project activity: 1998--Awarded cost share grant from DOE. 1st Qtr 1999--Developed fail safe lubricating system. 2nd Qtr 1999--Performed first large scale test with nitrile based bearings. It failed due to material swelling. Failure was blamed on improper tolerance. 3rd Qtr 1999--Material tests were performed with autoclaves and exposure tests to Casa Diablo fluids. Testing of Viton materials began.

Bob Sullivan Mammoth Pacific

2005-01-01

410

Polar Bears International: Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

411

Polar Bears International : Wrangel Island, Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the ongoing research of the polar bears in the Russian High Arctic. Wrangel Island with neighboring small island, Herald Island, are the key reproductive areas for the Chukchi-Alaskan polar bear population. Marine areas and Wrangel and Herald islands provide optimum foraging habitats for polar bears, and polar bear densities in these marine habitats are high all year round. Approximately 350-500 pregnant female polar bears construct their maternity dens on Wrangel and Herald islands every fall, emerging with their cubs in spring. The research is described in terms of goals and objectives, structure, methods, equipment, staff, and implementations.

2007-12-12

412

Analytical and experimental investigations of hybrid air foil bearings  

E-print Network

Air foil bearings offer several advantages over oil-lubricated bearings in high speed micro-turbomachinery. With no contact between the rotor and bearings, the air foil bearings have higher service life and consequently lesser standstills between...

Kumar, Manish

2009-05-15

413

Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.  

PubMed

Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof Islands (ABC Islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC Islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC Islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25490862

Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

2014-12-01

414

Lubrication for high load duplex bearings  

SciTech Connect

Three ES and H-compatible lubricants (Environment, Safety and Health) for high load duplex bearing applications were evaluated and compared against trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Bearings with Supercritical CO{sub 2} deposition of PTFE extracted from Vydax AR/IPA, bearings with titanium carbide coated balls, and bearings with diamond-like carbon races and retainers were evaluated. Bearings with Supercritical CO{sub 2} deposition of PTFE from Vydax AR/IPA performed as well as bearings with Freon deposition of PTFE from Freon-based Vydax.

Steinhoff, R.G.

1997-08-01

415

Determination of ball bearing dynamic stiffness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic radial stiffness characteristics of rolling element bearings are currently determined by analytical methods that have not been experimentally verified. These bearing data are vital to rotating machinery design integrity because accurate critical speeds and rotor stability predictions are highly dependent on the bearing stiffness. A tester was designed capable of controlling the bearing axial preload, speed, and rotor unbalance. The rotor and support structures were constructed to permit critical speeds that are predominantly determined by a 57 mm test bearing. A curve of calculated critical speed versus stiffness was used to determine the actual bearing stiffness from the empirical data. The results of extensive testing are used to verify analytical predictions, increase confidence in existing bearing computer programs, and to serve as a data base for efforts to correct these programs.

Beatty, R. F.; Rowan, B. F.

1982-01-01

416

Wave Journal Bearings Under Dynamic Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic behavior of the wave journal bearing was determined by running a three-wave bearing with an eccentrically mounted shaft. A transient analysis was developed and used to predict numerical data for the experimental cases. The three-wave journal bearing ran stably under dynamic loads with orbits well inside the bearing clearance. The orbits were almost circular and nearly free of the influence of, but dynamically dependent on, bearing wave shape. Experimental observations for both the absolute bearing-housing-center orbits and the relative bearing-housing-center-to-shaft-center orbits agreed well with the predictions. Moreover, the subsynchronous whirl motion generated by the fluid film was found experimentally and predicted theoretically for certain speeds.

Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin

2002-01-01

417

Design review of fluid film bearing testers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The designs of three existing testers (Hybrid Bearing Tester, OTV Bearing Tester, and Long Life Bearing Tester) owned by NASA were reviewed for their capability to serve as a multi-purpose cryogenic fluid film bearing tester. The primary tester function is the validation of analytical predictions for fluid film bearing steady state and dynamic performance. Evaluation criteria were established for test bearing configurations, test fluids, instrumentation, and test objectives. Each tester was evaluated with respect to these criteria. A determination was made of design improvements which would allow the testers to meet the stated criteria. The cost and time required to make the design changes were estimated. A recommendation based on the results of this study was made to proceed with the Hybrid Bearing Tester.

Scharrer, Joseph K.

1993-01-01

418

Life of Pennzane and 815Z-Lubricated Instrument Bearings Cleaned with Non-CFC Solvents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report takes the form of two papers: (1) "Life of Pennzane and 815Z-Lubricated Instrument Bearings cleaned with Non-CFC Solvents" and (2) a published paper, entitled "Instrument bearing life with NON-CFC cleaners". Abstract for paper # 1 : Bearings used in spacecraft mechanisms have historically been cleaned with chlorofluorocarbon CFC-1 13 (Freon) solvents and lubricated with a perfluorinated polyalkylether (PFPE) oils like 815-Z. Little full-scale bearing life test data exists to evaluate the effects of the newer class environmental-friendly bearing cleaners or improved synthetic hydrocarbon space oils like Pennzane. To address the lack of data, a cooperative, bearing life test program was initiated between NASA, Lockheed Martin and MPB. The objective was to obtain comparative long-term, life test data for flight-quality bearings, cleaned with non-CFC solvents versus CFC-1 13 under flight-like conditions with two space oils. A goal was to gain a better understanding of the lubricant surface chemistry effects with such solvents. A second objective was to obtain well-controlled, full-scale bearing life test data with a relatively new synthetic oil (Pennzane), touted as an improvement to Bray 815Z, an oil with considerable space flight history. The second paper, which serves as an attachment, is abstracted below: Bearings used in spacecraft mechanisms have historically been cleaned with chlorofluorocarbon CFC-113 (Freon) solvents and lubricated with a perfluorinated polyalkylether (PFPE) oils like 815-Z. Little full-scale bearing life test data exists to evaluate the effects of the newer class environmental-friendly bearing cleaners or improved synthetic hydrocarbon space oils like Pennzane. To address the lack of data, a cooperative, bearing life test program was initiated between NASA, Lockheed Martin and MPB. The objective was to obtain comparative long-term, life test data for flight-quality bearings, cleaned with non-CFC solvents versus CFC-1 13 under flight-like conditions with two space oils. A goal was to gain a better understanding of the lubricant surface chemistry effects with such solvents. A second objective was to obtain well-controlled, full-scale bearing life test data with a relatively new synthetic oil (Pennzane), touted as an improvement to Bray 815Z, an oil with considerable space flight history.

Loewenthal, Stuart; Jones, William; Predmore, Roamer

1999-01-01

419

Long range radio tracking of sea turtles and polar bear: Instrumentation and preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation developed for studies of path behavior of the green sea turtle and migration movement of polar bear is described. Preliminary results bearing on navigation ability in these species are presented. Both species operate in difficult environments, and the problems faced in the design of electronic instrumentation for these studies are not completely specified at this time. However, the critical factors yet to be understood are primarily related to the behavior of instrumented animals. The data obtained with these experimental techniques are included, first to illustrate the technique and, second to provide initial preliminary results bearing on animal navigation.

Baldwin, H. A.

1972-01-01

420

Operating characteristics of 120-millimeter-bore ball bearings at 3 million DN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric study was performed with split inner-race 120-mm-bore angular-contact ball bearings at a speed of 25,000 rpm (3 million DN) at initial contact angles of 20 deg and 24 deg. Provisions were made for outer- and inner-race cooling and for injection of lubricant into the bearing through a number of radial holes in the split inner-race of the bearing. Oil flow and coolant rate to the bearing was controlled and varied for a total up to approximately 3.2 gal/min. Bearing temperature was found to decrease as the total lubricant flow to the bearing increased. However, at intermediate flow rates temperature began to increase with increasing flow. Power consumption increased with increasing flow rate. Bearing operating temperature, differences in temperatures between the inner and outer races, and bearing power consumption can be tuned to any desirable operating requirement. Cage speed increased by not more than 2 percent with increasing oil flow to the inner race.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.; Signer, H.

1974-01-01

421

Post-den emergence behavior of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Northern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We observed polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternity den sites on Alaska's North Slope in March 2002 and 2003 in an effort to describe bears' post-den emergence behavior. During 40 sessions spanning 459 h, we observed 8 adults and 14 dependent cubs outside dens for 37.5 h (8.2% of total observation time). There was no significant difference between den emergence dates in 2002 (mean = 15 Mar ?? 4.1 d) and 2003 (mean = 21 Mar ?? 2.1 d). Following initial den breakout, polar bears remained at their den sites for 1.5 to 14 days (mean = 8.1 ?? 5.1 d). The average length of stay in dens between emergent periods was significantly shorter in 2002 (1.79 h) than in 2003 (4.82 h). While outside, adult bears were inactive 49.5% of the time, whereas cubs were inactive 13.4% of the time. We found no significant relationships between den emergence activity and weather. Adult polar bears at den sites subjected to industrial activity exhibited significantly fewer bouts of vigilance than denned bears in undisturbed areas (t = -5.5164, df = 4, p = 0.00). However, the duration of vigilance behaviors at sites near industrial activity was not significantly shorter than at the other sites studied (t = -1.8902, df = 4, p = 0.07). Results for these bears were within the range of findings in other studies of denned polar bears. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

Smith, T.S.; Partridge, S.T.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Schliebe, S.

2007-01-01

422

Test of a habitat suitability index for black bears in the southern Appalachians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a habitat suitability index (HSI) model for black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the southern Appalachians that was developed a priori from the literature, then tested using location and home range data collected in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, North Carolina, over a 12-year period. The HSI was developed and initially tested using habitat and bear data collected over 2 years in the sanctuary. We increased number of habitat sampling sites, included data collected in areas affected by timber harvest, used more recent Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to create a more accurate depiction of the HSI for the sanctuary, evaluated effects of input variability on HSI values, and duplicated the original tests using more data. We found that the HSI predicted habitat selection by bears on population and individual levels and the distribution of collared bears were positively correlated with HSI values. We found a stronger relationship between habitat selection by bears and a second-generation HSI. We evaluated our model with criteria suggested by Roloff and Kernohan (1999) for evaluating HSI model reliability and concluded that our model was reliable and robust. The model's strength is that it was developed as an a priori hypothesis directly modeling the relationship between critical resources and fitness of bears and tested with independent data. We present the HSI spatially as a continuous fitness surface where potential contribution of habitat to the fitness of a bear is depicted at each point in space.

Mitchell, M.S.; Zimmerman, J.W.; Powell, R.A.

2002-01-01

423

Identifying Bearing Rotodynamic Coefficients Using an Extended Kalman Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Extended Kalman Filter is developed to estimate the linearized direct and indirect stiffness and damping force coefficients for bearings in rotor dynamic applications from noisy measurements of the shaft displacement in response to imbalance and impact excitation. The bearing properties are modeled as stochastic random variables using a Gauss-Markov model. Noise terms are introduced into the system model to account for all of the estimation error, including modeling errors and uncertainties and the propagation of measurement errors into the parameter estimates. The system model contains two user-defined parameters that can be tuned to improve the filter's performance; these parameters correspond to the covariance of the system and measurement noise variables. The filter is also strongly influenced by the initial values of the states and the error covariance matrix. The filter is demonstrated using numerically simulated data for a rotor bearing system with two identical bearings, which reduces the number of unknown linear dynamic coefficients to eight. The filter estimates for the direct damping coefficients and all four stiffness coefficients correlated well with actual values, whereas the estimates for the cross-coupled damping coefficients were the least accurate.

Miller, Brad A.; Howard, Samuel A.

2008-01-01

424

Identifying Bearing Rotordynamic Coefficients using an Extended Kalman Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Extended Kalman Filter is developed to estimate the linearized direct and indirect stiffness and damping force coefficients for bearings in rotor-dynamic applications from noisy measurements of the shaft displacement in response to imbalance and impact excitation. The bearing properties are modeled as stochastic random variables using a Gauss-Markov model. Noise terms are introduced into the system model to account for all of the estimation error, including modeling errors and uncertainties and the propagation of measurement errors into the parameter estimates. The system model contains two user-defined parameters that can be tuned to improve the filter s performance; these parameters correspond to the covariance of the system and measurement noise variables. The filter is also strongly influenced by the initial values of the states and the error covariance matrix. The filter is demonstrated using numerically simulated data for a rotor-bearing system with two identical bearings, which reduces the number of unknown linear dynamic coefficients to eight. The filter estimates for the direct damping coefficients and all four stiffness coefficients correlated well with actual values, whereas the estimates for the cross-coupled damping coefficients were the least accurate.

Miller, Bard A.; Howard, Samuel A.

2008-01-01

425

Comparison of the Antinociceptive and Antirewarding Profiles of Novel Bifunctional Nociceptin Receptor/?-Opioid Receptor Ligands: Implications for Therapeutic Applications  

PubMed Central

The nociceptin receptor (NOPr), a member of the opioid receptor family, is a target for the treatment of pain and drug abuse. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous peptide for NOPr, not only modulates opioid antinociception, but also blocks the rewarding effects of several abused drugs, such as morphine, cocaine, and amphetamine. We hypothesized that NOPr agonists, with bifunctional activity at the ?-opioid receptor (MOPr), may function as nonaddicting analgesics or as drug abuse medications. Bifunctional small-molecule NOPr agonists possessing different selectivities and efficacies at MOPr were evaluated in an acute thermal antinociception assay, and for their ability to induce conditioned place preference (CPP) and their effect on morphine-induced CPP. 1-(1-Cyclooctylpiperidin-4-yl)-indolin-2-one) (SR14150), a high-affinity NOPr partial agonist, with low MOPr affinity and efficacy, produced analgesia that was naloxone-reversible. SR14150 did not induce CPP alone, nor did it attenuate morphine-induced CPP. 3-Ethyl-1-(1-(4-isopropylcyclohexyl)piperidin-4-yl)-indolin-2-one (SR16507), which has high affinity for both NOPr and MOPr, full agonist activity at NOPr, and partial agonist activity at MOPr, was also a potent analgesic and produced CPP alone, but also modestly attenuated morphine CPP. 1-(1-(2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)piperidinl-4-yl)-indolin-2-one (SR16835), a NOPr full agonist and low-affinity MOPr partial agonist, was not antinociceptive, did not produce CPP alone, but attenuated morphine CPP. Our results suggest that NOPr full-agonist activity is required to modulate opioid-induced reward, whereas a bifunctional NOPr/MOPr partial agonist profile may be suitable as a nonaddicting analgesic. The opioid-modulating effects of the NOPr ligands may be used effectively to produce better medications for treatment of drug abuse and pain. PMID:19773529

Toll, Lawrence; Khroyan, Taline V.; Polgar, Willma E.; Jiang, Faming; Olsen, Cris

2009-01-01

426

Structural basis for hypermodification of the wobble uridine in tRNA by bifunctional enzyme MnmC  

PubMed Central

Background Methylaminomethyl modification of uridine or 2-thiouridine (mnm5U34 or mnm5s2U34) at the wobble position of tRNAs specific for glutamate, lysine and arginine are observed in Escherichia coli and allow for specific recognition of codons ending in A or G. In the biosynthetic pathway responsible for this post-transcriptional modification, the bifunctional enzyme MnmC catalyzes the conversion of its hypermodified substrate carboxymethylaminomethyl uridine (cmnm5U34) to mnm5U34. MnmC catalyzes the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidative cleavage of carboxymethyl group from cmnm5U34 via an imine intermediate to generate aminomethyl uridine (nm5U34), which is subsequently methylated by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to yield methylaminomethyl uridine (mnm5U34). Results The X-ray crystal structures of SAM/FAD-bound bifunctional MnmC from Escherichia coli and Yersinia pestis, and FAD-bound bifunctional MnmC from Yersinia pestis were determined and the catalytic functions verified in an in vitro assay. Conclusion The crystal structures of MnmC from two Gram negative bacteria reveal the overall architecture of the enzyme and the relative disposition of the two independent catalytic domains: a Rossmann-fold domain containing the SAM binding site and an FAD containing domain structurally homologous to glycine oxidase from Bacillus subtilis. The structures of MnmC also reveal the detailed atomic interactions at the interdomain interface and provide spatial restraints relevant to the overall catalytic mechanism. PMID:23617613

2013-01-01

427

The Use of Glass Substrates with Bi-Functional Silanes for Designing Micropatterned Cell-Secreted Cytokine Immunoassays  

PubMed Central

It is often desirable to sequester cells in specific locations on the surface and to integrate sensing elements next to the cells. In the present study, surfaces were fabricated so as to position cytokine sensing domains inside non-fouling poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microwells. Our aim was to increase sensitivity of micropatterned cytokine immunoassays through covalent attachment of biorecognition molecules. To achieve this, glass substrates were functionalized with a binary mixture of acrylate- and thiol-terminated methoxysilanes. During subsequent hydrogel photopatterning step acrylate moieties served to anchor hydrogel microwells to glass substrates. Importantly, glass attachment sites within the microwells contained thiol groups that could be activated with a hetero-bifunctional cross-linker for covalent immobilization of proteins. After incubation with fluorescently-labeled avidin, microwells fabricated on a mixed acryl/thiol silane layer emitted ~6 times more fluorescence compared to microwells fabricated on an acryl silane alone. This result highlighted the advantages of covalent attachment of avidin inside the microwells. To create cytokine immunoassays, micropatterned surfaces were incubated with biotinylated IFN-? or TNF-? antibodies (Abs). Micropatterned immunoassays prepared in this manner were sensitive down to 1 ng/ml or 60 pM IFN-?. To further prove utility of this bionterface design, macrophages were seeded into 30 µm diameter microwells fabricated on either bi-functional (acryl/thiol) or monofunctional silane layers. Both types of microwells were coated with avidin and biotin-anti-TNF-? prior to cell seeding. Short mitogenic activation followed by immunostaining for TNF-? revealed that microwells created on bi-functional silane layer had 3 times higher signal due to macrophage-secreted TNF-? compared to microwells fabricated on mono-functional silane. The rational design of cytokine-sensing surfaces described here will be leveraged in the future for rapid detection of multiple cytokines secreted by individual immune cells. PMID:21550110

Seo, Jeong Hyun; Chen, Li-Jung; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Schweikert, Emile A.; Revzin, Alexander

2011-01-01

428

Modeling of rolling element bearing mechanics. Computer program user's manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides the user's manual for the Rolling Element Bearing Analysis System (REBANS) analysis code which determines the quasistatic response to external loads or displacement of three types of high-speed rolling element bearings: angular contact ball bearings, duplex angular contact ball bearings, and cylindrical roller bearings. The model includes the defects of bearing ring and support structure flexibility. It

Lyn M. Greenhill; David H. Merchant

1994-01-01

429

Modeling of rolling element bearing mechanics. Theoretical manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the theoretical basis for the Rolling Element Bearing Analysis System (REBANS) analysis code which determines the quasistatic response to external loads or displacement of three types of high-speed rolling element bearings: angular contact ball bearings; duplex angular contact ball bearings; and cylindrical roller bearings. The model includes the effects of bearing ring and support structure flexibility. It

David H. Merchant; Lyn M. Greenhill

1994-01-01

430

Function and Localization Dynamics of Bifunctional Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Caulobacter crescentus  

PubMed Central

The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is a complex macromolecule composed of glycan strands that are cross-linked by short peptide bridges. Its biosynthesis involves a conserved group of enzymes, the bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins (bPBPs), which contain both a transglycosylase and a transpeptidase domain, thus being able to elongate the glycan strands and, at the same time, generate the peptide cross-links. The stalked model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus possesses five bPBP paralogs, named Pbp1A, PbpC, PbpX, PbpY, and PbpZ, whose function is still incompletely understood. In this study, we show that any of these proteins except for PbpZ is sufficient for growth and normal morphogenesis when expressed at native or elevated levels, whereas inactivation of all five paralogs is lethal. Growth analyses indicate a central role of PbpX in the resistance of C. crescentus against the noncanonical amino acid d-alanine. Moreover, we show that PbpX and PbpY localize to the cell division site. Their recruitment to the divisome is dependent on the essential cell division protein FtsN and likely involves interactions with FtsL and the putative peptidoglycan hydrolase DipM. The same interaction pattern is observed for Pbp1A and PbpC, although these proteins do not accumulate at midcell. Our findings demonstrate that the bPBPs of C. crescentus are, to a large extent, redundant and have retained the ability to interact with the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machineries responsible for cell elongation, cytokinesis, and stalk growth. Nevertheless, they may preferentially act in specific peptidoglycan biosynthetic complexes, thereby facilitating the independent regulation of distinct growth processes. PMID:24532768

Strobel, Wolfgang; Möll, Andrea; Kiekebusch, Daniela; Klein, Kathrin E.

2014-01-01

431

Enhancement of bacterial mutagenicity of bifunctional alkylating agents by expression of mammalian glutathione S-transferase.  

PubMed

Recently, we inserted the plasmid vector pKK233-2 containing rat GSH S-transferase (GST) 5-5 cDNA into Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and found that these bacteria [GST 5-5(+)] expressed the protein and produced mutations when ethylene or methylene dihalides were added [Thier, R., Taylor, J. B., Pemble, S. E., Ketterer, B., Persmark, M., Humphreys, W. G., and Guengerich, F. P. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 8576-8580]. After exposure to the known GST 5-5 substrate 1,2-epoxy-3-(4'-nitrophenoxy)propane, the GST 5-5(+) strain showed fewer mutants than the bacteria transfected with the cDNA clone in a reverse orientation [GST 5-5(-)], suggesting a protective role of GST 5-5. However, mutations were considerably enhanced in the GST 5-5(+) strain [as compared to GST 5-5(-)] when 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (butadiene diepoxide) or 1,2-epoxy-4-bromobutane was added. The GST 5-5(+) and GST 5-5(-) bacterial stains showed similar responses to 1,2-epoxypropane, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene, and 1,4-dibromobutane. The results suggest that some bifunctional activated butanes are transformed to mutagenic products through GSH conjugation. We also found that the GST 5-5(+) strain showed enhanced mutagenicity with 1,4-dibromo-2,3-epoxybutane, 1,2-epoxy-3-bromopropane (epibromohydrin), and (+/-)-1,4-dibromo-2,3-dihydroxybutane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7578934

Thier, R; Müller, M; Taylor, J B; Pemble, S E; Ketterer, B; Guengerich, F P

1995-01-01

432

Domain Organization in Candida glabrata THI6, a Bifunctional Enzyme Required for Thiamin Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes  

SciTech Connect

THI6 is a bifunctional enzyme found in the thiamin biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of THI6 catalyzes the ligation of the thiamin thiazole and pyrimidine moieties to form thiamin phosphate, and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the phosphorylation of 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole in a salvage pathway. In prokaryotes, thiamin phosphate synthase and 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase are separate gene products. Here we report the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic THI6 along with several complexes that characterize the active sites responsible for the two chemical reactions. THI6 from Candida glabrata is a homohexamer in which the six protomers form a cage-like structure. Each protomer is composed of two domains, which are structurally homologous to their monofunctional bacterial counterparts. Two loop regions not found in the bacterial enzymes provide interactions between the two domains. The structures of different protein-ligand complexes define the thiazole and ATP binding sites of the 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase domain and the thiazole phosphate and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine pyrophosphate binding sites of the thiamin phosphate synthase domain. Our structural studies reveal that the active sites of the two domains are 40 {angstrom} apart and are not connected by an obvious channel. Biochemical studies show 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate is a substrate for THI6; however, adenosine diphospho-5{beta}-ethyl-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid, the product of THI4, is not a substrate for THI6. This suggests that an unidentified enzyme is necessary to produce the substrate for THI6 from the THI4 product.

Paul, Debamita; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (TAM)

2010-11-15

433

Domain Organization in Candida glabrata THI6, a Bifunctional Enzyme Required for Thiamin Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes†||‡  

PubMed Central

THI6 is a bifunctional enzyme found in the thiamin biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of THI6 catalyzes the ligation of the thiamin thiazole and pyrimidine moieties to form thiamin phosphate and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the phosphorylation of 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole in a salvage pathway. In prokaryotes, thiamin phosphate synthase and 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase are separate gene products. Here we report the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic THI6 along with several complexes that characterize the active sites responsible for the two chemical reactions. THI6 from Candida glabrata is a homohexamer in which the six protomers form a cage-like structure. Each protomer is composed of two domains, which are structurally homologous to their monofunctional bacterial counterparts. Two loop regions not found in the bacterial enzymes provide interactions between the two domains. The structures of different protein-ligand complexes define the thiazole and ATP binding sites of the 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase domain, and the thiazole phosphate and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine pyrophosphate binding sites of the thiamin phosphate synthase domain. Our structural studies reveal that the active sites of the two domains are 40 Å apart and are not connected by an obvious channel. Biochemical studies show 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate is a substrate for THI6; however, adenosine diphospho-5-?-ethyl-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid, the product of THI4, is not a substrate for THI6. This suggests that unidentified enzyme is necessary to produce the substrate for THI6 from the THI4 product. PMID:20968298

Paul, Debamita; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

2010-01-01

434

Mitochondrial NM23-H4/NDPK-D: a bifunctional nanoswitch for bioenergetics and lipid signaling.  

PubMed

A novel paradigm for the function of the mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase NM23-H4/NDPK-D is proposed: acting as a bifunctional nanoswitch in bioenergetics and cardiolipin (CL) trafficking and signaling. Similar to some other mitochondrial proteins like cytochrome c or AIF, NM23-H4 seems to have dual functions in bioenergetics and apoptotic signaling. In its bioenergetic phosphotransfer mode, the kinase reversibly phosphorylates NDPs into NTPs, driven by mitochondrially generated ATP. Among others, this reaction can locally supply GTP to mitochondrial GTPases as shown for the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1, found in a complex together with NM23-H4. Further, NM23-H4 is functionally coupled to adenylate translocase (ANT) of the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM), so generated ADP can stimulate respiration to rapidly regenerate ATP. The lipid transfer mode of NM23-H4 can support, dependent on the presence of CL, the transfer of anionic lipids between membranes in vitro and the sorting of CL from its mitochondrial sites of synthesis (MIM) to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) in vivo. Such (partial) collapse of MIM/MOM CL asymmetry results in CL externalization on the mitochondrial surface, where CL can serve as pro-apoptotic or pro-mitophagic "eat me"-signal. The functional state of NM23-H4 depends on its degree of CL-membrane interaction. In vitro assays have shown that only NM23-H4 that fully cross-links two membranes is lipid transfer competent, but at the same time phosphotransfer (kinase) inactive. Thus, the two functions of NM23-H4 seem to be mutually exclusive. This novel mitochondrial regulatory circuit has potential for the development of interventions in various human pathologies. PMID:25231795

Schlattner, Uwe; Tokarska-Schlattner, Malgorzata; Epand, Richard M; Boissan, Mathieu; Lacombe, Marie-Lise; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kagan, Valerian E

2014-09-18

435

A Phase I Study of DMS612, a Novel Bi-functional Alkylating Agent.  

PubMed

Purpose: DMS612 is a dimethane sulfonate analog with bifunctional alkylating activity and preferential cytotoxicity to human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the NCI-60 cell panel. This first-in-human phase I study aimed to determine dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of DMS612 administered by 10-min intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. Experimental Design: Patients with advanced solid malignancies were eligible. Enrollment followed a 3+3 design. Pharmacokinetics of DMS612 and metabolites were assessed by mass spectroscopy and pharmacodynamics by ?-H2AX immunofluorescence. Results: A total of 31 patients with colorectal (11), RCC (4), cervical (2), and urothelial (1) cancers were enrolled. Six dose levels were studied, from 1.5 mg/m2 to 12 mg/m2. DLTs of grade 4 neutropenia and prolonged grade 3 thrombocytopenia were observed at 12 mg/m2. The MTD was determined to be 9 mg/m2 with a single DLT of grade 4 thrombocytopenia in 1 of 12 patients. Two patients had a confirmed partial response at the 9 mg/m2 dose level, in renal (1) and cervical (1) cancer. DMS612 was rapidly converted into active metabolites. ?-H2AX immunofluorescence revealed dose-dependent DNA damage in both peripheral blood lymphocytes and scalp hairs. Conclusions: The MTD of DMS12 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days was 9 mg/m2. DMS612 appears to be an alkylating agent with unique tissue specificities. Dose-dependent pharmacodynamic signals and 2 partial responses at the MTD support further evaluation of DMS612 in phase II trials. PMID:25467180

Appleman, Leonard; Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Parise, Robert A; Bryla, Christine; Redon, Christophe E; Nakamura, Asako J; Bonner, William M; Wright, John J; Piekarz, Richard L; Kohler, David R; Jiang, Yixing; Belani, Chandra P; Eiseman, Julie; Chu, Edward; Beumer, Jan H; Bates, Susan E

2014-12-01

436

Enhanced Affinity Bifunctional Bisphosphonates for Targeted Delivery of Therapeutic Agents to Bone  

PubMed Central

Skeletal diseases have a major impact on the worldwide population and economy. Although several therapeutic agents and treatments are available for addressing bone diseases, they are not being fully utilized because of their uptake in non-targeted sites and related side effects. Active targeting with controlled delivery is an ideal approach for treatment of such diseases. Because bisphosphonates are known to have high affinity to bone and are being widely used in treatment of osteoporosis, they are well-suited for drug targeting to bone. In this study, a targeted delivery of therapeutic agent to resorption sites and wound healing sites of bone was explored. Towards this goal, bifunctional hydrazine-bisphosphonates (HBPs), with spacers of various lengths, were synthesized and studied for their enhanced affinity to bone. Crystal growth inhibition studies showed that these HBPs have high affinity to hydroxyapatite, and HBPs with shorter spacers bind stronger than alendronate to hydroxyapatite. The HBPs did not affect proliferation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, did not induce apoptosis, and were not cytotoxic at the concentration range tested (10?6 - 10?4 M). Furthermore, drugs can be linked to the HBPs through a hydrazone linkage that is cleavable at the low pH of bone resorption and wound healing sites, leading to release of the drug. This was demonstrated using hydroxyapatite as a model material of bone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde as a model drug. This study suggests that these HBPs could be used for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to bone. PMID:22073906

Yewle, Jivan N.; Puleo, David A.; Bachas, Leonidas G.

2011-01-01

437

Structure–Activity Relationships of Bifunctional Peptides Based on Overlapping Pharmacophores at Opioid and Cholecystokinin Receptors  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been identified as a pronociceptive endogenous peptide which also possesses antiopioid actions. CCK may be upregulated in conditions of chronic pain or during sustained morphine administration resulting in attenuation of opioid-mediated pain relief. These complex interactions between opioids and endogenous CCK receptor systems have suggested the need for a new paradigm in drug design for some states of chronic pain. In these circumstances the rational design of potential drugs for the treatment of these conditions must be based on one ligand for multiple targets. We have designed a single peptide which can interact with ? and ? opioid receptors as agonists and with CCK receptors as antagonists. The ligands were designed based on a model of overlapping pharmacophores of opioid and CCK peptide ligands, which incorporates opioid pharmacophores at the N-terminal and CCK tetrapeptide pharmacophores at the C-terminal of the designed ligands. We measured binding and activities of our bifunctional peptides at opioid and CCK receptors. Compound 11 (Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-d-Trp-NMeNle-Asp-Phe-NH2) demonstrated opioid agonist properties at ? and ? receptors (IC50 = 63 ± 27 nM and 150 ± 65 nM, respectively in MVD and GPI tissue assays) and high binding affinity at CCK-1 and CCK-2 receptors (Ki = 320 and 1.5 nM, respectively). Compound 9 (Tyr-d-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-NH2) displayed potent agonist activity at ? and ? receptors (IC50 = 23 ±10 nM and 210 ± 52 nM, respectively in MVD and GPI tissue assays), with a balanced binding affinity for CCK-1 and CCK-2 receptors (Ki = 9.6 and 15 nM, respectively). These results provide evidence supporting the concept that opioid and CCK receptors have overlapping pharmacophores required for binding affinity and biological activity and that designing overlapping pharmacophores of two peptides into a single peptide is a valid drug design approach. PMID:16686530

Agnes, Richard S.; Lee, Yeon Sun; Davis, Peg; Ma, Shou-wu; Badghisi, Hamid; Porreca, Frank; Lai, Josephine; Hruby, Victor J.

2006-01-01

438

Synthesis and evaluation of analogues of HYNIC as bifunctional chelators for technetium.  

PubMed

6-Hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC, 1) is a well-established bifunctional technetium-binding ligand often used to synthesise bioconjugates for radiolabelling with Tc-99m. It is capable of efficient capture of technetium at extremely low concentrations, but the structure of the labelled complexes is heterogeneous and incompletely understood. In particular, it is of interest to determine whether, at the no-carrier-added level, it acts in a chelating or non-chelating mode. Here we report two new isomers of HYNIC: 2-hydrazinonicotinic acid (2-HYNIC, 2), which (like 1) is capable of chelation through the mutually ortho hydrazine and pyridine nitrogens and 4-hydrazinonicotinic acid (4-HYNIC, 3), which is not (due to the para-relationship of the hydrazine and pyridine nitrogens). LC-MS shows that the coordination chemistry of 2 with technetium closely parallels that of conventional 1, and no advantages of one over the other in terms of potential labelling efficiency or isomerism were discernable. Both 1 and 2 formed complexes with the loss of 5 protons from the ligand set, whether the co-ligand was tricine or EDDA. Ligand 3, however, failed to complex technetium except at very high ligand concentration: the marked contrast with 1 and 2 suggests that chelation, rather than nonchelating coordination, is a key feature of technetium coordination by HYNIC. Two further new HYNIC analogues, 2-chloro-6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (2-chloro-HYNIC, 4a) and 2,6-dihydrazinonicotinic acid (diHYNIC, 5) were also synthesised. The coordination chemistry of 4a with technetium was broadly parallel to that of 1 and 2 although it was a less efficient chelator, while 5 also behaved as an efficient chelator of technetium, but its coordination chemistry remains poorly defined and requires further investigation before it can sensibly be adopted for (99m)Tc-labelling. The new analogues 4a and 5 present an opportunity to develop trifunctional HYNIC analogues for more complex bioconjugate synthesis. PMID:21350776

Meszaros, Levente K; Dose, Anica; Biagini, Stefano C G; Blower, Philip J

2011-06-21

439

A study of Na(x)Pt3O4 as an O2 electrode bifunctional electrocatalyst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study suggests that polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bonded Na(X)Pt3O4 gas porous diffusion electrodes may be a viable candidate for bifunctional O2 reduction and evolution activity. The electrodes exhibited Tafel slopes of about 0.06 V/decade for both O2 reduction an evolution. For O2 reduction, the 0.06 slope doubled to 0.12 V/decade at larger current densities. Preliminary stability testing at 24 C suggest that the Na(x)Pt3O4 electrodes were relatively stable at reducing and oxidizing potentials typically encountered at the O2 electrodes in a regenerative fuel cell.

Fielder, William L.; Singer, Joseph

1991-01-01

440

Propylene cross-bridged macrocyclic bifunctional chelator: a new design for facile bioconjugation and robust (64)Cu complex stability.  

PubMed

The first macrocyclic bifunctional chelator incorporating propylene cross-bridge was efficiently synthesized from cyclam in seven steps. After the introduction of an extra functional group for facile conjugation onto the propylene cross-bridge, the two carboxylic acid pendants could contribute to strong coordination of Cu(II) ions, leading to a robust Cu complex. The cyclic RGD peptide conjugate of PCB-TE2A-NCS was prepared and successfully radiolabeled with (64)Cu ion. The radiolabeled peptide conjugate was evaluated in vivo through a biodistribution study and animal PET imaging to demonstrate high tumor uptake with low background. PMID:25137619

Pandya, Darpan N; Bhatt, Nikunj; An, Gwang Il; Ha, Yeong Su; Soni, Nisarg; Lee, Hochun; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Woonghee; Ahn, Heesu; Yoo, Jeongsoo

2014-09-11

441

The sunburn cell in hairless mouse epidermis: quantitative studies with UV-A radiation and mono- and bifunctional psoralens  

SciTech Connect

The production of the sunburn cell by UV-A radiation and topical psoralens in hairless mouse epidermis has been studied. It has been shown that the appearance of this cell is dependent on the dose of both UV-A radiation and of the psoralen. The time-course with 8-methoxypsoralen has peak sunburn cell numbers at 28 hr postirradiation. A comparison of 2 bifunctional (8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen) and 2 monofunctional (angelicin and 3-carbethoxypsoralen) psoralens showed the former are more potent. This suggests that DNA crosslink lesions may play a rle in sunburn cell production.

Young, A.R.; Magnus, I.A.

1982-10-01

442

[d4U]-butyne-[HI-236] as a non-cleavable, bifunctional NRTI/NNRTI HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitor.  

PubMed

The synthesis of bifunctional compound 10 consisting of d4U joined at C-5 to a butynyl spacer attached to HI-236 is reported using a Sonogashira coupling as a key step. As a non-cleavable bifunctional HIV inhibitor incorporating an NRTI with an NNRTI, 10 shows good inhibitory activity (EC(50)=250 nM) against HIV (IIIB) replication in MT-2 cell culture, which is eight times greater than that of d4T and between those of the two component drugs. PMID:17317163

Hunter, Roger; Muhanji, Clare I; Hale, Ian; Bailey, Christopher M; Basavapathruni, Aravind; Anderson, Karen S

2007-05-01

443

Precision magnetic suspension linear bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have shown the design and analyzed the electromechanics of a linear motor suitable for independently controlling two suspension degrees of freedom. This motor, at least on paper, meets the requirements for driving an X-Y stage of 10 Kg mass with about 4 m/sq sec acceleration, with travel of several hundred millimeters in X and Y, and with reasonable power dissipation. A conceptual design for such a stage is presented. The theoretical feasibility of linear and planar bearings using single or multiple magnetic suspension linear motors is demonstrated.

Trumper, David L.; Queen, Michael A.

1992-01-01

444

Hunting Bears with a Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, students use lichens and tardigrades (water bears) to investigate their use as bioindicators of key air pollutants. When lichens are exposed to some kinds of air pollutants, especially to sulfur dioxide, the lichens are injured and die. The lichen coverage in a specified area should be a good indicator of the level of air quality. The diversity of the tardigrade species on the lichens will be used to develop another level for bioindication of air quality. Sections of this activity include: introduction, sulfur dioxide and lichens, sampling procedure for lichen coverage, tardigrade sampling, sampling procedure for tardigrades, calculating diversity using the Simpson Diversity Index, interpretation of results, and references.

Case, Steve

2010-02-10

445

Hunting Bears with a Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, students use lichens and tardigrades (water bears) to investigate their use as bioindicators of key air pollutants. When lichens are exposed to some kinds of air pollutants, especially to sulfur dioxide, the lichens are injured and die. The lichen coverage in a specified area should be a good indicator of the level of air quality. The diversity of the tardigrade species on the lichens will be used to develop another level for bioindication of air quality. Sections of this activity include: introduction, sulfur dioxide and lichens, sampling procedure for lichen coverage, tardigrade sampling, sampling procedure for tardigrades, calculating diversity using the Simpson Diversity Index, interpretation of results, and references.

Case, Steve; Excellence, The N.

446

Cryogenic Fluid Film Bearing Tester Development Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual designs were developed for the determination of rotordynamic coefficients of cryogenic fluid film bearings. The designs encompassed the use of magnetic and conventional excitation sources as well as the use of magnetic bearings as support bearings. Test article configurations reviewed included overhung, floating housing, and fixed housing. Uncertainty and forced response analyses were performed to assess quality of data and suitability of each for testing a variety of fluid film bearing designs. Development cost and schedule estimates were developed for each design. Facility requirements were reviewed and compared with existing MSFC capability. The recommended configuration consisted of a fixed test article housing centrally located between two magnetic bearings. The magnetic bearings would also serve as the excitation source.

Scharrer, Joseph K. (editor); Murphy, Brian T.; Hawkins, Lawrence A.

1993-01-01

447

Cryogenic fluid film bearing tester development study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual designs were developed for the determination of rotordynamic coefficients of cryogenic fluid film bearings. The designs encompassed the use of magnetic and conventional excitation sources as well as the use of magnetic bearings as support bearings. Test article configurations reviewed included overhung, floating housing, and fixed housing. Uncertainty and forced response analyses were performed to assess quality of data and suitability of each for testing a variety of fluid film bearing designs. Development cost and schedule estimates were developed for each design. Facility requirements were reviewed and compared with existing MSFC capability. The recommended configuration consisted of a fixed test article housing centrally located between two magnetic bearings. The magnetic bearings would also serve as the excitation source.

Scharrer, Joseph K.; Murphy, Brian T.; Hawkins, Lawrence A.

1993-06-01

448

Two High-Temperature Foil Journal Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An enlarged, high-temperature-compliant foil bearing has been built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of such bearings for use in aircraft gas turbine engines. Foil bearings are attractive for use in some machines in which (1) speeds of rotation, temperatures, or both exceed maximum allowable values for rolling-element bearings; (2) conventional lubricants decompose at high operating temperatures; and/or (3) it is necessary or desirable not to rely on conventional lubrication systems. In a foil bearing, the lubricant is the working fluid (e.g., air or a mixture of combustion gases) in the space between the journal and the shaft in the machine in which the bearing is installed.

Zak, Michail

2006-01-01

449

Idiosyncratic responses of grizzly bear habitat to climate change based on projected food resource changes.  

PubMed

Climate change vulnerability assessments for species of conservation concern often use species distribution and ecological niche modeling to project changes in habitat. One of many assumptions of these approaches is that food web dependencies are consistent in time and environmental space. Species at higher trophic levels that rely on the availability of species at lower trophic levels as food may be sensitive to extinction cascades initiated by changes in the habitat of key food resources. Here we assess climate change vulnerability for Ursus arctos (grizzly bears) in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains using projected changes to 17 of the most commonly consumed plant food items. We used presence-absence information from 7088 field plots to estimate ecological niches and to project changes in future distributions of each species. Model projections indicated idiosyncratic responses among food items. Many food items persisted or even increased, although several species were found to be vulnerable based on declines or geographic shifts in suitable habitat. These included Hedysarum alpinum (alpine sweet vetch), a critical spring and autumn root-digging resource when little else is available. Potential habitat loss was also identified for three fruiting species of lower importance to bears: Empetrum nigrum (crowberry), Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), and Fragaria virginiana (strawberry). A general trend towards uphill migration of bear foods may result in higher vulnerability to bear populations at low elevations, which are also those that are most likely to have human-bear conflict problems. Regardless, a wide diet breadth of grizzly bears, as well as wide environmental niches of most food items, make climate change a much lower threat to grizzly bears than other bear species such as polar bears and panda bears. We cannot exclude, however, future alterations in human behavior and land use resulting from climate change that may reduce survival rates. PMID:25154102

Roberts, David R; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

2014-07-01

450

2-Mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl (MAG2) as a Bifunctional Chelator for 99mTc-Labeling of Cyclic RGD Dimers: Effect of Technetium Chelate on Tumor Uptake and Pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

This report describes the synthesis of MAG2-PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (MAG2-P-RGD2: MAG2 = S-benzoylmercaptoacetylglycylglycyl; PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and MAG2-PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 (MAG2-3P-RGD2), and the evaluation of 99mTcO(MAG2-P-RGD2) and 99mTcO(MAG2-3P-RGD2) as new radiotracers for tumor imaging in the athymic nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts. We found that MAG2 is such an efficient bifunctional chelating agent that 99mTcO(MAG2-P-RGD2) and 99mTcO(MAG2-3P-RGD2) could be prepared in high yield (>90%) with high specific activity (?5 Ci/?mol) using a kit formulation. 99mTcO(MAG2-P-RGD2) and 99mTcO(MAG2-3P-RGD2) have very high solution stability in the kit matrix. Biodistribution data in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts indicated that replacing the highly charged [99mTc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (6-hydrazinonicotinyl and TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3?,3?-trisulfonate) with smaller 99mTcO(MAG2) resulted in a significant increase in the radiotracer uptake in the tumor and normal organs most likely due to the higher lipophilicity of 99mTcO(MAG2-3P-RGD2) (log P = -3.15 ± 0.10) than that for [99mTc(HYNIC-3P-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-3P-RGD2: log P = -3.96 ± 0.05). Even though 99mTcO(MAG2-3P-RGD2) has better tumor uptake (15.48 ± 2.49 %ID/g at 60 min postinjection (p.i.)) than 99mTc-3P-RGD2 (9.15 ± 2.13 %ID/g at 60 min p.i.), its tumor-to-background (T/B) ratios (tumor/blood = 13.02 ± 6.12; tumor/liver = 4.07 ± 0.95; tumor/lung = 2.97 ± 0.64; and tumor/muscle = 8.04 ± 0.43) are not as good as those of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 (tumor/blood = 36.0 ± 11.5; tumor/liver = 5.14 ± 1.46; tumor/lung = 4.36 ± 0.54; and tumor/muscle = 13.70 ± 2.21) at 60 min p.i. On the basis of these results, we believe that 99mTc-3P-RGD2 remains a better radiotracer because of its higher T/B ratios. PMID:19603780

Shi, Jiyun; Kim, Young-Seung; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Liu, Shuang

2009-01-01

451

First-Order Ball-Bearing Kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two first-order equations are given connecting geometry and internal motions in an angular-contact ball bearing. Total speed, kinematic equivalence, basic speed ratio, and modal speed ratio are defined and discussed; charts are given for the speed ratios covering all bearings and all rotational modes. Instances where specific first-order assumptions might fail are discussed, and the resulting effects on bearing performance

Edward Kingsbury

1985-01-01

452

Ceramic Materials in Hybrid Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational study was conducted to make comparisons regarding heat generation, frictional torque, and ball wear between conventional all steel bearings using M50 steel balls and hybrid bearings using silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic balls. Both were modeled using M50 steel races and the study was accomplished for radially loaded bearings only. Although most realistic applications also include axial loads on

Pete Cento; Don W. Dareing

1999-01-01

453

First-order ball-bearing kinematics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two first-order equations are given connecting geometry and internal motions in an angular-contact ball bearing. Total speed, kinematic equivalence, basic speed ratio, and modal speed ratio are defined and discussed; charts are given for the speed ratios covering all bearings and all rotational modes. Instances where specific first-order assumptions might fail are discussed, and the resulting effects on bearing performance reviewed.

Kingsbury, E.

1985-01-01

454

Model Of Bearing With Hydrostatic Damper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved mathematical model of rotational and vibrational dynamics of bearing package in turbopump incorporates effects of hydrostatic damper. Part of larger finite-element model representing rotational and vibrational dynamics of rotor and housing of pump. Includes representations of deadband and nonlinear stiffness and damping of ball bearings, nonlinear stiffness and damping of hydrostatic film, and stiffness of bearing support. Enables incorporation of effects of hydrostatic damper into overall rotor-dynamic mathematical model without addition of mathematical submodel of major substructure.

Goggin, David G.

1991-01-01

455

A Novel Bifunctional Hybrid with Marine Bacterium Alkaline Phosphatase and Far Eastern Holothurian Mannan-Binding Lectin Activities  

PubMed Central

A fusion between the genes encoding the marine bacterium Cobetia marina alkaline phosphatase (CmAP) and Far Eastern holothurian Apostichopus japonicus mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBL-AJ) was performed. Expression of the fusion gene in E. coli cells resulted in yield of soluble recombinant chimeric protein CmAP/MBL-AJ with the high alkaline phosphatase activity and specificity of the lectin MBL-AJ. The bifunctional hybrid CmAP/MBL-AJ was produced as a dimer with the molecular mass of 200 kDa. The CmAP/MBL-AJ dimer model showed the two-subunit lectin part that is associated with two molecules of alkaline phosphatase functioning independently from each other. The highly active CmAP label genetically linked to MBL-AJ has advantaged the lectin-binding assay in its sensitivity and time. The double substitution A156N/F159K in the lectin domain of CmAP/MBL-AJ has enhanced its lectin activity by 25±5%. The bifunctional hybrid holothurian's lectin could be promising tool for developing non-invasive methods for biological markers assessment, particularly for improving the MBL-AJ-based method for early detection of a malignant condition in cervical specimens. PMID:25397876

Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasily; Kovalchuk, Svetlana; Bulgakov, Alexander; Likhatskaya, Galina; Son, Oksana; Rasskazov, Valery

2014-01-01

456

NiCo2S4@graphene as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions.  

PubMed

Here, the hybrid of NiCo2S4 nanoparticles grown on graphene in situ is first described as an effective bifunctional nonprecious electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the alkaline medium. NiCo2S4@N/S-rGO was synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal strategy using Co(OAc)2, Ni(OAc)2, thiourea, and graphene oxide as precursors and ethylene glycol as the dispersing agent; simultaneously, traces of nitrogen and sulfur were double-doped into the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the forms of pyrrolic-N, pyridinic-N, and thiophenic-S, which are often desirable for metal-free ORR catalysts. In comparison with commercial Pt/C catalyst, NiCo2S4@N/S-rGO shows less reduction activity, much better durability, and superior methanol tolerance toward ORR in 0.1 M KOH; it reveals higher activity toward OER in both KOH electrolyte and phosphate buffer at pH 7.0. NiCo2S4@graphene demonstrated excellent overall bicatalytic performance, and importantly, it suggests a novel kind of promising nonprecious bifunctional catalyst in the related renewable energy devices. PMID:23662625

Liu, Qiao; Jin, Jutao; Zhang, Junyan

2013-06-12

457

Contrasting past and current numbers of bears visiting Yellowstone cutthroat trout streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) were historically abundant within tributary streams of Yellowstone Lake within Yellowstone National Park and were a highly digestible source of energy and protein for Yellowstone’s grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus). The cutthroat trout population has subsequently declined since the introduction of non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and in response to effects of drought and whirling disease (Myxobolus cerebralis). The trout population, duration of spawning runs, and indices of bear use of spawning streams had declined in some regions of the lake by 1997–2000. We initiated a 3-year study in 2007 to assess whether numbers of spawning fish, black bears, and grizzly bears within and alongside stream corridors had changed since 1997– 2000. We estimated numbers of grizzly bears and black bears by first compiling encounter histories of individual bears visiting 48 hair-snag sites along 35 historically fished streams.We analyzed DNA encounter histories with Pradel-recruitment and Jolly-Seber (POPAN) capture-mark-recapture models. When compared to 1997–2000, the current number of spawning cutthroat trout per stream and the number of streams with cutthroat trout has decreased. We estimated that 48 (95% CI¼42–56) male and 23 (95% CI¼21–27) female grizzly bears visited the historically fished tributary streams during our study. In any 1- year, 46 to 59 independent grizzly bears (8–10% of estimated Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem population) visited these streams. When compared with estimates from the 1997 to 2000 study and adjusted for equal effort, the number of grizzly bears using the stream corridors decreased by 63%. Additionally, the number of black bears decreased between 64% and 84%. We also document an increased proportion of bears of both species visiting front-country (i.e., near human development) streams. With the recovery of cutthroat trout, we suggest bears that still reside within the Lake basin will readily use this high-quality food resource.

Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; , JUSTIN E. TEISBERG; , Kerry A. Gunther; , JENNIFER K. FORTIN; , CHARLES T. ROBBINS

2014-01-01

458

Permanent Magnetic Bearing for Spacecraft Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A permanent, totally passive magnetic bearing rig was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension of the rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm using an air impeller. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

Morales, Winfredo; Fusaro, Robert; Kascak, Albert

2008-01-01

459

Bearing optimization for SSME HPOTP application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle main engine (SSME) high-pressure oxygen turbopumps (HPOTP) have not experienced the service life required of them. To improve the life of the existing turbopump bearings, modifications to the bearings that could be retrofitted into the present bearing cavity are being investigated. Several bearing parameters were optimized using the computer program SHABERTH, which performs a thermomechanical simulation of a load support system. The computer analysis showed that improved bearing performance is feasible if low friction coefficients can be attained. Bearing geometries were optimized considering heat generation, equilibrium temperatures, and relative life. Two sets of curvatures were selected from the optimization: an inner-raceway curvature of 0.54, an outer-raceway curvature of 0.52, and an inner-raceway curvature of 0.55, an outer-raceway curvature of 0.53. A contact angle of 16 deg was also selected. Thermal gradients through the bearings were found to be lower with liquid lubrication than with solid film lubrication. As the coolant flowrate through the bearing increased, the ball temperature decreased but at a continuously decreasing rate. The optimum flowrate was approximately 4 kg/s. The analytical modeling used to determine these feasible modifications to improve bearing performance is described.

Armstrong, Elizabeth S.; Coe, Harold H.

1988-01-01

460

Polar Bears International: Vital Maternity Den Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes a journalist's participation in a study of polar bear denning sites in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). It is thought that cubs born in those dens play an important role in maintaining the Beaufort Sea population of polar bears. Prior to the study, no complete map existed pinpointing the ANWR's denning areas. The study data will be available to manage human activities, thus protecting the sensitive areas in which a mother polar bear may den. The study will also provide baseline data to assess how climate change may alter the distribution of polar-bear denning habitat.

461

Fractional Whirl Motion in Wave Journal Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unloaded gas, plain journal bearings experience sub-synchronous whirl motion due to fluid film instabilities and wall contact usually occurs immediately after the onset of the whirl motion. An alternative is the wave journal bearing which significantly improves bearing stability. The predicted threshold where the sub-synchronous whirl motion starts was well confirmed by the experimental observation. In addition, both a two-wave and a three-wave journal bearing can operate free of sub-synchronous whirl motion over a large range in speeds. When the sub-synchronous whirl motion occurs, both the two-wave and three-wave bearing can run in a whirl orbit well within the bearing clearance. At large clearances and wave amplitudes a two-wave bearing, unliKe other bearings, can exhibit a sub-synchronous whirl movement at both low and high speeds, but can run extremely stable and without whirl at intermediate speeds. Moreover, in these cases, the whirl frequencies are close to a quarter of the synchronous speed. The three-wave bearing can exhibit sub-synchronous whirl motion only after a specific threshold when the speed increases and the whirl frequencies are close to half of the synchronous speed.

Dimofte, Florin; Hendricks, Robert C.

1996-01-01

462

Related Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

NCI research initiatives in cancer genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and nanotechnology depend on the development of new sources of high-quality human biospecimens and the identification of appropriate biospecimens in existing resources. Human biospecimens are essential resources to accelerate the development of molecular-based diagnostics and therapeutics for personalized medicine.

463

Initials Autobiography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using excerpts from Roald Dahl's Boy: Tales of Childhood and D is for Dahl: A gloriumptious A-Z guide to the World of Roald Dahl compiled by Wendy Cooling the students will compare and contrast biographies and autobiographies. They will identify and chart the differences between each. As a culminating assignment, students will compose their own autobiography using only their initials.

Format Edit

2012-04-30

464

Dynamic modelling and response characteristics of a magnetic bearing rotor system including auxiliary bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auxiliary bearings are a critical feature of any magnetic bearing system. They protect the soft iron core of the magnetic bearing during an overl