Science.gov

Sample records for biga peninsula turkey

  1. Late Cenozoic stress field distribution in Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozden, S.; Bekler, T.; Tutkun, S. Z.; Kurcer, A.; Ates, O.; Bekler, F. N.; Kalafat, D.

    2009-04-01

    Biga Peninsula is a seismically active region both in instrumental and historical period in NW Turkey. In this part, middle and southern branches of North Anatolian Fault are represented by Etili, Can-Biga, Yenice-Gonen, Manyas-Danisment, Lapseki, Sinekci, Terzialan, Dogruca, Uluabat, Edincik, Pazarkoy-Hamdibey-Kalkim, Edremit, Yigitler, Sarikoy-Inova, Troia and Karabiga Faults. All of these faults are responsible of the seismic activity in Biga Peninsula. Historical earthquakes happened in 29, 155, 170, 543, 620, 1440, 1737, 1855, 1865 and 1875. Furthermore, as for instrumental period, Saros Gulf-Murefte earthquakes (M:7.3 and M:6.3) in 1912, Erdek Gulf (M:6.4) and Can-Biga (M:6.3) in 1935, Edremit Gulf-Ayvaci k (M:6.8) in 1944, Yenice-Gonen (M:7.2) in 1953, Gonen (M:5.8) in 1964, Edremit-Baki rcay (M:5.5) in 1971, Biga (M:5.8) in 1983, Kusgolu-Manyas (M:5.2) and Bandirma (M:5.0) in 2006. In this study, we determined the Late Cenozoic stress field distribution and present-day tectonic regimes both fault-slip data (by 253 fault planes) and earthquake focal mechanism solutions (by 58 earthquakes) were investigated by the inversion methods. The results indicate that a transtensional stress regime is dominant with a NW-SE to WNW-ESE directed compression (1) and NE-SW to ENE-WSW directed extension (3), which yielded a NE-SW, ENE-WSW and also E-W trending strike-slip faulting faults with a normal component. While a transtensional tectonic regime has an active component in Biga Peninsula, a local and consistent transpressional tectonic regime were determined along an E-W trending narrow zone in the northern part of the Biga Peninsula also. The tectonic regime and stress field is resulted from interactions both continental collision of Eurasian/Anatolian/Arabian plate in the east and subduction processes (roll back and/or slab-pull) of the African plate along the Cyprus and Hellenic arc in the Mediterranean region.

  2. Surface ozone levels in the forest and vegetation areas of the Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; İncecik, Selahattin; Ozkurt, Nesimi

    2016-11-15

    Spatial and temporal variability of surface ozone in the rural, mountainous and suburban sites of Biga Peninsula, at the northwest of Turkey which is about 300km southwest of Istanbul was investigated using passive samplers and continuous analyzers. A total 10 passive samplers and two continuous analyzers were used between 1.1.2013 and 31.12.2014. OX levels in the study region were examined to understand NOx dependent or independent contribution to ozone. The influences of the meteorological parameters on ozone levels were also examined by wind speed and ambient temperature. The results clearly show that mountainous areas have higher cumulative exposure to ozone than suburban locations. In order to understand the long range transport sources contributing to the high ozone levels in the region backward trajectories were computed using HYSPLIT model and then clustering of trajectories are performed. The results clearly show the characteristics of pollutant transport from north to Biga Peninsula. Additionally, AOT40 (Accumulated hourly O3 concentrations Over a Threshold of 40ppb) cumulative index was calculated using daytime hourly measurements. The results indicate that the ozone values in the study area are much higher than the critical levels for forest and vegetation based on EU Directive 2008/50/EC. PMID:27474990

  3. Geochemical, geochronological characterization and tectonic setting of the metamorphic rocks from the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, F.; Tunç, Ä.°. O.; Yiǧitbaş, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Biga Peninsula in the northwest Turkey is one of the world's important natural laboratories to study geochronology due to having complex geology. The Biga Peninsula has different metamorphic basements including Kazdağ Massif, Çamlıca metamorphics, Kemer metamorphics and Karadağ Massif under cover of the Cenozoic volcano-sedimentary association. The Çamlıca metamorphic assemblage are one of the most critical regions for understanding of the geology of northwestern Turkey. The Çamlıca metamorphic association located on the westernmost part of Turkey is mainly composed of the Andıktası formation, the Dedetepe formation and the Salihler formation, from bottom to top. Metasedimentary rocks of the Çamlıca metamorphics have high SiO2 and medium Al2O3 and TiO2 values. The protolith of these metasediments is arkose-subarkose and greywacke. However, whole-rock geochemistry for the HP eclogite/blueschist within the Çamlıca metamorphics suggests that their protolith was basalt with high TiO2 and K2O-Na2O content and Nb/Y ratios. REE pattern and trace element contents of the HP eclogite/blueschist similar to typical MORB based on tectonic discrimination diagrams. The metavolcanic rocks occurring on the lowest part of the Çamlıca metamorphicassociation has andesitic composition with calc-alkaline character. All metavolcanic rocks in this unit cluster within the volcanic arc field. Zircon grains from metavolcanic rocks and HP eclogite/blueschists were dated by LA-ICPMS. Zircon ages of two metavolcanic samples yielded 328.6 ± 3.5 Ma and 343.2 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively. These ages are interpreted as the time of protolith crystallization of metavolcanic rocks. Moreover, zircon ages from HP eclogite/blueschist yielded 338 ± 1.8 Ma (Early Carboniferous) which is interpreted as the age of protolith crystallization of HP eclogite/blueschist. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate that Early Carboniferous Variscan ages within the Sakarya Zone may form the eastern

  4. Geological and Petrological Characteristics of Oligocene Magmatic Rocks in The Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erenoglu, Oya

    2016-04-01

    Oligocene magmatic activity in the Biga Peninsula (NW-Anatolia) produced widespread volcano-plutonic complexes. The study region, where in north of the Evciler village in the middle of Biga Peninsula includes these igneous assemblages. In this study, the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of igneous rocks in the region were investigated as well as the geological locations. The magmatic rocks are classified as 6 different units using their lithostratigraphical properties. The volcanism in the region starts with basaltic andesite lava including basalt dykes in the Lower Oligocene. In the Upper Oligocene, the evolved magma by crustal contamination produced commonly dacitic and andesitic lavas. The volcanism continued with andesitic lavas which had significant alterations in the region during this period. Evciler pluton including granite and granodiorite composition with shallow intrusive, was located with the related volcanism at the same time. The volcanic products, i.e. andesitic and trachydacitic lavas, was completed in the interval between Upper Oligocene and Lower Miocene. The post-collisional Oligocene sequence is associated with calc-alkaline composition and it has middle, high-K. Trace and rare earth elements (REE) diagrams show the enrichment in both large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) with respect to the high field strength elements (HFSE), and a significant increment in heavy rare earth element consumption (HREE). The features of major, trace and rare earth elements of plutonic and volcanic rocks and the compositional variations of Oligocene volcanic group indicate increasing amounts of partial melting, crustal contamination and/or assimilation. The Oligocene post-collisional volcanism in Biga Peninsula points out the lithospheric mantle source enriched by subduction which controlled by slab break-off and lithospheric delamination. Acknowledgement. This study was supported by Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University

  5. Inventory Survey of Geodiversity Elements in a Regional Territory: Applied to the Biga Peninsula, Northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Ertekin, Can; Filiz, Nurdan

    2016-04-01

    Representative geodiversity elements such as minerals, rocks, fossils, landforms, etc are key components in order to obtain data for the pursuit of geo-research. The scientific worth of geodiversity is not only related to how the geosphere works but also is connected with the conservation of earth materials for present and future geo-knowledge and geoscience milieu. Hence, the nonrenewable nature of geodiversity elements in the human time scale is taken into account for the conservation of natural diversity or simply geo-conservation. Geodiversity as an abiotic element ascribes to in situ or ex situ features both of which maintain scientific value and are used by various societies such as in teaching, tourism, etc. Ex situ elements are known as fossils, minerals and rocks found in museum collections on the other hand in situ features are known as geosites for which there are certain sub-categories such as geomorphological (landform), hydrogeological, paleontological, structural, stratigraphic sequence and lithological. Due to the plethora of geological data dispersed among geodiversity elements, the first crucial step is to execute an inventory solid study. The scope of this study is to survey geodiversity features of potential natural sites distributed the entire sectors of the Biga Peninsula of Northwestern Turkey. In the territory, there are 37 natural sites with their own data set. This data describing their boundaries and administrative features were acquired from Directorate General for Preservation of Natural Heritage. Then, site boundaries, regional published geological maps, surface hydrologic and anthropic attributes were overlaid conceiving as a single unit. Before initiating the inventory survey, the criteria scale were established for geoscience value and geo-tourism potential. In these two frames, geodiversity elements were labeled and tabulated by their representativeness, integrity, rarity, scientific knowledge, scenery, interpretative potential and

  6. Morphometric age estimate of the last phase of accelerated uplift in the Kazdag area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, A.; Altin, T. Bayer; Beckers, A.

    2013-11-01

    While the Plio-Quaternary uplift of the Kazdag mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is generally acknowledged, little is known about its detailed timing. Partly because of this lack of data, the cause of this uplift phase is also debated, being associated either to back-arc extension in the rear of the Hellenic subduction zone, to transpression along the northern edge of the west-moving Anatolian microplate, or to extension driven by gravitational collapse. Here, we perform a morphometric study of the fluvial landscape at the scale of the Biga Peninsula, coupling the recently developed R/SR analysis of the drainage network with concavity and steepness measures of a set of 29 rivers of all sizes. While the dependence of profile concavity on basin size confirms that the landscape of the peninsula is still in a transient state, the spatial distribution of profile steepness values characterized by higher values for streams flowing down from the Kazdag massif shows that the latter undergoes higher uplift rates than the rest of the peninsula. We obtain a SR value of 0.324 ± 0.035 that, according to the relation established by Demoulin (2012), yields an age range of 0.5-1.3 Ma and a most probable value of 0.8 Ma for the time of the last tectonic perturbation in the region. In agreement with the analysis of knickpoint migration in a subset of rivers, this suggests that a pulse of uplift occurred at that time and, corroborated by sparse published observations in the Bayramiç and Çanakkale depressions, that the peninsula was uplifted as a whole from that time. This uplift pulse might have been caused by transient compressive conditions in the Anatolian plate when the Eratosthenes seamount came to subduct beneath the Cyprus arc around the early-to-mid Pleistocene transition (Schattner, 2010).

  7. Monitoring of Landslides using Repeated Kinematics GPS Observables in Sevketiye Town, Biga Peninsula, Çanakkale, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Akcay, Ozgun; Karaca, Zeki; Erenoglu, Oya; Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Yucel, Mehmet Ali

    2014-05-01

    Landslide is one of the most important natural events, and is also a result of earth's crust movements. Landslides generally result in the outward and downward movement of slope-forming materials consisting soil, rock, artificial fill and etc. Moreover, possible earthquakes are one of the main reasons of triggering landslides in active areas seismically. There have been many studies based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observables to compute the three dimensional positioning of established sites, and to model landslides precisely. We can monitor landslide with GPS using continuous data collection or the type of campaign surveying. While continuous data collection provide a millimetre-level of accuracy, the accuracy decreases with the shorter sessions, e.g. campaign surveying, due to possible sources of error. The area, located west of the Çanakkale, has been studied to identify the landslide susceptibility and geology. Çanakkale, NW Turkey, is located on the territory of the Biga Peninsula and the Gallipoli Peninsula. The section of remaining at the west of the line from the Gulf of Edremit to the Gulf of Erdek is called Biga Peninsula, and it covers an area of approximately 10 thousand km². In the Biga Peninsula, the main morphological units are at the western, northern and southern of coastal plains, and on their behind the hills, plateaus and mountainous areas of the inland. But at the middle areas, it is often possible to find the tectonic depressions sandwiched between the masses plateau and mountainous. In general, moving down the slope of a rock, soil or debris can be defined as landslides that are ranks second in terms of caused losses after earthquakes in Turkey. Landslides, harm to urbanization as well as loss of lives and economic losses. Moreover they adversely affects to agricultural, forest areas and the quality of the rivers. For example, the gas pipeline connecting Turkey and Greece, which will provide gas to the Southern Europe passes

  8. Geological and Geomorphological Characterizations of Landslides on the Coast of the Biga Peninsula (Çanakkale, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erenoglu, Oya; Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Akcay, Ozgun

    2015-04-01

    change for the landslide movements in these three regions. Loose conglomerates and sandstones observed in almost all regions are able to easily move under the influence of seasonal rainfall. The precautions to be taken are very important for areas where housing as Ambaroba and Güzelyali. On the other hand, new movements may occur that could cause serious damages in transporting highways Şevketiye, Adatepe and İntepe Landslides. Acknowledgement. This study was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (Project no: 112Y336) Keywords: Landslide, Biga Peninsula, Mass Movements, Geology.

  9. Investigation of Plutonic Rocks in Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey, using 3D Normalized Full Gradient of Magnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Y. L.; Yiǧitbaş, E.

    2012-04-01

    Airborne magnetic data of Biga Peninsula were investigated by using 3D Normalized Full Gradient (NFG) technique. The NFG procedure is based on the downward continuation of the potential field data and the NFG amplitude is calculated by dividing the Analytic Signal (AS) of downward continued magnetic data by the average of AS. Application of NFG technique usually enhances the anomalies by computing the anomaly to a level close to the source bodies and points to the boundaries of causative bodies. To that end, a MATLAB based code consisting of a series of linked functions was developed and used for analyses. Study area covers an area of 120 km x 180 km and the data were collected with 1-2 km profile intervals and with about 70 m sampling from 625 m above the ground surface by MTA (General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration). 2 km sampling intervals for both north and east directions were used for gridding of the magnetic data. Regional anomalies were approximated by means of element shape functions used in finite element method and then residuals were computed. Prior to the application of 3D NFG, Reduction to the Pole (RTP) transformation was applied to residual data in order to remove the complexity due to the effects of the direction of magnetization and ambient field. RTP transformation process was performed using 55 and 4 degrees for inclination and declination angles, respectively. 3D NFG operation was performed to reduced to pole data for 6 different depth levels (-200, -400, -600, -800, -1000 and -1200 m). Analyzing the resulting anomaly maps of different depth levels together with the geological map (1/500.000) showed that the locations of maximum NFG amplitudes indicate the boundaries of plutonic rocks having high magnetization intensity. Additionally, horizontal and vertical extensions of plutonic rocks were also determined. Keywords: Airborne magnetic data, normalized full gradient, plutonic rocks, Biga Peninsula-Turkey

  10. Relationships between subduction and extension in the Aegean region: evidence from granite plutons of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, K. N.; Catlos, E. J.; Oyman, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Biga Peninsula is a tectonically complex region in western Turkey characterized by Tethyan sutures overprinted by extensional grabens, active fault strands of the North Anatolian Shear Zone, and numerous granitoid plutons. Two end-member models for the initiation of extension in the Biga region have been proposed, both of which focus on the role of igneous assemblages. The first model involves the emplacement of a hot mantle plume that thins and weakens crust and isostatic doming drives extension. The second has regional tensional stresses as the driving force, and magmatism is a consequence of decompression. Here we focus on understanding the timing and geochemical evolution of three granitoid plutons located in and just south of the Biga Peninsula to understand which end-member model could be applicable to the Aegean region. The Kestanbolu pluton is located north of the proposed Vardar Suture Zone, whereas the Eybek and Kozak plutons are north of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone. These sutures may mark regions of the closure of branches of the NeoTethyan Ocean. To better understand their sources and tectonic evolution, we acquired geochemical and geochronological data, and cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the rocks. Previously reported ages of the plutons range from Late Eocene to Middle Miocene. Here we acquired in situ (in thin section) ion microprobe U-Pb ages of zircon grains found in a range of textural relationships. Ages from the Kozak pluton range from 37.8±5.4 Ma to 10.3±2.4 Ma (238U/206Pb, ±1σ) with two ages from a single grain of 287±26 Ma and 257±18 Ma. We also found Oligocene to Late Miocene zircon grains in the Kestanbolu pluton, whereas zircons from the Eybek pluton range from 34.3±4.8 Ma to 21.2±1.7 Ma. Samples collected from the Kozak and Eybek plutons are magnesian, calc-alkalic, and metaluminous, whereas the Kestanbolu rocks are magnesian, alkali-calcic, and metaluminous with one ferroan sample and one peraluminous sample. Trace

  11. Early Variscan magmatism along the southern margin of Laurasia: geochemical and geochronological evidence from the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Fırat; Koralay, O. Ersin

    2016-05-01

    Massive, fine-grained metavolcanic rocks of the Çamlıca metamorphic unit exposed in the Biga Peninsula, northwestern Anatolia, have provided new Carboniferous ages and arc-related calc-alkaline petrogenesis constraints, suggesting that the Biga Peninsula was possibly involved in the Variscan orogeny. The metavolcanic rocks are mainly composed of metalava and metatuff and have the composition of andesite. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns from these rocks are fractionated (LaN/YbN ~ 2.2 to 8.9). Europium anomalies are slightly variable (Eu/Eu* = 0.6 to 0.7) and generally negative (average Eu/Eu* = 0.68). The metavolcanic rocks have a distinct negative Nb anomaly and negative Sr, Hf, Ba, and Zr anomalies. These large negative anomalies indicate crustal involvement in their derivation. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show that all metavolcanic rocks formed within a volcanic arc setting. Zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS) of two samples yield 333.5 ± 2.7 and 334.0 ± 4.8 Ma. These ages are interpreted to be the time of protolith crystallization. This volcanic episode in the Biga Peninsula correlates with other Variscan age and style of magmatism and, by association with a collisional event leading to the amalgamation of tectonic units during the Variscan contractional orogenic event. Carboniferous calc-alkaline magmatism in the Sakarya Zone is ascribed to arc-magmatism as a result of northward subduction of Paleo-Tethys under the Laurasian margin. Geochemical and U-Pb zircon data indicate that the Sakarya Zone is strikingly similar to that of the Armorican terranes in central Europe. The Biga Peninsula shows a connection between the Sakarya Zone and the Armorican terranes.

  12. GMinterp, A Matlab Based Toolkit for Gravity and Magnetic Data Analysis: Example Application to the Airborne Magnetic Anomalies of Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Y. L.; Yiǧitbaş, E.

    2012-04-01

    developed toolkit. Additionally some experiments on real data sets were performed to interpret the geological structure of Biga Peninsula, NW part of Anatolia, Turkey. Keywords: GMinterp, GUI, airborne magnetic data, geology, Biga Peninsula

  13. An Approach to Geochemical and Protolith Features of the Mesozoic HP/LT Rocks in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Firat; Yiǧitbaş, Erdinç; Onur Tunç, Ä.°Smail

    2010-05-01

    The Biga Peninsula in northwestern Anatolia is a tectonic mosaic comprised of different tectonic units which represented by continental and oceanic assemblages in different origin and ages. High-degree metamorphic rocks occur in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. HP eclogite/blueschists are associated with quartz-mica schist within the Çamli ca metamorphics. On the other hand, another HP eclogite/blueschist unit is associated with garnet-mica schist in the Çetmi Group. The host Çamli ca metamorphic rocks record only a single - stage greenschist - facies metamorphism and were juxtaposed with the high - grade metamorphic rocks along ductile - semi-brittle (?) strike - slip faults after the high degree metamorphism and during or after the low-grade metamorphism of the Çamli ca metamorphic unit. Major, trace and rare earth elements (REE) compositions of HP eclogite/blueschist and associated metasedimentary rocks from the Biga Peninsula have been determined to reveal their protolith, source area and tectonic setting. Whole-rock geochemistry for the HP eclogite/blueschist suggests that their protoliths were basalt with high TiO2 and K2O-Na2O content and Nb/Y ratios. Most HP metabasite samples plot in the tholeiitic basalt field. ∑ REE abundances range from 47.55 to 107.4 ppm. Europium anomolies are variable (Eu/Eu*= 0.9-1.1) and generally small negative (average Eu/Eu*=1) which is implying weak plagioclase fractionation. REE pattern and trace element contents similar to typical MORB based on tectonic discrimination diagrams. The relatively high concentrations of CaO and low concentrations of K2O suggest that the protoliths were derived from a depleted source. Metasedimentary rocks coexisting with HP metamorphic rocks have different SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2 values in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. Those of the Çamli ca metamorphics have high SiO2 and low Al2O3 and TiO2 values. However, those of the Çetmi Group have low SiO2 and

  14. Fluid processes in the Tesbihdere base-metal-Au deposit: Implications for epithermal mineralization in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkaya, Gulcan; Banks, David; Ozbas, Fatih; Wallington, Jon

    2014-06-01

    Tesbihdere is one of a number of spatially close epithermal Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au deposits hosted by andesites and rhyolites, typical of deposits in the Biga peninsula. Microthermometry of fluid inclusions shows a wide range of temperatures, ˜360-170°C, and salinities, ˜10-0.5 wt.% NaCl, in the different deposits studied. Dilution of a moderately saline magmatic? fluid with meteoric water occurred at constant temperature indicating, the temperature of both fluids was controlled by the geological environment. Boiling was not a major factor, but did occur in very minor amounts. The large range of temperatures within individual samples can only reasonably be explained by variations from near lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure during vein and fracture opening. That this pressure decrease did not produce extensive boiling suggests that vein opening was gradual rather than aggressive, allowing the pressure and temperature decrease to follow a path close to the L-V boiling curve. P-T reconstruction places emplacement of these ore veins at between 300-500 m beneath the surface. Similarities of LA-ICPMS of fluid inclusions from Tesbihdere, Azitepe and Basmakci, supports the conclusion that they were part of the same contemporaneous mineralizing system. The fluids are dominated by Na, with the concentrations of K>Ca>Mg combined equivalent to the concentration of Na. The range of K/Na ratios is not consistent with the fluid inclusion temperatures as the calculated temperatures are significantly higher indicating the fluids were not close to equilibrium with the enclosing rocks. Elevated K concentrations are consistent with acid-sulphate waters in shallow epithermal systems. Ore metals Cu, Zn and Pb are present in significant concentrations ˜500, 300 and 200 ppm respectively and the low Fe/Mn ratios are indicative of a relatively oxidising fluid. The negative δ 34S values of sulphides are consistent with boiling and oxidising redox conditions.

  15. Structural Setting of the Northeastern Biga Peninsula (Turkey) from Tilt Derivatives of Gravity Gradient Tensors and Magnitude of Horizontal Gravity Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oruç, B.; Keskinsezer, A.

    2008-10-01

    The tilt derivatives (or angles) are determined using the gravity gradient tensors (GGT) from two horizontal components (Gx, Gy) and vertical component (Gz), and the magnitude of the horizontal components (MHC). We show that the tilt derivatives from GGT and MHC are highly suitable for mapping linear geological structures or edges of target geology. The results obtained from theoretical data, with and without random noise, have been analyzed in this study. The tilt derivatives from GGT and MHC allow imaging the horizontal boundaries of gravity sources with a high resolution and show an improvement performance as edge detectors since they are ultra sensitive for detecting source boundaries. The tilt derivatives from GGT and MHC over the northeast of the Biga Peninsula in northwestern, Turkey are interpreted to image the edges of geological structures. Tilt derivatives provide a quick method which works well to obtain a detailed structural image of the complex area, with the most precision. The results indicate that the most predominant structural trends are in a NE-SW direction. Therefore, a good correspondence is recognized between structures well known by surface geology and many other lineaments which are unknown or only partially known.

  16. Mineral chemistry, crystallization conditions and geodynamic implications of the Oligo-Miocene granitoids in the Biga Peninsula, Northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysal, Namık

    2015-06-01

    Widespread plutonic rocks in NW Turkey occur within the southward-younging and overlapping magmatic belts across the Aegean region. Post-collisional magmatism is represented by a series of granitoidic intrusions and volcanic successions. K-Ar and U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon dating of the Kazdağ and Yenice plutons yielded ages between 20.5 ± 0.5 Ma and 27.89 ± 0.17 Ma (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene). The granitoid samples are high-K calc-alkaline and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. The 87Sr/86Sr values for the granitoids, enclaves and leucocratic rocks range between 0.705168 and 0.708357. The initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios calculated for the crystallization ages of ca. 23-27 Ma are between 0.512425 and 0.512614, and the εNd values vary from -3.5 to 0.2. The Nd TDM model ages range between 0.73 and 1.13 Ga. These samples are enriched in LILEs and LREE and depleted in HFSEs with negative Eu anomalies, indicating that the melts were derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle modified by subducted slab-derived melts. Energy constrained-assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) modelling indicates that fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation modified the parent magma's composition during its residence in the upper crust. The mineral chemistry of amphiboles, pyroxenes, biotites and feldspars is used to constrain the pressure (P), temperature (T), oxygen fugacity (logƒO2) and water contents (H2Omelt) during the crystallization of the magmas in the studied granitoids. The clinopyroxene temperatures are in the range of 823-910 ± 45 °C. The amphibole temperatures for the studied plutonic rocks are in the range of 707-926 °C (mean = 798 ± 45 °C), and the crystallization depths are estimated to be in the interval of 1.02-10.2 km. The NW Anatolian plutonic rocks can be considered to have been equilibrated at the oxygen fugacities of calcic amphiboles (logƒO2) between -8.99 and -13.96 bars (mean = -12.11 bar) and H2Omelt contents between 1.63% and

  17. Metamorphic evolution of the high-pressure metamorphic rocks from the Kemer area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey): Implications for the accretionary continental growth and closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygül, M.; Topuz, G.; Satır, M.

    2009-04-01

    The northwestern part of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey, corresponds to the so-called Intra-Pontide suture, separating the Rhodope-Strandja zone to the north and Sakarya zone to the south. This suture zone is marked by the exposures of high-pressure metamorphics, oceanic accretionary complexes and ophiolites, which are widely covered by Eocene to Miocene volcanics and volcano-clastics, and crosscut by Eocene to Miocene granites. The Kemer area is one of the key-areas where high-pressure metamorphics and an ophiolitic mélange were widely exposed. This contribution deals with the metamorphic evolution of the Kemer high-pressure rocks, and their implications for the geodynamic evolution. The Kemer high-pressure rocks comprise predominantly micaschist, calcschist, marble and minor metabasite and serpentinite. The micaschists contain mineral assemblages involving garnet, phengite (3,30-3,44 c.p.f.u.), paragonite, epidote, chlorite, albite and titanite, and the metabasites consists of garnet, barrosite, albite, chlorite, epidote, albite and titanite. The equilibrium conditions are poorly constrained as 550 ± 50 °C temperature and >8-10 kbar pressure by Fe-Mg partitioning between garnet and phengite, and phengite-barometry, respectively. Timing of the high-pressure metamorphism is constrained as 84-64 Ma by Rb-Sr phengite-whole rock dating on four samples. Although the obtained age values display a wide scatter, they are consistent with geochronological data from the neighboring high-pressure areas: 86 ± 2 Ma from the Şarköy blueschists (Topuz et al. 2008) and 65-69 Ma from the Çamlıca garnet-micaschists (Okay and Satır, 2000). These data in conjunction with those from the literature suggest that Late Cretaceous represent a time of substantional accretionary continental growth related to the northward subduction of the Intra-Pontide Ocean. The closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean is constrained between Late Cretaceous and Eocene, because Eocene volcanics and volcano

  18. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of gem-quality chrysoprase from the Biga-Çanakkale region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Ören, Ufuk; Kibici, Yaşar

    2011-11-01

    The commercial quantities of gem-quality dark green chrysoprase are found as the fracture fillings covered with a weathering crust in the silicified serpentinites throughout the border of a metamorphic zone in the Biga-Çanakkale region of Turkey. However, the green-stained opaque quartz materials are also present in the same deposit, but these materials are common and in low-demand according to chrysoprase in terms of gemmological importance. Thus, it is necessary to distinguish these two similar materials from each other non-destructively. In addition, all chrysoprase roughs in this deposit also have alpha-quartz and moganite inclusions. Accordingly, dispersive (visible) confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (DCμRS) allows us to distinguish clearly the chalcedonic-quartz silica phase (fibrous quartz (chalcedony)) from the crystalline-quartz silica phase (fine-grained alpha-quartz) in the case of both quartz inclusions in the chrysoprase material and itself of the green-stained quartz material in the same deposit. This study characterizes the Biga chrysoprase (Turkey) in terms of silica building phases, chemical content, and individual Raman bands, using several destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques. The Raman spectra show that the most characteristic intensive and the widest Raman bands peaked at about 498 and 460 cm -1 can be inferred to ν2 doubly symmetric bending mode of [SiO 4/M] centers. The "M" includes the some cationic substitutions of Si by Fe, Cr, Mn, As, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, and K and Na as well. The second characteristic Raman band peaked at about 206 cm -1 can be inferred to single translational libration mode. The last readable Raman bands peaked at about 139 and 126 cm -1 can be inferred to doubly translational libration modes as well. In addition, the weaker Raman bands peaked at about 1577, 1430, 1303, 1160, 1082, 549, 394, 352, and 259 cm -1 are also present. As a result, the dispersive confocal micro-Raman spectrum of chrysoprase

  19. Scaling Tendency of Geothermal Waters Armutlu Peninsula, Northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can

    2015-04-01

    Prediction of scaling tendencies from geothermal waters is important for taking necessary precautions to prevent or control the scale formation. This study contains scaling tendency of geothermal outlets occurring through Armutlu Peninsula in Northwestern Turkey. The E-W trending region stretches into the Marmara Sea (ca. 117 km E-W by 45 km N-S) and is bounded to the north and the south by North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The two branches of NAFZ traversing the peninsula control not only active seismicity but also geothermal discharges of the region. Widespread basement rocks across the peninsula including metamorphic assemblage of granitic and volcanic rocks host geothermal fluids. The two distinctive geothermal discharges (Armutlu and Yalova) take place through lineaments appurtenant to the northern branch of NAFZ. Their discharge temperatures of 65 ° C (Yalova) and 70 ° C (Armutlu) are the highest of the region. According to their water chemical results, scaling tendency were computed by using WATCH for different temperature steps under the assumptions of single-stage adiabatic boiling and equilibrium degassing. To evaluate their scaling tendencies, mean geothermal reservoir temperatures were computed by using chemical geothermometers. Scaling tendencies were plotted for calcite, amorphous silica and quartz minerals for different temperature values including reservoir temperatures. Their scaling behavior reveals that oversaturation with calcite and quartz minerals are rapidly attained for the geothermal fluids (Yalova and Armutlu) at relatively lower temperatures. Regarding amorphous silica, they are completely undersaturated. Besides, Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) were calculated. Their results depict scale formation due to being positive LSI and less than 6.0 of RSI values.

  20. Earthquake Swarm in Armutlu Peninsula, Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Evrim; Çaka, Deniz; Tunç, Berna; Serkan Irmak, T.; Woith, Heiko; Cesca, Simone; Lühr, Birger-Gottfried; Barış, Şerif

    2015-04-01

    The most active fault system of Turkey is North Anatolian Fault Zone and caused two large earthquakes in 1999. These two earthquakes affected the eastern Marmara region destructively. Unbroken part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone crosses north of Armutlu Peninsula on east-west direction. This branch has been also located quite close to Istanbul known as a megacity with its high population, economic and social aspects. A new cluster of microseismic activity occurred in the direct vicinity southeastern of the Yalova Termal area. Activity started on August 2, 2014 with a series of micro events, and then on August 3, 2014 a local magnitude is 4.1 event occurred, more than 1000 in the followed until August 31, 2014. Thus we call this tentatively a swarm-like activity. Therefore, investigation of the micro-earthquake activity of the Armutlu Peninsula has become important to understand the relationship between the occurrence of micro-earthquakes and the tectonic structure of the region. For these reasons, Armutlu Network (ARNET), installed end of 2005 and equipped with currently 27 active seismic stations operating by Kocaeli University Earth and Space Sciences Research Center (ESSRC) and Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), is a very dense network tool able to record even micro-earthquakes in this region. In the 30 days period of August 02 to 31, 2014 Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) announced 120 local earthquakes ranging magnitudes between 0.7 and 4.1, but ARNET provided more than 1000 earthquakes for analyzes at the same time period. In this study, earthquakes of the swarm area and vicinity regions determined by ARNET were investigated. The focal mechanism of the August 03, 2014 22:22:42 (GMT) earthquake with local magnitude (Ml) 4.0 is obtained by the moment tensor solution. According to the solution, it discriminates a normal faulting with dextral component. The obtained focal mechanism solution is

  1. Timing Aegean extension: Evidence from in situ U-Pb geochronology and cathodoluminescence imaging of granitoids from NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Karen N.; Catlos, Elizabeth J.; Oyman, Tolga; Demirbilek, Mehmet

    2013-11-01

    The Biga Peninsula of NW Turkey hosts granitoid plutons that record the timing of extension in the Aegean region. Here we focus on three plutons, the Kozak, Eybek, and Kestanbol and apply new methods to obtain a detailed tectonic history of their generation and exhumation. In situ (in thin section) ion microprobe zircon geochronology and color cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircon grains and whole thin sections show these granites experienced magma mixing, brittle deformation, and significant fluid-rock interactions. Zircon ages range from the Late Eocene to Late Miocene with two ages from a single grain that are Permian. The Late Eocene-Early Oligocene ages record the end stages of subduction during the closure of a branch of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean, whereas Late Oligocene-Late Miocene ages record the plutons' extension and exhumation. We present a model in which Kozak, Eybek, and Kestanbol magmas were initially generated by fluid-flux melting from dehydration of the subducting Anatolide-Tauride block, as evidenced by the Late Eocene to Early Oligocene ages. Late Oligocene ages document the initiation of extension in the Biga Peninsula region and correlate to ages timing exhumation of the Kazdağ Massif. Early Miocene ages indicate continued Aegean extension in the southern Biga Peninsula region at this time.

  2. EVALUATING PESTICIDE USE AND SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG FARMWORKERS IN GALLIPOLI PENINSULA, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Cevizci, Sibel; Babaoglu, Ulken Tunga; Bakar, Coskun

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe pesticide use among farmworkers is a major public health problem in Turkey. This study aimed to investigate pesticide use and safety practices of farmers in a village of Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey. This cross sectional study was conducted with 117 farmers. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and safety practices concerning pesticides. The mean age of participants was 42.8 years, and 38.5% was female participants. Of the total 177 respondents, 77.8% reported that they prepared the chemical mixture at a public fountain, whereas 22.2% prepared it in their houses. Almost half (44.4%) reported that they experienced at least one health problem after pesticide application in the previous one year. Total scores for pesticide safety practices of the subjects, who declared that they experienced at least one health problem after the application in the previous one year, were statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001). Their responses about safe use of pesticides and storage conditions were very striking. Our findings indicated that there is a need to increase health promotion activities through training, and the local administrations should promote safe use of pesticides by farm workers. PMID:26513916

  3. The Triassic of the Kocaeli Peninsula (NW Turkey) with emphasis on Anisian conodonts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat Kilic, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In the present structural concept, the Kocaeli Peninsula, as a part of the Istanbul Zone, was in Triassic times part of an Eurasian fragment on the northern edge of the northernmost Tethys branch. The Triassic sequence, exposed in the Kocaeli Peninsula (NW Turkey), represents well dated transgressive and regressive marine deposits. This "Kocaeli Triassic", being regarded as an important Triassic sequence has attracted the attention of a large number of scientists. The Kocaeli Triassic encompasses six formations: The red coloured Scythian Kapaklı Formation is barren and shows regressive features, resembling the underlying Permian facies; The Erikli Formation is the first marine deposition of Scythian age. The Late Scythian Demirciler Formation consists of micritic and dolomitic limestone. The unit shows bioturbation in the clayey limestone-limestone sequence. Covering a karstic surface, the Anisian Ballıkaya Formation consists of dolomite, dolomitic limestone and limestone, follow by the Tepeköy Formation that shows 4 different lithologies. At base, Anisian grey nodular and red nodular limestones equals the nodular limestones of the Kazmalı Formation laterally; The Late Anisian-Ladinian Ammonitico Rosso facies. The upper part consists of Carnian shale with Halobia and grey-green marls. Restricted to the Çerkeşli region, the Çerkeşli Formation consists of a pebbly limestones, as a lateral equivalent of the Tepeköy Formation. The Anisian platform conodonts include new taxa that are described. We also focus on several new ramiforms, adding to the multi-elemental and taxonomic diversities. The revised Anisian conodont biostratigraphy is presented. Key Words: Triassic, Anisian, Conodont, Kocaeli

  4. Indication of a species in an extinction vortex: The ocellated turkey on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampichler, Christian; Calmé, Sophie; Weissenberger, Holger; Arriaga-Weiss, Stefan Louis

    2010-11-01

    The ocellated turkey Meleagris ocellata (OT) is a large, unmistakable endemic bird of the Yucatan peninsula. The species has suffered a considerable loss of distributional area as well as local abundance between 1980 and 2000 and is classified as endangered according to Mexican norms. We applied Classification Trees and Random Forests in order to determine the factors that most closely explain the observed patterns of distribution and abundance loss, and to develop hypotheses that may guide measures for the protection of the OT. Among the most important predictors of change were variables corresponding to aspects of forest cover and variables on human population and small settlements. OT abundance in 1980, however, was by far the most important predictor for OT abundance change. This is an indication that the OT dynamics are governed by internal rather than by external factors. Medium and low abundances in 1980 inevitably led to a further decrease during the following years, which gives rise to the conclusion that the OT might find itself in an extinction vortex. We suggest the following hypothetical scenario for OT decline: migrant people from other Mexican states colonise forested regions in Yucatan; they establish small settlements; bushmeat hunting is important for their survival; the naïve OT is easy prey; hunting—together with beginning deforestation—reaches a certain level, and local OT abundance falls below a critical threshold; OT continues declining regardless of current social and environmental changes except where there is total protection of both the species and its habitat.

  5. Infections in travellers returning to Turkey from the Arabian peninsula: a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Erdem, H; Ak, O; Elaldi, N; Demirdal, T; Hargreaves, S; Nemli, S A; Cag, Y; Ulug, M; Naz, H; Gunal, O; Sirmatel, F; Sipahi, O R; Alpat, S N; Ertem-Tuncer, G; Sozen, H; Evlice, O; Meric-Koc, M; Dogru, A; Koksaldi-Motor, V; Tekin, R; Ozdemir, D; Ozturk-Engin, D; Savasci, U; Karagoz, E; Cekli, Y; Inan, A

    2016-06-01

    Mass gatherings pooling people from different parts of the world-the largest of which is to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, for Hajj-may impose risks for acquisition and dissemination of infectious diseases. A substantial number of pilgrims to Hajj and Umrah are Turkish citizens (456,000 in 2014) but data are lacking on scale of the problem. We did a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study in Turkey to explore the range of infections among inpatients who had recently returned from the Arabian Peninsula. Our inclusion criteria were patients who had acquired an infection during their trip to an Arabian Peninsula country, or who became symptomatic within 1 week of their return. The data were collected retrospectively for January 1, 2013 and March 1, 2015. 185 Turkish patients were recruited to the study across 15 referral centers with travel associated infectious diseases after returning from Arabian Peninsula countries (predominantly Saudi Arabia 163 [88.1 %] for religious purposes 162 [87.5 %]). Seventy four (40.0 %) of them were ≥ 65 years old with numerous comorbidities including diabetes (24.3 %) and COPD (14.1 %). The most common clinical diagnosis was respiratory tract infections (169 [91.5 %]), followed by diarrheal diseases (13 [7 %]), and there was one case of MERS-CoV. Patients spent a median of 5 (3-7) days as hospital inpatients and overall mortality was 1.1 %. Returning travellers from the Arabian Peninsula present as inpatients with a broad range of infectious diseases similar to common community acquired infections frequently seen in daily medical practices in Turkey. PMID:26964538

  6. Palaeoecological construction from the Oligo-Miocene coal deposits of Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirtaş, Ferdi; Koşun, Erdal; Serkan Akkiraz, Mehmet; Bozcu, Mustafa; Koç, Koray

    2015-04-01

    The palynomorph composition of the Upper Oligocene and Miocene coal deposits from Gelibolu peninsula, NW Turkey, was analyzed to determine the palaeoclimate conditions. The samples were collected from two different abandoned coal mines. Also two different palynological assemblages were reported. The first one belongs to the Late Oligocene (Osmancik Formation). The other one is the Miocene (Gazhanedere Formation). The Late Oligocene palynological assemblage consist mainly of Alnus, Myricaceae, Cyrillaceae-Clethraceae, Calamus and Castanea. Riparian vegetation or wetland forest community incorporate high amounts of Alnus, and low percentages of deciduous Salix, Pterocarya and Carya. Calamus, which is a stratigraphical marker for the Late Oligocene of the Thrace Basin, was also recorded in high quantities. The content of the Miocene palynological assemblage is different from the Late Oligocene assemblage, and is mainly made up of Polypodiaceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Myricaceae, Oleaceae, Cyrillaceae-Clethraceae and Sapotaceae. Calamus and Alnus totally disappear here. In contrast, open vegetation elements such Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae occur frequently. The palaeoclimate calculations were made by the help of coexistence approach method. The late Oligocene association contains a total of 18 taxa, 11 of which were used for calculating the coexistence intervals. The values obtained 15.6 to 21.1 ° C for annual temperature, 5.0 to 13.3 ° C for winter temperature, 24.7 to 28.1 ° C for summer temperature and, 1096 to 1355 mm annual rainfall. In the Miocene palynological assemblage 23 taxa were identified. The palaeoclimate calculation is based on the 21 taxa. Quantitative data indicate the values for the mean annual temperature 15.6-21.3 ° C, for the winter temperature 5.0 to 13.3 ° C, 24.7- 27.9 ° C for summer temperature and 823-1520 mm for the annual rainfall. The palaeoclimate was warm and contained dry seasons due to lower boundary of annual precipitation

  7. A Late Holocene Slip Rate Of The North Anatolian Fault, Hersek Peninsula, Izmit Bay, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaci, O.; Altunel, E.; Clahan, K.; Yonlu, O.; Sundermann, S. T.; Lettis, W. R.; Turner, J.; Altekruse, J.; Gumus, I.; Lindvall, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Hersek Peninsula has been a strategic site for at least the last two millennia as a result of its location. It extends into Izmit Bay and creates a shortcut for the historical Bagdad Road, an important section of the spice route, between Istanbul (Constantinople) and Iznik (Nicaea). It also controls the entrance of Izmit Bay to Izmit (Nicomedia). Civilizations have been investing in this location by building harbors, fortifications, baths, roads, bridges, aqueducts, and temples. The remnants of these historical structures record evidence for past destruction of both anthropogenic and tectonic origin. From an active tectonics point of view, the Hersek Peninsula is a key locality for understanding seismic hazard in the Marmara Region. It is the last place that the North Anatolian fault can be studied on land before it enters the Marmara Sea and it has experienced strong ground shaking most recently during the M7.4 Izmit earthquake in 1999. Paleoseismic trenching as well as archeoseismologic investigations were recently performed on the Hersek Peninsula for regional and site specific seismic hazard characterization. Our paleoseismic trenches north of the Hersek Lagoon provided fault exposures confirming the location of the North Anatolian fault on the peninsula. Detailed mapping of a 6th century A.D. Byzantine aqueduct offset 14 ± 1 meters along the projection of this fault trace revealed a minimum late Holocene slip rate of 13.6 +1/-3.5 mm yr-1. Rapid fan deposition and subsidence on the delta plain across the Hersek Peninsula has resulted in the relatively recent deposition of several meters of relatively young alluvium and nearshore tidal deposits. Nearly 2 km of trench exposures revealed these deposits were continuous and contain only minor evidence of ground shaking in the form of secondary liquefaction deposits and ground fractures. The lack of primary ground surface rupture evidence in these approximately 300-year-old sediments strongly suggests that the

  8. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy of peritidal carbonates at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (Karaburun Peninsula, Western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coskun Tunaboylu, B.; Altiner, D.; İsintek, İ.; Demirci, D.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous shallow marine carbonates spanning the Triassic-Jurassic boundary are exposed in the Karaburun Peninsula, Western Turkey. The studied section (Tahtaiskele section) consists of Upper Triassic cyclic shallow marine carbonates intercalated with clastics overlain by Lower Liassic carbonates. Based on the microfacies stacking patterns, three main types of shallowing-upward cycles have been recognized. Cycles are mostly composed of subtidal facies at the bottom, intertidal/supratidal facies and/or subaerial exposure structures at the top. The duration of the cycles suggests that cycles were driven by the precessional Milankovitch rhytmicity. In the sequence stratigraphic frame of the Tahtaiskele section 4 sequence boundaries were detected and globally correlated. The first sequence boundary is located at the Alaunian-Sevatian boundary nearly coinciding with the first appearance of Triasina hantkeni. The second falls in the Rhaetian corresponding to a major sea level fall which led to the invasion of forced regressive siliciclastic deposits over the peritidal carbonates. The third occurs close to the T/J boundary and the fourth lies slightly above the base of the Jurassic. In the studied section, extinction, survival and recovery intervals have been recognized based on the stratigraphic occurrence patterns of benthic foraminifera and algae. Foraminifers became nearly totally extinct in the inner carbonate shelves at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and an interval of approximately 0.5 my passed before the begining of the recovery of Jurassic foraminifera.

  9. Block volume estimation from the discontinuity spacing measurements of mesozoic limestone quarries, Karaburun Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elci, Hakan; Turk, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Block volumes are generally estimated by analyzing the discontinuity spacing measurements obtained either from the scan lines placed over the rock exposures or the borehole cores. Discontinuity spacing measurements made at the Mesozoic limestone quarries in Karaburun Peninsula were used to estimate the average block volumes that could be produced from them using the suggested methods in the literature. The Block Quality Designation (BQD) ratio method proposed by the authors has been found to have given in the same order of the rock block volume to the volumetric joint count (J(v)) method. Moreover, dimensions of the 2378 blocks produced between the years of 2009 and 2011 in the working quarries have been recorded. Assuming, that each block surfaces is a discontinuity, the mean block volume (V(b)), the mean volumetric joint count (J(vb)) and the mean block shape factor of the blocks are determined and compared with the estimated mean in situ block volumes (V(in)) and volumetric joint count (J(vi)) values estimated from the in situ discontinuity measurements. The established relations are presented as a chart to be used in practice for estimating the mean volume of blocks that can be obtained from a quarry site by analyzing the rock mass discontinuity spacing measurements. PMID:24696642

  10. Block Volume Estimation from the Discontinuity Spacing Measurements of Mesozoic Limestone Quarries, Karaburun Peninsula, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Elci, Hakan; Turk, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Block volumes are generally estimated by analyzing the discontinuity spacing measurements obtained either from the scan lines placed over the rock exposures or the borehole cores. Discontinuity spacing measurements made at the Mesozoic limestone quarries in Karaburun Peninsula were used to estimate the average block volumes that could be produced from them using the suggested methods in the literature. The Block Quality Designation (BQD) ratio method proposed by the authors has been found to have given in the same order of the rock block volume to the volumetric joint count (Jv) method. Moreover, dimensions of the 2378 blocks produced between the years of 2009 and 2011 in the working quarries have been recorded. Assuming, that each block surfaces is a discontinuity, the mean block volume (Vb), the mean volumetric joint count (Jvb) and the mean block shape factor of the blocks are determined and compared with the estimated mean in situ block volumes (Vin) and volumetric joint count (Jvi) values estimated from the in situ discontinuity measurements. The established relations are presented as a chart to be used in practice for estimating the mean volume of blocks that can be obtained from a quarry site by analyzing the rock mass discontinuity spacing measurements. PMID:24696642

  11. An examination of the effects of land use changes on nature conservation rulings in Ceşme peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülgün, Bahriye; Türkyilmaz, Bahar; Bolca, Mustafa; Ozen, Fulsen

    2009-04-01

    Because of their intense vegetation and the fact that they include areas of coastline, deltas situated in the vicinity of big cities are areas of great attraction for people who wish to get away from in a crowded city. However, coasts, with their fertile soil and unique flora and fauna, need to be protected. In order for the use of such areas to be planned in a sustainable way by local authorities, there is a need for detailed data about these regions. In this study, the changes in land use of the area between Topburnu and Uçburun Musa Bey Harbour on the Ceşme peninsula, which is to the immediate west of Turkey's third largest city Izmir, from 1976 up to the present day, were investigated. In the study, using aerial photographs taken in 1976, 1995 and 2000 and an IKONOS satellite image from the year 2007, the natural and cultural characteristics of the region and changes in the coastline were determined spatially. Using aerial photographs from 1976, 1995 and 2000 and an IKONOS satellite image from the year 2007, together with "1/25,000 scale Conservation-Oriented Development Plans" prepared in 1979, 1990 and 2000 by the committee for the Preservation of Natural and Cultural Entities attached to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Turkish Republic, the natural and cultural characteristics of the region and the land use changes and their connection with conservation rulings were determined spatially. In this study, spatial changes in land use over the years were compared with changing conservation rulings over the years and the emerging results have brought a new perspective to the subject in contrast to other similar studies. PMID:18484188

  12. Attenuation Characteristics of the Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey) Using Coda Q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Evrim; Çaka, Deniz; Tunç, Berna; Woith, Heiko; Gottfried Lühr, Birger; Barış, Şerif

    2016-04-01

    Attenuation characteristic of seismic waves was determined using coda Q in the frame of MARsite (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417). Data from 82 earthquakes recorded in 2013-2014 in the Armutlu Peninsula and its vicinity by 9 ARNET seismic stations were used for processing. The earthquake magnitudes (Ml) and depths vary from 1.5 to 3.7 and 1.2-16.9 km, respectively. Epicentral distances closer than 90 km were selected to ensure better signal-to-noise ratios. Lapse times between 20 seconds and 40 seconds at intervals of 5 seconds were used for the calculation of the coda wave quality factor. The coda windows were filtered at central frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 Hz bandpass filter. To obtain reliable results, only data with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 5 and correlation coefficents higher than 0.7 were used. The SEISAN software and one of its subroutines (CODAQ) were used for data processing and analyses. In the whole study area, Qc=(51±4)f^(0.91±0.04) for 20 seconds, Qc=(77±7)f^(0.80±0.04) for 30 seconds and Qc=(112±13)f^(0.72±0.06) for 40 seconds lapse times are obtained for coda wave quality factor. The observed quality factor is dependent on frequency and lapse time. The results indicate that the upper lithosphere is more heterogeneous and seismically more active than the lower lithosphere as expected in the region which is tectonically complex refering to the effects of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. By considering earthquake clusters and recorded stations, the scattering area was drawn. The intersection of the scattered areas for 20 seconds lapse time is covering all stations. Quality factor in 1 Hz and frequency dependent values were calculated separately and for the intersection of all scattered areas. Calculated Qo and n values of the intersection area are 50 and 0.89, respectively. Hence, the Qo and n values

  13. Turkey.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  14. Seismotectonics of the Armutlu peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) from geological field observation and regional moment tensor inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinscher, J.; Krüger, F.; Woith, H.; Lühr, B. G.; Hintersberger, E.; Irmak, T. S.; Baris, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Armutlu peninsula, located in the eastern Marmara Sea, coincides with the western end of the rupture of the 17 August 1999, İzmit MW 7.6 earthquake which is the penultimate event of an apparently westward migrating series of strong and disastrous earthquakes along the NAFZ during the past century. We present new seismotectonic data of this key region in order to evaluate previous seismotectonic models and their implications for seismic hazard assessment in the eastern Marmara Sea. Long term kinematics were investigated by performing paleo strain reconstruction from geological field investigations by morphotectonic and kinematic analysis of exposed brittle faults. Short term kinematics were investigated by inverting for the moment tensor of 13 small to moderate recent earthquakes using surface wave amplitude spectra. Our results confirm previous models interpreting the eastern Marmara Sea Region as an active transtensional pull-apart environment associated with significant NNE-SSW extension and vertical displacement. At the northern peninsula, long term deformation pattern did not change significantly since Pliocene times contradicting regional tectonic models which postulate a newly formed single dextral strike slip fault in the Marmara Sea Region. This area is interpreted as a horsetail splay fault structure associated with a major normal fault segment that we call the Waterfall Fault. Apart from the Waterfall Fault, the stress strain relation appears complex associated with a complicated internal fault geometry, strain partitioning, and reactivation of pre-existing plane structures. At the southern peninsula, recent deformation indicates active pull-apart tectonics constituted by NE-SW trending dextral strike slip faults. Earthquakes generated by stress release along large rupture zones seem to be less probable at the northern, but more probable at the southern peninsula. Additionally, regional seismicity appears predominantly driven by plate boundary

  15. Investigations Of The Source Of Arsenic In Groundwater Around The Ayvacik District (Canakkale-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ozan; Baba, Alper; Aslı Erdin, Nur

    2014-05-01

    The main goal of this study is to investigate the source of arsenic problem in groundwater in the Ayvacik (Çanakkale) district, of Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. For this purpose, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical measurements were conducted at the selected locations of water sampling. Our field measurement results suggest that the water samples in the region is generally neutral and alkaline chemistry. Electrical conductivity, temperature and Eh values are of (327) - (1126) μS/cm, (17.4) - (28.2) and (-8) - (-62) mv, respectively. As well as this, we carried out laboratory analysis for the collected water samples to further investigate their chemistry in detail. Major ions in groundwater contain Ca and HCO3. High Ca and Mg values are related to Na and K ion-exchange reactions in water. Arsenic types in groundwater are in the form of arsenic acid (H3AsO3) where high concentrations of arsenic values are found in groundwater. These arsenic values exceed The World Health Organization (WHO) and Turkish Standards Institute (TS266 - Water intended for human consumption) limits (10 ppb). Alterations and fracture zones are common in some parts of the Miocene Volcanics in the study area. The circulation of cold water in the underground is closely related to major fractured zones. We think that the source of high arsenic values in the groundwater is connected with alteration zones in this volcanics according to field data and results of chemical analysis. Keywords: Arsenic, Groundwater, WHO, TS266, Ayvacik-Canakkale

  16. Petrochemical features of Miocene volcanism around the Çubukludağ graben and Karaburun peninsula, western Turkey: Implications for crustal melting related silicic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacık, Z.; Genç, Ş. C.; Gülmez, F.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread Neogene volcanism, mainly intermediate and rarely mafic and felsic in composition, was controlled by the extensional tectonic regime in western Turkey. The Karaburun and Cumaovası volcanics are the cases for understanding the magma source(s) and petrological processes, producing the extension-related mafic and felsic volcanism. The Karaburun volcanics (KV) are mainly oriented north to south in the Karaburun peninsula and span a wide spectrum from basalt (20 Ma) to rhyolite (16 Ma), and younger trachyte and trachydacites (13 Ma). The products of the subaerial silicic volcanism (the Cumaovası volcanics, CV; 17 Ma) which are represented by cluster of rhyolite domes, related pyroclastics occur within the NE-SW trending Çubukludağ graben, and intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks are lack in this area. The lavas of the Cumaovası volcanics are high silica rhyolites and rare dacites which are calc alkaline, peralumious and enriched significantly in LILE. Extremely low Sr, Ba values, extremely Eu depletions and very low LaN/YbN ratios are typical for the rhyolites of CV, similar to the topaz rhyolites. The Karaburun volcanics, with the exception of the minor alkaline basaltic and trachytic lavas, are mainly calc alkaline and metaluminous intermediate lavas. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the KV and dacitic samples of CV are close to each other and range from 0.708 to 0.709; while Sr isotopic ratios of the rhyolites are significantly high and variable (0.724-0.786). 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the CV and KV, except for the alkaline samples, are similar for both sequences vary from 0.51230 to 0.51242. Geological, geochemical, isotopic and radiochronologic data reveal that the KV and CV were formed in extensional tectonic setting, but evolved by different petrological processes in different magma chambers. During the Neogene, underplated mafic magma was injected into the crust and hybridized by mantle and crustal derived materials. Geochemical features and trace element

  17. BI-GAS coal-gasification program. Final report, November 1979-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1983-01-31

    The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant from November 1979 through August 1982. During this period Stearns-Roger Incorporated was the prime contractor for the project. Volume 2 contains topical reports which describe the operation of the gasifier and each of the auxiliary process areas as well as heat and material balance data, computer simulation, gasification of Pittsburgh seam coal and materials evaluation.

  18. Peninsula Academies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Marilyn E.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Peninsula Academies program developed by the Sequoia (California) Union High School District and 27 local high technology companies to help educationally disadvantaged students break the pattern of low academic achievement, lack of skills, and chronic unemployment. (FL)

  19. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements of the hydrothermal alterations within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doner, Zeynep; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work reports the geochemical characteristics and behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) of the hydrothermal alteration of the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit located in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Biga peninsula (Locally Balikesir province), NW Turkey. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at this deposit hosted in the hornfels rocks and related to the silicic to intermediate intrusion of Eybek pluton. It locally formed with brecciated zones and quartz vein stockworks, as well as the brittle fracture zones associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. Three main alteration zones with gradual boundaries formed in the mine area in the hornfels rock that represents the host rock, along that contact the Eybek pluton; potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration zones. The potassic alteration zone that formed at the center having high amount of Cu-sulfide minerals contains biotite, muscovite, and sericite with less amount of K-feldspar and associated with tourmalinization alteration. The propylitic alteration surrounds the potassic alteration having high amount of Mo and Au and contains chlorite, albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The phyllic alteration zone also surrounds the potassic alteration containing quartz, sericite and pyrite minerals. Based on the REE characteristics and content and when we correlate the Alteration index (AI) with the light REEs and heavy REEs of each alteration zone, it concluded that the light REEs decrease and heavy REEs increase during the alteration processes. The relationships between K2O index with Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* reveals a positive correlation in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones and a negative correlation in the propylitic alteration zone. This refers to the hydrothermal solution which is responsible for the studied porphyry deposits and associated potassic and phyllic alterations has a positive Eu and Sr anomaly as well as these elements were added to the altered rock from the hydrothermal solution. Keywords: Rare

  20. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  1. Origin of postcollisional intrusions in NW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for magma chamber processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysal, Namık

    2013-04-01

    Post-collisional magmatic activities of NW Anatolia are represented by a series of granitic intrusions and volcanic successions in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. These plutonic rocks have distinct textures, chemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics. They consist of coarse grained, equigranular and/or hypidiomorphic textured granite, gronodiorite, monzogranite, quartz-monzonite, pyroxene-monzonite and leucocratic alkali feldspar granites. These intrusions are composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. However, leucocratic facies rocks contain tourmaline with minor amount of mafic minerals. Accessory phases are represented by zircon, apatite, monozite, magnetite, sphene and rarely allanite. ASI values of the plutonic rocks vary between 0.7 and 1.24. These intrusive rocks are therefore classified as metaluminous-peraluminous with I-type affinity. K2O contents show that the intrusive rock samples show calc-alkaline, high K-calc-alkaline and shoshonitic character. Initial 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.69980-0.70835), 143Nd/144Nd(t) (0.51238-0.51247) isotope ratios and negative ɛNd(t) (-4.4 - -2.6) values imply that these intrusive rocks could have been derived from enriched mantle sources. N-MORB normalized spidergrams of NW Anatolian plutonic rocks display enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE) indicating hydrous melting of a mantle wedge in a subduction zone and/or enrichment of the mantle source with an inherited subduction component from an ancient arc magmatism. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element spidergrams are indicative of the importance of plagioclase and amphibole fractionation. On tectonic discrimination diagrams, all granite samples fall into the volcanic arc granite, syn and post-collisional granite fields. The geochemical data also indicate that a number of magma chamber processes involving magma mixing, fractional

  2. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut

    2016-04-01

    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  3. Directional solidification of Cu-Pb and Bi-Ga monotectic alloys under normal gravity and during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhindaw, B. K.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Singh, A. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Cu-Pb and Bi-Ga monotectic alloys of nominal hypermonotectic compositions were directionally solidified under various furnace translation rates, temperature gradients, and gravity levels. Gravity was varied by solidifying the alloys under ground conditions and in the furnace aboard NASA KC-135 aircraft, flying on parabolic trajectories. High translation rates, high gradients, high gravity levels, and higher density and lower thermal conductivity of the L2 phase favored the formation of fiber composite structure, while the opposite conditions resulted in structures consisting of L2 droplets in alpha matrix. A modified particle engulfment theory as originally enunciated by Ulhmann et al. (1964) is proposed to explain these observations.

  4. Talking Turkey...

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Talking Turkey… 45 million turkeys are eaten each Thanksgiving, 22 ... more 4 Steps to Making Sense, Safely, of Turkey and "All the Fixin's" The U.S. Food and ...

  5. The Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image of the Yucatan Peninsula was acquired from data captured on October 6, 2001. The Peninsula is comprised of several Mexican states, including Yucatan in the north, Quintana Roo to the east, and Campeche to the west. Mexico also shares the Yucatan Peninsula with the countries of Belize and Guatamala, located to the south of these states. Phytoplankton show up as blue-green swirls off the western coast of Yucatan, in the center of the image, mixed in with sediment and other organic matter. Off the eastern coast of the Peninsula, running north and south along the right side of he image, the region's barrier reef is visible. Second only to Australia's Great Barrier Reef in size, the reef spans 180 miles from the northern tip of the Peninsula south into the Gulf of Honduras, and houses over 35 different species of reef-building corals.

  6. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile thermometry in meta-ophiolitic rocks from the Kazdağ Massif, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Fırat; Zack, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In northwest Turkey, ophiolitic meta-gabbros are exposed on the Kazdağ Massif located in the southern part of the Biga Peninsula. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile temperatures were determined for meta-gabbros from the Kazdağ Massif. The Zr content of all rutiles range from 176 to 428 ppm and rutile grains usually have a homogeneous Zr distribution. The rutile grains from studied samples in the Kazdağ Massif are dominated by subchondritic Nb/Ta (11-19) and Zr/Hf ratios (20-33). Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf show positive correlation, which is probably produced by silicate fractionation. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios increase with a decrease in Ta and Hf contents. The core of rutile grains are generally characterized by low Nb/Ta ratios of 17-18 whereas the rims exhibit relatively high Nb/Ta ratios of 19-23. Trace element analyses in rutile suggest that these rutile grains were grown from metamorphic fluids. The P-T conditions of meta-gabbros were estimated by both Fe-Mg exchange and Zr-in-rutile thermometers, as well as by the Grt-Hb-Plg-Q geothermobarometer. The temperature range of 639 to 662 °C calculated at 9 kbar using the Zr-in-rutile thermometer is comparable with temperature estimates of the Fe-Mg exchange thermometer, which records amphibolite-facies metamorphism of intermediate P-T conditions. The P-T conditions of meta-ophiolitic rocks suggest that they occur as a different separate higher-pressure tectonic slice in the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence. Amphibolite-facies metamorphism resulted from northward subduction of the İzmir-Ankara branch of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean under the Sakarya Zone. Metamorphism was followed by internal imbrication of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence resulting from southerly directed compression during the collision.

  7. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile thermometry in meta-ophiolitic rocks from the Kazdağ Massif, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Fırat; Zack, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    In northwest Turkey, ophiolitic meta-gabbros are exposed on the Kazdağ Massif located in the southern part of the Biga Peninsula. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile temperatures were determined for meta-gabbros from the Kazdağ Massif. The Zr content of all rutiles range from 176 to 428 ppm and rutile grains usually have a homogeneous Zr distribution. The rutile grains from studied samples in the Kazdağ Massif are dominated by subchondritic Nb/Ta (11-19) and Zr/Hf ratios (20-33). Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf show positive correlation, which is probably produced by silicate fractionation. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios increase with a decrease in Ta and Hf contents. The core of rutile grains are generally characterized by low Nb/Ta ratios of 17-18 whereas the rims exhibit relatively high Nb/Ta ratios of 19-23. Trace element analyses in rutile suggest that these rutile grains were grown from metamorphic fluids. The P-T conditions of meta-gabbros were estimated by both Fe-Mg exchange and Zr-in-rutile thermometers, as well as by the Grt-Hb-Plg-Q geothermobarometer. The temperature range of 639 to 662 °C calculated at 9 kbar using the Zr-in-rutile thermometer is comparable with temperature estimates of the Fe-Mg exchange thermometer, which records amphibolite-facies metamorphism of intermediate P-T conditions. The P-T conditions of meta-ophiolitic rocks suggest that they occur as a different separate higher-pressure tectonic slice in the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence. Amphibolite-facies metamorphism resulted from northward subduction of the İzmir-Ankara branch of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean under the Sakarya Zone. Metamorphism was followed by internal imbrication of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence resulting from southerly directed compression during the collision.

  8. A new species of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae) from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tropea, Gioele; Yağmur, Ersen Aydın; Koç, Halil; Yeşilyurt, Fatih; Rossi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Euscorpius Thorell, 1876is described based on specimens collected from Dilek Peninsula (Davutlar, Aydın) in Turkey. It is characterized by an oligotrichous trichobothrial pattern (Pv= 7, et= 5/6, eb= 4) and small size. Euscorpius (Euscorpius) avcii sp. n. is the first named species of the subgenus Euscorpius from Turkey. PMID:22977350

  9. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  10. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  11. Peninsula Academies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequoia Union High School District, Redwood City, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Peninsula Academies program helps educationally disadvantaged youth overcome the handicaps of low academic achievement, lack of skills, and chronic unemployment. This is accomplished by providing a high school curriculum that is clearly related to work, training in specific job skills, emphasis…

  12. Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Gulf of Aqaba separates the Sinai peninsula from Saudi Arabia in this scene of the Middle East (29.0N, 34.5E) showing the geomorphology and geology of this region including portions of Egypt, Israel, Jordon and Saudi Arabia. A small portion of the Gulf of Suez can be seen on the opposite side of the Sinai peninsula.

  13. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  14. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  15. Plio-Quaternary kinematic development and paleostress pattern of the Edremit Basin, western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürer, Ömer Feyzi; Sangu, Ercan; Özburan, Muzaffer; Gürbüz, Alper; Gürer, Aysan; Sinir, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    The Edremit Basin and Kazdağ High are the most prominent morphological features of the Biga Peninsula in northwest Anatolia. There is still no consensus on the formation of Edremit Basin and debates are on whether the basin evolved through a normal, a right-lateral or a left-lateral strike-slip faulting. In this study, the geometric, structural and kinematic characteristics of the Edremit Basin are investigated to make an analytical approach to this problem. The structural and kinematic features of the faults in the region are described according to field observations. These fault-slip data derived from the fault planes were analyzed to determine the paleostress pattern of faulting in the region. According to the performed analysis, the southern end of the Biga Peninsula is under the influence of the ENE-WSW-trending faults of the region, such as the Yenice-Gönen, the Edremit, the Pazarköy and the Havran-Balıkesir Fault Zones. The right step-over geometry and related extension caused to the development of the Edremit Basin as a transtensional pull-apart basin between the Havran-Balıkesir Fault Zone and the Edremit Fault Zone. Field observations showed that the Plio-Quaternary faults at the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas are prominently right-lateral strike-slip faults. Our paleostress analyses suggest a dominant NE-SW extension in the study area, as well as NW-SE direction. This pattern indicates the major effects of the North Anatolian Fault System and the component of Aegean Extensional System in the region. However, our kinematic analysis represents the dominant signature of the North Anatolian Fault System in basin bounding faults. The field observations and kinematic findings of this study are also consistent with the regional GPS, paleomagnetic and seismological data. This study concludes that the North Anatolian Fault System is the prominent structure in the current morphotectonic framework of the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas.

  16. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  17. Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous icebergs are breaking out of the sea ice in the Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula. This true-color MODIS image from November 13, 2001, shows several icebergs drifting out of the Weddell Sea. The Antarctic Peninsula (left) reaches out into the Drake Passage, which separates the southern tip of South America from Antarctica. Warmer temperatures have cleared a tiny patch of bare ground at the Peninsula's tip. The predominant ocean current in the area is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current ('circum' meaning 'around'), which is also the 'West Wind Drift.' The current is the largest permanent current in the world, and water is moved eastward by westerly winds. Icebergs leaving the Weddell Sea are likely to be moved north and east by the current. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U

  19. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  1. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  2. Diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interfaces of dilute Bi:Ga, Tl:Ga, and Pb:Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongxu; Jiang, Xu; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Rice, Stuart A.

    2010-07-19

    As part of a study of the in-plane wave-vector (q{sub xy}) dependence of the effective Hamiltonian for the liquid-vapor interface, H(q), the wave-vector dependences of diffuse x-ray scattering from the liquid-vapor interfaces of dilute alloys of Bi in Ga, Tl in Ga, and Pb in Ga have been measured. In these dilute alloys the solute component segregates as a monolayer that forms the outermost stratum of the liquid-vapor interfaces, and the density distribution along the normal to the interface is stratified. Over the temperature ranges that the alloy interfaces were studied, the Tl and Pb monolayers exhibit both crystalline and liquid phases while the Bi monolayer is always liquid. The diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interfaces of these alloys displays interesting differences with that from the liquid-vapor interface of pure Ga. The presence of a segregated monolayer of solute in the liquid-vapor interface of the alloy appears to slightly suppress the fluctuations in an intermediate wave-vector range in a fashion that preserves the validity of the macroscopic capillary wave model to smaller wavelengths than in pure liquid Ga, and there is an increase in diffuse scattering when the Tl and Pb monolayers melt. The surface intrinsic roughness from fitting the wave-vector dependence of surface tension is 5.0 pm for the Tl:Ga alloy and 1.4 pm for the Bi:Ga alloy. Also, a mode of excitation that contributes to diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interface of Pb in Ga, but does not contribute to diffuse scattering from the liquid-vapor interface of Ga, has been identified. It is proposed that this mode corresponds to the separation of the Pb and Ga layers in the regime 1 nm{sup -1} {le} q{sub xy} {le} 10 nm{sup -1}.

  3. Locating and managing peninsulas for nesting ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.; Messmer, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this extension bulletin is to guide the management of nesting ducks on peninsulas on public and private lands. Managing peninsulas for ducks is a relatively new strategy that was developed in the grassland region of western North America. Information contained in this bulletin is primarily from studies conducted by biologists working at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center.

  4. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  5. Orthobunyaviruses, a Common Cause of Infection of Livestock in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Blitvich, Bradley J.; Saiyasombat, Rungrat; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B.; Calisher, Charles H.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Farfán-Ale, José A.; Loroño, Rubén E.; Bates, Arturo; Loroño-Pino, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of selected orthobunyaviruses in livestock in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a serologic investigation was performed using serum samples from 256 domestic animals (182 horses, 31 sheep, 1 dog, 37 chickens, and 5 turkeys). All serum samples were examined by plaque reduction neutralization test using Cache Valley virus (CVV), Cholul virus (CHLV), South River virus (SOURV), Kairi virus, Maguari virus, and Wyeomyia virus. Of the 182 horses, 60 (33.0%) were seropositive for CHLV, 48 (26.4%) were seropositive for CVV, 1 (0.5%) was seropositive for SOURV, 60 (33.0%) had antibodies to an undetermined orthobunyavirus, and 13 (7.1%) were negative for orthobunyavirus-specific antibody. Of the 31 sheep, 6 (19.3%) were seropositive for CHLV, 3 (9.7%) were seropositive for CVV, 4 (12.9%) were seropositive for SOURV, 16 (51.6%) had antibodies to an undetermined orthobunyavirus, and 2 (6.5%) were negative for orthobunyavirus-specific antibody. The single dog was seropositive for SOURV. Four (11%) chickens had antibodies to an undetermined orthobunyavirus, and 1 (20%) turkey was seropositive for CHLV. These data indicate that orthobunyaviruses commonly infect livestock in the Yucatan Peninsula. PMID:23045250

  6. Arabian peninsula: zone of ferment

    SciTech Connect

    Stookey, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is an area which must be approached in terms of its own values and traditions. The different states, however, present difficulties for even the most well-informed policymaker because the region is not homogeneous. Some of the states are tenuous congeries of tribal and sectarian communities that do not necessarily share the aims of the ruling group. The authors of these six essays consider (1) the economic position of the states, (2) how oil exports affect the economies of the exporting states, (3) how traditional tribal and religious societies react to change, (4) whether their social values are conducive to modernization, and (5) what factors lead to the development of dissent, and how they affect the expression of dissent. Separate abstracts were prepared for two of the essays selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 23 tables.

  7. Tropical Depression Alex hits Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Depression Alex on June 27, 2010 at 2214 UTC (6:14 PM EST). Tropical depression Alex was near the western coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. ...

  8. Echinococcosis multilocularis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uysal, V; Paksoy, N

    1986-10-01

    We present 20 new cases of Echinococcosis multilocularis (EM) and have also reviewed all 137 previously reported cases from Turkey. The total number of cases is now 157 up until the end of 1983. Of 146 cases with information on their place of occurrence, 133 (91%) were from eastern and central parts of Turkey or the region of the Black Sea where the cold climate is predominant. This area should be considered as part of the geographic distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis which extends from the Caucasian Republics (Azerbaijan and Georgian S.S.R.) to Siberia in the Soviet Union. EM is more frequent among the people involved in raising livestock in the rural areas of Turkey. Most of the cases (76%) were between the ages of 30 and 50; 53% were males. One hundred and thirty nine cases (92%) were liver infections, and most of the cases (60%) were clinically diagnosed as liver tumour. PMID:3795325

  9. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  10. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  11. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  12. The "Turkey Buzzard" glider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G; Brown, D T

    1923-01-01

    The "Turkey Buzzard" is a semi-internally braced monoplane (Fig. 1). The wing is placed above the fuselage for two important aerodynamical reasons: first, because this position minimizes the mutual interference between the wing and the fuselage, and, second, useful lifting surface is utilized with the wing passing over the fuselage instead of through it.

  13. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  14. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  15. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  16. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  17. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  18. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eres, Figen

    2010-01-01

    The quality and the prevalence of education are the major indicators of the development of a society. It is a kind of human right to every person living in the society to be educated in a sufficient way. The education of the disabled people, a social reality in Turkey, is not sufficiently carried out. This paper aims at the education of the…

  19. Astronomy in Modern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

    2013-01-01

    Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

  20. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  1. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546) and complete mtDNA (7) sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV)1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the proposed southern coastal

  3. Antarctic Peninsula Tidewater Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, E. C.; Scambos, T. A.; Haran, T. M.; Wellner, J. S.; Domack, E. W.; Vernet, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula (nAP, north of 66°S) is a north-south trending mountain range extending transverse across the prevailing westerly winds of the Southern Ocean resulting in an extreme west-to-east precipitation gradient. Snowfall on the west side of the AP is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the east side. This gradient drives short, steep, fast-flowing glaciers into narrow fjords on the west side, while longer lower-sloping glaciers flow down the east side into broader fjord valleys. This pattern in ice dynamics affects ice-ocean interaction on timescales of decades to centuries, and shapes the subglacial topography and submarine bathymetry on timescales of glacial cycles. In our study, we calculate ice flux for the western and eastern nAP using a drainage model that incorporates the modern ice surface topography, the RACMO-2 precipitation estimate, and recent estimates of ice thinning. Our results, coupled with observed rates of ice velocity from InSAR (I. Joughin, personal communication) and Landsat 8 -derived flow rates (this study), provide an estimate of ice thickness and fjord depth in grounded-ice areas for the largest outlet glaciers. East-side glaciers either still terminate in or have recently terminated in ice shelves. Sedimentary evidence from the inner fjords of the western glaciers indicates they had ice shelves during LIA time, and may still have transient floating ice tongues (tabular berg calvings are observed). Although direct oceanographic evidence is limited, the high accumulation rate and rapid ice flux implies cold basal ice for the western nAP glaciers and therefore weak subglacial discharge relative to eastern nAP glaciers and or other tidewater fjord systems such as in Alaska. Finally, despite lower accumulation rates on the east side, the large elongate drainage basins result in a greater ice flux funneled through fewer deeper glaciers. Due to the relation between ice flux and erosion, these east-side glaciers

  4. Nursing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada. PMID:16982724

  5. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  7. The Peninsula Academies. Third Yearly Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Dorothy F.

    The performance of the Peninsula Academies of Electronics and Computer Technology was assessed for the program's third year of operation in two host schools in the Sequoia Union High School District. Data were collected for approximately 190 Academy students and for a comparison group of non-Academy students. Academies students missed fewer days…

  8. Orthobunyavirus Antibodies in Humans, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Saiyasombat, Rungrat; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    We performed a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 146 (18%) of 823 persons tested. Further studies are needed to determine health risks for humans from this potentially deadly group of viruses. PMID:23017592

  9. Paleogene sequence on the Alaska Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Detterman, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Paleogene strata are exposed nearly the entire length of the Alaska Peninsula. They include continental and marine volcaniclastic rocks and a thick volcanic sequence. The strata are divided into the Tolstoi, Stepovak, Meshik, and Belkofski (in part) Formations in the southern part of the peninsula, and into the nonmarine clastic West Foreland Formation and the Hemlock Conglomerate in the northern part. The Tolstoi Formation (Paleocene and Eocene), 670-1380 m thick, consists mainly of continental quartz- and chert-rich sandstone and conglomerate, siltstone, and coal. Volcanic clasts and tuffaceous detritus increase in abundance upward. Neritic strata are present as interbeds in the type area. The formation overlies, with a major unconformity, strata ranging in age from Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. Partly coeval strata at the north end of the peninsula (West Foreland Formation) are mainly volcanic sandstone and conglomerate. The Stepovak Formation, 1800-2000 m thick, represents two contrasting depositional environments - a lower dark siltstone and sandstone turbidite, about 975 m thick, and a shallow neritic sandstone and siltstone, rich in volcanic material, about 1000 m thick. Locally, the upper part is deltaic sandstone, siltstone, and coal. An abundant metafauna of Eocene and Oligocene age is found in the neritic deposits. A thick coeval volcanic unit, the Meshik Formation, is present in the central part of the peninsula. Andesitic to basaltic lava, breccia, tuff, and lahars, as much as 1500 m thick, have been K-Ar dated at 27-38 m.y. Similar rocks with interbedded sediment at the end of the peninsula are included with the Belkofski Formation.

  10. Nutritional rickets in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Behzat

    2010-08-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) remains the most common form of developmental bone disease, in spite of the efforts of clinicians and health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease in Turkey. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR exists along a spectrum ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR results from vita-min D deficiency that may have temporary but profound effects on short- and long-term skeletal development. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency during infancy may predispose a patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, etc. The factors responsible for the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries include the following: limited sunshine exposure as individuals spend more time indoors watching television and working on computers or intentional sunshine avoidance for skin cancer prevention. Traditional clothing (covered dress) further limits the exposure to sunshine and thus decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal vitamin D deficiency and breast feeding without supplementation are the most prominent reasons. The diagnosis of NR is established with a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. In conclusion, recent literature has drawn attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l), the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium, suppress excess secretion of parathyroid hormone, and reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effects. PMID:25610130

  11. Sphingolipidoses in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkara, Hatice Asuman; Topçu, Meral

    2004-09-01

    During the last 5 years 2057 children under the age of 5 with various neurologic symptoms with the suspected diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases were referred to our hospital from different universities and state hospitals. We were able to separate sphingolipidoses by lysosomal enzyme screening. A total of 300 patients (15%) with sphingolipidoses were diagnosed; there were deficiencies of arylsulfatase A [metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD)] in 93 (31%), hexosaminidase [Sandhoff disease (SHD)] in 62 (20.7%), hexosaminidase A [Tay-Sachs disease (TSD)] in 15 (5%), beta-galactosidase (GM1 gangliosidosis) in 35 (11.7%), alpha-galactosidase (Fabry disease) in one (0.3%) cerebroside beta-galactosidase (Krabbe disease) in 65 (21.7%) and glucosylceramidase (Gaucher disease) in 29 (9.6%). SHD (20.7%), MLD (31%) and Krabbe disease (21.7%) were common. Prenatal enzymatic diagnosis was made in 70 at risk pregnancies, 64 for TSD and SHD, three for MLD and three for GM1 gangliosidosis by using chorionic villus biopsy in 54, cord blood samples in 12 and cultured amniotic fluid cells in four. Seventeen fetuses were found to be affected. We have calculated the relative frequency and minimum incidence of sphingolipidoses in Turkey. The combined incidence of sphingolipidoses is 4.615 per 100,000 live births. The calculated incidences are 1.43, 0.95, 1, 0.23, 0.54, 0.45, 0.015 per 100,000 live births for MLD, SHD, Krabbe, Gaucher, TSD, GM1 gangliosidosis and Fabry diseases, respectively. The real incidence, which covers all subtypes of this group of diseases, should be greater than this number. The results suggested that, as a group, sphingolipidoses are relatively common and represent an important health problem in Turkey and some rare autosomal recessive diseases of Turkey are due to 'founder effect' created by consanguineous marriages. PMID:15275696

  12. Harsh Winter in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The predominantly mountainous terrain of the Republic of Turkey is covered by snow in this Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image, produced from data collected on January 13, 2002. The snow-laced peaks of the Kure Daglari mountain range in the north can be seen as they range from the upper middle of the image to the upper right. The mountains parallel the northern coastline, which opens to the Black Sea. Also visible in this image, at the bottom right, is the island of Cyprus. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Stratigraphic correlation of the Late Cretaceous Simsima Formation United Arab Emirates and Akveren Formation, northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, O.; Abu Saima, M.; Ramazanoglu, S.; Arman, H.

    2015-11-01

    Latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) microfossils are used to correlate the carbonate rocks of the Simsima Formation in the northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula (Northern Oman Mountains, United Arab Emirates and Oman) with the Akveren Formation in Kandira (northwest Turkey, near Black Sea region). Both formations have characteristically rich planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil faunal assemblages that permit the recognition of the Globotruncanella havanensis Zone and Quadrum sissinghii Zone CC22. The palaeontological data is used to build an appropriate palaeoenvironmental model for the latest Cretaceous Aruma Group in the Oman Mountains foreland basin. The study reveals that the Late Cretaceous formations of UAE and Turkey can be divided into an open marine carbonate shelf facies (planktonic foraminifera/calcareous nannofossil biomicrite) and a shallow-marine carbonate facies (rudistids, coralline algal foraminiferal biomicrite).

  14. Recent activity in Turkey.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The role of Pathfinder grants to recent family planning projects led by business and labor in Turkey is described. Pathfinder funded a major portion of the Turkish Family Planning and Health Foundation, a grant agency set up to complement government programs. One current project is a survey of family planning needs of squatter communities. The Foundation's founder established a factory-based family planning clinic, aided by Pathfinder, now self-supporting. The Turkish TURK-IS Labor Federation has supported several other worksite clinics, and has placed family planning among its top priorities. Pathfinder supported development of their population policy statement. Turkey has only recently passed progressive family planning legislation and permitted significant private sector activities. The population of 52 million is growing at 2.8%. Unemployment is high; per capita income is $1160. The government's goals are to reduce fertility from 4.3 to 2.5 children per woman and increase contraceptive prevalence from 20% to 60% by the year 2000. PMID:12179678

  15. Statistical Analysis of Iberian Peninsula Megaliths Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. C.

    2009-08-01

    Megalithic monuments have been intensively surveyed and studied from the archaeoastronomical point of view in the past decades. We have orientation measurements for over one thousand megalithic burial monuments in the Iberian Peninsula, from several different periods. These data, however, lack a sound understanding. A way to classify and start to understand such orientations is by means of statistical analysis of the data. A first attempt is done with simple statistical variables and a mere comparison between the different areas. In order to minimise the subjectivity in the process a further more complicated analysis is performed. Some interesting results linking the orientation and the geographical location will be presented. Finally I will present some models comparing the orientation of the megaliths in the Iberian Peninsula with the rising of the sun and the moon at several times of the year.

  16. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large

  17. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  18. Kuwait Oil Fires, Persian Gulf, Qatar Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view up the Persian Gulf from the Qatar Peninsula into southern Iraq (25.5N, 51.0E) shows an excursion of the smoke plumes from the Kuwait oil fires set during the short Persian Gulf War. Smoke from the fires north of Kuwait City, extends across the Persian Gulf while a larger smoke plume from the southern fires heads into southern Saudi Arabia before beginning to spread out and become more diffuse.

  19. Detroit and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This scene displays the southeastern part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula and adjacent Ontario, Canada (43.0N, 84.0W). Detroit can be recognized by its radial pattern of development and sediment plumes in the rivers from the massive industrial activity. The area pockmarked by lakes northwest of Detroit essentially outlines the limits of the Defiance Moraine caused by the stagnation and melting of Ice Age glaciers.

  20. The stability of H/V spectral ratios from noise measurements in Armutlu Peninsula (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livaoǧlu, Hamdullah; Irmak, T. Serkan; Caka, Deniz; Yavuz, Evrim; Lühr, B. G.; Woith, H.; Tunç, B.; Baris, S.

    2016-04-01

    The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) method has been successfully using in order to estimate the fundamental resonance frequency of the sedimentary cover, its thickness and amplification factor since at least 3 decades. There are numerous studies have been carried out on the stability of the H/V spectral ratios. Almost all studies showed that fundamental frequency is stable even measurements are repeated at different times. From this point of view, the results will show us an approach whether the stations are suitable for accurate estimate of earthquake studies and engineering purposes or not. Also we want to see if any effects of the amplification factor changing on the seismograms for Armutlu Seismic Network (ARNET) even though seismic stations are established far away from cultural noise and located on hard rock sites. It has been selected one hour recorded data of all stations during the most stationary times. The amplification and resonant frequency variations of H/V ratio were calculated to investigate temporal stability in time. There is a total harmony in fundamental frequencies values and H/V spectral ratio values in time-lagged periods. Some stations shows secondary minor peaks in high frequency band due to a shallow formation effect or cultural noises around. In the east side of the area ILYS station shows amplitude peak in lower fundamental frequency band from expected. This could compose a high amplification in lower frequencies and so that yield less reliable results in local earthquakes studies. By the experimental results from ambient noise analysis, it could be worked up for relocation of one station.

  1. Wildfire activity in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Trigo, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Rasilla, Domingo

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of this work is to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the monthly wildfire activity in the Iberian Peninsula trough the first comprehensive assessment of wildfires from both countries (Portugal and Spain). This was made possible for the 28-year long period spanning between 1980 and 2007 using and comparing the Portuguese and Spanish fire databases. We use the Portuguese wildfire database kindly provided by the Forest National Authority which includes information of the fire events recorded between the 1980-2007 period and compute time series of monthly values of burnt area that will be used and the correspondent values from the Spanish database. It should be stressed that the Iberian Peninsula is characterized by very different wildfire regimes. The majority of Iberia being dominated by an intense seasonal peak in the summer, particularly the western (Portugal) and southern (Andalucía) areas. However, the greener provinces in the north present a strong secondary peak in late winter (Galicia) or even a higher activity during the months of February-March (Asturias). Furthermore, we also aim to characterize the weather conditions and the atmospheric circulation associated with high wildfire activity over different areas of the Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose a set of large-scale atmospheric fields was retrieved from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Results obtained for the description of the individual and joint spatial and temporal analysis were based on different methodology, including multivariate statistical analysis (PCA, cluster analysis) and regression techniques, as well as the weather conditions and synoptic patterns characteristic of the months with higher values of burnt area.

  2. The superdeep well of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovsky, Y.A.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of continental crusts is a subject of ever increasing importance in the geological sciences. Over 15 years ago, Soviet scientist began drilling a superdeep well on the Kola Peninsula near Murmansk. The well has reached a depth of 12 km and is thereby the deepest well in the world, yielding a vast amount of information on the structure of the continental crust. The geological, geophysical and technological data from the Kola well were initially published in a monographic account entitled ''Kol'skaja sverchglubokaja''. This English translation makes the results available to non-Soviet scientists as well.

  3. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the west Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

    2007-01-29

    The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Ecosystem dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2 degrees C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6 degrees C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6 degrees C warming of the upper 300 m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine ecosystem. Ecosystem responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in icedependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate

  4. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the West Antarctic Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

    2006-01-01

    The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Ecosystem dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2°C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6°C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6°C warming of the upper 300 m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine ecosystem. Ecosystem responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in ice-dependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate/ecological gradients

  5. Turkey. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since

  6. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  7. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  8. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  9. Turkey: Reviews of National Policies for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The first of three parts of this review of Turkey's educational system and national educational policies, the examiner's report, begins by singling out essential features of modern Turkey that affect the provision of education and to which the system is having to respond. These include Turkey's unique geographic situation, its continuing devotion…

  10. 78 FR 10595 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Forest Service Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee (RAC). The RAC will be responsible for reviewing and recommending land... the act be reauthorized this year. RAC members represent a wide range of interests. The...

  11. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TAIMYR PENINSULA, SIBERIAN ARCTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula, primarily because of the remoteness of this area. W...

  12. Contraception in Turkey.

    PubMed

    1967-01-01

    Population control and the use of contraceptives were discusses at the biannual meeting of the Turkish Academy of Medicine in September 1966. This was of special importance because contraception and dissemination of information about it were illegal in Turkey for many years before 1965. Thus, until quite recently Turkish doctors had only limited experience of modern contraceptive methods. Oral contraceptives and IUDs were discussed at the Academy meeting, and Dr Nusret Fisek has sent the Bulletin a summary of the main points raises. Oral contraceptives: Only minor side-effects were found and were ignored or easily treated; they disappeared when the oral contraception was stopped. Serious conditions such as liver dysfunction, thromboembolic phenomena, and diabetes have not been found. Intra-uterine devices: Endometritis requiring treatment is infrequent. In 23 of 45 women who had used IUDs for six months, endometrial histology showed diffuse bleeding, endometrial oedema or lymphocyctic endometritis. Expulsion and medical removal rates for IUDs over a six-month period were 5% in one clinic and 12% in another, with a pregnancy rate of between 1.2%. There was only one perforation in 6000 insertions. The doctor's attitude had a great influence on removal and discontinuation rates. In a large maternity hospital the Medical Board accepted, as a medical reason for induced abortion, accidental pregnancies that occurred in women wearing IUDs. PMID:12304991

  13. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  14. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal") that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel to the

  15. Foraminifera from the Northern Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Weldon W.

    1964-01-01

    Foraminifera from a Tertiary sequence that crops out on the northern part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash., show stratigraphic and ecologic significance. Forty-two species that are important both to correlations and to ecologic interpretations are illustrated and systematically discussed. The Foraminifera indicate that some of the rocks may be as old as early Eocene. The oldest rocks are tentatively referred to the Penutian stage of Mallory. Other parts of the sequence are referred to the Ulatisian and Narizian stages of Mallory, the Refugian stage of Schenck and Kieinpell, and the Zemorrian and Saucesian stages of Kleinpell. Several short periods of shallow, sheltered sea conditions are suggested by the Foraminifera from several parts of the stratigraphic sequence, but Foraminifera from most of the rocks suggest relatively deep, open-sea conditions. With the exception of shallow, warm-water conditions in rocks of probable middle Eocene age, the Foraminifera suggest that cool-to-cold water temperatures, regardless of depth, prevailed during the deposition of most of the rocks of Tertiary age in the northern Olympic Peninsula.

  16. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk and brought home with the flight crewmembers for processing. ESC was developed by the JSC Man-Systems Division and this mission's application of it is part of a continuing evolutionary development le

  17. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. For example, the small hills in the foreground and behind the central volcano are cinder cones, approximately only 200 meters high. Note the sharp triangular shadow from the conical volcano at right. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk

  18. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  19. Labour migration from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uner, S

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with Turkish labor migration to Western Europe. Earlier and recent patterns of labor migration, characteristics of migrants by occupation, area of destination, and by geographical origins are discussed. Economic and demographic consequences of labor migration are also analyzed. It is estimated that Turkey's population will reach 73 million at the year 2000 with the present growth rate of 2.48% annually. Considering the efforts made to slow down the present high fertility rates and assuming that the decrease in labor force participation during 1970-1980 continues, the author concludes that the labor supply will increase with a growth rate of 2% annually for the next 13-15 years. Thus, the labor supply will reach 26.6 million people in the year 2000 from the 1980 level of 17.8 million. Assuming also that the income/employment elasticity of .25 which was observed throughout the period of 1960-1980 will not change until 2000, the annual growth rate of employment may be estimated as 1.5%. Thus, the number of people employed will reach 20 million in the year 1990 and 23.2 million in the year 2000. 8.8 million people will join the labor market as new entrants between 1980 and 2000. Only 6 million people out of 8.8 million will be employed. Thus, in the year 2000, it is estimated that 2.8 million new unemployed people will be added to the already open unemployment figure 1980 census data give the number of unemployed as .6 million people. Adding the 2.8 million new unemployed to this figure totals 3.4 million unemployed in 2000. The State Planning Organization's estimate of labor surplus for 1980 was 2.5 million people. When 2.8 million unemployed people are added to this figure, the labor surplus for the year 2000 reaches 5.3 million people. PMID:12342136

  20. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  1. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.

    Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  2. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. PMID:26803684

  3. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, R.; Antón, M.; Costa, M. J.; Silva, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    To study tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula (IP), NASA Langley TOR data have been analyzed for the 1979-2005 period. The maximum tropospheric ozone concentration over the entire IP was found in June (˜41 DU) and a minimum in December (˜29 DU). However the maximum tropospheric ozone concentration was found over West Atlantic Coast (WAC) (˜44 DU), followed by Mediterranean Coast (MC) (˜42 DU), North Atlantic Coast (NAC) (˜41 DU), Central Iberian Peninsula (CIP) (˜40 DU) and Pyrenees Mountain Range (PMR) (˜39 DU) during June-July. The high concentration of tropospheric ozone in July over the Atlantic Ocean near IP is due to the presence of Azores anticyclone and related photochemistry and dynamics, and affects the observed higher tropospheric ozone concentration over WAC zone. Strong seasonal cycle in tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed with large variation over NAC (˜49%), followed by WAC (˜48%) and MC (˜41%) compared to CIP and PMR (˜38%) zones. When the data are compared over the IP for the two periods (1979-1993 and 1997-2005), a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed during the second period with respect to the first. These increases are almost 8% to 24% over NAC, 6% to 17% over WAC, 5% to 24% over CIP, 6% to 23% over MC and 13% to 18% over PMR, zones. It has been observed that topography, climatology and population density distribution plays a crucial role in the variability of tropospheric ozone concentration over the IP.

  4. Alcohol fuel research in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

    1998-12-01

    Turkey, like most of the developing countries of the world, has vast agricultural potential, yet the country is highly dependent on oil imports, which satisfy 90% of its crude oil demand. Since Turkey had an economy based on agriculture, the usage of national resources in the energy field is extremely important. In the first years of the Turkish Republic, in 1931, the usage of national resources as an alternative to conventional fuels became a subject of increasing interest. Since then a lot of research has been conducted, but only a limited amount of application has been realized. Alcohol has always occupied an important place among the alternative fuel studies. The subject has been the scope of some research institute projects and university and government development planning studies. In Turkey, one of the most important studies in this area has been undertaken by the authors` research group in their university. This study is a general review of alcohol usage as an alternative automotive fuel in Turkey. This review includes a short history of the subject, the approach of the government, the research results, possible developments on the subject in the near future, and finally, it concludes with proposals.

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  6. Population model for Alaska Peninsula sea otters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Siniff, D.B.

    1988-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide a basis for assessing risks of oil spills to sea otter populations along the Alaska Peninsula. The principal efforts were devoted to analyzing the available data on population dynamics. Curves characterizing survivorship and reproduction for sea otters were devised and fitted to several data sets. A detailed review was conducted of methods of assessing population dynamics data, and several new techniques (e.g., bootstrapping) were applied to available data. A simplified model for use with Alaska Peninsula sea otter populations was devised and implemented in a 'spreadsheet' format. Various aspects of model development and data on population size in Alaska Peninsula areas were reviewed.

  7. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees

  8. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x

  9. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  10. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is

  11. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by

  12. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection. PMID:9876849

  13. Earthquake induced landslide hazard field observatory in the Avcilar peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigarre, Pascal; Coccia, Stella; Theoleyre, Fiona; Ergintav, Semih; Özel, Oguz; Yalçinkaya, Esref; Lenti, Luca; Martino, Salvatore; Gamba, Paolo; Zucca, Francesco; Moro, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake-triggered landslides have an increasing disastrous impact in seismic regions due to the fast growing urbanization and infrastructures. Just considering disasters from the last fifteen years, among which the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, these events generated tens of thousands of coseismic landslides. Those resulted in amazing death toll and considerable damages, affecting the regional landscape including its hydrological main features. Despite a strong impetus in research during past decades, knowledge on those geohazards is still fragmentary, while databases of high quality observational data are lacking. These phenomena call for further collaborative researches aiming eventually to enhance preparedness and crisis management. The MARSITE project gathers research groups in a comprehensive monitoring activity developed in the Sea of Marmara Region, one of the most densely populated parts of Europe and rated at high seismic risk level since the 1999 Izmit and Duzce devastating earthquakes. Besides the seismic threat, landslides in Turkey and in this region constitute an important source of loss. The 6th Work Package of MARSITE project gathers 9 research groups to study earthquake-induced landslides focusing on two sub-regional areas of high interest among which the Cekmece-Avcilar peninsula, located westwards of Istanbul, as a highly urbanized concentrated landslide prone area, showing high susceptibility to both rainfalls while affected by very significant seismic site effects. A multidisciplinary research program based on pre-existing studies has been designed with objectives and tasks linked to constrain and tackle progressively some challenging issues related to data integration, modeling, monitoring and mapping technologies. Since the start of the project, progress has been marked on several important points as follows. The photogeological interpretation and analysis of ENVISAT-ERS DIn

  14. Trichinella pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zamora, M J; Alvarez, M; Olmedo, J; Blanco, M C; Pozio, E

    2015-06-15

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites circulating in most continents, including Europe. In Spain, Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are highly prevalent in wildlife but seldom in domestic pigs. In Portugal, only T. britovi was documented in wild carnivores. In the period 2006-2013 in Spain, 384 (0.0001%) pigs and 1399 (0.20%) wild boars (Sus scrofa) were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae, which were identified as T. spiralis or T. britovi. In 2014, Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae were isolated from a wild boar hunted in the Gerona province, Cataluña region, North-East of Spain, near the border to France. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula, which suggests a broad distribution area of this zoonotic nematode in Europe. Since larvae of this Trichinella species do not encapsulate in the host muscles, they can be detected only by artificial digestion of muscle samples. T. pseudospiralis is the only Trichinella species infecting both mammals and birds. Birds can spread this pathogen over great distances including islands triggering new foci of infections in areas previously considered at low risk for this pathogen. PMID:25913596

  15. Cenozoic epeirogeny of the Arabian Peninsula from drainage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W. P.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.; White, N. J.

    2014-10-01

    is generally accepted that the Arabian Peninsula has been uplifted by subcrustal processes. Positive residual depth anomalies from oceanic crust in the Red Sea and in the Gulf of Aden suggest that a region surrounding this peninsula is dynamically supported. Admittance calculations, surface wave tomography studies, and receiver function analyses all imply that regional topography is generated and maintained by some combination of mantle convective circulation and lithospheric thickness changes. Despite these significant advances, the spatial and temporal uplift rate history of the Arabian Peninsula is not well known. Here we show that a regional uplift rate history can be obtained by jointly inverting 225 longitudinal river profiles that drain this peninsula. Our strategy assumes that shapes of individual river profiles are controlled by uplift rate history and moderated by erosional processes. We used local measurements of incision rate to calibrate the relevant erosional parameters. In our inverse algorithm, uplift rate is permitted to vary smoothly as a function of space and time but upstream drainage area remains invariant. We also assume that knickzone migration is not lithologically controlled. Implications of these important assumptions have been investigated. Our results suggest that the Arabian Peninsula underwent two phases of asymmetric uplift during the last 20-30 Ma at rates of 0.05-0.1 mm a-1. The southwestern flank of the peninsula has been uplifted by 1.5-2.5 km. Regional stratigraphic constraints, the age and composition of volcanism, paleosol formation, incised peneplains, emergent marine terraces, and thermochronometric measurements corroborate our calculated patterns of uplift. Progressive development of three domal swells along the western margin of the peninsula is consistent with localized upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle.

  16. INTESTINAL FLORA OF WILD AND DOMESTIC TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

  17. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  18. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  19. Principals' Openness to Change in Malatya, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Mahire; Beycioglu, Kadir; Konan, Necdet

    2008-01-01

    When change is deemed necessary, principals' attitudes towards changes are significant for successful restructuring of schools. This study aimed to ascertain the extent to which principals in Malatya, Turkey, are open to change. A questionnaire was administered to 156 elementary and secondary school principals in Malatya, Turkey. This…

  20. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  1. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  2. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  3. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

  4. Weather types, precipitation and soil erosion in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cortesi, Nicola; Lucia, Ana; Pacheco, Edinson; Taguas, Encarnación; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Romero Díaz, Asunción; Gómez, José Alfonso; Úbeda, Xavi; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José; Lasanta, Teodoro; González-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    For a long time, precipitation has been recognized as one of the main factors driving soil erosion and sediment yield. In climatology, one of the most common approaches in analyzing precipitation is the circulation of weather types (WTs), which categorize the continuum of atmospheric circulation into a small number of classes or types. In the Iberian Peninsula (IP), previous researches have demonstrated the usefulness of the WT approach in determining the behavior of rainfall, and its spatial and temporal distribution. These studies have shown that specific weather types are the main driven factors of precipitation distribution accordingly different areas, and shown that precipitations depends on more WTs to the west than to the east of the IP. In this study, we present an analysis of weather types and sediment yield data from different study areas in the Iberian Peninsula. To do that we have collected and joint different research groups spread along the national Spanish land, and combine different databases with the WT classification calculated using the NMC/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. We discuss two main hypotheses: (i) there exist some links between weather types and soil erosion in the Iberian Peninsula, and then (ii) spatial patterns of sediment yield and erosion would be emerged in the Iberian Peninsula accordingly the spatial distribution of the relationship between WTs and sedimentary processes. This pioneer research, with different areas across the Iberian Peninsula will be a valuable tool in understanding the relationships between weather types, precipitation and soil erosion dynamics.

  5. Volcanic Facies of the Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation, Iniskin Peninsula to Tuxedni Bay, Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation (Jtk), a >1,000-km-long belt of vol­canic facies within the accreted intra-oceanic Talkeetna Arc has been characterized within the Talkeetna Mountains, but on the Alaska Peninsula Jtk facies have not previously been described in detail. Here we describe facies of the Jtk stretching from the Iniskin Peninsula to Tuxedni Bay. On the Iniskin Peninsula, a high concentration and great thickness of mafic to intermediate lavas, associated autobreccias and hyaloclastites, fluidal-clast breccias and possible pillows are suggestive of one or more submarine effusive eruption centers. Also volumetrically significant are non-stratified polymictic volcaniclastic breccia facies. Minor facies include thinly bedded volcaniclastic sandstone to pebble breccia-conglomerate facies, some of which are shard- and pumice-bearing pyroclastic deposits preserved in thinly bedded deposits, indicative of episodes of explosive volcanism and the eruption-fed nature of some of the deposits. North of Chinitna Bay, coherent facies tend to be thin and relatively small in volume. Volcaniclastic facies provide evidence of subaerial-fluvial deposition, and pyroclastic activity. Thinly bedded, laterally continuous beds locally exhibit cross-laminations, channel fills, normal grading and lenticular beds, and contain plant fossils. Within this sequence is a 10-m-thick pumice breccia containing fossilized logs, underlain by a thin, weakly laminated, pumice- and lithic-bearing volcaniclastic siltstone to sandstone. The log-bearing pumice breccia and the lithic-bearing laminated basal unit represent pyroclastic density current (PDC) facies deposited in a subaerial or possibly shallow aqueous environment. Underlying the PDC deposit are several 30-cm-thick maroon and olive green volcaniclastic fine-grained sandstone and siltstone beds containing channel fills, cross-beds and lenticular beds. Marbles exposed in the contact zone between the intrusions of Alaska

  6. Surface Ozone Dynamics in the Kola Peninsula Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloglazov, M. I.; Karpechko, A. Yu.; Nikulin, G. N.; Roumjantsev, S. A.

    Measurements of surface ozone from the centre of the Murmansk Region (Apatity, Kola peninsula) and its southern part (Kovda, White Sea coast) give a picture of the behaviour of this air component on the Kola peninsula and surrounding vicinity. Simultaneous measurements in Apatity and Kovda have shown that the ozone concentration in Apatity is roughly twice as much as in Kovda. This fact may be explained by the local wind circulation and the presence of bromine near the coast of the Kola Peninsula. An inverse correlation is found between the ozone and nitrogen oxide concentrations from observations near motorways in Apatity. A decrease of nitrogen oxide concentration accompanies the growth of ozone on average. Thus, Apatity is a northern city in which the air pollution by traffic emissions decreases the ozone content.

  7. Tectonic, Climatic, and Cryospheric Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-06-01

    For millennia, Antarctica has been a frozen continent, a land of ice and snow where complex life persists rather than thrives. But Antarctica has not always been this way. Millions of years ago the southern continent was teeming with life. Changing oceans and a plummeting atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration drove a dramatic evolution of the Antarctic continent. To provide a record of these ancient climatic shifts, the 2005-2006 SHALDRIL drilling program collected sediment cores from the bed of the iceberg-filled seas off the Antarctic Peninsula. In the AGU book Tectonic, Climatic, and Cryospheric Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula, editors John B. Anderson and Julia S. Wellner draw on the findings garnered from SHALDRIL to explore the changing Antarctic Peninsula. In this interview, Eos talks to John B. Anderson.

  8. [The urbanization rate in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Widy-kwiatkowska, J

    1994-01-01

    Data from the annual statistical report on Turkey for 1990 and the results of research from 1985 and 1990 were utilized and compared with the trends of urbanization observed in the 1969 work of Z. Siemek on Turkey. In 1990, Turkey had about 56.5 million people with an average annual natural growth rate of 2.6% and an unemployment rate of 16%. The rural population made up 41% of the total populace. Urbanization was on the increase, from 47% in 1980, to 55% in 1985, and 59% in 1990. Urbanization in Ankara, because of its location in the center of Turkey, was particularly active in the regions of Anatolia, although it was still isolated in terms of intensified development. Istanbul's The population of Istanbul numbered 6,754,000 people in 1990. It is the major industrial center of the country with about 20% of industrial plants and 17% of the work force in the manufacturing industry. The largest degree of urbanization was demonstrated by Ankara: in 1927 its population numbered only 74,500 people, in 1965 about 902,000 inhabitants, and in 1990 about 2,837,000 people. During the period 1985-90, only 2 out of 73 provinces experienced a decline of the urban population: Kirikkale from 70.4% to 69.7% (because of the dynamic development of the Central region) and Istanbul from 95.4% to 92.4%. During this same period, Kirikkale's urban population, compared with the nation's total urban population, also declined from 0.9% to 0.7% because of immigration of both urban and rural people to other, more attractive provinces. The growth of urban population in the province of Istanbul varied from 1% to 10% during the period and made up 20.3% of the entire urban population. The Central region underwent a large degree of urbanization characterized by industrial-agricultural development. The city of Sivas became a center of communication. In the Central and Kurd regions, urbanization proceeded fast owing to the development of the Black Sea region and the immigration of Kurds from Iraq

  9. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  10. Interactions Between Islamic and Christian Traditions in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Pre-Romanesque churches in the Iberian Peninsula include a number of constructions from the fourth-fifth to the eleventh century when the first Romanesque churches appeared in the north of Spain. This period of time coincided with the Muslim invasion of the Peninsula. An important number of churches and mosques were built with prescriptions for the orientation, which possibly included astronomical observations. Investigations show that both groups of monuments reacted by avoiding the areas of theoretical influence of the other religion while trying to obey their own orientation rules.

  11. Fumonisin toxicity in turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Weibking, T S; Ledoux, D R; Brown, T P; Rottinghaus, G E

    1993-01-01

    The effects of dietary fumonisin B1 were evaluated in young turkey poults. The experimental design consisted of 3 treatments, with 24 female turkey poults allotted randomly per treatment. Day-old poults were fed diets containing 0 mg (feed control), 100 mg, and 200 mg fumonisin B1/kg feed for 21 days. Body weight gains and efficiency of feed conversion decreased linearly with increasing dietary fumonisin. Liver, kidney, and pancreas weights increased linearly with increasing dietary fumonisin, and spleen and heart weights decreased. Serum aspartate aminotransferase levels increased with increasing dietary fumonisin, and serum cholesterol; alkaline phosphatase, mean cell volume, and mean cell hemoglobin all decreased. Biliary hyperplasia, hypertrophy of Kupffer's cells, thymic cortical atrophy, and moderate widening of the proliferating and degenerating hypertrophied zones of tibial physes were present in poults fed diets containing fumonisin B1. Results indicate that fumonisin B1, from Fusarium moniliforme culture material, is toxic in young poults, and the poult appears to be more sensitive to fumonisin than the broiler chick. PMID:8466985

  12. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  13. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, A; Kucukomeroglu, B; Damla, N; Cevik, U

    2011-04-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and (137)Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h(-1) and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y(-1). In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y(-1) from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. PMID:21382657

  14. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  15. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  16. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  17. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  18. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  19. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  20. 77 FR 65359 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Forest Service Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... Resource Advisory Committee (RAC). The RAC will be responsible for reviewing and recommending land... the act be reauthorized this year. RAC members represent a wide range of interests. The...

  1. Blueberry Trials on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula: First Year Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June 2009, 9 plants each of three highbush and six half-high blueberry cultivars were planted at test plots on two commercial farms on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula. The purpose of the trials was to determine if domestic blueberry plants could survive and produce crops in Southcentral Alaska. In Octob...

  2. 77 FR 53168 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Olympia, WA. The... Black Lake Blvd. SW., Olympia, WA 98512. A conference call line will be made available for members of... Forest, Supervisor's Office, located in Olympia, WA. Please call ahead to Grace Haight at 360-956-2303...

  3. Pumas and Prepositions: Training Nature Guides in the Yucatan Peninsula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), the 10-week Nature Guide Training Program integrates English immersion with natural history and environmental interpretation to train rural adults as nature guides and conservation leaders. Most graduates have found work as ecotourism guides or in conservation-related activities, and many have provided English…

  4. Hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis: three cases from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge; Cárdenas-Marrufo, María; Vado-Solís, Ignacio; Cetina-Cámara, Marco; Cano-Tur, José; Laviada-Molina, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Three leptospirosis cases with lung involvement are reported from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. All three patients were admitted to the intensive care unit due to acute respiratory failure. Treatment with antibiotics resulted in favorable evolution despite the negative prognosis. Leptospirosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and lung involvement. PMID:18853016

  5. Recent Rapid Regional Climate Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, D. G.; Marshall, G. J.; Connolley, W. M.; Parkinson, C.; Mulvaney, R.; Hodgson, D. A.; King, J. C.; Pudsey, C. J.; Turner, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed that global warming was 0.6 ñ 0.2 degrees C during the 20th Century and cited increases in greenhouse gases as a likely contributor. But this average conceals the complexity of observed climate change, which is seasonally biased, decadally variable and geographically patchy. In particular, over the last 50 years three high-latitude areas have undergone recent rapid regional (RRR) warming ? substantially more rapid than the global mean. We discuss the spatial and temporal significance of RRR warming in one area, the Antarctic Peninsula. New analyses of station records show no ubiquitous polar amplification of global warming but significant RRR warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the likelihood that this could be amplification of a global warming, and use climate-proxy data to indicate that this RRR warming on the Antarctic Peninsula is unprecedented over the last two millennia and unlikely to be a natural mode of variability. We can show a strong connection between RRR warming and reduced sea-ice duration in an area on the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, but here we cannot yet distinguish cause and effect. Thus for the present we cannot determine which process causes the RRR warming, and until the mechanism initiating and sustaining it is understood, and is convincingly reproduced in climate models, we lack a sound basis for predicting climate change in this region over the coming century.

  6. Phosphorus leaching from agricultural soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaching of phosphorus (P) mobilizes edaphic and applied sources of P and is a primary pathway of concern in agricultural soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, which defines the eastern boundary of the eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. We evaluated P leaching before and after poultry litter application from inta...

  7. 46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's Last Street Cars, Daily Press, January 15, 1956) photographer unknown. The first streetcar (with dignitaries) to make the run from Newport News to a new housing development named Hilton Village in September 1918. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  8. 48. Photocopy of photograph (from Reflections, Peninsula Transportation District Commission, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph (from Reflections, Peninsula Transportation District Commission, 1985. Original three CRT buses in 1928. *FOR Photocopy of photograph (from the Charles H. Taylor Memorial Library), photographer unknown. Trolley car No. 315 shown April 25, 1929 at the Trolley Barn. SEE FIELD NOTES - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  9. A Sketch of Language History in the Korean Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies. PMID:26024377

  10. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  11. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  12. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Joan Ramon; Aguilar, Enric

    2015-04-01

    Drought variability and change is assessed in this study across the Iberian Peninsula along the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century using state of the art drought indices: the Sc-PDSI, the SPI and the SPEI. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 time-series regularly spread over Iberian Peninsula are quality controlled and also homogenized in a monthly scale to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Sc-PDSI, the 12-month SPI and 12-month SPEI are computed on a monthly basis using the newly MITPS dataset to identify dry and wet conditions across time. Precipitation data is only required to compute SPI, but potential evapotranspiration (PET) is also needed to perform the Sc-PDSI and SPEI, which is estimated using the Tornthwaite's method. The analysis conducted in this study confirms that drought conditions are worsening for most of the Iberian Peninsula across time strongly induced by global warming especially during the last three decades. All drought indices have found a drying trend in the Pyrenees, Ebro basin, central Iberia and in the south and south-eastern area while a wetting trend is identified in the western and in the north-western region. Future projections also indicate a clear increase in hydrological drought conditions along the 21st century, thus, water saving and the application of effective water management strategies will be crucial to minimize the impact of hydrological droughts over the Iberian Peninsula into the near future. KEY WORDS: Drought, climate change, Iberian Peninsula, drought indices.

  13. Second medical use in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baklaci, Ezgi; Altınay, Merve

    2016-07-01

    Turkish patent legislation complies with European Patent Convention (EPC) 1973 and EPC 2000, but does not have a corresponding provision. This triggers a debate in Turkish Law, where no regulations address protection of second (or subsequent) use. Turkish validations of European patents concerning second medical uses that have been granted within the scope of EPC 2000. However, the approach to national patent applications and patents entered to Turkey through Patent Cooperation Treaty is still questionable since the Patent Decree Law is not offering an explicit protection to second medical use and European Board of Appeal decisions (especially G5/83) are not binding for Turkish authorities. This article overviews the current approach of the Turkish legal system to second medical use patents. PMID:27334394

  14. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  15. Petrography, palynology and depositional environment of Gelibolu coals, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirtaş, Ferdi; Bozcu, Mustafa; Koşun, Erdal

    2014-05-01

    Upper Oligocene and Miocene coal samples collected from two outcrops in the Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey were analyzed petrographically and palynologically to determine the depositional environment of the coals. Microscopic studies reveal that the studied coal samples from both locations are characterized by high amount of huminite group macerals, ranging from 46 to 78% (mineral-included basis). The prevailing maceral from this group is gelinite (31-65%), it can be easily seen on all studied samples, indicative of high gelification degree of organic matter. Relatively low amount of liptinite (does not exceed 9%) and inertinite (does not exceed 8%) are also observed in the coals. The mineral matter content is variable but generally high, varying from 5 to 37%, as in other Turkish coals and consists mostly of clay minerals, quartz, calcite and pyrite. The mean reflectance values range from 0.502 to 0.564% suggesting that rank of coal is subbituminous (ASTM). The chemical properties of coal including calorific value, volatile matter and fixed carbon content are also in accordance with rank of coal. Facies indices based on maceral ratios (Tissue Preservation Index vs. Gelification Index and ABC ternary diagrams) were used to interpret to depositional environment of coals. Low tissue preservation index (TPI) and high gelification index (GI) values are observed. These indices indicate that the coals deposited in limnic environment. High pH and strongly reducing conditions inferred from the presence of framboidal pyrite and also evidenced by low TPI values. The palynological assembly of the coals dominated by angiosperm pollen and spore, however, gymnosperms were rarely seen. Herbaceous/sedge plants are common in Miocene coal samples.

  16. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  17. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  18. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  19. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  20. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean

    2011-01-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  1. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, D.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11-20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre-storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20-25 cm; the

  2. Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet evolution during the Cenozoic Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bethan J.; Hambrey, Michael J.; Smellie, John L.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Glasser, Neil F.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula region is currently undergoing rapid environmental change, resulting in the thinning, acceleration and recession of glaciers and the sequential collapse of ice shelves. It is important to view these changes in the context of long-term palaeoenvironmental complexity and to understand the key processes controlling ice sheet growth and recession. In addition, numerical ice sheet models require detailed geological data for tuning and testing. Therefore, this paper systematically and holistically reviews published geological evidence for Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet variability for each key locality throughout the Cenozoic, and brings together the prevailing consensus of the extent, character and behaviour of the glaciations of the Antarctic Peninsula region. Major contributions include a downloadable database of 186 terrestrial and marine calibrated dates; an original reconstruction of the LGM ice sheet; and a new series of isochrones detailing ice sheet retreat following the LGM. Glaciation of Antarctica was initiated around the Eocene/Oligocene transition in East Antarctica. Palaeogene records of Antarctic Peninsula glaciation are primarily restricted to King George Island, where glacigenic sediments provide a record of early East Antarctic glaciations, but with modification of far-travelled erratics by local South Shetland Island ice caps. Evidence for Neogene glaciation is derived primarily from King George Island and James Ross Island, where glaciovolcanic strata indicate that ice thicknesses reached 500-850 m during glacials. This suggests that the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet draped, rather than drowned, the topography. Marine geophysical investigations indicate multiple ice sheet advances during this time. Seismic profiling of continental shelf-slope deposits indicates up to ten large advances of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet during the Early Pleistocene, when the ice sheet was dominated by 40 kyr cycles. Glacials became more

  3. 'Cold Turkey' May Work Best for Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157753.html 'Cold Turkey' May Work Best for Quitting Smoking Stopping ... four weeks, nearly half of those who quit "cold turkey" were still not smoking. But, among people ...

  4. BI-GAS coal-gasification program. Final report, November 1979-August 1982. [Tests G10A; G11, A, B, C, D, E, F, G; G12, A; G12, A; G13; G14, A; G15, A; G16, A, B; G17, A, B, C, D, E, F; G18, A, B; G19 A, B

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1983-01-31

    The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant from November 1979 through August 1982. During this period Stearns-Roger Incorporated was the prime contractor for the project. Progress included improvements in the reliability of coal and char feeding systems, maintenance of slag tapping, durability of the char burners and removal of supplemental fuel gas. (Operations had previously been conducted using supplemental gas feed to insure a reducing atmosphere in the gasifier.) Durations of test runs using Montana Rosbud coal were increased, in some cases to over 150 hours without serious equipment problems. The process and equipment modifications which led to these improvements are discussed in the report. In addition, summaries of each gasifier test, major plant modifications and conclusions and recommendations are included. Volume 2 contains topical reports which describe the operation of the gasifier and each of the auxiliary process areas as well as heat and material balance data, computer simulation, gasification of Pittsburgh seam coal and materials evaluation.

  5. Korean peninsula: A northeast Asian security concern. Individual study project

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, N.G.

    1993-03-22

    North and South Korea have not responded to the New World Order-that Communism is dead and the Cold War Era is over. When the Berlin Wall collapsed and Germany became one nation, Korea emerged as the only divided country remaining in the world. Today, the Korean Peninsula remains divided by ideology, mutual mistrust of national leadership, the 155-mile DMZ, US military presence, conflicting approaches to national reunification, and the North Korean nuclear issue. Thus, the traditional Cold War animosities and political, economic, military paradigms remain entrenched in a divided Korean peninsula. The US Intelligence Community has identified an extensive nuclear center at Yongbyon, 50 miles north of Pyongyang, North Korea's capital, which appears to be a nuclear reactor and reprocessing site. The threat of a nuclear-armed North Korea is a serious regional security concern that will not be taken lightly by such countries as Japan, China, Russia, South Korea, and the United States.

  6. QUANTITATIVE PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS FROM THE MELVILLE PENINSULA, NUNAVUT, CANADA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. K.; Finkelstein, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Arctic regions have heightened sensitivity to climatic changes, however regional scale differences exist in the magnitude and timing of response to climatic changes. Modern and paleoclimate data indicate spatial variability in Arctic climates due to local variations in topography, sea ice persistence, or proximity to the coast. Melville Peninsula in the east-central Canadian Arctic is in a modern transitional climate area, with a relatively continental climate to the west and a more maritime climate to the east. Thus, shifting climates may particularly influence the region, and may have affected Thule migration during the past millennium. The presence of Thule archaeological sites and a transitional climate make the Melville Peninsula an area of high importance for paleoclimate reconstructions. Lake sediment cores from two adjacent lakes in the Sarcpa Lake region in the interior Melville Peninsula (68°33’N and 88°17’W, 220 m a.s.l.) were analyzed for diatom assemblages. Diatoms (microscopic algae) were well preserved in these cores and thus, could be used to track paleoclimatic changes. Unofficially named SP02 and SP04, the lakes are 3 and 2.5 ha, respectively. Chronologies were constructed using 210Pb activity and AMS radiocarbon dates. All dates are presented as calendar years before AD 1950. Diatoms appear in SP02 5,900 yrs BP; coupled with high magnetic susceptibility and lower LOI550 in sediment older than 5,900 yrs BP, the appearance of diatoms at this time confirms earlier suggestions of a persistent ice cap on the Peninsula until 6,500 yrs BP. Diatom assemblages are dominated by Fragilarioid species, particularly Staurosira construens var. venter and Staurosirella pinnata. Peak diatom concentration and LOI550 between 4,200 yrs BP and 2,900 yrs BP may indicate the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) on Melville Peninsula. Timing of the HTM on the Peninsula is similar to that from the Baffin Island region to the east. High ratios of Staurosirella pinnata

  7. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.; Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H.; Naghiyev, Jalal A.; Mehdiyeva, Afat A.

    2013-07-01

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  8. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  9. Fossils from bore holes on the Eastern Shore Peninsula, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Ruth; Gardner, Julia A.; Sohn, I.G.

    1955-01-01

    This report lists Foraminifera, Mollusca, and Ostracoda in five bore holes that penetrated a maximum of 445 feet of section in sediments of Pleistocene and Miocene age, and discusses the paleoecologic and stratigraphic significance of the fossils. It includes the contents of references 6, 16, and 18 of Virginia Division of Geology Mineral Resources Circular No. 2, dealing with the geology and groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore peninsula.

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of periglaciation of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, M.; Serrano, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; González-Amuchastegui, M. J.; Nieuwendam, A.; Palacios, D.; Pérez-Alberti, A.; Pellitero-Ondicol, R.; Ruiz-Fernández, J.; Valcárcel, M.; Vieira, G.; Antoniades, D.

    2016-04-01

    Active periglacial processes are currently marginal in the Iberian Peninsula, spatially limited to the highest mountain ranges. However, a wide variety of periglacial deposits and landforms are distributed in low and mid-altitude environments, which shows evidence of past periods of enhanced periglacial activity. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the present knowledge of past periglacial activity in the Iberian Peninsula. The chronological framework takes four main stages into account: the last glaciation, deglaciation, Holocene and present-day processes. This study focuses on the highest massifs (Pyrenees, Cantabrian Range, NW ranges, Central Range, Iberian Range, Sierra Nevada) as well as other lower elevation environments, namely the central Iberian Meseta. During the last glaciation the periglacial belt extended to much lower altitudes than today, reaching current sea level in the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. A wide range of geomorphological landforms and sedimentary records is indicative of very active periglacial processes during that phase, in some cases related to permafrost conditions (i.e., block streams, rock glaciers). Most of the inactive landforms and deposits in low and mid-elevations in Iberia are also related to this phase. The massive deglaciation of the Iberian massifs was caused by a gradual increase in temperatures. The deglaciation phase was only interrupted by a short period with colder conditions (the Younger Dryas) that reactivated periglacial processes in the formerly glaciated cirques of the highest lands, specifically with the widespread development of rock glaciers. During the Holocene, periglacial processes have been only active in the highest ranges, shifting in altitude according to temperature regimes and moisture conditions. The Little Ice Age saw the reactivation of periglacial activity in lower elevations than today. Currently, periglacial processes are only active in elevations exceeding 2500 m in the southern

  11. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Turkey liver - a chromium enriched food source

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, M.M.; Bryden, N.A.; Richards, M.; Anderson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    There are presently no known foods for humans that are particularly good sources of chromium. As a means of obtaining Cr enriched foods, turkeys were fed diets containing various levels of supplemental chromium. Four groups of 6-month old turkey hens were fed either the basal diet for laying hens or this diet supplemented with 25, 100 or 200 ..mu..g of chromium as chromium chloride per g of diet. Liver Cr concentration of the turkeys sacrificed after 1 week increased from 7 ng/g (wet wt) while consuming the basal diet to 15, 48 and 68 ng/g, respectively, while consuming the diets with supplemental chromium. Comparable values for the turkeys sacrificed after 5 weeks were 2, 43, 170 and 325 ng/g. Similar trends but higher chromium values were observed for kidney samples. The chromium contents of the dark and white meat and eggs were not altered significantly. Chromium concentrations of the pancreas, gizzard and heart increased marginally; final chromium concentrations were less than 23 ng/g even after 5 weeks on the highest level of supplemental chromium. Chromium content of spleen and lungs was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the pancreas, gizzard or heart. Therefore, turkey liver is a food source suitable for Cr enrichment while the eggs, dark and white meat and other edible parts do not appear to be enriched following chromium supplementation.

  13. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Maps of the Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Thomson, Janet W.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, the Glacier Studies Project (GSP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre (MAGIC) of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) began a formal cooperative 3-year endeavor to prepare three maps of the Antarctic Peninsula region. The maps will be based on a large variety of cartographic, aerial photograph, satellite image, and ancillary historical datasets archived at each institution. The maps will document dynamic changes on the peninsula during the past 50 years. The three maps are part of a planned 24-map series (I-2600) being published by the USGS in both paper and digital format (see USGS Fact Sheet FS-050-98 at http://pubs.usgs.gov/factsheet/fs50-98/); the maps are of the Trinity Peninsula area (I-2600-A), the Larsen Ice Shelf area (I-2600-B), and the Palmer Land area (I-2600-C). The 1:1,000,000-scale maps will encompass an area 1,800 kilometers (km) long and with an average width of 400 km (range of 200 to 600 km wide); the area is between lats 60? and 76? S. and longs 52? and 80? W. Each of the three maps will include an interpretive booklet that analyzes documented historical changes in the fronts of the ice shelves and termini of the outlet glaciers.

  14. Preliminary assessment of aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Corte-Real, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Aridity is one of the key elements characterizing the climate of a region, having a severe impact on human activities. Aiming at assessing aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula, the spatial distribution of the UNEP aridity index is analyzed during the period 1901-2012. Gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets are used on a monthly basis. Results show that the southern half of Iberia is particularly vulnerable to water stress and hence to desertification processes. In particular, the UNEP aridity index reveals an increase and northward extension of the semi-arid regime in the Iberian Peninsula between 1901 and 2012. More than 50% of the north and western territory have experienced humid/sub-humid conditions, while the other regions underwent semi-arid settings. Results also reveal that climate was subjected to spatial and temporal variabilities with an overall statistically significant (at a 95% confidence level) trend to aridification in the south-easternmost and central regions. The remaining territory of the Iberian Peninsula does not reveal statistically significant trends.

  15. Severe dust storms over the Arabian Peninsula: Observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shalaby, ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Dust aerosols and dust storms have tremendous effects on human health and all development activities. Also atmospheric dust plays a major role in the Earth climate system by its interaction with radiation and clouds. Severe dust storms are considered the severest phenomena in the Arabian Peninsula, since they are occurring all the year round with maximum activity and frequency in Summer. The Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) has been used to simulate severe dust storms events in the Arabian Peninsula from 1998 up to 2011. This long period simulation shows a typical pattern and dynamical features of the large-scale severe dust storm in winter seasons and summer seasons. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the model outputs have been compared against ground--base observations of three AERONET stations (i.e., Kuwait, Mazeria and Solar-Village) and daily space--based observations of MISR, Deepblue and OMI. The dynamical analysis of the large—scale severe dust storms reveal the difference between winter time storms and summer time storm. Winter time storm occurs when the cold air front in the north is coupled with the extension of the Red Sea trough from the south. However, the summer time storm is associated with strong Shamal wind that extend from northern Kuwait to the southern Arabian Peninsula.

  16. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E.

    1995-11-01

    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  17. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, Susan M.; Ford, Jesse; Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Monetti, Matthew; Vlasova, Tamara; Landers, Dixon H.

    2003-01-01

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula. We analyzed heavy metal concentrations in lichen (Cetraria cucullata), moss (Hylocomium splendens), soils, lake sediment, freshwater fish (Salvelinus alpinus, Lota lota, and Coregonus spp.) and collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) from 13 sites between 30 and 300 km from Norilsk. Element concentrations were low in both C. cucullata and H. splendens, although concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, and Pb were significantly higher than those in Arctic Alaska, probably due to natural differences in the geochemical environments. Inorganic surface soils had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Mg than inorganic soils at depth, although a lake sediment core from the eastern Taimyr Peninsula indicated no recent enrichment by atmospherically transported elements. Tissue concentrations of heavy metals in fish and lemming were not elevated relative to other Arctic sites. Our results show that the impact of the Norilsk smelting complex is primarily localized rather than regional, and does not extend northward beyond 100 km.

  18. Mapping the HLA diversity of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Romòn, Iñigo; Montes, Carmen; Ligeiro, Dario; Trindade, Hélder; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Nunes, José Manuel; Buhler, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    The polymorphism of HLA genes can be used to reconstruct human peopling history. However, this huge diversity impairs successful matching in stem cell transplantation, a situation which has led to the recruitment of millions of donors worldwide. In parallel to the increase of recruitment, registries are progressively relying on information from population genetics to optimize their donor pools in terms of HLA variability. In this study, the HLA data of 65,000 Spanish bone marrow donors were analyzed together with 60,000 Portuguese individuals to provide a comprehensive HLA genetic map of the Iberian Peninsula. The frequencies of many alleles were shown to vary continuously across the Peninsula, either increasing or decreasing from the Mediterranean coast to the Atlantic domain or from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Pyrenees and Bay of Biscay. Similar patterns were observed for several haplotypes. In addition, within some regions neighboring provinces share a close genetic similarity. These results outline the genetic landscape of the Iberian Peninsula, and confirm that the analysis of the HLA polymorphism may reveal relevant signatures of past demographic events even when data from donor registries are used. This conclusion stimulates future developments of the Spanish registry, presented here for the first time. PMID:27377016

  19. Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ana I.; Dorda, Beatriz A.; Rey, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists occurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies (see references). Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The dataset includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 58 species, 42 of them formally described plus 16 taxa unpublished and 47 samples in study. All species known from the study area are included, which nearly sum up a quarter of species of Bathynellacea known in the world (250 species). PMID:24693212

  20. Rate of collisional deformation in Kamchatsky Peninsula, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhurin, A. I.; Pinegina, T. K.; Ponomareva, V. V.; Zelenin, E. A.; Mikhailyukova, P. G.

    2014-03-01

    Detailed data are discussed on the rate of Holocene horizontal and vertical movements along a fault in the southeastern Kamchatsky Peninsula, which is situated between the converging Aleutian and Kamchatka island arcs. The fault is the northern boundary of the block invading into the peninsula under pressure of the Komandorsky Block of the Aleutian arc. The rate of right-lateral slip along the fault was increasing in the Holocene and reached 18-19 mm/yr over the last 2000 years and 20 mm/yr by contemporary time. Comparison of these estimates with those that follow from offsets of older rocks also indicates acceleration of horizontal movements along the fault from the early Quaternary to the present. The results obtained from rates of GPS station migration show that about half the rate of the northwestern drift of the Komandorsky Block is consumed for movement of the block of the southern side of the fault. The remainder of movement of the Komandorsky Block is consumed for movements (probably, underthrusting) at the eastern continental slope of the Kamchatsky Peninsula.

  1. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  2. Glacial Geomorphic Characteristics of the Antarctic Peninsula Fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellner, J. S.; Munoz, Y. P.; Mead, K. A.; Hardin, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    A distinctive suite of subglacial geomorphic features, representing the grounding of an ice sheet and its subsequent retreat, has been well documented for many parts of the Antarctic continental shelf. Geomorphic features include meltwater channels, drumlins, mega-scale glacial lineations, and gullies cut into the upper slope. Many of these same features occur in more recently deglaciated fjords, but at different scales and in different combinations. We have surveyed twelve fjords on the Antarctic Peninsula, from the Graham Land Coast to Hope Bay as well as on Anvers Island and in the South Shetland Islands. Surveys include multibeam swath bathymetry, CHIRP 3.5 kHz seismic, and sediment cores. Recently, we have reprocessed much of the multibeam data using new software allowing higher-resolution imagery. Unlike on the outer continental shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula, where there is a relatively simple suite of geomorphic features and a uniform retreat history, the fjords on the inner shelf show a complex geomorphic pattern representing somewhat unique glacial retreat histories for each fjord. Several fjords have distinctive grounding zone wedge deposits, and some fjords have such wedges in multiple locations, representing multiple pauses in the retreat history, or a stepped retreat of the ice. Drumlins and mega-scale glacial lineations are present in the fjords, but extend for kms rather than the tens of kms that are typical of the outer shelf. If drumlins are interpreted to indicate acceleration of grounded ice, as they are on the outer shelf, then there must have been multiple zones of acceleration across the flow path of the ice as drumlin sets occur in multiple zones in a single flow path. The inner parts of many fjords along the coast of the peninsula are characterized by features interpreted as erosional meltwater channels, although such features are not common in fjords in the islands off the peninsula, despite the similar scale of the fjords themselves

  3. Study of Tropospheric ozone (TOR) variability over Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan; Bortoli, Daniele; Salgado, Rui; Antón, Manuel; João Costa, Maria; Silva, Ana Maria

    2010-05-01

    To study tropospheric ozone (O3) variability and the increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric O3 concentration over the Iberian Peninsula, NASA Langley Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) data has been analyzed for the 1979-2005 period. The maximum tropospheric O3 amount over the entire Iberian Peninsula was found in June (~41 DU) and a minimum in December (~29 DU). Over North Atlantic Coast (NAC) and Mediterranean Coast (MC) the maximum tropospheric O3 amount was found in July (~41 DU) and June (~42 DU) and the minimum was found in December (~28 DU and ~30 DU, respectively). The West Atlantic Coast (WAC), Pyrenees Mountain Range (PMR) and Central Iberian Peninsula (CIP) have an extended period of maximum tropospheric O3 amount, during June and July over WAC (~44 DU) and PMR (~39 DU), and during May, June and July over CIP (~40 DU). Similarly, WAC, PMR and CIP have an extended period of minimum tropospheric O3 amount, during December and January over WAC (~30 DU) and CIP (~29 DU) and November and December over PMR (~28 DU). The high concentration of ozone in July over the Atlantic Ocean near Iberian Peninsula are due to the presence of Azores anticyclone, extending in ridge through the Cantabrian Sea to the British Isles and West and Central Europe, and related photochemistry and dynamics, has profound effect on the observed higher ozone concentration over WAC zone. Strong seasonal cycle in tropospheric O3 amount has been observed with large variation over NAC (~49%), followed by WAC (~48%) and MC (~41%) compared to CIP and PMR (~38%). When the data are compared over the Iberian Peninsula for the two periods (1979-1993 and 1997-2005), a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric O3 concentration has been observed during the second period with respect to the first. These increases are almost 8% to 24% over NAC, 6% to 17% over WAC, 5% to 24% over CIP, 6% to 23% over MC and 13% to 18% over PMR. It has been observed that

  4. Effect of humidity on infection of turkeys with Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Slavik, M F; Skeeles, J K; Beasley, J N; Harris, G C; Roblee, P; Hellwig, D

    1981-01-01

    Turkeys maintained at 75% to 80% relative humidity were more adversely affected by Alcaligenes faecalis infection than turkeys maintained at 20 to 35% relative humidity. Alcaligenes faecalis was reisolated earlier and more often from turkeys maintained at the higher humidity. Clinically, the turkeys maintained at high humidity exhibited both sinusitis and conjunctivitis earlier than the turkeys at low humidity. In both groups, antibody titers as determined by a microagglutination test developed by 2 weeks postinoculation and started to decline after the third week, lymphocytosis was demonstrated at 1 week postinoculation, and a lymphopenia developed at 5 weeks postinoculation. PMID:7337613

  5. Alcaligenes faecalis rhinotracheitis in Manitoba turkeys.

    PubMed

    Boycott, B R; Wyman, H R; Wong, F C

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of alcaligenes rhinotracheitis occurred on one premises housing five turkey flocks totaling 25,000 poults. Prominent findings were severe respiratory difficulty resulting from excess mucus in the nasopharynx, lachrimation, and tracheal collapse. Sinus and tracheal cultures consistently yielded Alcaligenes faecalis. An adenovirus was isolated and four flocks became positive for CELO virus by agar-gel-precipitin (AGP) tests. Mortality by flocks ranged from 4% to 48%. Treatment was unsuccessful and appeared to increase the mortality rate. The course of the disease was about 6 weeks, and recovered turkeys were marketed 1 week later than the usual date. PMID:6525132

  6. A case of salinomycin intoxication in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Van Assen, Earl J

    2006-03-01

    A flock of 4287 heavy hybrid turkey hens were accidentally fed broiler premix containing salinomycin sodium and suffered a 34.5% death loss. Measures taken to ensure food safety for the remaining flock and consumer food safety included feed record studies, on-farm veterinary consultation, diagnostic laboratory studies, and CgFARAD and CFIA consultation. The remaining turkeys were processed 3 weeks after the initial toxicosis with no evidence of lesions that would render the product unfit for human consumption. PMID:16604983

  7. An annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda) of the Abrau Peninsula, northwestern Caucasus, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Semenyuk, Irina I.; Tuf, Ivan H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Abrau Peninsula is located in northwestern Caucasus between the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapa, Krasnodar Province, Russia. This paper contains an annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda inhabiting the Abrau Peninsula. New information The fauna of the Abrau Peninsula comprises 17 centipede (4 orders) and 16 millipede (6 orders) species. Henia taurica, hitherto known only from the Crimea, has now been reported from several localities in the studied region. The study also reveals two possibly new millipede species. Statistical analyses showed that habitat preferences of myriapod species within the Abrau Peninsula are caused by species geographic distribution pattern and microbiotope preferences. PMID:27346949

  8. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  9. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  10. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  11. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  12. The First ETV Project of Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskisehir Academy of Economic and Commercial Sciences (Turkey). Inst. of Educational Television.

    The success of a small-scale, closed circuit educational television project run at the Academy of Economic and Commercial Sciences in Eskisehir, Turkey has led to the expansion of the experiment. The expanded project will offer services to other academies, demonstrate the effective use of educational television, and serve as an integral part of…

  13. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  14. The Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, M. A.; Uysal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using science literacy results from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey within the education production function framework. We find that program types have large…

  15. MAXIMIZING THE FERTILITY POTENTIAL OF TURKEY SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkeys are the only commercial poultry species completely dependent upon artificial insemination for fertile egg production. Although time and labor-intensive, artificial insemination has proven to be a key strategy for achieving rapid genetic improvements in economically important traits such as g...

  16. Clay Corner: Light up a Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Presents two activities that enable students to work with clay: a tile project and turkey candle-holders. Explains that before students actually create their own projects, they get an opportunity to experience the clay itself. Asserts that the new vocabulary, unusual equipment, and intriguing techniques make ceramics a motivating activity. (CMK)

  17. Cultural Studies in Turkey: Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pultar, Gonul; Kirtunc, Ayse Lahur

    2004-01-01

    In this essay, the authors aim at contributing to the debate on "International Perspectives on Cultural Studies in/and Education" by presenting a perspective from Turkey, and problematizing the issues that are encountered in the country in the instruction and practice of cultural studies. They start with a brief survey of the Ege University…

  18. Fundamentalist Bedfellows: Political Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    Defines Islamic creationism and anti-evolutionism in Turkey, provides information about political and cultural changes starting from the 1920s, and discusses Islamic movements at this time. Presents examples of politicians' approaches to this issue and points out the effects of Christian creationism and the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) on…

  19. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  20. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  1. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  2. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  3. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  4. Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

  5. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification.

    PubMed

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H

    2007-05-01

    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved. PMID:17057981

  6. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs. PMID:10755131

  7. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  8. PREVALENCE OF ARCOBACTER IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Arcobacter in live turkeys was determined for six Midwestern commercial flocks. In the first study (summer 2003), cloacal (n = 298) and feather swabs (n = 75), cecal (n = 70), and crop (n = 50) contents, drinker water (n = 46), and environmental (n = 25) samples were monitored. I...

  9. Electromagnetic induction studies in the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusi, Robert; White, Antony; Heinson, Graham; Milligan, Peter

    1998-03-01

    Magnetic field fluctuations have been recorded by an array of portable three-component magnetometers at 60 sites across the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia between December 1993 and March 1995. An additional 54 magnetometer data records, collected prior to 1989 and described by Milligan (1989) and Milligan, White & Chamalaun (1989), were included in the analysis. A major conductive feature in the crust, first noted by White & Milligan (1984) as the Eyre Peninsula Anomaly (EPA), is re-examined to assess its continuity to the north of the original arrays and to investigate its relationship with major tectonic features. Magnetic-field time-series were converted to induction arrows in the frequency domain. These induction arrows were initially inverted using the minimum-structure 2-D Occam approach to estimate the electrical conductance of the crust. Following this, thin-sheet forward modelling was used to examine the relationship between the conductance and the dominant tectonic features. The principal results of the modelling are that a narrow conductive feature extends inland from the coast about 160km before terminating, and the conductance is in the range 3000 to 10000S, which decreases inland. A strong correlation exists between the electrical conductance of the Eyre Peninsula and Bouguer gravity anomalies, and in particular the EPA is coincident with a significant Bouguer gravity gradient. There is also good agreement between the locations of the foci of earthquakes of magnitude greater than 4.0 and the EPA. We believe that the anomaly is associated with a geological fracture in the Precambrian upper crust as a result of crustal extension prior to the rifting of Australia from Antarctica in the Jurassic (160Ma).

  10. Cenozoic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-05-01

    Cenozoic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin has involved a series of ridge (Aluk Ridge)-trench collisions between the Pacific and Antarctic plates. Subduction occurred episodically between segments of the Pacific plate that are bounded by major fracture zones. The age of ridge-trench collisions decreases from south to north along the margin. The very northern part of the margin, between the Hero and Shackleton fracture zones, has the last surviving Aluk-Antarctic spreading ridge segments and the only remaining trench topography. The sedimentary cover on the northern margin is relatively thin generally less than 1.5 km, thus providing a unique setting in which to examine margin evolution using high resolution seismic methods. Over 5,000 km of high resolution (water gun) seismic profiles were acquired from the Antarctic Peninsula margin during four cruises to the region. The margin is divided into discrete fracture-zone-bounded segments; each segment displays different styles of development. Highly tectonized active margin sequences have been buried beneath a seaward-thickening sediment wedge that represents the passive stage of margin development Ice caps, which have existed in the Antarctic Peninsula region since at least the late Oligocene, have advanced onto the continental shelf on numerous occasions, eroding hundreds of meters into the shelf and depositing a thick sequence of deposits characterized by till tongues and glacial troughs. Glacial erosion has been the main factor responsible for overdeepening of the shelf; isostasy is of secondary importance. As the shelf was lowered by glacial erosion, it was able to accommodate thicker and more unstable marine ice sheets. The shelf also became a vast reservoir for cold, saline shelf water, one of the key ingredients of Antarctic bottom water.

  11. Changing structures and dynamics of western Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Holt, T. O.; Quincey, D. J.; Fricker, H.; Siegfried, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last three decades, Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelves have shown a pattern of sustained retreat, often ending in catastrophic and rapid breakup. This study provides a detailed analysis of the structures and dynamics of three western Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves: Bach, Stange and George VI Ice Shelves. Spatial extent and glaciological surface features were mapped for each ice shelf from 1973 to 2010 using optical and radar satellite images to assess their structural evolution, historical dynamics and stability. InSAR and feature-tracking methods were used to assess the recent dynamic configurations of the ice shelves from 1989 to 2010. Repeat ICESat measurements were used to evaluate their vertical changes from 2003 to 2008. On Bach Ice Shelf, the formation of two large fractures near the ice front is linked to widespread thinning (~2 ma-1) and sustained retreat (~360 km2). It looks likely that iceberg calving along these fractures will alter the frontal geometry sufficiently to promote enhanced, irreversible retreat within the next decade. On George VI Ice Shelf, acceleration is observed at both ice fronts; linked to a release of back-stresses through continued ice loss (1995 km2 in total). The most significant changes are recorded at its southern ice front, with ice flow accelerating up to 360% between ca. 1989 and ca. 2010, coupled with widespread rifting and a mean thinning rate of 2.1 ma-1. On Stange Ice Shelf, shear-induced fracturing was observed between two flow units, also linked to widespread thinning (~4.2 ma-1). A semi-quantitative assessment reveals that the southern margin of George VI Ice Shelf is most susceptible to rapid retreat, whilst its northern ice front, Bach Ice Shelf and the northern front of Stange Ice Shelf are more vulnerable than those situated on the east Antarctic Peninsula.

  12. Self-similarity patterns of precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morata, A.; Martín, M. L.; Luna, M. Y.; Valero, F.

    2006-05-01

    An objective classification of the precipitation field over the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is obtained. Data are derived from a high-resolution daily precipitation dataset obtained from in-situ measurements. The dataset, Iberian monthly Precipitation Dataset (IPD), consists of monthly precipitation data over a 25 km × 25 km grid from 1st January 1961 to 31st December 2003. Therefore, 960 data series over the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands are disposed over the grid for 43-year period. Multi-resolution wavelet analysis is used to extract similar information in the precipitation field at different timescales. An objective classification of the obtained wavelet coefficient series is carried out by means of the Kohonen’s neural network, also named Self-Organizing Map (SOM). SOM is formed by an unsupervised learning algorithm that may be used to find clusters of similar events in the input data and is able to identify some underlying dynamic structures of the multi-dimensional datasets. SOM is applied to the wavelet coefficients for intramonthly, intermonthly and interannual oscillations, obtaining self-organised maps which objectively identify similar zones of precipitation behaviour over the Iberian Peninsula. The homogeneity of the patterns is also studied by means of non-parametric correlations, energy scalograms and tests of significance. The intramonthly, intermonthly and interannual waves resulted in seven, five and three SOM patterns, respectively. As timescale increases, the wavelet series coefficients tend to be highly clustered. The results indicate that as the oscillation frequencies decrease, the Iberian precipitation behaves more linearly.

  13. Lichens of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Thomson, J.W.; Schofield, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred eighty-two taxa of lichens including two lichen parasites are reported from Izembek National Wildlife Refuge on the tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Metasphaeria tartarina is new to North America; Scoliciosporum umbrinum is new to Alaska. Wide-ranging, arctic-alpine, and boreal species dominate the lichen flora; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. Epigeic lichen abundance is described along a lowland to alpine mesotopographic gradient selected to represent major landscape variation in the refuge. Of six major community types identified, three had significant lichen components.

  14. SeaWiFS Images Fires on Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dense smoke from fires in the Yucatan peninsula on April 24, 2000. In the El Nino year of 1998 fires in the region emitted enough smoke to cause authorities in Texas to issue air quality warnings. For more information, see: SeaWiFS Project Home Page Global Fire Monitoring 4km2 TRMM Fire Data Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Decreasing trend of groundwater in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarachi, S.; Moghim, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    In these days the increasing demand for water has created problems for availability of its resources. Some recent issues like population growth, global warming and inefficient methods of water consumption, generated the need to find sources of water other than surface water such as ground water. Excess using of groundwater in most parts of the world causes depletion of ground water in those areas. Scientists are trying to find efficient means to quantify these trends. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) including two satellites launched in March 2002, is making measurements of the Earth's gravity field which is used to display the change of storage of the water on the Earth. GRACE makes it possible to find the trend of the change of storage all over the world.It can show specific areas in the world that have dramatic decreasing trend of water storage. One of these regions that have been considered in this study is Turkey in western Asia, as one of the countries deeply affected by global warming. Turkey is identified as one of the first places where desertification will start in Europe, according to estimates by the UN Environment Program (UNEP). Turkey has 25 underground water tables and they had a decrease in level of 27 meters in the past 25 years (Turkey water report 2009). In this paper the change of the ground water is evaluated by applying the GRACE storage anomalies and the mass conservation equation that concludes the reduction trend in groundwater. The results clarify that decreasing trend of groundwater is more noticeable during recent years, particularly since 2006. Our results show that in recent years the average decrease in ground water level is 2.5 cm per year and the maximum decrease occurred in May 2007 with the value of about 7.9 cm. KEY WORDS: water resources; Ground water; Turkey; GRACE

  16. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs. PMID:8505535

  17. Toward a phenology network in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

  18. Nephrology, dialysis and transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erek, Ekrem; Süleymanlar, Gültekin; Serdengeçti, Kamil

    2002-12-01

    The establishment of the Turkish Society of Nephrology (TSN) in 1970 coincided with that of many western European nephrology societies. The TSN organized the 15th ERA-EDTA Congress in Istanbul in 1978, earlier than many European Countries, and currently has 286 active members. At present, Turkey has 161 nephrologists, which equals 2.5 nephrologists per million population (p.m.p.). The number of original articles submitted by Turkish authors to the journal Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ranks 7th-8th amongst total submissions to the journal. Turkey also ranks 2nd-4th in the number of abstracts submitted to recent ERA-EDTA Congresses. With 18 063 patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis treatment in 348 dialysis centres, Turkey has the 5th largest chronic haemodialysis patient population among European countries. In addition, 1903 patients are currently undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. However, with a total of 4693 renal transplants since 1975, of which only 21.3% were of cadaveric origin, Turkey lags considerably behind other European countries in renal transplantation. In Turkey, the prevalence and incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are at present 358 and 52 p.m.p. respectively, and the expansion rate of the RRT stock is 17% (HD 18.5%, CAPD 6%, and transplantation 1.7%). The yearly gross mortality rate of the total RRT population is 9.4%. The present priorities of the Turkish nephrological community include high-standard research activity and long-term, prospective clinical and epidemiological studies, an increase in the total number and percentage of cadaveric transplants, further improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of RRT, and finally the further development of scientific and educational collaboration with the world nephrological community. PMID:12454217

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean field mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Murinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mi Gyung; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-07-01

    We sequenced and characterized a complete mitogenome (KP671850) of the Chinese Apodemus peninsulae and compared it with a previously published mitogenome of the Korean A. peninsulae (NC016060). The total length of the Chinese A. peninsulae mitogenome is 16,457 bp. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one D-loop region. The most common start codon was ATG, used in the nine PCGs for initiation. The mitogenomes of Chinese and Korean A. peninsulae showed 98.9% sequence similarity. The intra-/interspecific phylogeny of the Chinese A. peninsulae revealed that the Chinese A. peninsulae was well grouped with the Korean A. peninsulae. The clade of A. peninsulae was sister to that of Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus chejuensis, and Apodemus chevrieri. PMID:26006285

  20. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  1. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  2. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  3. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  4. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  5. Mission and modern citrus species diversity of Baja California Peninsula cases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spring-fed mission oases of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico, hold several species, varieties and unique hybrids of heritage citrus, which may represent valuable genetic resources. Citrus species first arrived to the peninsula with the Jesuit missionaries (1697-1768), and new varieties were...

  6. 75 FR 16094 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene March 24, 2010. On March 17, 2010, Upper Peninsula...

  7. 77 FR 64330 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... d. Applicant: Upper Peninsula Power Company. e. Name of Project: Bond Falls Hydroelectric Project....

  8. Nutrient transfers in ditches draining heavily manured soils of the Delmarva Peninsula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches are a ubiquitous feature of the Delmarva Peninsula, which abuts the Chesapeake Bay and is home each year to 600 million broiler poultry. Improved drainage is critical to human habitation, travel and industry on the Delmarva Peninsula where low-lying, flat topography is dappled with...

  9. Magnetotelluric measurements on the Methana Peninsula (Greece): modelling and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volti, Theodora K.

    1999-01-01

    As a first deep geophysical survey, thirteen magnetotelluric and magnetovariation soundings in the period range of 0.0085-6000 s have been carried out in the Methana Peninsula and Trizina area (Greece), which form the western part of the active Hellenic Volcanic Arc. Data have been processed using robust techniques and further analysed using decomposition methods in order to find the regional azimuth. By using the smooth inverse of Smith and Booker (J. Geophys. Res. 96, 3905-3922, 1991), the 2-D modelling has resolved a low-resistivity area (<30 Ω m) at depths of 2-3 km beneath the volcanics, whereas elsewhere the resistivity is much higher (>100 Ω m). Parkinson induction arrows also at the range 0.01-0.1 s point towards the centre of the peninsula. The conductivity anomaly is interpreted as being connected with the volcanic history of Methana, as a cooler remnant of former magmatic activity. The contrast with the much higher resistivities suggested at depths >5 km, is discussed in terms of fluid mobility, limitation of the MT method and extensional processes in the southern Aegean.

  10. Neogene paleoenvironments and tectonics of the Hongchun Peninsula, southern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. . Taiwan Petroleum Exploration Div.); Vondra, C.F. . Geological Atmospheric Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Recent investigations in the Hongchun Peninsula in southern Taiwan provide new evidence concerning the paleoenvironmental and tectonic interpretation of the structurally complex Neogene sediments exposed there. The deposits of the peninsula have been divided into four distinct fault-bounded sequences each displaying a different lithology and style of structural development. The Mutanchi formation consists of feldspathic quartz arenites derived from a granitic provenance to the north that were deposited in a forearc basin. The lower part of the Mutanchi is dominated by thick proximal turbidities and interbedded highly contorted shales of submarine fan origin. These grade upward into shallow marine feldpathic quartz arenites and shales. The Shiman Formation consists of tuffaceous lithic arenites (proximal turbidities) and diamicites (debris flow deposits) with gravel-sized metamorphic and volcanic clasts in the lower part and interbedded lithic arenites and shales in the upper part. Although of contrasting lithology to the Mutanchi, the lower part of the Shiman Formation was also deposited on a submarine fan in a forearc tectonic setting while the upper part was deposited on a shallow marine shelf. The Kentin Formation is composed entirely of thick light green mudstones with contorted slump structures. Locally it contains very large exotic blocks (olistoliths) of variable lithology and is interpreted to be a melange -- the Kentin Melange. The above four fault-bounded units represent a forearc basin-accretionary wedge complex that developed during the late Neogene as a result of convergent interaction between the South China and Philippine plates.

  11. New evidence of early Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Mercier, Norbert; Sistiaga, Ainara; Soler, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    The timing of the end of the Middle Palaeolithic and the disappearance of Neanderthals continue to be strongly debated. Current chronometric evidence from different European sites pushes the end of the Middle Palaeolithic throughout the continent back to around 42 thousand years ago (ka). This has called into question some of the dates from the Iberian Peninsula, previously considered as one of the last refuge zones of the Neanderthals. Evidence of Neanderthal occupation in Iberia after 42 ka is now very scarce and open to debate on chronological and technological grounds. Here we report thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from El Salt, a Middle Palaeolithic site in Alicante, Spain, the archaeological sequence of which shows a transition from recurrent to sporadic human occupation culminating in the abandonment of the site. The new dates place this sequence within MIS 3, between ca. 60 and 45 ka. An abrupt sedimentary change towards the top of the sequence suggests a strong aridification episode coinciding with the last Neanderthal occupation of the site. These results are in agreement with current chronometric data from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and point towards possible breakdown and disappearance of the Neanderthal local population around the time of the Heinrich 5 event. Iberian sites with recent dates (<40 ka) attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic should be revised in the light of these data. PMID:25016565

  12. Alaskan Peninsula Cenozoic stratigraphy: stratigraphic sequences and current research

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, R.C.; Armentrout, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    Geology of the Alaska Peninsula-Island Arc and Continental Margin, by C.A. Burk, is the principal reference for stratigraphic studies on the Alaska Peninsula. Burk mapped the Phanerozoic stratigraphy and provided a geologic history and structural interpretation of the area between Wide Bay and Unimak Island. Cenozoic rocks were mapped as three unconformity-bounded sequences. Recognition of specific formations was difficult due to similarity of lithofacies, isolated outcrops, rapid facies changes, and alteration and burial by young volcanics. Consequently, megafossil assemblages were relied upon to facilitate correlations between study areas. The three unconformity-bounded Cenozoic sequences are: (1) the Paleogene Beaver Bay Group consisting of three formations: the dominantly nonmarine Tolstoi Formation, the dominantly marine Stepovak Formation, and the volcanic Meshik Formation. Current work suggests these units are at least in part coeval facies of late Paleocene through Oligocene age. (2) The Neogene Bear Lake Formation consisting of the lower Unga Conglomerate Member and an unnamed upper member. Rapid facies changes and incorrect reports of fossil occurrence have resulted in confusion of stratigraphic relationships within this sequence of middle to late Miocene age. (3) A late Neogene informally defined upper sequence consisting of interbedded marginal marine, coastal-plain, and volcanic facies. Current work suggests this sequence is Pliocene through Pleistocene in age.

  13. Beryllium deposits of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sainsbury, C.L.

    1963-01-01

    Deposits of beryllium ore in the Lost River area of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, consist of replacement veins, pipes, and stringer lodes is limestone in a zone about 7 miles long and 2 to 3 miles wide which is faulted and intruded by dikes and stocks. The ores are remarkably alike and typically consist of the following minerals, in percent: fluorite, 45-65; diaspore, 5-10; tourmaline, 0-10; chrysoberyl, 3-10; white mica, 0-5; small amounts of hematite, sulfide minerals, manganese oxide, other beryllium minerals; and traces of minerals not yet identified. The ores generally are cut by late veinlets which are of the same mineralogy as the groundmass ore, or which consist of fluorite, white mica, and euclase. The ores are fine grained, and many of the individual mineral grains, except fluorite, are less than 1 mm in size. The beryllium content of bulk samples of ore ranges from 0.11 to 0.54 percent (0.31 to 1.50 percent BeO). High-grade nodules, composed principally of chrysoberyl, diaspore, fluorite, and mica, contain as much as 6 percent BeO. Geochemical reconnaissance has disclosed other areas of anomalous beryllium in stream sediments elsewhere on the Seward Peninsula, generally around biotite granites that have them associated with tin deposits; additional exploration probably will disclose other deposits.

  14. Cirques upon the Kamchatka Peninsula: palaeoglacial and palaeoclimatic inferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Iestyn; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    The morphometry of more than 3,500 cirques upon the Kamchatka Peninsula, Eastern Russia, has been analysed. Volumetric analysis suggests that these cirques have developed rather isometrically—growing equally in all dimensions. The cirques show a very strong N bias in their azimuth, likely resulting from aspect-related variations in insolation. The strength of this N bias is considered to indicate that former glaciation was often 'marginal', and mainly of cirque-type. This assertion is supported by the fact that S and SE-facing cirques are the highest in the dataset, suggesting that glacier-cover was rarely sufficient to allow S and SE-facing glaciers to develop at low altitudes. The strength of these azimuth-related variations in cirque altitude is thought to reflect comparatively cloud-free conditions during former periods of glaciation. These characteristics, of marginal glaciation and comparatively cloud-free conditions, are considered to reflect the region's former aridity, at the global Last Glacial Maximum, and during earlier periods of ice advance. There is published evidence to suggest extensive glaciation of the Kamchatka Peninsula at times during the Late Quaternary, yet the cirque data appears to suggest that such phases were comparatively short-lived, and that smaller cirque-type glaciers were generally more characteristic of the period.

  15. Mantle-Lid P Wave Attenuation in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Hong, T.

    2012-12-01

    The mantle-lid P wave, Pn, is the first arrival phase in regional distances. The Pn waves are widely analyzed for estimation of event sizes. Also, it is known that analysis of Pn waves is effective for discrimination of nuclear explosions from natural earthquakes. The attenuation of Pn waves provides us information on medium properties in mantle lid. It is crucial to understand the nature of Pn attenuation for correct estimation of event sizes from Pn amplitudes. We investigate the lateral variation of Pn attenuation in the mantle lid of the Korean Peninsula from vertical regional seismograms for events around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands. The number of events is 149, and the focal depths are less than 50 km. The seismic records with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 1.5 are analyzed. The number of stations is 121. The Pn quality factors are calculated using a two-station method in which ratios of Pn displacement spectra of stations on the same azimuths are used. The power-law frequency dependence term is estimated using a least-squares fitting for quality factors at frequencies from 0.37 Hz to 25 Hz. The number of station pairs is 3317. The average quality factor at 1 Hz is determined to be about 67, which is consistent with previous studies. We present the resultant Pn attenuation model, and discuss the correlations with geological and geophysical properties in the medium.

  16. Regional ocean tide loading modelling around the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavent, M.; Arnoso, J.; Montesinos, F. G.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a new 1/12° resolution oceanic tide model in the complex region that surrounds the Iberian Peninsula. The model, named IBER01, allows us to obtain more accurate tidal loading computations for precise geodetic and gravimetric observations in this area. The modelling follows the scheme of data assimilation (coastal tide gauge, bottom pressure sensors and TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry) into a hydrodynamical model, which is based on two-dimensional barotropic depth averaged shallow-water equations. Detailed bathymetry data and quadratic bottom friction with a specific drag coefficient for the region have been considered. Improved ocean load maps for the Iberian Peninsula are obtained for eight harmonic constituents (Q1, P1, O1, K1, N2, M2, S2 and K2), after computing the load effect (Newtonian attraction and elastic contribution) using IBER01 and six present-day global oceanic tide models for comparison. The results achieved verify the quality of the new model. Our ocean loading computations reduce considerably the discrepancies between the theoretical Earth tide parameters and those from observations at the level of 0.3%.

  17. Determinants of a quality wild turkey hunting season.

    PubMed

    Wynveen, Christopher J; Cavin, Drew A; Wright, Brett A; Hammitt, William E

    2005-07-01

    According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, there has been a 450% increase in the number of licensed wild turkey hunters since 1973. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research articles focusing specifically on turkey hunting. Most human dimensions of wildlife research have focused on either deer or waterfowl hunting. In this study, dimensions of hunting quality, days a field, and harvest were examined among a sample of 739 Virginia fall turkey hunters. Quality of a hunting season, rather than a specific hunt, was examined. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed five domains of attributes of a high-quality turkey-hunting season: wildlife interaction, education, being away, social interaction, and hunting skills. The domains of hunting quality revealed by the PCA are similar to domains found previously for spring turkey hunters as well as other types of hunters. Also examined were hunter perceptions of overall hunting quality, the number of days spent hunting turkeys during the fall season, and harvest success. For comparative purposes and agency needs, hunters were segmented into three categories based on days spent hunting: low frequency (1 to 2 days), medium frequency (3 to 4 days), and high frequency (> or =5 days). The influence of these variables to respondents' perceptions of overall quality was examined using a series of regression models. Variables found to be significant predictors of quality were wildlife interaction and harvest success. Hunters who killed a turkey reported a significantly higher quality season than those who did not kill a turkey. PMID:16132453

  18. Natural infection of turkeys by infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Portz, Cristiana; Beltrão, Nilzane; Furian, Thales Quedi; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; Macagnan, Marisa; Griebeler, Josiane; Lima Rosa, Carlos André Veiga; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Back, Alberto; Barth Schatzmayr, Ortrud Monika; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2008-09-18

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an important respiratory pathogen of chickens that also infects pheasants and peafowl. Epidemiologically non-related commercial turkey flocks with clinical signs such as tracheitis, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis and expectoration of bloody mucus were examined for the presence of the virus. Laboratory ILTV detection was performed by virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell cultures, PCR and sequencing of amplification products, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. One ILTV turkey isolate was also experimentally inoculated into susceptible chickens and turkeys, reproducing a mild respiratory disease. This is the first description of natural infections with ILTV in turkeys. PMID:18436397

  19. Lower Carboniferous rugose corals from the Arabian Plate: An insight from the Hakkari area (SE Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denayer, Julien; Hoşgör, Izzet

    2014-01-01

    The Köprülü Formation of the Hakkari area (SE Turkey) is composed of a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic succession of Early Carboniferous age. The lower part of the formation yielded an abundant but poorly diversified coral fauna composed of small non-dissepimented solitary rugose corals, namely Rotiphyllum cf. simulatumFedorowski 2009, Zaphrentites parallela (Carruthers, 1910), cf. Gorizdronia, gen. et sp. indet., Amplexizaphrentis sp. and Amplexizaphrentis zapense sp. nov. and specimens of Caninia cf. cornucopiaeMichelin in Gervais 1840, a dissepimented solitary coral showing a counter septum-related columella. The lower part of the Köprülü Formation is of supposed late Tournaisian age based on micropaleontological data. However, the coral assemblage indicates rather an early Viséan age. The Hakkari corals form a strongly facies-related association ("Cyathaxonia fauna") and are compared to other areas with some difficulties. The most similar, time-equivalent faunal associations is that of the Sinai Peninsula (NE Egypt). Both localities belonged, during Early Carboniferous times, to the Arabian Platform situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. The Gondwana-related Taurides units (Aladağ), North Iran Block and Afghanistan, characterized by a dominant carbonate facies and more diversified coral faunas, formed during these times, the distal parts of the Arabian Platform.

  20. Evaluation of the modern submarine landscape off southwestern Turkey through the documentation of ancient shipwreck sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Michael L.; Ballard, Robert D.; Roman, Chris; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Buxton, Bridget; Coleman, Dwight F.; Inglis, Gabrielle; Köyağasıoğlu, Orkan; Turanlı, Tufan

    2012-07-01

    The issue of damage to shipwreck sites caused by the operation of mobile fishing gear has only recently begun to be addressed by the archaeological community. However, the nature, extent, and intensity of this damage has yet to be quantified. Acoustic and video surveys conducted between 2008 and 2010 located and imaged sixteen ancient shipwrecks around the Bodrum and Datça Peninsulas, Turkey, many of which were heavily damaged by trawling activity. The results of this research illustrate the unfortunate reality that many wreck sites in the Aegean Sea are heavily damaged by modern fishing activities. Quantifying the extent and intensity of trawl scars on the seabed further reveals the geographic spread of damage in these areas. The results of these mapping projects call attention to the dismantling of cultural sites by the use of mobile fishing gear on the seabed. By comparing the number of broken artifacts on these wreck sites to other sites that have escaped the effects of trawling, such as those in the Black Sea, we see that shipwrecks that are or were at one time in areas of trawling activity show a considerable amount of damage. The location and condition of these wreck sites helps map and quantify past and recent trawling activity, and pinpoint areas on the shallow coastal shelf where additional trawling restrictions or protected zones may be able to help the preservation of archaeological material.

  1. A report on syphilis control in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Sven

    1954-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month survey of the nature and extent of venereal diseases in Turkey which was undertaken by the author, on behalf of WHO, at the request of the Turkish Government. The first part of the report outlines the present venereal-disease-control system and includes descriptions of the work undertaken by public authorities, hospitals and dispensaries, mobile venereal-disease-control teams, and laboratories; in the second part, the author enumerates certain recommendations for the intensification of the current control programme. These recommendations are particularly concerned with the control of syphilis (since the incidence of other venereal diseases in Turkey is of very secondary importance), and with the expansion, standardization, and co-ordination of serodiagnostic facilities and services. It is suggested that there might be a gradual intensification and reorientation of the present programme. A proposed plan of operations for an eight-year period is described. PMID:13182590

  2. Female breast cancer mortality rates in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurhan; Toprak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the mortality trends of female breast cancer in Turkey between the years 1987-2008. The rates per 100,000 age-standardized to the European standard population were assessed and time trends presented using joinpoint regression analysis. Average annual percent change (AAPC), anual percent change (APC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Nearly 23,000 breast cancer deaths occurred in Turkey during the period 1987-2008, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) being 11.9 per 100,000 women. In the last five years, significant increases were observed in all age groups, but there was no significant change over the age of 65. In this period, the biggest significant increase was in the 45-54 age group (AAPC=4.3, 95%CI=2.6 to 6.0). PMID:25292030

  3. The WHO global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Turkey (GARD Turkey).

    PubMed

    Yorgancioğlu, A; Türktaş, H; Kalayci, O; Yardim, N; Buzgan, T; Kocabaş, A; Karlikaya, C; Yildiz, F; Ergün, P; Mungan, D; Kart, L; Göktaş, E; Musaonbaşioğlu, S; Gündoğan, A; Akdağ, R; Akçay, S; Akin, M; Akkurt, I; Altan, P; Altunsu, T; Arpaci, N; Aydin, C; Aydin, S; Aydinli, F; Aytaç, B; Bavbek, S; Biber, C; Bingöl Karakoç, G; Ceyhun, G; Cakir, B; Celik, G; Cetinkaya, T; Ciçek, M E; Coban, S C; Cobanoğlu, N; Com, S; Cöplü, L; Demirkazik, A; Doğan, E; Ekmekçi, E B; Elbir, M; Erdoğan, A; Ergüder, T; Gemicioğlu, B; Gögen, S; Gülbahar, O; Güngör, H; Horzum, E; Içer, Y; Imamecioğlu, A R; Kahraman, N; Kakillioğlu, T; Kalyoncu, F; Karakaya, M; Karakaya, G; Karaodul, G; Kesici, C; Keskinkiliç, B; Kilinç, O; Kirmizitaş, F; Kosdak, M; Köktürk, N; Metintaş, M; Numanoğlu, S C; Gümrükçüoğlu, O F; Onal, Z; Onal, B; Ozacar, R; Ozen, H A; Ozkan, S; Oztürk, F; Polat, H; Saçkesen, C; Selçuk, T; Serin, G; Sönmez, G; Sahin, M; Sahinöz, S; Sahinöz, T; Simşek, B; Tartan, N; Toprak, A; Tugay, T; Tuncer, A; Uçan, E S; Unüvar, N; Yapicikardeşler, B; Yildirim, N; Yol, S; Yüksel, H; Khaltaev, N; Cruz, A; Minelli, E; Bateman, E; Baena Cagnani, C; Dahl, R; Bousquet, J

    2009-01-01

    In order to prevent and control non-communicable diseases (NCDs), the 61st World Health Assembly has endorsed an NCD action plan (WHA resolution 61.14). A package for essential NCDs including chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) has also been developed. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) is a new but rapidly developing voluntary alliance that is assisting World Health Organization (WHO) in the task of addressing NCDs at country level. The GARD approach was initiated in 2006. GARD Turkey is the first comprehensive programme developed by a government with all stakeholders of the country. This paper provides a summary of indicators of the prevalence and severity of chronic respiratory diseases in Turkey and the formation of GARD Turkey. PMID:20037863

  4. Healthcare Information Technology Infrastructures in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, M.; Ertürkmen, G. L.; Kabak, Y.; Namli, T.; Yıldız, M. H.; Ay, Y.; Ceyhan, B.; Hülür, Ü.; Öztürk, H.; Atbakan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for “Health-Net”), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. Methods The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Results Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients’ Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. Conclusion With the introduction of the “Health Transformation Program” in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality. PMID:24853036

  5. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Sule; Erdem, Yunus; Batuman, Vecihi; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide, both hypertension and chronic kidney disease are major public health problems, due to their epidemic proportions and their association with high cardiovascular mortality. In 2003, the first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (the PatenT) study was conducted in a nationally representative population (n=4910) by the Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases, and showed that overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in Turkey was 31.8%. The PatenT study also reported that overall awareness (40.7%), treatment (31.1%), and control rates (8.1%) of hypertension were strikingly low. Only 20.7% of the patients who were aware of their hypertension and receiving treatment had their blood pressure controlled to <140/90 mm Hg. In the Chronic Renal Disease in Turkey (CREDIT) study (n=10,748), the overall prevalence of chronic kidney (including all stages) disease was 15.7% and increased with advancing age. In the same population, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome were reported as 32.7%, 12.7%, 76.3%, 20.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. The prevalence and awareness of hypertension in CREDIT population was 32.7% and 48.6%, respectively. According to the data obtained from national surveys, the prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey is alarmingly high. To improve prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of these major public health problems, appropriate health strategies should be implemented by the government, together with medical societies, non-governmental organizations, industry, health-care providers, and academia. PMID:25019009

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  7. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  8. An epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mason, S J; Maiers, J D

    1984-01-01

    A major epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum occurred in the Monroe, North Carolina, area between January and June of 1983. The outbreak involved 304,000 turkeys of various ages, which were slaughtered in the eradication program at a cost of more than $550,000 to growers and poultry companies. An infected peafowl was the likely source of infection on the first farm. Traffic between farms by growers and company personnel was theorized to be the means of further spread. PMID:6487195

  9. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  10. Assessing Poverty and Related Factors in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US $4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  11. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betul Demircioglu, Mine; Sesetyan, Karin; Erdik, Mustafa

    2010-05-01

    Using a GIS-environment to present the results, seismic risk analysis is considered as a helpful tool to support the decision making for planning and prioritizing seismic retrofit intervention programs at large scale. The main ingredients of seismic risk analysis consist of seismic hazard, regional inventory of buildings and vulnerability analysis. In this study, the assessment of the national earthquake hazard based on the NGA ground motion prediction models and the comparisons of the results with the previous models have been considered, respectively. An evaluation of seismic risk based on the probabilistic intensity ground motion prediction for Turkey has been investigated. According to the Macroseismic approach of Giovinazzi and Lagomarsino (2005), two alternative vulnerability models have been used to estimate building damage. The vulnerability and ductility indices for Turkey have been taken from the study of Giovinazzi (2005). These two vulnerability models have been compared with the observed earthquake damage database. A good agreement between curves has been clearly observed. In additional to the building damage, casualty estimations based on three different methods for each return period and for each vulnerability model have been presented to evaluate the earthquake loss. Using three different models of building replacement costs, the average annual loss (AAL) and probable maximum loss ratio (PMLR) due to regional earthquake hazard have been provided to form a basis for the improvement of the parametric insurance model and the determination of premium rates for the compulsory earthquake insurance in Turkey.

  12. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.

    2016-06-01

    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  13. General aspect of pneumoconiosis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cimrin, Arif; Erdut, Zeki

    2007-05-01

    During the past 20 years number of definitive occupational diseases has not increased above 1500 case/year according to official statistics in Turkey. Although pneumoconiosis is the most diagnosed occupational disease, incidence of pneumoconiosis is very low.The present paper aims at reaching conclusions on the true dimension of the pneumoconiosis problem by evaluating whole the studies and case presentations related to coal mine dust and crystalline silica exposure within occupational environment.Regarding the results of the workplace-based studies it could be predicted that 20,000 out of 220,000 workers in mining sector could have pneumoconiosis and approximately 5,000 new pneumoconiosis cases might have occurred each year. Case presentations show high-level dust exposures present at the work places. These working conditions might cause acute pneumoconiosis. Poor working conditions exist especially at small and micro scale establishments.In Turkey, infrastructural and superstructural problems on workplace supervision and follow-up, legal processes on workers' health are complicated. Turkey has to provide healthy working conditions to those small-scale workplaces. Providing relevant assistance with activating people of the developed countries should be on top of the global efforts. PMID:21938215

  14. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  15. Evidence for temperate conditions along the Antarctic peninsula during the Early Tertiary

    SciTech Connect

    Zinsmeister, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several investigators based on deep sea glacial marine sediments from the southern oceans and volcanic sequences in West Antarctica have suggested extreme glacial conditions existed around Antarctica during the early Tertiary. Their data suggest ice sheets with ice shelves greater than those today were present on Antarctica by the late Eocene. If these data are correct, conditions during the Eocene along the Peninsula were similar to those that exist today. Late Eocene faunas and floras from Seymour Island indicate that conditions along the Peninsula were temperature. No paleontologic or geologic evidence have been obtained from Seymour Island (64/degree/18'S) to support the existence of glacial conditions along the northern part of the Peninsula during the early Tertiary. The presence of large quantities of fossil wood and plant debris in the upper Eocene sediments on Seymour Island indicates the presence of dense forests on the Peninsula during the Eocene. The discovery of marsupial and land birds remains on Seymour Island also indicate the presence of abundant terrestrial life on the Peninsula. The occurrence of an abundant marine life on Seymour Island supports the existence of temperate conditions along the Peninsula. Similarities of the Eocene faunas and floras with present day biotas from Tasmania, New Zealand and southern South America indicate that conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Eocene were comparable to present day mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere.

  16. Induced seismicity in the Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremenetskaya, Elena O.; Trjapitsin, Victor M.

    1995-10-01

    The topic of this paper is to review recent processes of increasing seismic activity in the Khibiny Massif in the Kcla Peninsula. It is a typical example of induced seismicity caused by rock deformation due to the extraction of more than 2·109 tons of rock mass since the mid-1960s. The dependence of seismic activity on the amount of extracted ore is demonstrated. Some of the induced earthquakes coincide with large mining explosions, thus indicating a trigger mechanism. The largest earthquake, which occurred on 16 April 1989 ( M L= 4.1) could be traced along the surface for 1200 m and observed to a depth of at least 220 m. The maximum measured displacement was 15 20 cm.

  17. Population structure of three Psammodromus species in the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Fitze, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of a species’ population structure is essential for the development of adequate conservation actions as well as for the understanding of its evolution. The population structure is unknown in all species of the Genus Psammodromus, including the Western Sand Racer (Psammodromus occidentalis; a recently described species), the Edward’s Sand Racer (P. edwardsianus) and the Spanish Sand Racer (P. hispanicus). In this article, the genetic variability and population structure of Psammodromus edwardsianus, P. hispanicus, and P. occidentalis were studied in the Iberian Peninsula covering their natural geographic distribution. Mitochondrial DNA showed genetically different units in all species with higher genetic variability in their southern populations (latitudinal variation). Genetic differentiation was different among species and contrasted to those of species with similar characteristics. Our results therefore highlight the importance of species-specific studies analysing population structure. PMID:26056622

  18. Ocean forcing of glacier retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A. J.; Holland, P. R.; Meredith, M. P.; Murray, T.; Luckman, A.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2016-07-01

    In recent decades, hundreds of glaciers draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. Here, we identify a strong correspondence between mid-depth ocean temperatures and glacier-front changes along the ~1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, glaciers that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of glacier retreat. We conclude that changes in ocean-induced melting are the primary cause of retreat for glaciers in this region.

  19. Leishmania spp. Epidemiology of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Yucatan Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    López-Céspedes, A.; Longoni, S. S.; Sauri-Arceo, C. H.; Sánchez-Moreno, M.; Rodríguez-Vivas, R. I.; Escobedo-Ortegón, F. J.; Barrera-Pérez, M. A.; Bolio-González, M. E.; Marín, C.

    2012-01-01

    Canine Leishmaniasis is widespread in various Mexican states, where different species of Leishmania have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, we describe the detection of L. braziliensis, L. infantum, and L. mexicana in serum of dogs from the states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). A total of 412 sera were analyzed by ELISA using the total extract of the parasite and the iron superoxide dismutase excreted by different trypanosomatids as antigens. We found the prevalence of L. braziliensis to be 7.52%, L. infantum to be 6.07%, and L. mexicana to be 20.63%, in the dog population studied. The results obtained with ELISA using iron superoxide dismutase as the antigen were confirmed by western blot analysis with its greater sensitivity, and the agreement between the two techniques was very high. PMID:22927792

  20. Ocean forcing of glacier retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Cook, A J; Holland, P R; Meredith, M P; Murray, T; Luckman, A; Vaughan, D G

    2016-07-15

    In recent decades, hundreds of glaciers draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. Here, we identify a strong correspondence between mid-depth ocean temperatures and glacier-front changes along the ~1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, glaciers that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of glacier retreat. We conclude that changes in ocean-induced melting are the primary cause of retreat for glaciers in this region. PMID:27418507

  1. Ancient Land Routes On The Paximadhi Peninsula, Karystos, Euboea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, D.; Hom, E.

    Recent regional surface surveys have placed more focus on rural investigations, but the means of transport and communication within those rural surroundings has not always received adequate attention. The Southern Euboea Exploration Project has undertaken a new phase of research in the Karystos area with the goal of developing a methodology that allows for a more detailed record of the pre-modern land routes. On the Paximadhi peninsula it was possible to identify numerous fragments of suspected ancient routes dating to the Classical and Hellenistic periods. In the majority of cases these fragments were closely associated with adjacent datable ancient sites. By taking into consideration the evidence recorded during the survey it was sometimes possible to propose the extension of these ancient segments and to theorize the directions, lengths, and purposes of ancient networks.

  2. The prehistory of the Arabian peninsula: deserts, dispersals, and demography.

    PubMed

    Groucutt, Huw S; Petraglia, Michael D

    2012-05-01

    As a geographic connection between Africa and the rest of Eurasia, the Arabian Peninsula occupies a central position in elucidating hominin evolution and dispersals. Arabia has been characterized by extreme environmental fluctuation in the Quaternary, with profound evolutionary and demographic consequences. Despite the importance of the region, Arabia remains understudied. Recent years, however, have seen major developments in environmental studies and archeology, revealing that the region contains important records that should play a significant role in future paleoanthropological narratives.(1-3) The emerging picture of Arabia suggests that numerous dispersals of hominin populations into the region occurred. Populations subsequently followed autochthonous trajectories, creating a distinctive regional archeological record. Debates continue on the respective roles of regional hominin extinctions and population continuity, with the latter suggesting adaptation to arid conditions. PMID:22718479

  3. Dynamic thinning of glaciers on the Southern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, B.; Martin-Español, A.; Helm, V.; Flament, T.; van Wessem, J. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Bamber, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence has demonstrated the importance of ice shelf buttressing on the inland grounded ice, especially if it is resting on bedrock below sea level. Much of the Southern Antarctic Peninsula satisfies this condition and also possesses a bed slope that deepens inland. Such ice sheet geometry is potentially unstable. We use satellite altimetry and gravity observations to show that a major portion of the region has, since 2009, destabilized. Ice mass loss of the marine-terminating glaciers has rapidly accelerated from close to balance in the 2000s to a sustained rate of -56 ± 8 gigatons per year, constituting a major fraction of Antarctica’s contribution to rising sea level. The widespread, simultaneous nature of the acceleration, in the absence of a persistent atmospheric forcing, points to an oceanic driving mechanism.

  4. SEISMIC DATA FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2004-07-08

    We report results from the third and final year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We are working with King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to collect data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consists of 38 digital three-component stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We have an ongoing collaboration with the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, which runs the eight station Kuwait National Seismic Network. We installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). In this paper we present a summary of data collected under these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of souce parameters and earth structure.

  5. Shear wave velocity structures of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Talal A.; Al-Saeed, Mohammed M.

    1994-02-01

    The shear velocity structures of the different tectonic provinces of the Arabian Peninsula has been studied using surface wave data recorded by the RYD (Riyadh) station. The inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities indicates that the Arabian shield can be modeled by two layers, each of which is 20 km thick with a shear velocity of 3.61 km/s in the upper crust and 3.88 km/s in the lower crust. The underlying upper mantle velocity is 4.61 km/s. Inversion of both Love and Rayleigh waves group velocities shows that the Arabian platform upper and lower crusts are comparable in their thicknesses to those of the shield, but with shear velocities of 3.4 and 4 km/s, respectively. The upper mantle velocity beneath the platform is 4.4 km/s and the average total thickness of the crust is 45 km.

  6. Helium and mercury in the central Seward Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D.

    1981-05-01

    The central Seward Peninsula, Alaska, has one Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) at Pilgrim Springs, and has recent volcanic flows, fault systems, topographic and tectonic features which can be explained by a rift model. As part of a geothermal reconnaissance of the area we used helium and mercury concentrations in soil as indicators of geothermal resources. The largest helium concentrations were found in the vicinity of the Pilgrims Springs KGRA, and indicate prime drilling sites. Five profile lines were run across the suspected rift system. Significant helium anomalies were found on several of the traverses, where future exploration might be concentrated. Mercury values showed a great range of variability on the traverses, and seem unreliable as geothermal indicators except in the vicinity of the Pilgrim Springs. Permafrost at the surface resulting in variations in sampling depth may contribute to the mercury variations.

  7. Late Holocene tephrochronology of the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, Svante; Sandgren, Per; Zale, Rolf

    1991-11-01

    Andesitic and basaltic andesitic tephra layers are abundant in Holocene deposits from the Antarctic Peninsula. Visually discernible tephra horizons occur in three lakes on Livingston Island. Tephra in two other lakes and in a moss bank on Elephant Island, with very low ash concentrations, were detected magnetically. Deception Island is the most likely volcanic source for the tephra. With direct 14C dating, age/depth curves, and cross-correlations at least 14 tephra horizons dating to between ca. 4700 and 250 yr B.P. were identified and now form the basis for a preliminary regional tephrochronology that will be a valuable dating tool for investigating the Holocene climatic history of Antarctica.

  8. Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Min; Huguet, Carme; Rull, Valenti; Valero, Blas; Rosell-Mele, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments Min Cao1, Carme Huguet1, Valenti Rull2, Blas L. Valero-Garces3, Antoni Rosell-Melé1,4 1Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain; 2Institut de Botanic de Barcelona (CSIC), Passeig del Migdia s/n, 08038, Barcelona, Spain, 3 Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologıa (CSIC), Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain, 4Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The continuing buildup of industrial greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and concomitant increase in global temperatures has made much of the world's society aware that decades to centuries of environmental change lie ahead, and that these will have profound economic, political and societal impacts. The Iberian Peninsula lies in the boundary between tropical and subtropical climates and seems to amplify the climatic signals form the northern hemisphere through both atmospheric and water circulation feedbacks, making it an ideal site to monitor Northern hemisphere climate changes. This extreme sensitivity to climatic changes also makes the Iberian Peninsula extremely vulnerable to future climate changes. This is why understanding sensitivity to climate change and the consequences it will have on both climate and the hydrological cycle is key to implement preventive measures. The aim of our study is to come up with a high resolution quantitative reconstruction of climate variability (temperature, production and precipitation) in the Iberian Peninsula from lake sediments. We also want to establish the relation between those changes and the ones observed in both ice cores from Greenland and paleotemperature records from marine sediments of the continental Iberian margin. For these reasons we sampled a core in Moncortes (42.3N, 0.99E), a lake of karstic origin with an average depth of 25m and an area of 0

  9. National Seismic Network System of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunbul, S.; Kadirioğlu, F. T.; Holoğlu, N.; Kartal, R. F.; Kiliç, T.; Yatman, A.; Iravul, Y.; Tüzel, B.

    2009-04-01

    In order to mitigate disaster losses, it is necessary to establish an effective disaster management and risk system. The first step of the management is constituted by preparedness studies before the earthquake (disaster). In order to determinate disaster and risk information it is necessary to have a seismological observation network. Due to the monitoring of the earhquakes in the country-wide scale, recording, evaluation, archieving and to inform to the public autority, the project named "Development of the National Seismic Network Project-USAG" has been started. 6 Three Component Short Period, 63 Broad-band, 13 One Component Short Period stations, 65 Local Network- Broad-band, and 247 accelerometers have been operated in the frame of this project. All of the stations transmit continuously their signal to the ERD (Earthquake Research Department) seismic data center in Ankara. Capability of the network is to determine an earthquake which is minimum local magnitude ML= 2.8 generally, in some region local magnitude threshold is ML=1.5 (the places where the stations are concentrated). Earthquake activity in Turkey and surrounding region has been observed 7 days / 24 hours, in ERD data center in Ankara. After the manuel location of an earthquake, If the magnitude is over 4.0, system sends to SMS message automaticaly to the authorized people and immediately press, public and national-local crisis center, scientific institutions are informed by fax and e-mail. Data exchange has been carried out to EMSC-CSEM. During the İnstallation of the broad-band stations, the seismotectonics of the region has been taken into consideration. Earthqauke record stations are concentrated at the most important fault zones in Turkey; North Anatolian Fault System, East Anatolian Fault System, Bitlis Overlap Belt and Aegean Graben (or opening) System. After 1999 İzmit and Düzce earthquakes, the number of the seismic stations in Turkey have been increased each passing year. In this study

  10. Long-term persistence of subduction earthquake segment boundaries - evidence from Mejillones Peninsula, N-Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, P.; Sobiesiak, M.; Nielsen, S.; Glodny, J.; Oncken, O.

    2010-12-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula in N-Chile is a strong anomaly in coastline morphology along the Chilean convergent margin. The location of the Peninsula coincides with the northern limit of the 1995 Mw=8.0 Antofagasta earthquake and the southern limit of the 2007 Mw=7.8 Tocopilla earthquake and, probably, also with the southern limit of the 1877 Mw=8.5 Iquique earthquake. Although it is tempting to recognise the Mejillones Peninsula as the surface expression of a major segment boundary for large subduction earthquakes, so far evidence for its stability over multiple seismic cycles is lacking. We introduce a detailed analysis of the aftershock sequences in combination with new age data of the surface uplift evolution since the late Pliocene to test the hypothesis whether earthquake rupture propagation is limited at the latitude of Mejillones Peninsula since a longer time period. If the Peninsula really is linked to a persistent segment boundary, then the surface deformation of the Peninsula in fact holds the record about a deep-seated mechanism revealing the interaction between the subduction process and near-surface deformation. In our study we present new chronostratigraphic and structural data that allow reconstructing the evolution of the Peninsula at the surface and correlation of the latter with seismic cycle deformation on the interface. We investigated sets of paleo-strandlines preserved in beach ridges and uplifted cliffs to reconstruct the uplift history of the Peninsula. Our results show that the central graben area on the Peninsula started uplifting above sea level as an anticlinal hinge zone prior to 400 ky ago, most probably 790 ky ago. The resulting E-W trending hinge exactly overlies the limit between the rupture planes of the Antofagasta and Tocopilla earthquakes. By correlating the uplift data with the slip distribution of the Antofagasta and Tocopilla earthquakes, we demonstrate that deformation and uplift is focussed during the postseismic and

  11. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  12. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  13. Regulation of waste and waste management in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gören, Sami; Ozdemir, Feyza

    2011-04-01

    Industrial and technological developments have increased rapidly throughout the world including Turkey. Furthermore, the population of Turkey is also increasing and the ever-increasing consumption creates larger amounts of waste materials and adversely affects the environment and human health. The development of a waste management and disposal system has become necessary in all countries of the world. As part of the process of seeking entry to the European Union, Turkey continues to prepare the necessary legislation to satisfy European Union regulations for the disposal of solid waste, packaging waste, biodegradable waste and medical waste materials within the framework of the strategy. An integrated waste management system is necessary for each town in Turkey that is suitable for the different contents and increasing amounts of waste produced. In the present study, Turkey's geographical regions were examined in terms of population and the total amount of solid waste generated in each province to produce detailed data for the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry. As a result of this study, it is understood that Turkey has drawn up a 'road map' which will be followed by the 2008-2012 Waste Management Action Plan. To achieve this, the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry, Turkey and the municipalities must fulfill the tasks that have been allocated to them. Turkey will attain the European Union standards for waste management if these tasks lead to the achievement of the targets within the action plan. PMID:20686052

  14. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M

    1987-07-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535

  15. Accreditation Policies of Turkey in Primary and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuzan, Verda Gizem

    2012-01-01

    Turkey's quality of education is being improved in order to become a member of EU (European Union), and Turkey is following the EU's system of educational policies. In the field of education, to encourage teaching and learning, accreditation process is used. It helps programs improve and be accountable for their quality. Accreditation provides…

  16. Socioscientific Issues in Science Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Mugaloglu, Ebru Zeynep; Guven, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the foci and results of studies on socioscientific issues (SSI) conducted in Turkey. Additionally, the study aimed to compare the results of this study with ones conducted internationally. For this aim, a literary review of empirical studies related to SSI conducted in Turkey was carried out. Four criteria…

  17. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  18. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535

  19. Pathogenicity of turkey astroviruses Type 2 in poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of five different type 2 turkey astroviruses (TAstV-2) was studied in SPF turkeys. These viruses belong to three different genotypes based on sequence analysis of the capsid gene. Poults were inoculated at one day of age and examined for clinical signs and virus shedding during t...

  20. Vocational Education in Turkey: The Past, Changes and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbilek, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the present conditions and emerging issues about the future of vocational teacher education in Turkey. The paper discusses the background and historic legacies that have led to the restructuring of Faculties of Teacher Education in Turkey. The influence of the reforms from the foundation of the Turkish Republic are discussed as…

  1. Private Education as a Policy Tool in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinoglu, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses privatization as policy tool to solve educational problems in Turkey. Turkey, as a developing country, is faced with many problems in education. Large class size, low enrollment rate, girl's education, high illiteracy rate, religious education, textbooks, curriculum and multicultural education are some of the important…

  2. Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Göktürk, Ramazan Süleyman; Sümbül, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae) is described and illustrated from south Anatolia, Turkey. The species grows on steppe and stony places in Anamur (C4 Mersin province) in south Anatolia. Diagnostic morphological characters from closely similar taxa are discussed. The geographical distribution of the new species and two closely related species in Turkey are mapped. PMID:27489486

  3. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  4. Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Boran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

  5. Migration and Psychological Status of Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksel, Seyda; Gun, Zubeyit; Irmak, Turkan Yilmaz; Cengelci, Banu

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of involuntary migration on an adolescent population that had moved with their families to either one of two culturally different locations in Turkey. One of these groups had moved from a village in Eastern Turkey to a nearby town, while the other had moved a considerable distance to a large…

  6. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  7. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  8. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  9. International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

  10. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekerol, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  11. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  12. Literacy in Turkey with Special Reference to Women's State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusavas, Mualla

    In Turkey today, 93% of all persons between the ages of 6 and 15 attend school, and 89.7% of males and 71.1.% of females over the age of 15 are literate. Turkey's largest adult education programs are public, free, and offered both within and outside the formal educational system by governmental bodies, national institutions, and voluntary…

  13. Water as Source of Francisella tularensis Infection in Humans, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Selcuk; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Karagöz, Alper; Çelebi, Bekir; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Arikan, Muzaffer; Sahl, Jason W.; Mitchell, Cedar; Rivera, Andrew; Maltinsky, Sara; Keim, Paul; Üstek, Duran; Durmaz, Rıza

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis DNA extractions and isolates from the environment and humans were genetically characterized to elucidate environmental sources that cause human tularemia in Turkey. Extensive genetic diversity consistent with genotypes from human outbreaks was identified in environmental samples and confirmed water as a source of human tularemia in Turkey. PMID:26583383

  14. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  15. Advancements in near real time mapping of earthquake and rainfall induced landslides in the Avcilar Peninsula, Marmara Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, Stella

    2014-05-01

    Stella COCCIA (1), Fiona THEOLEYRE (1), Pascal BIGARRE(1) , Semih ERGINTAV(2), Oguz OZEL(3) and Serdar ÖZALAYBEY(4) (1) National Institute of Industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS) Nancy, France, (2) Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), Istanbul, Turkey, (3) Istanbul University (IU), Istanbul, Turkey, (4) TUBITAK MAM, Istanbul, Turkey The European Project MARsite (http://marsite.eu/), started in 2012 and leaded by the KOERI, aims to improve seismic risk evaluation and preparedness to face the next dreadful large event expected for the next three decades. MARsite is thus expected to move a "step forward" the most advanced monitoring technologies, and offering promising open databases to the worldwide scientific community in the frame of other European environmental large-scale infrastructures, such as EPOS (http://www.epos-eu.org/ ). Among the 11 work packages (WP), the main aim of the WP6 is to study seismically-induced landslide hazard, by using and improving observing and monitoring systems in geological, hydrogeotechnical and seismic onshore and offshore areas. One of the WP6 specific study area is the Avcilar Peninsula, situated between Kucukcekmece and Buyukcekmece Lakes in the north-west of the region of Marmara. There, more than 400 landslides are located. According to geological and geotechnical investigations and studies, soil movements of this area are related to underground water and pore pressure changes, seismic forces arising after earthquakes and decreasing sliding strength in fissured and heavily consolidated clays. The WP6 includes various tasks and one of these works on a methodology to develop a dynamic system to create combined earthquake and rainfall induced landslides hazard maps at near real time and automatically. This innovative system could be used to improve the prevention strategy as well as in disaster management and relief operations. Base on literature review a dynamic GIS platform is used to combine

  16. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of..., of any wall thickness (pipe and tube) from Turkey. These products are currently provided for...

  17. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Order, 78 FR 693 (January 4, 2013); and Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited...

  18. 75 FR 20991 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental... Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR part 380, Commission staff have prepared...

  19. Application of Space Technology to Discovery of Ancient Desert Trade Routes in the Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, Ronald; Crippen, Robert; Hedges, George; Zarins, Juris

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade, an unusual combination of historical research, traditional archaeology, and application of space technolgy has demonstrated the existence of trans-desert trade routes in the sourthern Arabian peninsula.

  20. Past and Future Drought Regimes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Burak; Topcu, Sevilay; Turkes, Murat; Sen, Baha

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability in the 20th century was characterized by apparent precipitation variability at both temporal and spatial scales. In addition to the well-known characteristic seasonal and year-to-year variability, some marked and long-term changes in precipitation occurred in Turkey, particularly after the early 1970s. Drought, originating from a deficiency of precipitation over an extended time period (which is usually a season or more) has become a recurring phenomenon in Turkey in the past few decades. Spatially coherent with the significant drought events since early 1970s, water stress and shortages for all water user sectors have also reached their critical points in Turkey. Analyzing the historical occurrence of drought provides an understanding of the range of climate possibilities for a country, resulting in more informed management decision-making. However, future projections about spatial and temporal changes in drought characteristics such as frequency, intensity and duration can be challenging for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Hence, the objectives of this study are (i) to analyze the spatial and temporal dimensions of historical droughts in Turkey, (2) to predict potential intensity, frequency and duration of droughts in Turkey for the future (2070-2100). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Percent to Normal Index (PNI) have been used to assess the drought characteristics. Rainfall datasets for the reference period, 1960-1990, were acquired from 52 stations (representative of all kinds of regions with different rainfall regimes in the country) of the Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS). The future rainfall series for the 2070-2100 period were simulated using a regional climate model (RegCM3) for IPCC's SRESS-A2 scenario conditions. For verification of RegCM3 simulations, the model was performed for the reference period and simulated rainfall data were used for computing two drought indices (SPI

  1. Recent Antarctic Peninsula warming relative to Holocene climate and ice-shelf history.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, Robert; Abram, Nerilie J; Hindmarsh, Richard C A; Arrowsmith, Carol; Fleet, Louise; Triest, Jack; Sime, Louise C; Alemany, Olivier; Foord, Susan

    2012-09-01

    Rapid warming over the past 50 years on the Antarctic Peninsula is associated with the collapse of a number of ice shelves and accelerating glacier mass loss. In contrast, warming has been comparatively modest over West Antarctica and significant changes have not been observed over most of East Antarctica, suggesting that the ice-core palaeoclimate records available from these areas may not be representative of the climate history of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here we show that the Antarctic Peninsula experienced an early-Holocene warm period followed by stable temperatures, from about 9,200 to 2,500 years ago, that were similar to modern-day levels. Our temperature estimates are based on an ice-core record of deuterium variations from James Ross Island, off the northeastern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. We find that the late-Holocene development of ice shelves near James Ross Island was coincident with pronounced cooling from 2,500 to 600 years ago. This cooling was part of a millennial-scale climate excursion with opposing anomalies on the eastern and western sides of the Antarctic Peninsula. Although warming of the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula began around 600 years ago, the high rate of warming over the past century is unusual (but not unprecedented) in the context of natural climate variability over the past two millennia. The connection shown here between past temperature and ice-shelf stability suggests that warming for several centuries rendered ice shelves on the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula vulnerable to collapse. Continued warming to temperatures that now exceed the stable conditions of most of the Holocene epoch is likely to cause ice-shelf instability to encroach farther southward along the Antarctic Peninsula. PMID:22914090

  2. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This shaded relief image of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth.

    Most of the peninsula is visible here, along with the island of Cozumel off the east coast. The Yucatan is a plateau composed mostly of limestone and is an area of very low relief with elevations varying by less than a few hundred meters (about 500 feet.) In this computer-enhanced image the topography has been greatly exaggerated to highlight a semicircular trough, the darker green arcing line at the upper left corner of the peninsula. This trough is only about 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) deep and is about 5 km. wide (3 miles), so subtle that if you walked across it you probably would not notice it, and is a surface expression of the crater's outer boundary. Scientists believe the impact, which was centered just off the coast in the Caribbean, altered the subsurface rocks such that the overlying limestone sediments, which formed later and erode very easily, would preferentially erode on the vicinity of the crater rim. This formed the trough as well as numerous sinkholes (called cenotes) which are visible as small circular depressions.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwestern slopes appear bright and southeastern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large

  3. Late Eocene Hydrological Conditions on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feakins, S. J.; Deconto, R. M.; Warny, S.

    2013-12-01

    The late Eocene to Oligocene transition (EOT) witnessed a major ice advance on Antarctica. Little is known about hydrological conditions in the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Eocene prior to the major ice advance. Here we explore the hydrological conditions with proxy reconstructions from marine sediment core NBP0602A-3C, adjacent to the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, with sediments dated to approximately 35.9 × 1.1 Ma providing a snapshot of conditions prior to the EOT. We combine plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic evidence paired with previously-published evidence from pollen assemblages from the marine core, and compare to results of climate model experiments. The pollen from late Eocene sediments of NBP0602A-3C indicate a Nothofagidites (southern beech) dominated landscape. In the same sediments, leaf wax hydrogen isotope (δDwax) values average -202×7‰ (1σ, n=22) for the C28 n-alkanoic acid. Based on an estimated net fractionation of -100‰, these values suggest paleoprecipitation δD values on the order of -118×8‰. The similarity between Late Eocene precipitation isotopic reconstructions (with no ice on what was then an island) and in situ modern isotopic values (while ice-covered) is surprising as ice-free conditions should imply warmer temperatures which would normally imply more enriched isotopic values. Convergent isotopic compositions during demonstrably different environments require a dynamical test to evaluate this validity of this isotopic result. In order to test the isotopic response to an expanding Antarctic ice sheet across the EOT, we conducted experiments with an isotope-enabled GCM. We simulated conditions before, during, and after the transition by systematically decreasing carbon dioxide levels from 1000 to 560 ppm while increasing ice volume to represent an ice-free to fully glaciated continent. Model experiments predict changes in vegetation cover from mixed forest to tundra biomes, reductions in austral summer temperature of

  4. An assessment of heat stress in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla Álvarez, D.; Fernandez García, F.

    2010-09-01

    The analysis of human comfort requires the inclusion of additional parameters to air temperature, such as wind, humidity or radiation, especially in areas like the Iberian Peninsula, where the summer thermal differences between the marine surfaces and the continent promotes local circulations capable to modify locally the characteristics of the air masses. A variety of bioclimatic indices that relate atmospheric conditions to human sensations have been developed so far, being the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET, Matzarakis et al, 1999) one of the most popular. Several objectives have guided this research. First, a basic climatology of PET over the Iberian Peninsula has been elaborated. Secondly, the main modes of spatial and temporal variability in the apparent temperature field have been obtained. Aditionally, the role of the regional atmospheric circulation and local surface variables in the spatial and temporal variability of PET has been analyzed through a synoptic climatological approach. The data used have been 3 hourly synop reports from stations located in the Iberian Peninsula, Southern France and Northern Africa (Morocco and Argelia), for the period 1971-2007. 850 hPa geopotential heights, retrieved from NCEP Reanalysis web server (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/reanalysis/reanalysis.shtml) were used to devise a circulation pattern catalogue, obtained following a well-known procedure that combines Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for reduction purposes and clustering (Ward plus K-means) to define the types. Additional gridded variables, like 850 u/v wind components and 850 relative humidity fields were also used to obtain composites of the synoptic patterns. The methodology followed comprised several steps. Initially, 3 hourly values of PET corresponding to selected stations was calculated with RayMan. The 12 UTC values were subsequently submitted to a regionalization using a Rotated Principal Component Analysis. The frequency of occurrence

  5. Health and Roma People in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif

    2016-01-01

    Background: The research and published literature on Roma health in Turkey is much more limited than in other European countries. Among these, there are hardly any published literature focusing on the health status, health indicators and health behaviors. Aims: The aim of this research is to describe the perceptions of health-related concepts and access and the use of health services and social determinants of the health of Roma people in Turkey. Study Design: Descriptive qualitative survey. Methods: The participants were chosen by random sampling. The semi-structured interview topic guide was developed from sources such as advice from the Romani community leaders, published evidence and personal experience from previous work with Roma communities. Non-directive open-ended questions allowed the exploration of their health status, how they conceptualize health and disease, their level of awareness on the impact of social determinants of health, on their health status and the access and use of health services. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. Analysis proceeded in four steps: 1. Reading and examining the transcripts separately using open coding, 2. Extracting the key words and codes from the transcripts and sorting them into categories, 3. Re-reading the transcripts by using selective coding, and 4. Examining the categories derived from the open coding systematically and determining the concepts summarizing the material. Results: The survey results are compatible with the existing literature on Roma health and reveal that 1) there is a tight link between the lack of social determinants of health and the poor health status of Roma people 2) socioeconomic factors and cultural norms of the ethnic minority are suspicious factors 3) comparative and systematic research is needed to illuminate the actual health gaps and causal factors for them. Conclusion: The research proves that the need for comparative and systematic research in Turkey to determine the

  6. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carson, E.C.; Fournelle, J.H.; Miller, T.P.; Mickelson, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425 ?? 350 and 9130 ?? 140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300 ?? 80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200 ?? 75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070 ?? 340 and 3600 ?? 140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk

  7. Preliminary geothermal evaluation of the Mokapu Peninsula on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Preliminary geological, geochemical, and geophysical field surveys have been conducted on Mokapu Peninsula on the island of Oahu in an effort to determine whether sufficient indications of geothermal potential exist within or adjacent to the peninsula to justify further, more detailed, exploratory efforts. An evaluation of existing geologic data as well as recently completed mapping on Mokapu indicate that the peninsula is located on the edge of or immediately adjacent to the inferred caldera of Koolau volcano. Geochemical surveys conducted within and around the Mokapu Peninsula included mercury and radon ground gas surveys as well as a limited evaluation of groundwater chemistry. Groundwater sampling on Mokapu Peninsula was severely restricted due to the absence of wells within the study area and thus water chemistry analyses were limited to the Nuupia fish ponds. Schlumberger resistivity soundings were completed in three locations on the peninsula: KVS1, in the northeast quadrant within the Ulupau crater, KVS2 in the northwest quadrant along the main jet runway, and KVS3 in the southeast along Mokapu Road. KVS1 encountered a relatively high resistivity to a depth of approximately 20 meters below sea level which was underlain by a basement resistivity of about 2 to 3 ohm meters. KVS2 and KVS3 detected similar resistivities of 2 to 3 ohm meters at much shallower depths (approximately equivalent to local sea level) below a thin, moderately resistive layer having an impedance ranging from 15 to 118 ohm meters.

  8. The Spatial Coherence of Interannual Temperature Variations in the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, John C.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over 50 years of observations from climate stations on the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula show that this is a region of extreme interannual variability in near-surface temperatures. The region has also experienced more rapid warming than any other part of the Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we use a new dataset of satellite-derived surface temperatures to define the extent of the region of extreme variability more clearly than was possible using the sparse station data. The region in which satellite surface temperatures correlate strongly with west Peninsula station temperatures is found to be quite small and is largely confined to the seas just west of the Peninsula, with a northward and eastward extension into the Scotia Sea and a southward extension onto the western slopes of Palmer Land. Correlation of Peninsula surface temperatures with surface temperatures over the rest of continental Antarctica is poor confirming that the west Peninsula is in a different climate regime. The analysis has been used to identify sites where ice core proxy records might be representative of variations on the west coast of the Peninsula. Of the five existing core sites examined, only one is likely to provide a representative record for the west coast.

  9. Stand structure and dynamics of sand pine differ between the Florida panhandle and peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drewa, P.B.; Platt, W.J.; Kwit, C.; Doyle, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Size and age structures of stand populations of numerous tree species exhibit uneven or reverse J-distributions that can persist after non-catastrophic disturbance, especially windstorms. Among disjunct populations of conspecific trees, alternative distributions are also possible and may be attributed to more localized variation in disturbance. Regional differences in structure and demography among disjunct populations of sand pine (Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey ex Sarg.) in the Florida panhandle and peninsula may result from variation in hurricane regimes associated with each of these populations. We measured size, age, and growth rates of trees from panhandle and peninsula populations and then compiled size and age class distributions. We also characterized hurricanes in both regions over the past century. Size and age structures of panhandle populations were unevenly distributed and exhibited continuous recruitment; peninsula populations were evenly sized and aged and exhibited only periodic recruitment. Since hurricane regimes were similar between regions, historical fire regimes may have been responsible for regional differences in structure of sand pine populations. We hypothesize that fires were locally nonexistent in coastal panhandle populations, while periodic high intensity fires occurred in peninsula populations over the past century. Such differences in local fire regimes could have resulted in the absence of hurricane effects in the peninsula. Increased intensity of hurricanes in the panhandle and current fire suppression patterns in the peninsula may shift characteristics of sand pine stands in both regions. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Curie depth map for Sinai Peninsula, Egypt deduced from the analysis of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; Salem, Ahmed; Mekkawi, Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Sinai Peninsula is considered as a unique region in the world due to its geographical location, tectonic and thermal activities. It is located geographically at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa constituting a triple junction point between the three continents. It is also characterized by thermal manifestations represented by several hot springs with varied temperatures (30-70 °C). Most of these hot springs are located along the shoreline of the Gulf of Suez. In this study, we aim to map the Curie depth isotherm surface for Sinai Peninsula based on the analysis of ground magnetic data. Spectral analysis technique will be used to estimate the boundaries (top and bottom) of the magnetized crust. The depths obtained for the bottom of magnetized crust are assumed to correspond to Curie point depths where the magnetic layer loss its magnetization. Results of this study indicate that the shallow Curie depths (~ 15-18 km) are located at the southern part of Sinai Peninsula and along the shoreline of the Gulf of Suez and depths increase (22-25 km) towards the central and north western portions of Sinai Peninsula. The whole average Curie depth point of Sinai Peninsula is about 20 km. Generally, the shallow depths to Curie isotherm indicate that Sinai Peninsula is a promising area for further geothermal exploration particularly near the eastern side of the Gulf of Suez.

  11. Development of a diagnosis index of tropical cyclones affecting the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi

    2016-06-01

    This study has developed the index for diagnosis on possibility that tropical cyclones (TCs) affect Korean Peninsula. This index is closely related to the strength of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which is calculated as a difference in meridional wind between at the highest correlation area (around Korean Peninsula) and at the lowest correlation area (sea southeast of Japan) through a correlation analysis between TC frequency that affects Korean Peninsula and 500 hPa meridional wind. In low frequency years that selected from Korea affecting TC index, anomalous northeasterly is strengthened from Korea to the South China Sea because the center of anomalous anticyclonic circulation is located to northwest of Korean Peninsula. Thus, TCs tend to move westward from the sea east of the Philippines to the mainland China. On the other hand, in high frequency years, anomalous southwesterly serves as steering flow that more TCs move toward Korean Peninsula because the center of anomalous anticyclonic circulation is located to sea east of Japan. Consequently, this study suggests that if this index is calculated using real time 500 hPa meridional winds that forecasted by dynamic models during the movement of TCs, the possibility that TCs approach Korean Peninsula can be diagnosed in real time.

  12. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  13. Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpsar, Cengiz

    This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

  14. Cell-zonal textures of tinguaites from the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovsky, Y. L.; Shpachenko, A. K.; Skiba, V. I.

    Textures of tinguaite dykes cutting the alkaline Khibiny massif in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, are described. They are characterized by a combination of a fractal microfracture network dividing rock into pencil-like cells and of a concentric rhythmical zonation in almost all of them. The latter is formed by interchange of volatile-enriched and volatile-depleted mineral zones. The location of the textures only where dykes contact host khibinites appears to point out the contraction nature of the microfracture network. The cooling time calculated agrees well with this hypothesis. The zonation appears to have arisen through autometamorphic processes with two main competing factors, namely (a) overall cooling of the system and (b) periodic depletion of it in some elements, mainly Na and K. Another mechanism which may be applied to explain the zonation is the known Marangoni Instability effect at the early stage of evolution of the volatile-saturated phonolite melt. Thus, tinguaite textures are caused by nonspecific influences external to the system and may be regarded as an example of self-organization in nature.

  15. Concentrations and sources of metals in the Antarctic Peninsula aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, A.L. )

    1991-07-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a remote site near the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer of 1984/85. Filter samples were analyzed for Al (as a crustal reference element), marine cations (Na, K, and Ca), heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn), and sulfate using atomic absorption spectrometry, isotope dilution mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and ion chromatography. Ultraclean sample collection and analysis procedures used to avoid sample contamination are described in detail here. Mean concentrations of heavy metals were found to be: Cd, 0.06 pg m{sup {minus}3}; Cu, 1.0 pg m{sup {minus}3}; Pb, 4.7 pg m{sup {minus}3}; and Zn, 6.1 pg m{sup {minus}3}. These are the lowest concentrations yet determined in the troposphere, but for Pb and Zn they still indicate a significant enrichment over expected crustal concentrations. For these elements, estimated marine and volcanic contributions cannot account for this excess and suggest pollution as the dominant source even at this remote location. For Cd and Cu a dominant anthropogenic source cannot be ruled out, although current estimated of crustal, marine, a volcanic emissions could account for levels determined.

  16. Secondary pores in carbonate reservoirs on Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, R.; Waterhouse, M.; Watfa, M.

    1987-05-01

    Nearly all of the giant carbonate reservoirs on the Arabian Peninsula have both primary and secondary pore systems. There are, however, significant stratigraphic and geographic variations of origin, volume, and reservoir importance of secondary pores. The Permian Khuff reservoir zones generally has more secondary porosity than any younger, or shallower, reservoir formations. Highly permeable idiotopic (sucrosic) dolomites are commonly developed in zones which originally contained primary pores. The zones with the highest porosity often contain secondary pores, with calcite-free oomoldic dolomites having higher permeability than oomoldic limestones. Fractures resulting from halokinetics and/or salt dissolution are generally the most important secondary pores in Khuff reservoirs. The prolific Jurassic Arab reservoir zones, generally have lesser amounts of secondary pores than Khuff reservoirs, but a variety of secondary pores are present. Commonly the Arab C zone contains the greatest volume of secondary pores, generally of a moldic (grain and/or skeletal) nature. Secondary porosity associated with dolomitization is regionally more common in the eastern Gulf. Cretaceous (rudist) reefal and chalk reservoirs often contain zones of secondary porosity with enhanced permeability resulting from the leaching of aragonitic and high-magnesium calcite skeletal material. Secondary porosity is present in the western gulf in both the Minagish grainstones and dolomitized Shuaiba Formation, whereas the grainstones of the eastern gulf have little secondary porosity. Large fracture systems are present everywhere in low-permeability chalks and wackestones. An unusually high degree of porosity heterogeneity appears to be ubiquitous in Cretaceous sequences.

  17. Seismic hazard of the Iberian Peninsula: evaluation with kernel functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, M. J.; Martínez, F.; Martí, J.

    2014-05-01

    The seismic hazard of the Iberian Peninsula is analysed using a nonparametric methodology based on statistical kernel functions; the activity rate is derived from the catalogue data, both its spatial dependence (without a seismogenic zonation) and its magnitude dependence (without using Gutenberg-Richter's relationship). The catalogue is that of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, supplemented with other catalogues around the periphery; the quantification of events has been homogenised and spatially or temporally interrelated events have been suppressed to assume a Poisson process. The activity rate is determined by the kernel function, the bandwidth and the effective periods. The resulting rate is compared with that produced using Gutenberg-Richter statistics and a zoned approach. Three attenuation relationships have been employed, one for deep sources and two for shallower events, depending on whether their magnitude was above or below 5. The results are presented as seismic hazard maps for different spectral frequencies and for return periods of 475 and 2475 yr, which allows constructing uniform hazard spectra.

  18. Seismic hazards of the Iberian Peninsula - evaluation with kernel functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, M. J.; Martínez, F.; Martí, J.

    2013-08-01

    The seismic hazard of the Iberian Peninsula is analysed using a nonparametric methodology based on statistical kernel functions; the activity rate is derived from the catalogue data, both its spatial dependence (without a seismogenetic zonation) and its magnitude dependence (without using Gutenberg-Richter's law). The catalogue is that of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, supplemented with other catalogues around the periphery; the quantification of events has been homogenised and spatially or temporally interrelated events have been suppressed to assume a Poisson process. The activity rate is determined by the kernel function, the bandwidth and the effective periods. The resulting rate is compared with that produced using Gutenberg-Richter statistics and a zoned approach. Three attenuation laws have been employed, one for deep sources and two for shallower events, depending on whether their magnitude was above or below 5. The results are presented as seismic hazard maps for different spectral frequencies and for return periods of 475 and 2475 yr, which allows constructing uniform hazard spectra.

  19. [Deep vein thrombosis in Noto Peninsula earthquake victims].

    PubMed

    Terakami, Takako; Ohba, Noriko; Morishita, Eriko; Yoshida, Tomotaka; Asakura, Hidesaku; Kimura, Keiichi; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Gou; Fujita, Shinichi; Wada, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    The earthquake occurred in the Noto Peninsula in the northern part of Ishikawa prefecture, Japan, at 9:25 a.m. on March 25th 2007. Medical activities for prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), early detection of DVT, and early treatment of DVT were performed immediately after the earthquake on the basis of a previous report regarding earthquake disasters. This report described the conditions involved in the development of DVT. General inhabitants in shelters were examined by questionnaires, venous ultrasonography of lower limb, and blood tests. The DVT-positive rate was 10.6% (21 cases/198 cases), and the soleal vein was the most common location of DVT accounting for 71.4% of cases(20 lower limbs/28 lower limbs). Plasma levels of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimer in the DVT-positive group (20 cases) were significantly higher than those in the DVT-negative group(162 cases) (P<0.03). No deaths or cases of serious illness caused by DVT were reported in the earthquake. The medical activities described here were effective due to the past experience and the cooperation of many people. PMID:19522245

  20. Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous in Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Nairn, A.E.M.

    1986-05-01

    The Cretaceous of the Arabian Peninsula is divided into three major units by regional unconformities: Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group (Berriasian-middle Aptian), middle Cretaceous Wasia Group (Albian-Turonian), and Upper Cretaceous Aruma Group (Coniacian-Maestrichtian). The profusion of named stratigraphic units in the area reflects not only the lithologic variation resulting from facies changes, but also terminologies adopted by different companies. The authors provide a stratigraphic nomenclature defining standard type sections and indicate synonymies, which follow the recommendation of 10th Geological Liaison Meeting and hence are acceptable to operators in the area. The sedimentologic history of the area was presented in a series of paleogeographic maps, which they relate to the regional tectonic framework. The maps show a predominantly carbonate shelf ramp bordering a land area to the north and west. The principal change in depositional environment occurs during the Upper Cretaceous, as a result of tectonic activity. Less significant changes are attributed to eustatic sea level fluctuations, on which tilting caused by tectonic movement may be superposed during the Lower and middle Cretaceous. The major producing horizons lie below the regional unconformities; secondary porosity in the shelf reefal buildups was developed during subaerial exposure in the Shuaiba Formation (early-middle Aptian), in the Mishrif Formation (late Cenomanian), and in the Simsima Formation (Maestrichtian).

  1. Recent increase in Antarctic Peninsula ice core uranium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potocki, Mariusz; Mayewski, Paul A.; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Simões, Jefferson C.; Dixon, Daniel A.; Goodwin, Ian; Carleton, Andrew M.; Handley, Michael J.; Jaña, Ricardo; Korotkikh, Elena V.

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the distribution of airborne uranium is important because it can result in both chemical and radiological toxicity. Ice cores offer the most robust reconstruction of past atmospheric levels of toxic substances. Here we present the first sub-annually dated, continuously sampled ice core documenting change in U levels in the Southern Hemisphere. The ice core was recovered from the Detroit Plateau, northern Antarctic Peninsula, in 2007 by a joint Brazilian-Chilean-US team. It displays a significant increase in U concentration that coincides with reported mining activities in the Southern Hemisphere, notably Australia. Raw U concentrations in the Detroit Plateau ice core increased by as much as 102 between the 1980s and 2000s accompanied by increased variability in recent years. Decadal mean U concentrations increased by a factor of ∼3 from 1980 to 2007, reaching a mean of 205 pg/L from 2000 to 2007. The fact that other terrestrial source dust elements such as Ce, La, Pr, and Ti do not show a similar increase and that the increased U concentrations are enriched above natural crustal levels, supports an anthropogenic source for the U as opposed to a change in atmospheric circulation.

  2. Pumice deposits in the Alaska Peninsula-Cook Inlet region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.

    1952-01-01

    Three principal areas of pumice deposition have been found in the Alaska Peninsula-Cook Inlet region: Katmai National Monument, Augustine Island, and the Veniaminof-Aniakchak area. Vast quantities of pumice were deposited in Katmai National Monument resulting from the eruption of Mt. Katmai and related volcanic action in 1912. The principal deposits in the coastal areas of the Monument occur in the valley of the Katmai River and in the Amalik Bay-Kukak Bay area. Several areas of pumice deposition have been found on the south and west sides of Augustine Island, located 200 miles southwest of Anchorage. Mining was carried on by the Alaska Katmalite Corporation during the period 1946-1949, but no production has taken place since that time. Pumice deposits found in the Aniakchak-Veniaminof area have probably been derived from three principal sources: Aniakchak Crater, Mt. Veniaminof and Purple Crater. The limited data available indicate the deposits of chief interest occur in the valley of the Aniakchak River and in areas adjacent to Chignik Bay.

  3. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. ); Fernandez, R. ); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. )

    1990-02-10

    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. P-wave velocity structure beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Kim, K.; Jin, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the tree-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula using teleseismic P waves. The data came from the seven land stations of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA) campaigned during 1997-1999, a permanent IRIS/GSN station (PMSA), and 3 seismic stations installed at scientific bases, Esperanza (ESPZ), Jubany (JUBA), and King Sejong (KSJ), in South Shetland Islands. All of the seismic stations are located in coast area, and the signal to noise ratios (SNR) are very low. The P-wave model was inverted from 95 earthquakes resulting in 347 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals. The inverted model shows a strong low velocity anmaly beneath the Bransfield Strait, and a fast anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands. The low velocity anomaly beneath the Bransfield might be due to a back arc extension, and the fast velocity anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands could indicates the cold subducted slab.

  5. Methylmercury monitoring study in Karakuwacho peninsula area in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junxia; Inoue, Kayoko; Asakawa, Akihiro; Harada, Kouji H; Watanabe, Takao; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Koizumi, Akio

    2014-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a worldwide concern owing to its adverse health effects. To explore MeHg exposure burdens and the potential contributing factors in different subpopulations in a peninsula area (Karakuwacho) in Japan, a cross-sectional survey was performed. This study included 189 individuals from 102 families. The geometric means of total hair mercury (THg) were 5.74, 3.78 and 2.37 μg/g for adult males, females and children, respectively, of which 56.5 %, 30.9 % and 12.9 % had hair THg exceeding 5 μg/g, respectively. Tuna and mackerel were the common fish species that were positively correlated with hair THg levels in different subpopulations (standardized coefficient ranged from 0.20 to 0.58, p < 0.05). Frequent consumption of these fish species and a large amount of fish intake are likely major contributors of MeHg exposure in this area. Local-scale risk evaluation and risk communication should be highlighted in future studies. PMID:24599146

  6. Classificiation of Kii peninsula area by vegetation coverage level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyama, Noriko; Awa, Shinobu; Muramatu, Kanako; Daigo, Motomasa

    2005-10-01

    In order to study land cover classification and natural environment, we must analyze vegetation cover states of the local scale in which we can know the subject in detail, as well as and the global scale. Therefore, we need to analyze various satellite data sets which are measured with different wavelengths region and different number of bands. However, it is difficult to compare analysis results obtained using such data sets. By the universal pattern decomposition method (UPDM), which is sensor independent analysis method, we examined vegetation coverage of a pixel on data sets measured different wavelength range and different resolution which is acquired at the same place and time. In this study, in order to develop a generalization rule of vegetation coverage, we examine vegetation coverage of a pixel on 1-kilometer resolution data sets using results obtained by analyzing 250-m resolution data sets which are acquired at the same place and time as the pixel of 1-kilometers'. We defined the rule of classifying into five levels of vegetation coverage using results of high resolution data sets analyzed by the UPDM. Using the results of the analysis, we calculate vegetation coverage of Kii peninsula area.

  7. Data Collection in the Arabian Peninsula for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; Al-Amri, A M S

    2003-07-11

    We report results from the second year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We have a temporary broadband seismic station operating near the IMS primary array site (PS38) in central Saudi Arabia. We recently installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). We are working with King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology to collect and analyze data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consist of 37 digital three-component stations (26 broadband and 11 short-period). We are collaborating with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to analyze data from their 8 station national seismic network. We participated in the Workshop on Reference Events odnear the Dead Sea Rift held in Paris, France in October 2002. In this paper we present results of these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of event locations and source parameters and inference of earth structure.

  8. Speedup and fracturing of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, T. O.; Glasser, N. F.; Quincey, D. J.; Siegfried, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    George VI Ice Shelf (GVIIS) is located on the Antarctic Peninsula, a region where several ice shelves have undergone rapid breakup in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming. We use a combination of optical (Landsat), radar (ERS 1/2 SAR) and laser altimetry (GLAS) datasets to examine the response of GVIIS to environmental change and to offer an assessment on its future stability. The spatial and structural changes of GVIIS (ca. 1973 to ca. 2010) are mapped and surface velocities are calculated at different time periods (InSAR and optical feature tracking from 1989 to 2009) to document changes in the ice shelf's flow regime. Surface elevation changes are recorded between 2003 and 2008 using repeat track ICESat acquisitions. We note an increase in fracture extent and distribution at the south ice front, ice-shelf acceleration towards both the north and south ice fronts and spatially varied negative surface elevation change throughout, with greater variations observed towards the central and southern regions of the ice shelf. We propose that whilst GVIIS is in no imminent danger of collapse, it is vulnerable to on-going atmospheric and oceanic warming and is more susceptible to breakup along its southern margin in ice preconditioned for further retreat.

  9. Speedup and fracturing of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, T. O.; Glasser, N. F.; Quincey, D. J.; Siegfried, M. R.

    2013-05-01

    George VI Ice Shelf (GVIIS) is located on the Antarctic Peninsula, a region where several ice shelves have undergone rapid breakup in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming. We use a combination of optical (Landsat), radar (ERS 1/2 SAR) and laser altimetry (GLAS) datasets to examine the response of GVIIS to environmental change and to offer an assessment on its future stability. The spatial and structural changes of GVIIS (ca. 1973 to ca. 2010) are mapped and surface velocities are calculated at different time periods (InSAR and optical feature tracking from 1989 to 2009) to document changes in the ice shelf's flow regime. Surface elevation changes are recorded between 2003 and 2008 using repeat track ICESat acquisitions. We note an increase in fracture extent and distribution at the south ice front, ice-shelf acceleration towards both the north and south ice fronts and spatially varied negative surface elevation change throughout, with greater variations observed towards the central and southern regions of the ice shelf. We propose that whilst GVIIS is in no imminent danger of collapse, it is vulnerable to ongoing atmospheric and oceanic warming and is more susceptible to breakup along its southern margin in ice preconditioned for further retreat.

  10. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K. L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

  11. Mapping the Tobacco Retailers in Edirne, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karlıkaya, Celal; İnce, Hüseyin; Özkan, Nurcan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. Material and Methods: In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. Results: There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. Conclusion: We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment. PMID:25207039

  12. Ectoparasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Senlik, Bayram; Aydin, Levent; Cirak, Veli Y

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal, spiny-coated animals that have been growing in popularity as exotic pets. However, these animals are host to a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, some of which are of zoonotic character. Thus, because hedgehogs have a potential role to transmit zoonoses including arthropod-borne diseases, we examined them for their ectoparasites. The study was carried out on hedgehogs found dead mainly due to road casualties in the Bursa province of Turkey. The ectoparasites were collected by both insecticide spraying of the body and inspection on a white paper carefully. Totally three species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Haemophysalis parvo) and one flea species (Archeopsylla erinacei) were detected. The prevalence of mixed infestation with both ticks and fleas was 45.5%. Haemaphysalis parva was reported for the first time from hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Turkey. The occurrence of ectoparasites and their potential role as vectors of certain zoonotic diseases are briefly discussed. PMID:26281445

  13. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  14. National Childhood Diabetes Program Activities in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Recent census figures in Turkey show that out of a population of 76.6 million, 22.7 million (29.7%) are younger than 18 years old. The great majority (>95%) of pediatric cases of diabetes in Turkey are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In recent years, with increase in number of pediatric endocrine centers around the country, the important issue of care for diabetic children and adolescents has been revived and major steps have been taken for improvement in pediatric care and its outreach to all diabetic children. The Childhood Diabetes Group continues its activities in cooperation with the Turkish Ministry of Health. A list of areas of interest of the Group include “School programs”, “Incidence/prevalence studies and national registry system”, “Educational guidelines for diabetes in children”, “Increasing the numbers of camps and summer schools for diabetic children”, “Organization of educational programs for the health team”, “National guidelines for transition of diabetic children to adult clinics”, “Improvement of school canteens”, “Educational spots” to improve awareness of diabetes. The activities of the Childhood Diabetes Group will be discussed in detail in this article. PMID:25800469

  15. Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Mexicano, G; Ramos, J I

    2003-03-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other bird species. Sleep periods displayed a polyphasic distribution; however, they showed the tendency to concentrate between 2100 and 0900 h in spite of the fact that the recordings were carried out under constant illumination. Sleep period occupied 45.71% of the nyctohemeral cycle, 43.33% corresponded to SWS, while 2.38% to REM sleep. The average duration of the REM sleep phase was very short, lasting 7.7+/-0.55 s (mean+/-S.D.). In contrast, its frequency was very high with an average recurrence of 268+/-63 phases throughout the nyctohemeral cycle. The short duration of REM sleep phase presented by the turkey as by other bird species studied up to now may be dependent upon genetic factors shared by this group of vertebrates. PMID:12676279

  16. Patient doses from CT examinations in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ataç, Gökçe Kaan; Parmaksız, Aydın; İnal, Tolga; Bulur, Emine; Bulgurlu, Figen; Öncü, Tolga; Gündoğdu, Sadi

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to establish the first diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for computed tomography (CT) examinations in adult and pediatric patients in Turkey and compare these with international DRLs. METHODS CT performance information and examination parameters (for head, chest, high-resolution CT of the chest [HRCT-chest], abdominal, and pelvic protocols) from 1607 hospitals were collected via a survey. Dose length products and effective doses for standard patient sizes were calculated from the reported volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). RESULTS The median number of protocols reported from the 167 responding hospitals (10% response rate) was 102 across five different age groups. Third quartile CTDIvol values for adult pelvic and all pediatric body protocols were higher than the European Commission standards but were comparable to studies conducted in other countries. CONCLUSION The radiation dose indicators for adult patients were similar to those reported in the literature, except for those associated with head protocols. CT protocol optimization is necessary for adult head and pediatric chest, HRCT-chest, abdominal, and pelvic protocols. The findings from this study are recommended for use as national DRLs in Turkey. PMID:26133189

  17. Machine-related farm injuries in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdur, Okhan; Ozkan, Seda; Durukan, Polat; Avsarogullari, Levent; Koyuncu, Murat; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Traumas connected with agricultural production can result in serious injuries and mortality. The objective of the study was to describe the characteristics of agricultural machines related work injury cases admitted to the Emergency Department, and to asses factors related to injury severity and hospital admission in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. All the cases presented related to injuries caused by work with agricultural machines between January 2006-November 2007 were included in the study. Information was collected concerning the demographic structures of the patients. Injury sites, injury types, and clinical features were recorded. Initial injury severity scores of all the cases were diagnosed at hospital admission. 91.9 percent of the cases were male. Mean age was 35.8 +- 17.0. The most common machine causing injuries was a tractor with 46 percent of cases, and all of these were fall traumas. 18.9 percent of the cases was considered as slight injury, 43.2 percent as moderate, and 37.9 percent as severe. Two male cases resulted in fatality. Our findings suggest that tractors are the most dangerous agricultural machines, and falls from tractors as the most common injury mechanism among machine-related injuries, especially for young people. In the rural areas of our country, Turkey, agricultural machines cause serious injuries that require hospitalization. PMID:20684481

  18. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for economically important traits. A linkage map of turkey is essential not only for the mapping of quantitative trait loci, but also as a framework to enable the assignment of sequence contigs to specific chromosomes. Comparative genomics with chicken provides insight into mechanisms of genome evolution and helps in identifying rare genomic events such as genomic rearrangements and duplications/deletions. Results Eighteen full sib families, comprising 1008 (35 F1 and 973 F2) birds, were genotyped for 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Of the 775 SNPs, 570 were informative and used to construct a linkage map in turkey. The final map contains 531 markers in 28 linkage groups. The total genetic distance covered by these linkage groups is 2,324 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (81 loci) measuring 326 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 28 linkage groups is 4.6 cM. Comparative mapping of turkey and chicken revealed two inter-, and 57 intrachromosomal rearrangements between these two species. Conclusion Our turkey genetic map of 531 markers reveals a genome length of 2,324 cM. Our linkage map provides an improvement of previously published maps because of the more even distribution of the markers and because the map is completely based on SNP markers enabling easier and faster genotyping assays than the microsatellitemarkers used in previous linkage maps. Turkey and chicken are shown to have a highly conserved genomic structure with a relatively low number of inter-, and intrachromosomal rearrangements. PMID:21092123

  19. Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula lithosphere: Evidence from Mesozoic mafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, T. R.; Curtis, M. L.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    New geochronology from a thick (> 800 m) basaltic succession along the eastern margin of the Antarctic Peninsula confirm a Middle Jurassic age (178 ± 1 Ma). This marginally postdates the adjacent Ferrar large igneous province of the Transantarctic Mountains and predates the extensive silicic volcanism of the Mapple Formation (~ 170 Ma) of the Antarctic Peninsula. The geochemistry of other rare, but broadly contemporaneous, basaltic successions of the Antarctic Peninsula, along with Cretaceous-age mafic dykes, are used to interpret the influences of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle sources during the Mesozoic. Two significant high magmatic addition rate events occurred along the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin at 170 and 110 Ma and can be correlated to events along the South American Cordillera. These 'flare-up' events are characterised by extensive silicic (mostly ignimbrite) volcanism of the Chon Aike Province (V2 event: 170 Ma) and significant granitoid batholith emplacement of the Lassiter Coast intrusive suite (110 Ma). The 170 Ma event is exposed across large parts of the northern Antarctic Peninsula, whilst the 110 Ma event is more widespread across the southern Antarctic Peninsula. The basaltic volcanism described here precedes the 'flare-up' event at 170 Ma and has geochemical characteristics that indicate a thickened lithosphere prevailed. A major dyke swarm that followed the 170 Ma event indicates that extensive lithospheric thinning had occurred, which allowed the ascent of depleted mafic melts. The thinning was the direct result of widespread lower crustal/upper lithospheric melting associated with the silicic volcanism. In the southern Antarctic Peninsula, the lithosphere remained over thickened until the emplacement of the major batholiths of the Lassiter Coast intrusive suite at 110 Ma and was then immediately followed by the emplacement of more asthenosphere-like melts indicating extensive lithospheric thinning.

  20. Long-term persistence of subduction earthquake segment boundaries: Evidence from Mejillones Peninsula, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, P.; Sobiesiak, M.; Glodny, J.; Nielsen, S. N.; Oncken, O.

    2011-02-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula in northern Chile has been recognized as the surface expression of a segment boundary for large subduction zone earthquakes. The sharp contact between the rupture planes of two instrumentally recorded earthquakes, the Mw = 8.0 Antofagasta (1995) and the Mw = 7.7 Tocopilla (2007) events, is located beneath the central part of Mejillones Peninsula. We present new chronostratigraphic and structural data that allow reconstructing the evolution of the Peninsula at the surface and correlation of the latter with seismic cycle deformation on the plate interface. Uplift commenced after 3.4 Myr, as recorded in the western highland. The central graben area on the Peninsula started uplifting above sea level as an anticlinal hinge zone prior to 400 kyr ago, most probably 790 kyr ago. The resulting E-W trending hinge exactly overlies the limit between the rupture planes of the Antofagasta and Tocopilla earthquakes. By correlating the uplift data with the slip distribution of the above earthquakes, we demonstrate that deformation and uplift is focused during the postseismic and interseismic periods of the megathrust seismic cycle with coseismic deformation opposed to the long-term motion. Additionally, the slip deficit beneath the Peninsula accumulating between events is probably largely recovered by creep. Hence we suggest that Mejillones Peninsula owes its existence to the lateral variation of the propensity for unstable slip at the interface. Since the latter is a material property, the long-term spatial stability of the Peninsula as a barrier to rupture propagation since at least the middle Pleistocene is a necessary consequence.

  1. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Probst, J.R.; Donner, D.M.; Bocetti, C.I.; Sjogren, S.

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland's warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland's warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan during 1990?2000. We collected records and conducted searches for the species in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and Wisconsin over 1978?2000. During that time 25 males were found in Wisconsin and 90 males in the Upper Peninsula. We documented colonization of Michigan's Upper Peninsula by six ringed males from the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Four ringed birds also moved back to the core breeding range, including two males that made two-way movements between the core breeding range and the Upper Peninsula. Thirty-seven females were observed with males from 1995 to 2000, all in Michigan. Nesting activities were noted for 25 pairs and at least nine nests fledged young. One male ringed as a fledgling returned to breed in two subsequent years. After a 19-year period of population stability, the Kirtland's warbler population increased four-fold during 1990?2000, most likely in response to a tripling in habitat area. This increase in sightings and documented breeding may be related to habitat availability in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and to saturation of habitat in the main breeding range. The increase in extra-limital records during 1995?1999 corresponds to the time when the population went from the minimum to the maximum projected population densities, and a decline in natural wildfire habitat was just offset by new managed habitat for the Kirtland's warbler.

  2. [Influence of a turkey stable with a veranda on performance, behaviour and health of male turkeys].

    PubMed

    Berk, J; Wartemann, S

    2006-03-01

    Throughout 4 fattening periods (summer and winter) the influence of a veranda (roofed outside run) on the performance, behaviour and health of tom turkeys was investigated in a pilot study. A second conventional naturally ventilated stable without a veranda was also included in the investigations for special aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate this first turkey stable with a veranda and to give first recommendation for the practical use. The use of the veranda and the differences in behaviour between inside the stable with a veranda and inside the veranda as well as inside both stables were analysed. From 100 turkeys in each period we examined feather condition, walking ability and leg posture in the 9th, 13th and 17th week of age in both stables. In addition, body weight, food consumption and mortality were recorded. The results of this pilot study indicate that the tom turkeys of the line BUT Big 6 used the veranda without negative effects on health and performance parameters. There was some indication for an improved health of animals or a reduced mortality in the stable with veranda. The decrease of walking ability and normal leg posture with increasing age and body weight in both stables suggests that the genetic influence seems to have a higher influence than the enrichment of environment in this study using the fast growing line BUT Big 6. On the other hand, in this pilot study only one stable with a veranda and another commercial stable without a veranda at a different location were included. For this reason the results should be interpreted carefully with respect to possible effects in the management between the two farms. PMID:16669193

  3. Rayleigh wave ellipticity across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez García, Clara; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Spectral amplitude ratios between horizontal and vertical components (H/V ratios) from seismic records are useful to evaluate site effects, predict ground motion and invert for S velocity in the top several hundred meters. These spectral ratios can be obtained from both ambient noise and earthquakes. H/V ratios from ambient noise depend on the content and predominant wave types: body waves, Rayleigh waves, a mixture of different waves, etc. The H/V ratio computed in this way is assumed to measure Rayleigh wave ellipticity since ambient vibrations are dominated by Rayleigh waves. H/V ratios from earthquakes are able to determine the local crustal structure at the vicinity of the recording station. These ratios obtained from earthquakes are based on surface wave ellipticity measurements. Although long period (>20 seconds) Rayleigh H/V ratio is not currently used because of large scatter has been reported and uncertainly about whether these measurements are compatible with traditional phase and group velocity measurements, we will investigate whether it is possible to obtain stable estimates after collecting statistics for many earthquakes. We will use teleseismic events from shallow earthquakes (depth ≤ 40 km) between 2007 January 1 and 2012 December 31 with M ≥ 6 and we will compute H/V ratios for more than 400 stations from several seismic networks across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco for periods between 20 and 100 seconds. Also H/V ratios from cross-correlations of ambient noise in different components for each station pair will be computed. Shorter period H/V ratio measurements based on ambient noise cross-correlations are strongly sensitive to near-surface structure, rather than longer period earthquake Rayleigh waves. The combination of ellipticity measurements based on earthquakes and ambient noise will allow us to perform a joint inversion with Rayleigh wave phase velocity. Upper crustal structure is better constrained by the joint inversion compared

  4. Assessing methods for developing crop forecasting in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ines, A. V. M.; Capa Morocho, M. I.; Baethgen, W.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Han, E.; Ruiz Ramos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal climate prediction may allow predicting crop yield to reduce the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate variability and its extremes. It has been already demonstrated that seasonal climate predictions at European (or Iberian) scale from ensembles of global coupled climate models have some skill (Palmer et al., 2004). The limited predictability that exhibits the atmosphere in mid-latitudes, and therefore de Iberian Peninsula (PI), can be managed by a probabilistic approach based in terciles. This study presents an application for the IP of two methods for linking tercile-based seasonal climate forecasts with crop models to improve crop predictability. Two methods were evaluated and applied for disaggregating seasonal rainfall forecasts into daily weather realizations: 1) a stochastic weather generator and 2) a forecast tercile resampler. Both methods were evaluated in a case study where the impacts of two seasonal rainfall forecasts (wet and dry forecast for 1998 and 2015 respectively) on rainfed wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize in IP were analyzed. Simulated wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize were computed with the crop models CERES-wheat and CERES-maize which are included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at several locations in Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. These methodologies would allow quantifying the benefits and risks of a seasonal climate forecast to potential users as farmers, agroindustry and insurance companies in the IP. Therefore, we would be able to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse ones. ReferencesPalmer, T. et al., 2004. Development of a European multimodel ensemble system for seasonal-to-interannual prediction (DEMETER). Bulletin of the

  5. Sand dunes on the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Charles Storrow; Owens, James Patrick

    1979-01-01

    Inconspicuous ancient sand dunes are present in parts of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. Many dunes are roughly V-shaped, built by northwest winds, especially on the east sides of some of the large rivers. On the uplands, the form and spacing of the dunes are variable. A surficial blanket composed mainly of medium and fine-grained sand-the Parsonsburg Sand-forms both the ancient dunes and the broad plains between the dunes. The sand that forms the dunes is massive and intensely burrowed in the upper part; traces of horizontal or slightly inclined bedding appear near the base. Quartz is the dominant mineral constituent of the sand. Microline is abundant in the very fine to fine sand fraction. The heavy-mineral assemblages (high zircon, tourmaline, rutile) are more mature than in most of the possible source rocks. The most abundant minerals in the clay-sized fraction are dioctahedral vermiculite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and gibbsite. The first four minerals are common in deposits of late Wisconsin and Holocene age. The gibbsite may be detrital, coming from weathered rocks of Tertiary age. The soil profile in the dune sand is weakly to moderately developed. At or near the base of the Parsonsburg Sand are peaty beds that range in age from about 30,000 to about 13,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Microfloral assemblages in the peaty beds suggest that the dunes on the uplands formed in a spruce parkland during the late Wisconsin glacial maximum. The river dunes may also be of late Wisconsin age, but could be Holocene.

  6. Heterogeneous structure of the lithosphere of the Taimyr Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic anomalies of the lower crust is well manifested in the satellite measurements and their reductions for the heights H = 100 and 400 km. Currently, however, a great interest is the area of negative magnetic anomalies, allocated to the same heights. They are confined to a special permeable zones of the crust and lithosphere, having increased geothermal activity and are associated with a variety of minerals. In digital magnetic anomalies and gravity anomalies circumpolar map of the Arctic Ocean (Total) was built geomagnetic and density sections along latitudinal and longitudinal cross sections of negative magnetic anomalies (n = 100 km). In the Taimyr Peninsula they capture the largest Fadyukudinsko Kotuiskaya-ring structure. In the north-central Siberia Fadyukudinsko Kotuiskaya ring structure is the "hub" articulation largest geoblocks (Anabar, Kureisko-Tunguska and North Kara). It is manifested in the gravity and magnetic field is also a ring structure. With Fadyukudinsko Kotui-ring structure formation associated injectors and high-carbonate metasomatic rocks tectonites controlling uranium and thorium-uranium-fluorite-barite-rare earth mineralization (VF Proskurnin, et al. 2010). It hypabyssal front of the hot spots. Fadyukudinsko-Kotuiskaya structure is defined posletrappovoe place in the north of the Eurasian plate, responding to a hot spot or a spot lower mantle plumes Triassic [Kravchenko SM, Hain VE 1996 Sazonov AM, Zvyagin EA, Leontiev SI et al., 2010]. Latitude and longitude revealed Profile permeable zones of low magnetic properties and density, confined to a weakened layer in the middle crust. Negative satellite magnetic anomalies (n = 100 km) at depths of 20 - 25-30 km weakly magnetic lens revealed a low density. The upper crust they overlap and dense magnetic rocks. At the bottom of the crust, these lenses are underlain by layers of dense and magnetic structures.

  7. Geomorphic status of regulated rivers in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lobera, G; Besné, P; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A; Aristi, I; Díez, J R; Ibisate, A; Larrañaga, A; Elosegi, A; Batalla, R J

    2015-03-01

    River regulation by dams modifies flow regimes, interrupts the transfer of sediment through channel networks, and alters downstream bed dynamics, altogether affecting channel form and processes. So far, most studies on the geomorphic impacts of dams are restricted to single rivers, or even single river stretches. In this paper we analyse the geomorphic status of 74 river sites distributed across four large basins in the Iberian Peninsula (i.e. 47 sites located downstream of dams). For this purpose, we combine field data with hydrological data available from water agencies, and analyse historical (1970) and current aerial photographs. In particular, we have developed a Geomorphic Status (GS) index that allows us to assess the physical structure of a given channel reach and its change through time. The GS encompasses a determination of changes in sedimentary units, sediment availability, bar stability and channel flow capacity. Sites are statistically grouped in four clusters based on contrasted physical and climate characteristics. Results emphasise that regulation changes river's flow regime with a generalized reduction of the magnitude and frequency of floods (thus flow competence). This, in addition to the decrease downstream sediment supply, results in the loss of active bars as they are encroached by vegetation, to the point that only reaches with little or no regulation maintain exposed sedimentary deposits. The GS of regulated river reaches is negatively correlated with magnitude of the impoundment (regulation). Heavily impacted reaches present channel stabilization and, in contrast to the hydrological response, the distance and number of tributaries do not reverse the geomorphic impact of the dams. Stabilization limits river dynamics and may contribute to the environmental degradation of the fluvial ecosystem. Overall, results describe the degree of geomorphological alteration experienced by representative Iberian rivers mostly because of regulation

  8. Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, W.; Lesser, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretaría de Recursos Hidráulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands.

  9. Focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes in the Southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Chan; Kim, Woohan; Chung, Tae Woong; Baag, Chang-Eob; Ree, Jin-Han

    2007-06-01

    We evaluate the stress field in and around the southern Korean Peninsula with focal mechanism solutions, using the data collected from 71 earthquakes (ML = 1.9-5.2) between 1999 and 2004. For this, the hypocentres were relocated and well-constrained fault plane solutions were obtained from the data set of 1270 clear P-wave polarities and 46 SH/P amplitude ratios. The focal mechanism solutions indicate that the prevailing faulting types in South Korea are strike-slip-dominant-oblique-slip faultings with minor reverse-slip component. The maximum principal stresses (σ1) estimated from fault-slip inversion analysis of the focal mechanism solutions show a similar orientation with E-W trend (269° -275°) and low-angle plunge (10° -25°) for all tectonic provinces in South Korea, consistent with the E-W trending maximum horizontal stress (σHmax) of the Amurian microplate reported from in situ stress measurements and earthquake focal mechanisms. The directions of the intermediate (σ2) and minimum (σ3) principal stresses of the Gyeongsang Basin are, however, about 90 deg off from those of the other tectonic provinces on a common σ2-σ3 plane, suggesting a permutation of σ2 and σ3. Our results incorporated with those from the kinematic studies of the Quaternary faults imply that NNW- to NE-striking faults (dextral strike-slip or oblique-slip with a reverse-slip component) are highly likely to generate earthquakes in South Korea.

  10. Climate change enhances primary production in the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Sébastien; Mostajir, Behzad; Bélanger, Simon; Schloss, Irene R; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Demers, Serge; Ferreyra, Gustavo A

    2015-06-01

    Intense regional warming was observed in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) over the last 50 years. Here, we investigate the impact of climate change on primary production (PP) in this highly productive region. This study is based on temporal data series of ozone thickness (1972-2010), sea ice concentration (1978-2010), sea-surface temperature (1990-2010), incident irradiance (1988-2010) and satellite-derived chlorophyll a concentration (Chl-a, 1997-2010) for the coastal WAP. In addition, we apply a photosynthesis/photoinhibition spectral model to satellite-derived data (1997-2010) to compute PP and examine the separate impacts of environmental forcings. Since 1978, sea ice retreat has been occurring earlier in the season (in March in 1978 and in late October during the 2000s) while the ozone hole is present in early spring (i.e. August to November) since the early 1990s, increasing the intensity of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR, 280-320 nm). The WAP waters have also warmed over 1990-2010. The modelled PP rates are in the lower range of previously reported PP rates in the WAP. The annual open water PP in the study area increased from 1997 to 2010 (from 0.73 to 1.03 Tg C yr(-1) ) concomitantly with the increase in the production season length. The coincidence between the earlier sea ice retreat and the presence of the ozone hole increased the exposure to incoming radiation (UVBR, UVAR and PAR) and, thus, increased photoinhibition during austral spring (September to November) in the study area (from 0.014 to 0.025 Tg C yr(-1) ). This increase in photoinhibition was minor compared to the overall increase in PP, however. Climate change hence had an overall positive impact on PP in the WAP waters. PMID:25626857

  11. Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.; Lesser, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretari??a de Recursos Hidra??ulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands. ?? 1981.

  12. A high resolution regional paleoclimate experiment over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Navarro, J. J.; Montavez, J. P.; Jerez, S.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Garcia-Valero, J. A.; Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    During the last years the use of paleoclimate simulations with models of different complexity has become an usual tool in paleoclimate studies. Progress in understanding climate variability leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant for both the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. Most of paleoclimate integrations available in the literature covering the last millennium have been performed with relative rough resolution which does not allow to analyze regional climate features that can be of interest in the context of proxies evidence. In this work we present a new high resolution (30 km) regional climate simulation over the Iberian Peninsula of the last five centuries and two extensions to the future for the A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. The regional simulations were performed with a climate version of the MM5 model coupled to the Noah LSM. The driving conditions used follow the Erik1 experiment, performed with the ECHO-G global circulation model. The results indicate that the seasonal modes of variation for near surface air temperature and precipitation obtained within the regional paleoclimate experiment are consistent with the obtained using the observational databases and equivalent to regional climate integrations driven by reanalysis data. On the other hand, the main modes of variation show strong signals in historical periods such as the Maunder and Dalton Minimum. Finally, some preliminary comparisons between the global and the regional model against tree ring temperature reconstructions are also reported in this contribution.

  13. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries. PMID:10208658

  14. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey. PMID:25587573

  15. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  16. International spotlight: developing a gerontological social policy agenda for Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arun, Özgür

    2013-12-01

    From 1960 to 2013, the population of Turkey increased almost threefold, with older adults aged 65 and older increasing almost sevenfold. In light of the demographic revolution in the age composition of world populations, we investigated the following research questions from the perspective of Turkish gerontologists: What are the conditions of older people based on sociological factors such as gender, partnership status, income, education, health, religion, and ethnicity? What should Turkey's gerontological agenda contain for the short term, mid-term, and long term, particularly in view of the rapidly changing nature of political, social, and economic life in the country? By 2025, adults (aged 40-65) will make up the largest population group in Turkey's history. It is time for Turkey to embrace this demographic gift and identify its own gerontological agenda to pave the way for social justice and social citizenship. PMID:23856026

  17. Peach skin powder inhibits oxidation in cooked turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Han, I; Bridges, W C; Dawson, P L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the antioxidant activity of peach skin and test the antioxidant effect of peach skin powder on cooked ground turkey meat during 12 d of refrigerated storage. Antioxidant activity of 3 cultivars of peaches grown in South Carolina was first evaluated by 3 antioxidant assays. The peach variety O'Henry showed the greatest antioxidant effect and therefore was used for further study. Two levels of peach skin powder (0.5%, 1%) and 0.01% butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) were applied to ground turkey meat. Oxidation of cooked turkey meat was measured by detection of hexanal using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that all levels of peach skin powder used in this study had an antioxidant effect on ground turkey with a greater effect at the higher concentration. O'Henry peach skin powder was as effective as BHA in preventing oxidation at the levels tested. PMID:27252372

  18. Stability Problems at Ancient Cnidus (Datca, SW Turkey) and Its Relationship with Local Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengül, M. Alper

    2013-04-01

    The main scope of this work was investigating the causes of bending and collapsing in the retaining wall of Stoa at ancient Cnidus (SW Turkey) and observing its relationship with local tectonism and seismicity. As a result of datas, some solutions in order to prevent for different or more deformations that may occur on the wall in the future is presented. The observed collapse in the wall seems to be engineering problem. To be taken filling material by human factor has brought the instability in the wall. Founding of the ancient Cnidus considered many damaging natural possibilities like earthquake, landslide and rockfall and city structures designed in this way. However, these designs were insufficient to the effects of the earthquakes and active tectonism which shown on the region. The study area was located at the end of Datca Peninsula (SW Turkey). The ancient city of Cnidus and therefore Datca peninsula and Rhodes are one of the most active district in terms of seismicity in the southern Aegean sea. There are a lot of different sized earthquakes recorded both the historical and instrumental periods affecting the region. Very recently the earthquake storm in the sea maintains a sign of activity of the region. Since the establishment of the ancient Cnidus, medium and large earthquakes occurred in the area and affected by highly and experienced serious destruction. Still traces of these earthquakes can be observed on the surface and structures. These earthquakes affected structures directly and also could have made changes in ground conditions. As it is already known, because during and immediately after an earthquake, such as landslide, creep, rock fall events can be occur. The ancient Cnidus settled in an area be experienced similar problems. A part of the ancient Cnidus is located on a relatively weakly fitted colluvium material which is a cover unit on whole sloping area. The majority of structures are builded on the debris and filling material especially at

  19. An IPE back-end study for Turkey Point plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Kabadi, J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a study of Turkey Point plant's large dry containment as part of a response to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's individual plant examination Generic Letter 88-20. Two unique features of Turkey Point containment are discussed. This study includes an evaluation of the containment response to the physical processes occurring during an accident and probabilistic analysis of the spectrum of severe-accident progressions.

  20. Hawk moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Turkey and their zoogeographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Akkuzu, E; Ayberk, H; Inac, S

    2007-10-01

    The family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has 63 species in the western Palaearctic Region of the world. Thirty-four out of 63 species present in Turkey either permanently or temporarily. The subfamilies Smerinthinae, Sphinginae and Macroglossinae are consisted of 7, 4, and 23 species respectively Ten out of 34 species were captured in the field. Available knowledge of Sphingidae of Turkey was evaluated and summarized with this study as well. PMID:18405103

  1. Relative diffusion and dispersion at the Antarctic Peninsula: observations of pairs and triplets of drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandet, Marion D.; Thompson, Andrew F.; Heywood, Karen J.; Thorpe, Sally E.

    2010-05-01

    Forty surface drifters were deployed in 2007 at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula as part of the ADELIE research project to map the near surface currents around the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and to determine the role of these currents in the retention or dispersion of krill. Here we use the ADELIE drifters, together with 55 historical drifters that pass close to the Antarctic Peninsula, to evaluate the strength of advection and diffusion in this region. Relative eddy dispersion and diffusivities have been calculated using drifter pairs and triplets. The relative eddy diffusivity along and across isobaths is presented for various areas around the peninsula based on current paths and data availability. Combined together, the ADELIE and historical drifters provide a data set of up to 148 pairs for which we use a maximum initial separation varying between 15 and 60 km and a temporal resolution of 30 days. The triplets, although limited in number, allow the anisotropy of the diffusivity to be quantified. They provide insight into the stretching and straining deformations of krill or tracer patches. The results are compared with a previous analysis of the same data set using single drifters (Thompson et al. 2009, J. Phys. Oceanogr.). Data from ARGO floats deployed in the region will also be used to bring additional information about the flow structure in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula.

  2. Combustion modeling in SI engines with a peninsula-fractal combustion model

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.D.; Hall, M.J.; Dai, W.; Davis, G.C.

    1996-09-01

    In premixed turbulent combustion models, two mechanisms have been used to explain the increase in the flame speed due to the turbulence. The newer explanation considers the full range of turbulence scales which wrinkle the flame front so as to increase the flame front area and, thus, the flame propagation speed. The fractal combustion model is an example of this concept. The older mechanism assumes that turbulence enables the penetration of unburned mixtures across the flame front via entrainment into the burned mixture zone. The entrainment combustion or eddy burning model is an example of this mechanism. The results of experimental studies of combustion regimes and the flame structures in SI engines has confirmed that most combustion takes place at the wrinkled flame front with additional combustion taking place in the form of flame fingers or peninsulas. As the ratio of the turbulence intensity to the laminar flame speed increases, the importance of the flame peninsulas should become increasingly important. While it has been shown that fractal geometry can be used to account for flame wrinkling, it may be difficult to extend this concept to account for the additional surface area resulting from the flame peninsulas. However, the flame front convolution that results in flame peninsulas can be envisioned as entrainment combustion. In the present research an effort was made to combine the fractal combustion model and the entrainment combustion model to generate the peninsula-fractal combustion model, so as to improve burn rate predictions of SI engine codes.

  3. Negative findings concerning Alcaligenes faecalis as an etiologic agent in acute respiratory disease of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Singer, N; Weisman, Y; Aronovici, A

    1981-01-01

    An acute respiratory disease of turkeys in Israel was first reported in November 1978. Alcaligenes faecalis was isolated from sick turkeys and from chickens not affected by the disease. Plate agglutination tests with A. faecalis antigen of 1,067 turkey and 494 chicken serum samples gave variable results: healthy turkeys gave positive reactions and sick turkeys sometimes gave negative ones. All isolated strains were highly sensitive in vitro drug sensitivity tests, but chemotherapy failed in the field. Pathogenicity trials with A. faecalis, given alone or in combination with Yucaipa virus to 8-day-old turkey poults, failed to reproduce the disease. PMID:7259671

  4. Vaginal douching practices and beliefs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kukulu, Kamile

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify women's motivations for vaginal douching, vaginal douching practices, and women's reactions to situations that discourage vaginal douching. Research took place in the outskirts of Antalya, a city located on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. A total of 776 women participated in the study. Age, religious affiliation, place of residence, and poverty were found to influence women's attitudes to douching. Motivating factors included mothers' attitudes as well as women's own individual motivations. Women who douched believed that it was a normal and routine behaviour. Women who were members of the Shafii sect were much less likely to practice vaginal douching. Healthcare providers should be aware of women's beliefs and concerns about feminine hygiene and tailor their strategies accordingly. PMID:16846944

  5. Nursing satisfaction and job enrichment in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Havva; Bahcecik, Nefise; Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    Survey research was conducted with the aim of better understanding nurses' perceptions of organizational factors which relate to their job satisfaction and motivation in Turkey. Nurses (N = 290) who were employed at a training and research hospital, part of the Turkish Republic Ministry of Health, were included. The questionnaire used was developed for this study based on Hackman and Oldman's job enrichment theory. The results showed that only one third of the nurse leaders and one in five of the staff nurses reported being satisfied with their job. The participants saw the five core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldman's work design model: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback as important for nurses. Nursing was described by the participants as hard and challenging, but they also found it meaningful and said that it gave them the opportunity to use their skills and abilities. PMID:16982725

  6. Turkey between two worlds: a demographic view.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C F

    1982-01-01

    A demographic view of Turkey is presented in this discussion. Turkey provides another example of a country, ravaged by war losses between 1914-1922, which took 4 decades, from the mid1920s to the mid1960s, to move from a pronatalist policy to an understanding of the social, economic, and most recently the political dangers of rampant population growth. The 1st census, taken in Turkey in 1927, showed a population of 13,648,270 living in an area of 299,294 square miles, substantially equal to its present dimensions. In mid1977 the population surpassed 42 million, and it reached 45.6 million in mid1980 estimates. The population grew by only 5.4% in the 1940-1945 intercensal period. With the return to normalcy following the war, Turkey's high wartime death rate (almost 40/1000 between 1940 and 1945) declined rapidly and population growth began to accelerate. It was toward the end of the 1950s that concern began to be expressed about the rapid population growth the country was experiencing. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the State Planning Organization began to study the implications of the increase for future social and economic development. This reconsideration of the previous pronatalist policy, which had forbidden the dissemination of birth control supplies or information, received a stimulus following the coup of 1960 that brought the military to power. Under military rule from May 1960 to November 1961 an antinatalist position emerged and was incorporated in the 1963-1967 5 year plan and later in the Population Planning Law, No. 557, enacted in 1965. Law 557 was permissive yet essentially neutral. It did not interfere with the private decisions of couples to plan family size but it offered them contraceptive supplies and information free or at low cost as well as education in population matters. Abortion was legalized if the mother's health were endangered, but it was not allowed otherwise. Sterilization was prohibited. The implementation of these

  7. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled. PMID:24779934

  8. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

  9. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  10. Salmonellae Associated with Further-processed Turkey Products1

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Frank L.; Ayres, John C.; Kraft, Allen A.

    1968-01-01

    “Further-processed” turkey products, prepared from chilled, eviscerated, and thawed carcasses at two commercial turkey-processing plants, were evaluated, for the presence of salmonellae. These organisms were isolated from swab samples from 12% of chilled, eviscerated turkey carcasses, 27% of finished products, and 24% of processing equipment. The same serotypes as those found throughout a plant on any one visit were recovered from 31% of rinse-samples taken from hands and gloves of processing personnel. Salmonellae were found in samples taken on 37 of 48 visits; a greater number of recoveries were made on days when freshly killed turkeys were processed (87%) than when frozen-defrosted carcasses were processed (59%). The predominant serotype isolated from meat and environment usually changed from visit to visit. Salmonella sandiego and Salmonella anatum were the most frequent among 23 serotypes recovered. Most of the isolated serotypes are commonly associated with turkeys and have been incriminated as causative agents of human salmonellosis. The implication is that further-processed turkey products, if inadequately cooked by the consumer and if improperly refrigerated between the time of manufacture and consumption, could directly transmit salmonellae. These same products might also contaminate other foods by introducing salmonellae into food-preparation areas. PMID:5688832

  11. Spatial climate dynamics in the Iberian Peninsula since 15 000 yr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarroso, Pedro; Carrión, José; Dorado-Valiño, Miriam; Queiroz, Paula; Santos, Luisa; Valdeolmillos-Rodríguez, Ana; Célio Alves, Paulo; Brito, José Carlos; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Climate changes in the Iberian Peninsula since the Last Glacial Maximum are associated with distributional shifts of major Mediterranean and European temperate species. The dynamic relationship between climate and species in the past may be retrieved from the fossil records available in the Iberian Peninsula. We have used an extensive set of pollen records to reconstruct spatial layers (1 kyr interval) of January minimum temperature, July maximum temperature, and annual precipitation over the time period between 15 and 3 ka. A functional principal component analysis was used to summarise the spatial evolution of climate in areas that share similar climate trends. When compared between them, the identified four areas show different climate trends over the studied period and are coherent with the existence of multiple refugial areas within the Iberian Peninsula.

  12. Distribution of the sibling species of Anopheles farauti in the Cape York Peninsula, northern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, A W; Cooper, R D; Frances, S P

    1990-09-01

    The sibling species of Anopheles farauti s.l. were collected in larval and adult surveys from 34 localities on Cape York Peninsula and were identified by isoenzyme electrophoresis. The most common species near the coast was An. farauti 1 which was often found breeding within 100 m of the sea in either brackish or freshwater habitats. Larvae of the other 2 species were not found in brackish water which accords with previous laboratory observations of their lower salinity tolerance. Anopheles farauti 2 appears to have the widest distribution of the 3 sibling species on Cape York Peninsula as it was common in both coastal and inland localities. Anopheles farauti 3 was rarely found near the coast. In one locality at Lockhart River near the east coast of the peninsula larvae of the 3 species were found together in a small muddy creek. PMID:2230771

  13. 75 FR 2920 - In the Matter of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... al-Qa'ida Organization in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al-Qa'ida in Yemen (AQY), Also... Organization in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), also known as al-Qa'ida in Yemen (AQY), also known as...

  14. Continental shelf benthos off Otago Peninsula, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probert, P. Keith; Wilson, John B.

    1984-09-01

    Benthic macrofauna of the continental shelf off Otago Peninsula, south-eastern New Zealand (45°51'S, 170°52'E) was surveyed by dredge sampling during 1973-1975. Numerical classification (Canberra metric coefficient and flexible sorting) was used to produce site groups and species groups, and three major benthic communities were recognised: a shallow-water (14-25 m) fauna inhabiting well-sorted fine sand, a mid-shelf fauna (concentrated in the depth range 50-76 m) associated with sediments containing the greatest proportions of gravel and siltclay, and a predominantly sand-bottom fauna occurring mainly on the outer shelf (87-150 m). All station groups were dominated numerically by polychaetes (mean of 36·6-56% of individuals) with Mollusca (13·8-25%) or Crustacea (12·1-19·4%) the next most abundant group. The inshore sand fauna was the most distinct, characteristic elements being the trochid gastropod Antisolarium egenum, an amphipod of the genus Hippomedon and dense patches of the spionid polychaete Spiophanes bombyx. Diagnostic species of the mid-shelf mixed sediments were Lepidonotus jacksoni, Psammolyce antipoda, Lumbrineris brevicirra and Phyllamphicteis foliata (Polychaeta), Terenochiton otagoensis, Micrelenchus caelatus caelatus, Maoricolpus roseus roseus and Zegalerus tenuis (Mollusca), Ampelisca chiltoni (Amphipoda) and Amphipholis squamata (Ophiuroidea). Outer shelf sand stations were faunally less distinct, but among the more characteristic species were Euthalenessa fimbriata, Sigalion sp. and Euchone sp. (Polychaeta) and Gari stangeri (Bivalvia). Several abundant species were widely distributed among station groups, notably Nephtys macroura, Lumbrineris magalhaensis, Phyllochaetopterus socialis and Owenia fusiformis (Polychaeta) and Nucula nitidula and Tawera spissa (Bivalvia). Free-living lunulitiform Bryozoa of the genus Otionella were a characteristic component of inner and outer shelf sand faunas, and their inshore penetration probably marks

  15. The Nature of the Moho Beneath the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, R.; Díaz, J.; Brown, D.; Palomeras, I.; Ayarza, P.; Afonso, J. C.; Simancas, F.; Pérez-Estaún, A.; Gallart, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho) was defined by Andrija Mohorovičić in 1910 on the basis of an interpretation of regional earthquake records in Eastern Europe as a relatively abrupt increase in P-wave seismic velocities. The Moho is observed/detected world wide. It is the most important boundary within the Earth's lithosphere. The high resolution subsurface geophysical images have demonstrated that the crust-mantle boundary is a far more complex structure that the initial seismological definition established. The purpose of this contribution is to bring together some of the findings related to the crust-mantle transition beneath the Iberian peninsula and to synthesize these results into a perspective that has global implications. For the last three decades an extensive acquisition of varieties of geophysical and geological data has been carried out. These data include controlled-source seismic (refraction and reflection), natural source seismic, and regional geology. In NW Iberia an analog of the continental crust-mantle transition is exposed within the Paleozoic Cabo Ortegal Complex and can be used for comparison and model building. This provides a unique view into the nature of the crust-mantle transition. From the multi-seismic data the character of the Moho is highly variable, in some areas there are no reflections visible in the normal incidence (e.g. ESCI-BETICS-1), in others reflections are prominent single events (e.g. IBERSEIS) and in still others complex geometric features are observed (ESCI-NORTE). There are also time (depth) differences between the wide-angle and the normal incidence seismic Moho's. Laboratory measurements of P- and S-wave velocities reflect an overall increase from middle to lower crustal velocities in the felsic gneisses and intermediate-to-mafic granulites to mantle velocities in the eclogites and ultramafic rocks. The surface outcrops of Cabo Ortegal complex suggests that the seismic Moho is reached at the contact between

  16. Assessment of the Climate Vulnerabilities of the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, T.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula (AP), like many places around the world, is apparently witnessing the impacts (amount, patterns, and frequency of precipitation) of global warming. Precipitation over the AP is largely controlled by two main wind regimes, the winter (October to March) northerlies or northwesterlies, hereafter referred to as westerlies, and the summer (April to September) monsoonal wind regimes. The global monthly Climate Prediction Centers (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data (spatial resolution: 2.5° × 2.5°; temporal resolution: monthly; operational period: January 1979 to November 2011) was used to investigate the nature and magnitude of precipitation variations over the AP throughout 1979 - 2010. Trends in CMAP-derived precipitation patterns were examined over the winter and summer seasons throughout Periods I (1979-1995) and II (1996-2010). Reversals in precipitation patterns were observed in Periods I and II, where areas witnessing an increase in precipitation in Period I showed a decrease in precipitation throughout Period II, and vice versa for the remaining areas. Our findings suggest: (1) an increase in precipitation during Period I over the southeastern and southwestern coastal areas of AP (e.g., Muscat, Sanaa, and Jeddah) that is probably related to the intensification of the monsoons at the expense of the westerlies, (2) an increase in precipitation during Period II over the northwestern and southeastern of AP (e.g., northwestern Saudi Arabia, Empty Quarter, western and southwestern Oman, and eastern Yemen) is here attributed to intensification of the westerlies, and 3) the general similarity of annual trend patterns to the summer trend (Period I) and to winter trend (Period II) suggest that the annual trends are largely controlled by monsoonal wind regimes in Period I and by the westerlies in Period II. Outputs (i.e., precipitation) of climatic models (CCSM4.0) over the AP are being extracted (for upcoming 100 years) , downscaled

  17. Recent observed climate change over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsarmi, Said; Washington, Richard

    2011-06-01

    We have examined trends in temperature and precipitation parameters for the Arabian Peninsula (AP) during the last 2 to 3 decades. The data set has been carefully quality controlled and checked for homogeneity. Although of low density (21 stations) and relatively short time period, a clear picture of climate change in the region has emerged. The general pattern of the AP mean annual temperature trend is one of warming, with 14 of 21 stations show statistically significant warming at 0.05 level and most at 0.001 level and only one (Seeb) showing statistically significant cooling. The highest statistically significant mean annual warming trends are found in Oman (Sur = 1.03°C decade-1) and Emirates (Dubai = 0.81°C decade-1). The season of maximum warming in mean temperature is March to April. The highest monthly mean temperature trend in the AP occurs in Sur in May (1.47°C decade-1). There is a broad statistically significant increase in mean annual maximum temperature in AP in 12 out of 21 stations, with the highest trends in central and eastern/southeastern AP. Only SW AP and the Gulf of Oman do not show warming. The highest monthly maximum temperature trend in the AP occurs in Bahrain in March (2.27°C decade-1). The second highest significant warming trends are reported in Doha in February (1.54°C decade-1). For minimum temperature, 16 out of 21 stations show statistically significant warming trends, with the highest annual trends observed in the Emirates (Dubai = 1.24°C decade-1), northwest Oman (Sohar = 1.17°C decade-1) and Qatar (Doha = 1.13°C decade-1). The highest monthly minimum temperature warming rate occurred in October. Both Dubai and Kuwait reported the highest significant rate of 2.00°C decade-1. The general mean annual diurnal temperature range trend is negative in the AP, with six out of 21 stations show statistically significant negative trends while three stations show statistically significant positive trends. Trends in mean annual

  18. Groundwater temperature transients on the Armutlu peninsula, eastern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woith, Heiko; Caka, Deniz; Seyis, Cemil; Italiano, Francesco; Celik, Cengiz; Wang, Rongjiang; Baris, Serif

    2016-04-01

    Since many years MAM and GFZ in co-operation with Kocaeli University (KU) operate fluid monitoring stations around the Sea of Marmara. In the frame of MARsite (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417) these networks were jointly evaluated for the first time. The on-land fluid monitoring networks continuously monitor the following parameters: soil radon (21 sites), temperature and conductivity of thermal springs (9 sites) operated by MAM covering the whole Marmara region; fluid pressure and water level/temperature (8 sites) within ARNET operated by GFZ/KU. ARNET is a combined seismological/hydrogeological monitoring network covering the Armutlu peninsula located SE of Istanbul. Additional to the geothermal wells and springs - our main target to detect transients of potentially seismo-tectonic origin - three shallow groundwater wells (tenth of meters deep) are being operated to identify and quantify seasonal variations, and meteorological influences like rainfall and snowmelt. But it turned out that these shallow aquifer systems showed very stable conditions with very small annual temperature amplitudes (0.2 - 0.3°C). One of these shallow monitoring wells is located just south of Lake Iznik (in the village of Sölöz) very close to the southern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Water level showed a steady decreasing trend since June 2012. This trend resulted in a data gap starting in January 2014, when the water level dropped below the sensor position. After adjusting the sensor position, positive spikes in the borehole temperature were recorded in June and August 2014, and again in 2015. The spikes are characterised by a sharp temperature increase followed by a decay lasting several days until the pre-event temperature was reached again. Since the spikes occurred on two independent logger systems, and since they lasted several days, a

  19. Neotectonics and fluvial geomorphology of the Northern Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, T.; El-Baz, F.

    2000-08-01

    Large anticlinal ridges of Jurassic-Tertiary limestone in the northern Sinai Peninsula are part of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt, parts of which have been active intermittently from Late Cretaceous through the present. Recent uplift of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt is supported by quantitative indices of active tectonics including low values of mountain front sinuosity and, by recent seismicity, extending southwest past Cairo into the Fayoum Depression. The northern Sinai Desert has a climate similar to that of the adjacent part of the eastern Sahara. Sand sheets and dune fields cover its northwestern part, which is a depression extending from the Suez Canal to Wadi El-Arish. Numerous dry channels of palaeorivers and streams lead into this depression, where several temporary palaeolakes and flood overbank deposits have been identified. Some of the temporary pluvial palaeolakes developed behind natural dams formed by folds of the Syrian Arc, whereas others filled deeply-eroded fault traces. Migration of sand dunes may have blocked some channels, but the location of the dunes seems to be controlled by Recent uplift of parts of the fold belt, with the dunes residing in synclinal depressions and adjacent to fault scarps. The palaeolakes are correlated more with structures than with active dune fields. Wadi El-Arish abandoned a channel west of its present-day course, perhaps because of recent growth and uplift of the Gebel Halal Fold. This abandonment was synchronous with down-cutting of a gorge through Gebel Halal, which follows conjugate faults formed during uplift of an anticline. The presence of standing water during wetter climates in the past is supported by silt deposits and archaeological evidence of previous human habitation. The newly identified lake margin and fluvial sediments could be important targets for studying early-modern human and Neanderthal activities. In the eastern Sahara, cycles of pluvial periods that date back 320,000 years appear to correspond to

  20. Linking seasonal climate forecasts with crop models in Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capa, Mirian; Ines, Amor; Baethgen, Walter; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Han, Eunjin; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Translating seasonal climate forecasts into agricultural production forecasts could help to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse conditions. In this study, we use seasonal rainfall forecasts and crop models to improve predictability of wheat yield in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Additionally, we estimate economic margins and production risks associated with extreme scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecast. This study evaluates two methods for disaggregating seasonal climate forecasts into daily weather data: 1) a stochastic weather generator (CondWG), and 2) a forecast tercile resampler (FResampler). Both methods were used to generate 100 (with FResampler) and 110 (with CondWG) weather series/sequences for three scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecasts. Simulated wheat yield is computed with the crop model CERES-wheat (Ritchie and Otter, 1985), which is included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at two locations in northeastern Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. Once simulated yields were obtained, an assessment of farmer's gross margin for different seasonal climate forecasts was accomplished to estimate production risks under different climate scenarios. This methodology allows farmers to assess the benefits and risks of a seasonal weather forecast in IP prior to the crop growing season. The results of this study may have important implications on both, public (agricultural planning) and private (decision support to farmers, insurance companies) sectors. Acknowledgements Research by M. Capa-Morocho has been partly supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UCM-UPM) and MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) References Hoogenboom, G. et al., 2010. The Decision

  1. New Geophysical L Study Northwestern Antarctic Peninsula: Geodinamic Implicances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, J. F.; Tassone, A. A.; Lippai, H. F.

    2007-05-01

    The current tectonic arrangement of Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica is the product of an extensive and complex evolution that involved the most southern part in South America (SA) from the Early Mesozoic when a subduction area settles down along the Pacific border of Gondwana (GDW) including the then continuous SA and Antarctic Peninsula (AP) (Dalziel and Elliot, 1973; Dalziel, 1982). The paleogeographic position of the AP immediately before the separation of the GDW has been a topic of controversy. The presently available information for the beginning of GDW fragmentation is contradictory. In the last years a new accretion model has been proposed for the Mesozoic development of the AP. This model requires of more data to sustain the extension of the old magmatic arc and GDW paleomargin. A geophysical campaign has been developed along Danco Coast - between Py Point to the south, and Vivot Cape to the north- with the aim of acquire new data to define the geometry, lateral relationships and tectonic development of the geologic units of the Mesozoic magmatic arc exposed in the western border of the AP. Rock outcrops mostly belong to plutonic bodies of granitic through tonalitic composition, and rhyolites, andesites and basaltic rocks. The geologic survey included the lithologic and structural sampling, a total of 216 rock cores were obtained for AMS and paleomagnetic studies. The acquired data have been GPS referred. The magnetic survey was carried out with two magnetometers of proton free- precession: a Scintrex ENVI GRAD (used as permanent base) and a Geometrics G856 magnetometer employed for sampling stations (which measured the intensity of the total magnetic field and worked synchronized with the base magnetometer in order to make the corresponding corrections). A total of 1670 registrations were acquired in the 334 GPS fixed onland stations. A Zodiac MK5 was employed for the offshore magnetic survey. 5162 stations constitute the magnetic grid in offshore areas

  2. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 3-D Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view, looking up the Tigil River, shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The image shows that the Tigil River has eroded down from a higher and differing landscape and now flows through, rather than around the large green-colored bedrock ridge in the foreground. The older surface was likely composed of volcanic ash and debris from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. The green tones indicate that denser vegetation grows on south facing sunlit slopes at the northern latitudes. High resolution SRTM elevation data will be used by geologists to study how rivers shape the landscape, and by ecologists to study the influence of topography on ecosystems.

    This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on January 31, 2000. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  3. Dynamics of the Iberian Peninsula Coastal Low-Level Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Rijo, Nádia; Miranda, Pedro; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Coastal low-level jets (CLLJ) are important mesoscale phenomena of some regional coastal climates. They are characterized by a coast-parallel flow which has a wind speed maxima within the first few hundred meters above sea level (usually below 1000 m, and most of the times around 500 m), encapsulated within the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). Coastal jets have a larger scale synoptic forcing behind them: a high pressure system over the ocean and a thermal low inland. The regions where CLLJ occur coincide with cold equator-ward eastern boundary currents in the mid-latitudes (with an exception of the coast of Oman in the Arabian Sea), where the contrast between the cold ocean and the warm land in the summer is highest. As a response of CLLJ occurrences a positive feedback mechanism is triggered: the coast-parallel wind induces upwelling currents at the coast, reducing the sea surface temperature, which in turn increase the thermal (pressure) gradient at the coast, leading to higher wind speeds. The Iberian Peninsula Coastal Jet (IPCJ) is an example of a CLLJ, developed mostly during the summer season due to the effect of the semi-present Azores high-pressure system in the North Atlantic and of a thermal low pressure system inland. This synoptic pattern drives a seasonal (western) coast parallel wind, often called the Nortada (northerly wind), where the IPCJ develops. A detailed analysis of the IPCJ structure and dynamics will be presented, trough the analysis of two case studies off the west coast of Portugal. The case studies are simulated using the WRF mesoscale model, at 9 and 3 km horizontal resolution, forced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis. The MABL structure off the west coast of Iberia, the interaction of the flow with the two main west Iberia capes (Finisterre and Roca), and the consequences on the cloud cover and wind speed up- and down-wind of the capes will be analysed.

  4. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  5. 75 FR 71107 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; UP Hydro; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; UP Hydro; Notice of Application for Transfer..., Upper Peninsula Power Company (transferor) and UP Hydro (transferee) filed an application for transfer... under http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling.asp . Commenters can submit brief comments up to...

  6. Evaluation's Contribution to the Success of a Silicon Valley School/Industry Partnership: The Peninsula Academies Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Steven M.; And Others

    In an effort to encourage the participation of educationally disadvantaged youth in the Silicon Valley's high technology employment boom, the Peninsula Academies program was established utilizing a triad-partnership arrangement among the Sequoia Union High School District, high technology employers in the area, and the Stanford Mid-Peninsula Urban…

  7. Structure and age-dependent development of the turkey liver: a comparative study of a highly selected meat-type and a wild-type turkey line.

    PubMed

    Hünigen, Hana; Mainzer, Kathleen; Hirschberg, Ruth M; Custodis, Pia; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Al Masri, Salah; Richardson, Kenneth C; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Plendl, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    In this study the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the liver of a fast growing, meat-type turkey line (British United turkeys BUT Big 6, n=25) and a wild-type turkey line (Wild Canadian turkey, n=48) were compared at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 wk. Because the growth plates of long bones were still detectable in the 20-week-old wild-type turkeys, indicating immaturity, a group of 8 wild-type turkeys at the age of 24 wk was included in the original scope of the study. Over the term of the study, the body and liver weights of birds from the meat-type turkey line increased at a faster rate than those of the wild-type turkey line. However, the relative liver weight of the meat-type turkeys declined (from 2.7 to 0.9%) to a greater extent than that of the wild-type turkeys (from 2.8 to 1.9%), suggesting a mismatch in development between muscle weights and liver weights of the meat-type turkeys. Signs of high levels of fat storage in the liver were detected in both lines but were greater in the wild-type turkey line, suggesting a better feed conversion by the extreme-genotype birds i.e., meat-type birds. For the first time, this study presents morphologic data on the structure and arrangement of the lymphatic tissue within the healthy turkey liver, describing two different types of lymphatic aggregations within the liver parenchyma, i.e., aggregations with and without fibrous capsules. Despite differences during development, both adult meat-type and adult wild-type turkeys had similar numbers of lymphatic aggregations. PMID:26908884

  8. Presence of the leech Placobdella costata in the south of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Romero, David; Duarte, Jesús; Narváez-Ledesma, Lucía; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Real, Raimundo

    2014-06-01

    Placobdella costata is a leech specific to freshwater turtle Emys orbicularis. Both genera are native to North America and have co-evolved and undergone dispersion through the Palearctic. The leech is present throughout the Mediterranean area, always associated with E. orbicularis. Their only known presence in the Iberian Peninsula is in the north and center of the peninsula. Here we present the first description of the leech in southern Spain (Andalusia) in association with a small fragmented population of fresh-water turtles in which E. orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa coexist. Unusually, the leech was found attached to the carapace of a male M. leprosa. PMID:24827095

  9. An outbreak of type E botulism among common loons (Gavia immer) in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Schmitt, Stephen; Duncan, Ruth M.; Cooley, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    An epizootic of type E botulism (Clostridium botulinum) occurred among common loons (Gavia immer) along the Lake Michigan shore of Michigan's Upper Peninsula (USA) during October and November 1983. An estimated 592 dead loons washed ashore along the Garden Peninsula. Type E botulinal toxin was demonstrated in blood samples and stomach contents of dead loons, and in samples of three species of dead fish found on the Lake Michigan shore. We suspect that loons acquired botulism by ingesting sick or dead fish containing type E toxin.

  10. Forest statistics for Michigan`s northern lower peninsula unit, 1993. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherberry, E.C.

    1994-10-30

    Michigan`s Northern Lower Peninsula Unit (fig. 1) is comprised of 33 counties. This region of the State is rich with resources that support a network of social, economic, and ecological processes that are forest dependent. The forest resource of the Unit presently supports an industry that operates on a sustaining basis. In 1990 nearly half of Michigan`s saw-log production--297 million board feet--was harvest in the Unit. The forests of the Northern Lower Peninsula are vital to the region. The forest contains a variety of both deciduous and coniferous forest species, which results in regionally unique ecosystems that contribute to biodiversity.

  11. GPS and GIS-Based Data Collection and Image Mapping in the Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution satellite images combined with the rapidly evolving global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) technology may offer a quick and effective way to gather information in Antarctica. GPS- and GIS-based data collection systems are used in this project to determine their applicability for gathering ground truthing data in the Antarctic Peninsula. These baseline data will be used in a later study to examine changes in penguin habitats resulting in part from regional climate warming. The research application in this study yields important information on the usefulness and limits of data capture and high-resolution images for mapping in the Antarctic Peninsula.

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of astroviruses in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Singh, Azad; Mor, Sunil K; Jindal, Naresh; Patnayak, Devi; Sobhy, Nader M; Luong, Nhungoc Ti; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of turkey astrovirus 1 (TAstV-1) and avian nephritis virus (ANV) in turkeys with light turkey syndrome (LTS), which is characterized by lower body weight in market-age turkeys than their standard breed character. We collected pools of fecal samples from four LTS and two non-LTS turkey flocks in Minnesota at 2, 3, 5 and 8 weeks of age. Of the 80 LTS pools tested, 16 (20.0 %) and 11 (13.8 %) were positive for TAstV-1 and ANV, respectively. For non-LTS flocks, these numbers were 8 (20.0 %) and 5 (12.5 %), respectively. The maximum number of birds was positive at five weeks of age. We also tested 130 fecal samples of poult enteritis syndrome (PES) cases submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and found 19 and 11 positive for TAstV-1 and ANV, respectively. RdRp gene sequences were determined for a total of 29 TAstV-1 and 22 ANV samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp gene revealed 92-100 % and 88-100 % nucleotide sequence identity among TAstV-1 and ANV sequences, respectively. A large number of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were observed in LTS and PES flocks than in non-LTS flocks. One of the PES sequences grouped with ANV-like sequences detected in chickens, indicating that regular screening of birds should be continued. Further, complete genome analysis should be conducted to determine whether this virus is a novel divergent strain or a recombinant of chicken and turkey ANV-like viruses. The detection of TAstV-1 and ANV in a considerable number of non-LTS cases emphasizes the need for further studies on the transmission pattern and pathogenesis of these viruses to determine their role as pathogens of turkeys. PMID:26780891

  13. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  14. Effects of hunting and season of fire on wild turkey populations in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, William, F.; Kilgo, John, C.; Guynn, David, C.; Davis, James, R.

    2002-07-31

    This report assesses impacts to wild turkey populations from hunting and prescribed fire. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To compare survival rates and causes of mortality of wild turkey gobblers between hunted and unhunted populations; (2) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on nesting success, survival and habitat use of wild turkey hens; (3) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on the availability of wild turkey plant foods.

  15. [Tularemia is spreading from north to south side of Turkey: a small outbreak in Kahramanmaras, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, İlkay; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2014-07-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Sporadic tularemia cases have been increasingly reported particularly from provinces located at northwest and central regions of Turkey especially during last two decades, as well as waterborne outbreaks reported from almost all regions. Transmission most often occurs through consumption of contaminated water and food, thus, oropharyngeal form is the most common clinical presentation in our country. The aim of this study was to present a small outbreak experience in Afsin, country of Kahramanmaras province located at southern part of Turkey. A total of 10 patients (5 male, 5 female; age range 2-68 years; mean age 25 years) who were admitted to Afsin State Hospital with the complaints of swollen neck between 21 October 2013-22 January 2014, were evaluated considering their clinical findings and treatment outcomes. Following the diagnosis of the first tularemia case coming from Nadir village, a field investigation was performed. All villagers were informed about the disease and water samples from the possible sources of outbreak were collected by provincial health authorities. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples were sent for culture and serologic investigation and the environmental water samples were sent for molecular analysis to the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory at Public Health Institution of Turkey. Six out of 10 patients' sera were found positive in terms of F.tularensis antibodies between the titers of 1/320-1/1280 by microagglutination test (MAT) and diagnosis of oropharyngeal tularemia was based on the clinical and serological findings. One of the patients also presented with oculoglandular form accompanying oropharyngeal form. Cultures from aspirate samples that could be obtained from only two patients yielded negative results. Three out of six patients' lymph nodes were drained surgically and one was drained by ultrasound-guided needle. In one case lymph node suppuration occured

  16. Antiurbanization: an implicit development policy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Levine, N

    1980-01-01

    This paper asserts that "antiurbanization" has become an implicit development policy among Turkish policymakers. Antiurbanism is used to justify policymakers' views of economic and social development. As a consequence, social policies become ineffective because they go up against forces producing urbanization and fail to consider the needs of the growing urban population. Turkey has been urbanizing at a rapid rate. In 1935, only 17% of the population lived in urban areas. By 1960 the urban population was 26%, but by 1975 it was 45%. These increases are accounted for by rural-urban migration of 7-9 million people. Reasons for the urbanization are that: 1) population growth has increased in Turkey from less than 2%/year in 1950 to 2.9% in 1960; 2) rural fertility is higher than urban fertility and consequently pressure on land is a major factor leading to migration, 3) higher incomes in urban areas promote rural-urban migration; 4) expansion of credit to landowners and developments in better transportation facilitated migration; and 5) most importantly, there is an institutionalization of migration whereby migrants go to urban areas with hope and for rational reasons. The inconsistency in state development policies is striking in relation to the emphasis on relationships between urban industrialization and economic policy on the one hand and the rural development and social policy on the other. Industrialization is the keystone of Turkish economic policy with 3 goals being sought: 1) industrialization, 2) economic independence, and 3) state initiative in industrialization. Agricultural development has always take a second place to industrialization. However, population estimates in 1928 and 1957 for Ankara were 300,000-750,000. Yet at the current growth rate, Ankara will have a population of 2.25 million in 1980. Clearly the transformation of the rural areas occurred faster than expected. Affects on rural oriented social policies have been felt in health, education

  17. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  18. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  19. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  20. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  1. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  2. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  3. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  4. 77 FR 19623 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). \\2\\ See Antidumping or Countervailing... certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube with an outside diameter of 0.375 inch or more, but not over 16...: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey, 72 FR 62837, 62838 (November 7, 2007) (Turkey...

  5. THE ROLE OF DIETARY VITAMIN E IN EXPERIMENTAL LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES INFECTIONS IN TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E in turkeys experimentally infected with Listeria monocytogenes. One-day-old turkeys (n = 70) were fed diets containing either 0 or 200 IU vitamin E. After 6 weeks on the experimental diet, turkeys were orally inoculated with...

  6. Phosphatidylcholine-supplemented Extender Improves the Fertility of Turkey Semen Stored In Vitro for 24 Hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been long recognized that the ability to store turkey semen for 24h in vitro without a significant loss in fertility upon insemination would benefit the commercial turkey industry. We investigated a novel approach to circumvent the loss of phospholipids from the turkey sperm membrane in the ...

  7. Effect of dexamethasone on bactericidal activity of turkey monocytes and implications for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been shown to affect the immune system of turkeys making them more susceptible to bacterial infections that may compromise food safety. Female turkeys are more resistant to stress-induced opportunistic bacterial infections than are male turkeys. In order to determine the mechanism of this...

  8. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Duty Investigations, 78 FR 45505 (July 29, 2013). \\2\\ Maverick Tube Corporation, United States Steel... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary... tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1,...

  9. 77 FR 3739 - Executive-led Aerospace and Defense Industry Trade Mission to Turkey-Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-led Aerospace and Defense Industry Trade Mission to Turkey... Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a U.S.--Turkey Aerospace and Defense Industry Trade Mission to Ankara... traveling to Turkey on their own, will enhance the companies' ability to secure meetings in Ankara...

  10. Progressive Education in Turkey: Reports of John Dewey and His Successors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    John Dewey, the well-known figure in progressive education, visited Turkey in 1924. Through his visit, Turkey was introduced to progressive education. Although his visit was short, the reports he prepared influenced the shape of the Turkish education system. After Dewey's visit, many foreign educators were invited to Turkey, particularly…

  11. The Effects of Community Factors on School Participation in Turkey: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Turkey, like many developing countries, is facing considerable problems in terms of low school attendance rates, late enrolment and early dropout of girls in particular. Numerous studies have already been conducted, both in Turkey and elsewhere, to determine the factors affecting school enrolment of boys and girls. Existing studies in Turkey,…

  12. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  13. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  14. 78 FR 18318 - U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Turkey AGENCY: International Trade....--Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission to Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir on May 4-8, 2014. The trade mission to.../Defense trade missions in December 2011 and December 2012 respectively. Turkey has a compelling...

  15. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  16. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  17. The Lice, Turkey, earthquake of September 6, 1975; a preliminary engineering investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanev, P. I.

    1976-01-01

    The Fifth European Conference on Earthquake Engineering was held on September 22 through 25 in Istanbul, Turkey. The opening speech by the Honorable H. E. Nurettin Ok, Minister of Reconstruction and Resettlement of Turkey, introduced the several hundred delegates to the realities of earthquake hazards in Turkey:

  18. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New...

  19. Efficacy of Lytic Bacteriophage Preparation in Reducing Salmonella In Vitro, on Turkey Breast Cutlets, and on Ground Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, C S; Dhakal, J; Nannapaneni, R

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy of the recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh) in reducing Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg on turkey breast cutlets and ground turkey was evaluated. In a broth model assay, the phage preparation completely inhibited the growth of four S. enterica serotypes (Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Typhimurium) at 37°C at a multiplicity of infection of 10,000 PFU/CFU. At 4°C in 0.1% peptone water (PW), phage treatment at a multiplicity of infection of 10,000 resulted in ca. 4.0-log CFU/ml reductions of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Typhimurium. When raw turkey breast cutlets inoculated with Salmonella Heidelberg (∼10(3) CFU/g) were treated with phage preparation (10(7) PFU/g) and stored at 4°C, the phage treatment caused reductions of 0.8, 0.6, and 1.3 log CFU/g (P ≤ 0.05) of Salmonella Heidelberg on day 0, 1, and 7, respectively, compared with the counts in the control. However, no significant reduction of Salmonella Heidelberg (P > 0.05) was observed in ground turkey when turkey meat pieces inoculated with Salmonella Heidelberg were surface treated with phage preparation (10(7) PFU/g) before grinding. These findings indicate that the bacteriophage preparation was effective in reducing Salmonella on turkey breast cutlets as a surface treatment but did not cause any reduction of Salmonella Heidelberg in ground turkey. PMID:26197288

  20. Optimum conditions for the turkey lymphocyte transformation test.

    PubMed

    Barta, O; Barta, V; Domermuth, C H; Pierson, F W

    1992-01-01

    Optimum conditions for turkey lymphocyte transformation tests were determined. Thrice-washed turkey buffy-coat cells obtained after slow centrifugation (40 x g, 10 minutes) responded well to mitogenic stimulation. Turkey lymphocytes isolated on Ficoll-containing separation media largely lost their ability to respond to mitogens. Maximum responses were obtained with 2 x 10(7) lymphoid cells/ml. Responses to the mitogens were greatest when bovine fetal serum was used at a 2.5% concentration or pooled turkey serum and autologous plasma were used at a 1.25% concentration. Higher concentrations of turkey serum or plasma decreased the responses when sub-optimum doses of concanavalin-A (Con A) or phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) were used. Serum-free cultures gave higher stimulation indices than cultures with serum only when sub-optimum doses of Con A or PHA-P were used. Optimum mitogen concentrations varied with individual birds, timing of the culture, temperature of incubation, and serum concentration in the cultures. Responses were usually greatest with final concentrations of 5 micrograms Con A/ml, 10 micrograms PHA-P/ml, and 20 micrograms pokeweed mitogen (PWM)/ml and when the cultures were incubated in 96-well microplates at 40 C in humidified air with 5% CO2 for 40-42 hours with pulsing with 3H-thymidine during the final 16 hours of incubation. PMID:1627110

  1. Water Resources Management Issues in Turkey and Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emin Baris, Mehmet; Ayfer Karadag, Aybike

    The prevailing trends towards rising population, increasing urbanization, spread of more water intensive life styles as well as widespread use of water intensive agriculture sweeping around the world are going to make water resources even scarcer especially in countries like Turkey with scarce water resources and high development and population growth rate, economic and social aspects of water resources become even more important. Turkey, like many countries today, faces challenges in efficiently developing and managing its limited water resources while maintaining water quality and protecting the environment. To add to the challenge, Turkey will need to continue to develop its water resources in order for its economic and social development to keep pace with its rapidly growing and urbanizing population. This article deals with water resources management problems in Turkey and provides recommendations on water resources management issues at the country level. Its objectives are to summarize key water resources management issues to review institutional and legal framework and to provide suggestions for effective water resources management in Turkey.

  2. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion.

  3. Retention of riveted aluminum leg bands by wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Vreeland, Wendy C.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Schiavone, Michael V.

    2016-01-01

    In order for mark–recapture models to provide unbiased estimates of population parameters, it is critical that uniquely identifying tags or marks are not lost. We double-banded male and female wild turkeys with aluminum rivet bands and estimated the probability that a bird would be recovered with both bands <1–225 wk since banding (mean = 51.2 wk, SD = 44.0). We found that 100% of females (n = 37) were recovered with both bands. For males, we recovered 6 of 188 turkeys missing a rivet band for a retention probability of 0.984 (95% CI = 0.96–0.99). If male turkeys are double-banded with rivet bands the probability of recovering a turkey without any marks is <0.001. We failed to detect a change in band retention over time or differences between adults and juveniles. Given the low cost and high retention rates of rivet aluminum bands, we believe they are an effective marking technique for wild turkeys and, for most studies, will minimize any concern about the assumption that marks are not lost.

  4. An evaluation of Turkey's recent migration flows and stocks.

    PubMed

    Gokdere, A

    1994-01-01

    Most immigrants from Turkey go to the Gulf countries and the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. Only a very small percentage of migrants leave Turkey for Western destinations. Indeed, only 1734 of the 60,000 Turkish workers sent abroad in 1992 went to the EC. Turkish or foreign contracting firms working in Saudi Arabia accounted for 46,467 of these workers. 3,080,274 Turkish nationals were living abroad as of April 1993, 43.3% of whom are workers. This figure does not include illegal workers. Rates of return range 1-2% for Turks in Germany and Holland, while the average duration of stay is increasing. The departure of ethnic Turks from Bulgaria has slowed. Turkish authorities seem not to accept Turkey as a country of immigration, but the country is surrounded by others in which there are serious political tensions and conflict from which people wish to escape. Turkey has therefore been an attractive destination for people seeking refuge, although the inflow has been modest. The migration of Turkish nationals to the oil-exporting Arab countries and to the new republics should be encouraged by the government of Turkey. PMID:12289946

  5. Forearc tectonic evolution of the South Shetland Margin, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, A.; Larter, R. D.; Aldaya, F.

    1994-12-01

    The main provinces of the South Shetland margin, Antarctic Peninsula characterized on the basis of multichannel seismic, long-range side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data, include from northwest to southeast (1) the oceanic crust of the former Phoenix Plate, flexed down toward the margin and affected by normal faulting in the upper crust; (2) a narrow trench, with a horizontally layered sediment fill which onlaps the thin sedimentary cover on the oceanic crust and shows incipient deformation near its landward edge; (3) an accretionary prism with a complex internal structure, the toe of which is overthrust above the youngest trench deposits; (4) a midslope forearc basin, with an asymmetric synformal structure; and (5) the continental shelf, which includes two distinct tectonic provinces. Calculations of the late Cenozoic convergence history at the trench indicate a rapid decrease in convergence rate after 6.7 Ma from about 60 mm/yr, resulting from the slowing and eventual cessation of spreading on the Antarctic-Phoenix ridge. Once spreading had completely ceased (3.5-2.4 Ma), the convergence rate at the trench equalled the rate of extension in Bransfield Strait, which was probably less than 10 mm/yr at first but may have increased since 1.3 Ma, and this, in turn, would imply a corresponding increase in convergence rate. Above the basal detachment the toe of the accretionary prism is composed of a stack of thrust fault bounded wedges, laterally and vertically segmented by normal faults. Most of the trench fill sediments are overthrust by the toe of the accretionary prism and subducted beneath it for as far as they can be traced on the seismic profiles. This suggests that there may be tectonic erosion of the forearc since a large part of the trench sediment appears to be derived from erosion on the forearc slope. The forearc basin records a long history of subsidence, during which the depocenter migrated landward, paralleling retrogradational erosion of the distal

  6. Genesis of a zoned granite stock, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis

    1977-01-01

    A composite epizonal stock of biotite granite has intruded a diverse assemblage of metamorphic rocks in the Serpentine Hot Springs area of north-central Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The metamorphic rocks include amphibolite-facies orthogneiss and paragneiss, greenschist-facies fine-grained siliceous and graphitic metasediments, and a variety of carbonate rocks. Lithologic units within the metamorphic terrane trend generally north-northeast and dip moderately toward the southeast. Thrust faults locally juxtapose lithologic units in the metamorphic assemblage, and normal faults displace both the metamorphic rocks and some parts of the granite stock. The gneisses and graphitic metasediments are believed to be late Precambrian in age, but the carbonate rocks are in part Paleozoic. Dating by the potassium-argon method indicates that the granite stock is Late Cretaceous. The stock has sharp discordant contacts, beyond which is a well-developed thermal aureole with rocks of hornblende hornfels facies. The average mode of the granite is 29 percent plagioclase, 31 percent quartz, 36 percent K-feldspar, and 4 percent biotite. Accessory minerals include apatite, magnetite, sphene, allanite, and zircon. Late-stage or deuteric minerals include muscovite, fluorite, tourmaline, quartz, and albite. The stock is a zoned complex containing rocks with several textural facies that are present in four partly concentric zones. Zone 1 is a discontinuous border unit, containing fine- to coarse-grained biotite granite, that grades inward into zone 2. Zone 2 consists of porphyritic biotite granite with oriented phenocrysts of pinkish-gray microcline in a coarse-grained equigranular groundmass of plagioclase, quartz, and biotite. It is in sharp, concordant to discordant contact with rocks of zone 3. Zone 3 consists of seriate-textured biotite granite that has been intruded by bodies of porphyritic biotite granite containing phenocrysts of plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite in an

  7. Perspective View, Landsat Overlay, Salalah, Oman, Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. The city is located on the broad, generally bright coastal plain and includes areas of green irrigated crops. This view was generated from a Landsat image draped over a preliminary elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The edges of the dataset are to the upper right, left, and lower left. The Arabian Sea (lower right) is represented by the blue false-colored area. Vertical exaggeration of topography is 3X.

    This scene illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. The Arabian Peninsula is very arid. However, the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains wrings moisture from the summer monsoons allowing for growth of natural vegetation (green along the mountain fronts and in the canyons), and soil development (dark brown areas), as well as cultural development of the coastal plain. The monsoons also provide moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot)spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  8. 76 FR 6117 - Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...The Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Portage Valley, Alaska. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self- Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meeting is to review and recommend proposed...

  9. [[Characterization of the potential geographical distribution area of parrot species in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Plasencia Vázquez, Alexis Herminio; Escalona Segura, Griselda

    2014-12-01

    Psittacidae family is one of the most endangered groups in Mexico, since many of their habitats are disappearing. In this research, we characterized the land cover of the potential geographical distribu- tion area of eight extant parrot species within the Yucatan Peninsula. We used the Maximum Entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) and species historical records. To externally validate the models, we used presence and absence records from field observations (2010-2012). To characterize the distribution area, we used the vegetation and land use maps of INEGI Series IV (2007-2010). The models showed a good performance, according to the values of the area under the curve (AUC), which ranged between 0.88-0.95 with the training data and between 0.82-0.91 with test data. We located most of the species in sites where the models predicted their presence. In the Peninsula, over 76% of the parrots' potential geographical distribution area is forested, except for Amazona oratrix. The subhumid tropical forest is the best represented, and the livestock for land use. The most affected species within the Peninsula are: Amazona farinosa and A. oratrix. The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve is the most important area for parrots' protection in the Peninsula. Knowing the characteristics of distribution areas is an essential part in the establishment of parrots' conservation strategies. PMID:25720184

  10. Hydrogeochemistry of sulfate-affected landscapes in Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, José João L. L.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Abrahão, Walter Antônio P.; de Mello, Jaime Wilson V.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; da Silva, Juscimar; Francelino, Márcio R.

    2012-06-01

    Keller Peninsula, located in King George Island, has a typical Maritime Antarctica climatic regime, with higher temperatures and rainfall than other areas in Continental Antarctica. The main outcropping rocks are pyritized andesites, volcaniclastics and basalts. Recent pedological investigation indicated that the presence of sulfides in Keller Peninsula accelerates the weathering process. The aim of this work was the determination of the geochemical background in water channels following geomorphological gradients in Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica. We delimited and mapped all catchments in Keller Peninsula using GIS techniques and field observations. Water samples were analyzed for twenty-nine elements by ICP-OES and IEC, after the proper treatments. Eight catchments were identified as sulfide-affected, although water pH was nearly neutral. The ionic concentration in solution was high, both in non-affected and sulfide-affected catchments, with a trend of greater values in the latter, and changing downslope. Concentration values are above the range of other hydrogeochemical studies from elsewhere in Antarctica. The values of molar ratio HCO3-:(Ca + Mg)2 + and Na+:Cl- indicated the absence of carbonate-bearing rocks. Local precipitation of evaporites, as gypsum and epsomite was confirmed by the Ca2 +:SO42 - and Mg2 +:SO42 - molar ratios. The high ionic concentration in sulfide-affected areas illustrates the role of sulfate soil formation in this part of Antarctica.

  11. Estimation of Water Availability Considering Climate Change in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Lee, D. K.; Hanasaki, N.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrological cycle is directly affected by climate and human intervention. Climate change is expected to affect hydrology and water resources. In Korean Peninsula, the rainfall pattern is seasonally concentrated, causing temporal and spatial variations in water availability. Many previous studies have investigated that the Korean Peninsula region is vulnerable to changes in water availability with changing climate, but a majority of the studies have focused on natural river discharge. However, the present-day hydrological cycle is not natural, but is affected by human activity, such as the water demands of agriculture, the industrial and domestic sector, and reservoir operations. In this study, water availability considering the impacts of human activity and climate change in the Korean Peninsula region is assessed in terms of water supply and demand. To assess present and future water availability, the integrated water resources model H08, which has six sub-modules to address land surfaces, river routing, crop growth, environmental flow requirements, and anthropogenic water withdrawal (Hanasaki et al., 2008), was applied to simulate historical and future hydrological processes based on climate scenarios. The model was calibrated and validated based on observed river discharge data. The simulation results show the temporal and spatial variations of water availability in the Korean Peninsula region. Results of this research could be used for spatial planning, taking into account the water availability.

  12. Spectral distribution of gravity wave momentum fluxes over the Antarctic Peninsula from Concordiasi superpressure balloon data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Gelinas, L. J.; Mechoso, C. R.; Schubert, G.

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves generated by flow over the steep topography of the Antarctic Peninsula transport significant amounts of zonal and meridional momentum into the stratosphere. Quantitative determination of this transport has been carried out for wave periods of 1 h or greater using data from a previous Antarctic superpressure balloon campaign in austral spring 2005 (VORCORE). The present study uses data from the later Concordiasi campaign (2010) to extend the momentum flux determination to shorter periods. Maps of the vertical fluxes of meridional and zonal momentum are presented for periods down to 12 min. We find that the momentum fluxes for periods below 1 h are comparable to those at longer periods, despite larger variances at longer periods. The momentum fluxes in the vicinity of the peninsula provide a significant zonal acceleration of the lower stratosphere, confirming a conclusion from the VORCORE data. The geographical distribution of fluxes around the peninsula has peaks both leeward and windward of the main terrain features. Numerical simulations suggest that the separate peaks may be related to wave transience caused by unsteady winds over the peninsula. Momentum fluxes comprise a main distribution maximizing at moderate flux values and a secondary distribution maximizing at high values exhibiting a high degree of intermittency. The high flux events account for the largest part of the average flux and suggest that drag parameterizations should take them into account. It is found that waves generated by the jet stream are also a significant source of momentum flux.

  13. Population genetic structure of endangered Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) from the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Chan; Suk, Ho Young; Jeong, Eu-Jin; Park, Dae-Sik; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management. PMID:25086619

  14. First records of Cotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) for the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Noreña, Carolina; Marquina, Daniel; Perez, Jacinto; Almon, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    A study of polyclad fauna of the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula was carried out from 2010 to 2013. The paper reports nine new records belonging to three Cotylean families: the family Euryleptidae Lang, 1884, Pseudocerotidae Lang, 1884 and the family Prosthiostomidae Lang, 1884, and describes one new species, Euryleptodes galikias sp. n. PMID:24843268

  15. First records of Cotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) for the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Noreña, Carolina; Marquina, Daniel; Perez, Jacinto; Almon, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A study of polyclad fauna of the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula was carried out from 2010 to 2013. The paper reports nine new records belonging to three Cotylean families: the family Euryleptidae Lang, 1884, Pseudocerotidae Lang, 1884 and the family Prosthiostomidae Lang, 1884, and describes one new species, Euryleptodes galikias sp. n. PMID:24843268

  16. Late holocene fluctuations in the front of the Muller Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Domack, E.W. ); Stein, A.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Ice shelves are important environmental indicators along the antarctic Peninsula. This study investigates the fluctuation of the Muller Ice Shelf by collecting and analysing surface sediment samples, piston cores, and kasten cores close to the present calving line. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Northern highbush and half-high blueberries on the Alaskan Kenai peninsula:preliminary observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Home and commercial cultivation of small fruits is popular in Alaska and blueberries of several species, such as V. corymbosum and V. angustifolium, have potential as cultivated crops for local production. In June 2009, we established blueberry plantings in two locations on the Kenai Peninsula, appr...

  18. Typical Infrasonic Daily Changes Associated with Weather Conditions in Southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    The dominant source of infrasonic waves in Korean peninsula is associated with weather changes around 0.1 to several hertz. The microbarom are mainly observed with KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) infrasound station and other activity associated with typhoon in summer. The period of observation was processed during year of 2012. The KMA running two permanent infrasound stations at the middle of Korean peninsula which located DeMilitarized Zone from the 2011. For the special event that recorded from the Northern Korean Peninsula was missle launch 12-Dec 2012 which was clearly recorded. The Korean peninsula is located on Northern Hemisphere that induce the typhoon visit in summer rainy season, so main infrasonic activity was associated this weather changes concentrated general weather activity frequency area. We focused on seasonal changes induced by weather activities and processed infrasonic data related with typhoon report by KMA's weather report. The progressing results was reviewed for the infrasonic noise level changes which associated with typhoon and missle launch record on Dec-2012 for the special event.

  19. Bioenergy crops grown for hyperaccumulation of phosphorus in the delmarva peninsula and their biofuels potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbaceous bioenergy crops, including sorghum, switchgrass, and miscanthus, were evaluated for their potential as phytoremedators for the uptake of phosphorus in the Delmarva Peninsula and their subsequent conversion to biofuel intermediates (bio-oil) by fast pyrolysis using pyrolysis-gas chromatogr...

  20. Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, as seen from the Apollo 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez, Sinai Peninsula, United Arab Republic (Egypt), Mediterranean Sea, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 13th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 126 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 19 hours and 42 minutes.

  1. The gastropod Phorcus sauciatus (Koch, 1845) along the north-west Iberian Peninsula: filling historical gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Phorcus sauciatus is a subtropical grazer that reaches its northern boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula shows, however, gaps in its distribution. The present study was aimed at detecting possible recent changes on the population structure and distribution of P. sauciatus along the north-west Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative sampling design to explore the presence of P. sauciatus along a region within its historical gap of distribution (north Portuguese coast). In addition, a quantitative sampling design was adopted to test hypotheses about the abundance and size structure of P. sauciatus populations among regions with different historical records of its abundance and among shores with different exposure. Results showed that P. sauciatus was present along the north Portuguese coast. However, the abundance and size structure of the newly settled populations were significantly different to those of the historically recorded populations. Moreover, P. sauciatus was able to establish populations at sheltered shores. Considering these results, we propose models for the distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula, based on effects of sea surface temperature, and to explain the size-frequency of their populations based on their density.

  2. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  3. Acremonium camtosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is a frequent and co-dominant tree of tropical sub-caducifolious forest in the Yucatan Peninsula. This species is important ecologically because it can grow in poor, clay or sandy, saline soils. The Mayan communities use this plant medicinally for its analgesic, antimy...

  4. Cretaceous deposits and flora of the Muravyov-Amurskii Peninsula (Amur Bay, sea of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volynets, E. B.

    2015-05-01

    The Cretaceous sections and plant macrofossils are investigated in detail near Vladivostok on the Muravyov-Amurskii Peninsula of southern Primorye. It is established that the Ussuri and Lipovtsy formations in the reference section of the Markovskii Peninsula rest with unconformity upon Upper Triassic strata. The continuous Cretaceous succession is revealed in the Peschanka River area of the northern Muravyov-Amurskii Peninsula, where plant remains were first sampled from the lower and upper parts of the Korkino Group, which are determined to be the late Albian-late Cenmanian in age. The taxonomic composition of floral assemblages from the Ussuri, Lipovtsy, and Galenki formations is widened owing to additional finds of plant remains. The Korkino Group received floral characteristics for the first time. The Cretaceous flora of the peninsula is represented by 126 taxa. It is established that ferns and conifers are dominant elements of the Ussuri floral assemblage, while the Lipovtsy Assemblage is dominated by ferns, conifers, and cycadphytes. In addition, the latter assemblage is characterized by the highest taxonomic diversity. The Galenki Assemblage is marked by the first appearance of rare flowering plants against the background of dominant ferns and conifers. The Korkino floral assemblage is subdivided into two subassemblages dominated by different groups: conifers in the early and flowering plants in the late.

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, E.; Calamari, D.; Gaggi, C.; Fanelli, R.; Focardi, S.; Morosini, M.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of some chlorinated hydrocarbon residues (HCB, HCH isomers, p,p'DDT and DDE, PCB cogeners) in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula are reported and compared with available data from other parts of the world. The use of these materials as indicators of tropospheric contamination levels in Antarctica is discussed.

  6. [Testaceans (Protozoa: Testacea) in quaternary permafrost sediments of Bykovsky Peninsula, arctic Yakutia].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, A A; Siegert, Ch; Schirrmeister, L; Andreev, A A

    2003-01-01

    The results of the first protozoological study in terms of paleoecology of long-term sediments and buried soils formed in the cryolite zone of northeastern Siberia are discussed. The data on testaceans (Protozoa: Testacea) inhabiting various sites of Bykovsky Peninsula, Laptev Sea coast near estuary of Lena, within the last 53,000 years (late Pleistocene and Holocene). PMID:12712585

  7. Modeling ice dynamic contributions to sea level rise from the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schannwell, C.; Barrand, N. E.; Radić, V.

    2015-11-01

    The future ice dynamical contribution to sea level rise (SLR) from 199 ice shelf nourishing drainage basins of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet is simulated, using the British Antarctic Survey Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet Model. Simulations of the grounded ice sheet include response to ice shelf collapse, estimated by tracking thermal ice shelf viability limits in 14 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change global climate models ensemble temperature projections. Grounding line retreat in response to ice shelf collapse is parameterized with a new multivariate linear regression model utilizing a range of glaciological and geometric predictor variables. Multimodel means project SLR up to 9.4 mm sea level equivalent (SLE) by 2200, and up to 19 mm SLE by 2300. Rates of SLR from individual drainage basins throughout the peninsula are similar to 2100, yet diverge between 2100 and 2300 due to individual basin characteristics. Major contributors to SLR are the outlet glaciers feeding southern George VI Ice Shelf, accounting for >75% of total SLR in some model runs. Ice sheet thinning induced by ice-shelf removal is large (up to ˜500 m), especially in Palmer Land in the southern Antarctic Peninsula, and may propagate as far as 135 km inland. These results emphasize the importance of the ice dynamical contribution to future sea level of the APIS on decadal to centennial timescales.

  8. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE ON SEX-RATIOS IN THE TIDEWATER SILVERSIDE, 'MENIDIA PENINSULAE' (PISCES: ATHERINIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sex-ratios of Menidia peninsulae from Santa Rosa Island, Florida were studied during a 13 month survey. Weekly samples revealed significant deviations from the expected sex-ratio of 1:1. During May-October, young-of-the-year (YOY) females comprised 70 to 94% of the individual...

  9. Peninsula College--P.C.F.A. Agreement, 1989-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peninsula Coll., Port Angeles, WA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Peninsula College, the Penninsula College Faculty Association, and the Board of Trustees of Community College District Number 1 is presented. This contract, covering the period from 1989 through 1992, deals with the following topics: bargaining agent recognition; compliance and conformity to law;…

  10. REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY OF THE TIDEWATER SILVERSIDE, 'MENIDIA PENINSULAE' (PISCES: ATHERINIDAE) FROM SANTA ROSA ISLAND, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reproductive ecology of the tidewater silverside, Menidia peninsulae, was studied during February 1982 through February 1983 along the shoreline of Santa Rosa Island, Florida. Adult Menidia were observed at low tide spawning on a red alga, Ceramium byssoideum, which was growi...

  11. Seasonal indoor radon concentration in Eskisehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sogukpinar, H; Algin, E; Asici, C; Altinsoz, M; Cetinkaya, H

    2014-12-01

    Indoor radon concentrations are subject to seasonal variation, which directly depends on weather conditions. The seasonal indoor radon concentrations were measured and the annual effective dose was estimated for the city centre of Eskisehir, Turkey. In order to reflect annual averages measurements were performed over all seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) including also the entire year. Measurements were carried out using Kodak-Pathe LR 115 Type II passive alpha track detectors in 220 different houses. A total of 534 measurements including measurements of different seasons were taken between 2010 and 2011. The radon concentrations for winter ranged from 34 to 531 Bq m(-3), for spring ranged from 22 to 424 Bq m(-3), for summer ranged from 25 to 320 Bq m(-3), and for autumn ranged from 19 to 412 Bq m(-3). Yearly measurements ranged from 19 to 338 Bq m(-3). In this study the average annual effective total dose from radon and its decay products was calculated to be 3.398 mSv y(-1). PMID:24379436

  12. Continuing medical education in Turkey: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Hakan

    2002-01-01

    Background The Turkish Association of Medicine founded a Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Committee in 1993 to evaluate and accredit scientific meetings and publications. The aims of this project were to raise the standards of meetings and to introduce compulsory revalidation and re-certification for physicians in Turkey. Discussion Since the year 1994, 2348 applications to the Continuing Medical Education board have been made (mostly for scientific meetings), and 95% of these applications have been accepted. Physicians received 139.014 credits during this time. This number is increasing every year. Meeting organisers' demand for such a kind of evaluation is increasing, because participants increasingly request it. Summary Efforts for revalidation and re-certification of physicians have not been completely successful yet. In the near future the Co-ordination Council of Medical Speciality Societies is going to oblige member associations to establish speciality boards. This will be the first step to the conventional use of Continuing Medical Education credits in occupational evaluation. Time-limited re-certification of physicians is the principal goal of Turkish Medical Association. Efforts to implement this change in legislation are being made. PMID:12074763

  13. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

  14. Astronomy Education and Teacher Training in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirbiyik, Halil

    In this talk, education in astronomy and space sciences in schools in Turkey as well as activities to create awareness in these subjects will be discussed. A search done among youngsters(ages from 15 to 24) for measuring the scientific literacy showed that most attractive subjects to the Turkish younsters are “internet” and “astronomy”. This result led authorities to take necessary measures to fill the gap especially in teaching material such as books. Another attempt along this is to increase astronomy subjects in the school curricula. Besides TUBITAK National Observatory, universities and Turkish Astronomical Society are giving every efort to create public awareness of space activities and space sciences. As for the teacher training in astronomy and space sciences, much has been done but no success has come yet. Astronomy subjects, in schools, are generally taught not by astronomers but some other substitutes from other branches, such as physics and mathematics. Thus the Ministry of Education prefers training teachers in service. Nevertheless it must be stated that astronomers are pushing forward to formally have the right to train astronomers to become teachers to be hired by the Ministry of Education in schools.

  15. Crustal attenuation characteristics in western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtulmuş, Tevfik Özgür; Akyol, Nihal

    2013-11-01

    We analysed 1764 records produced by 322 micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes in western Turkey to estimate crustal attenuation characteristics in the frequency range of 1.0 ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz. In the first step, we obtained non-parametric attenuation functions and they show that seismic recordings of transverse and radial S waves exhibit different characteristics at short and long hypocentral distances. Applying a two-step inversion, we parametrized Q( f ) and geometrical spreading exponent b( f ) for the entire distance range between 10 and 200 km and then we estimated separately Q and b values for short (10-70 km) and large (120-200 km) distance ranges. We could not observe significant frequency dependencies of b for short distance range, whereas the significant frequency dependence of b was observed for large distances. Low Q0 values (˜60) with strong frequency dependence of Q (˜1.4) for short distances suggest that scattering might be an important factor contributing to the attenuation of body waves in the region, which could be associated to a high degree of fracturing, fluid filled cracks, young volcanism and geothermal activity in the crust. Weak Q frequency dependence and higher Q0 values for large distances manifest more homogenous medium because of increasing pressure and enhanced healing of cracks with increasing temperature and depth. Q anisotropy was also observed for large hypocentral distance ranges.

  16. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  17. Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Onat, A

    2001-05-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common in both genders; close to 60% of men have the smoking habit, while obesity is common among Turkish women leading to a high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in them. These factors probably account for the unanticipated fact that Turkish adults have the pattern of causes of death similar to a developed population, although the process of industrialization is ongoing, the structure of its population is young and overall cholesterol levels are comparatively low. The age-standardized coronary heart disease death rate is estimated to rank among the highest in Europe. The leading independent predictors of coronary events and death [systolic blood pressure, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, followed by diabetes and (central) obesity] are related to the metabolic syndrome, estimated to prevail in 3-4% of adults aged 30 or over, and to underlie one-eighth of cases of coronary disease. Since several adverse factors exhibit a rising trend, primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease must assume a much higher priority in various issues in Turkey than it currently does. PMID:11368991

  18. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89 %) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14 %). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86 %) occurred in rural areas, with only 14 % in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  19. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89%) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14%). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86%) occurred in the rural areas, with only 14% in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  20. Ground-water conditions and quality in the western part of Kenai Peninsula, southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The western part of Kenai Peninsula in southcentral Alaska is bounded by Cook Inlet and the Kenai Mountains. Ground water is the predominant source of water for commercial, industrial, and domestic uses on the peninsula. Mean daily water use in an oil, gas, and chemical processing area north of Kenai is more than 3.5 million gallons. Unconsolidated sediments of glacial and fluvial origin are the most productive aquifers. In the upper (northwestern) peninsula, almost all water used is withdrawn from unconsolidated sediments, which may be as thick as 750 feet. In the lower peninsula, unconsolidated sediments are thinner and are absent on many hills. Water supplies in the lower peninsula are obtained from unconsolidated sediments and bedrock, and a public-water supply in parts of Homer is obtained from Bridge Creek. Throughout the peninsula, ground-water flow occurs primarily as localized flow controlled by permeability of aquifer materials and surface topography. The concentration of constituents analyzed in water from 312 wells indicated that the chemical quality of ground water for human consumption varies from marginal to excellent. Even though the median concentration of dissolved solids is low (152 milligrams per liter), much of the ground water on the peninsula does not meet water-quality regulations for public drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). About 8 percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved arsenic that exceeded the USEPA primary maximum contaminant level of 50 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of dissolved arsenic were as great as 94 micrograms per liter. Forty-six percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved iron greater than the USEPA secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 micrograms per liter. Unconsolidated sediments generally yield water having calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as its predominant ions. In some areas, ground water at

  1. Large warming trends associated with blocked winds over the Antarctic Peninsula and changes in zonal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, A.; Hunt, J.; Light, M.; Cresswell, D.

    2003-04-01

    Analysis of surface temperature (ST) anomalies of the Antarctic for the period 1982-1998 has shown that the largest warming trend in the world occurs on the western coast of the Antarctic Peninsula (by approximately 1.0{o}C over the past 20 years). This is associated with related warming of the peripheral seas and decrease of the sea-ice extent (Kwok and Comiso, 2002). This can be studied by considering how zonal winds interact with the mountains (2km high) of the peninsula. Since westerly winds are turned southwards through Coriolis forces, warmer air over the southern ocean is transported to the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula. On its eastern side (warming of approximately 0.5{o}C over the past 20 years), strong southerly katabatic winds overcome the weak northerly synoptically driven flows and flow along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula. However for easterly winds passing over the Weddell Sea, Coriolis forces cause winds which add to the cold katabatic southerly winds from the Antarctic plateau. Both these types of wind cool the east and west sides of the peninsula. Therefore the observed increase in the frequency of westerly winds should cause a net warming, particularly on the western side, as recent synoptic data from the NCEP/ECMWF reanalysis project has shown for the past 20 years (Kwok and Comiso, 2002). This concept has been tested using detailed modelling of the stably stratified atmospheric flows over the peninsula. The idealised 2-layer model of Hunt et al. (2002) for typical mesoscale atmospheric flows with sharp variations in surface roughness and mountainous elevation verifies the above flow behaviour for easterly and westerly winds perpendicular to a `cape' such as the Antarctic Peninsula. Numerical modelling using the UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) at 12km resolution showed a flow response which agrees with observational weather station data on the eastern side. But it is less satisfactory on the western side where the

  2. Homogenization dynamics and introduction routes of invasive freshwater fish in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Clavero, Miguel; García-Berthou, Emili

    2006-12-01

    Nonnative invasive species are one of the main global threats to biodiversity. The understanding of the traits characterizing successful invaders and invasion-prone ecosystems is increasing, but our predictive ability is still limited. Quantitative information on biotic homogenization and particularly its temporal dynamics is even scarcer. We used freshwater fish distribution data in the Iberian Peninsula in four periods (before human intervention, 1991, 1995, and 2001) to assess the temporal dynamics of biotic homogenization among river basins. The percentage of introduced species among fish faunas has increased in recent times (from 41.8% in 1991 to 52.5% in 2001), leading to a clear increase in the similarity of community composition among basins. The mean Jaccard's index increase (a measure of biotic homogenization) from the pristine situation to the present (17.1%) was similar to that for Californian fish but higher than for other studies. However, biotic homogenization was found to be a temporally dynamic process, with finer temporal grain analyses detecting transient stages of biotic differentiation. Introduced species assemblages were spatially structured along a latitudinal gradient in the Iberian Peninsula, with species related to sport fishing being characteristic of northern basins. Although the comparison of fish distributions in the Iberian Peninsula and France showed significant and generalized biotic homogenization, nonnative assemblages of northeastern Iberian basins were more similar to those of France than to those of the rest of the Iberian Peninsula, indicating a main introduction route. Species introduced to the Iberian Peninsula tended to be mainly piscivores or widely introduced species that previously had been introduced to France. Our results indicate that the simultaneous analysis of the spatial distribution of introduced assemblages (excluding native species that reflect other biogeographical patterns) and their specific traits can be an

  3. Byers Peninsula: A reference site for coastal, terrestrial and limnetic ecosystem studies in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Rochera, C.; Velázquez, D.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the development of an international and multidisciplinary project funded by the Spanish Polar Programme on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetlands). The project adopted Byers Peninsula as an international reference site for coastal and terrestrial (including inland waters) research within the framework of the International Polar Year initiative. Over 30 scientists from 12 countries and 26 institutions participated in the field work, and many others participated in the processing of the samples. The main themes investigated were: Holocene changes in climate, using both lacustrine sediment cores and palaeo-nests of penguins; limnology of the lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands; microbiology of microbial mats, ecology of microbial food webs and viral effects on aquatic ecosystems; ornithology, with investigations on a Gentoo penguin rookery ( Pygoscelis papua) as well as the flying ornithofauna; biocomplexity and life cycles of species from different taxonomic groups; analysis of a complete watershed unit from a landscape perspective; and human impacts, specifically the effect of trampling on soil characteristics and biota. Byers Peninsula offers many features as an international reference site given it is one of the largest ice-free areas in the Antarctic Peninsula region, it has a variety of different landscape units, and it hosts diverse aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, the Byers Peninsula is a hotspot for Antarctic biodiversity, and because of its high level of environmental protection, it has been very little affected by human activities. Finally, the proximity to the Spanish polar installations on Livingston Island and the experience derived from previous expeditions to the site make it logistically feasible as a site for ongoing monitoring and research.

  4. Habitat Selection and Foraging Behavior of Southern Elephant Seals in the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckstadt, L.; Costa, D. P.; McDonald, B. I.; Tremblay, Y.; Crocker, D. E.; Goebel, M. E.; Fedak, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the foraging behavior of 18 southern elephant seals foraging over two seasons in the Western Antarctic Peninsula. The foraging behavior and habitat utilization of 7 females in 2005 and 12 in 2006 were followed using satellite linked Satellite Relay Data Loggers that measured diving behavior as well collected salinity and temperature profiles as the animals dove. Animals were tagged after the annual molt during February at Cape Shirreff Livngston Island, South Shetland Islands. There was significant interannual variation in the regions of the Southern Ocean used by seals from Livingston Island. In 2005 of the 7 animals tagged one foraged 4700 km due west of the Antarctic Peninsula going as far as 150 W. The remaining females headed south along the Western Antarctic Peninsula bypassing Marguerite Bay moving south along Alexander Island. Three of these animals continued to forage in the pack ice as it developed. On their return trip all females swam past Livingston Island, continuing on to South Georgia Island where they apparently bred in the austral spring. One animal returned to Cape Shirreff to molt and her tag was recovered. During 2006 animals initially followed a similar migratory pattern going south along the Antarctic Peninsula, but unlike 2005 where the majority of the animals remained in the immediate vicinity of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, most of the animals in 2006 moved well to the west foraging as far as the Amundsen Sea. We compared the area restricted search (focal foraging areas) areas of these animals using a newly developed fractal landscape technique that identifies and quantifies areas of intensive search. The fractal analysis of area restricted search shows that the area, distance and coverage (Fractal D) searched were not different between years, while the time spent in the search areas was higher in 2005. Further analysis will examine how the physical properties of the water column as determined from the CTD data derived from

  5. Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amesbury, M. J.; Royles, J.; Hodgson, D.; Convey, P.; Griffiths, H.; Charman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. This paper will present the first published results from a wider project exploiting peat moss banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. A unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island, a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to provide an indication of ecosystem productivity. We show that both moss and microbial population growth rates rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in terrestrial plant growth rates and soil microbial activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. The observed relationship between moss growth, microbial activity and climate at Lazarev Bay suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions, complementing the more distant and widely dispersed ice core records. As a result, we will conclude by placing the Lazarev Bay record into the wider context of the latest progress of analysis of

  6. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  7. Lichens from Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevsehir Provinces (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Yazici, K; Aslan, A; Etayo, J; Giordani, P

    2008-09-15

    A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey is performed. A total of 171 lichen taxa (including 2 subspecies and 2 varieties) and 1 lichenicolous fungus are determined from 14 localities in Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevşehir provinces of Turkey. Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn. is new to Turkey. Besides Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn. and Xanthoria sorediata (Vain.) Poelt were found for the second time in Asia. Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel was found to grow on Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg. while Muellerella pymaea (Körb.) D. Hawksw. var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel (lichenicolous fungus) on Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner as parasitic. All lichen taxa found in Cankiri are new to this province (92 intraspecific taxa), while 39 new to Nevşehir, 8 new to Konya and 5 new to Antalya provinces. For every each taxon, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented. PMID:19137828

  8. Geothermal Energy Potential of Turkey: Inferred from the Aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ates, Abdullah; Bilim, Funda; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Bektas, Ozcan

    2010-05-01

    Geothermal energy potential of Turkey is well known. There are lots of hot springs with over 30° C water temperatures. However, the significance of these geothermal energy potential of Turkey is not adequately understood. We believe that the main reason for this; is the lack of exploration methods and tools in a wide area as large as Turkey. We exploited a well known physical property of rocks to estimate the geothermal energy potential. Physically, substances lose their magnetization above a temperature known as the Curie that is the 580° C for magnetite. Properties of the Curie temperature have been exploited to observe the bottom depth of the magnetization. That is the depth where the heat reaches to 580° C. In another word, there is no magnetization below this depth. In normal crust this depth is about 22-24 km. Thus, investigation of the bottom depth of magnetization by using aeromagnetic anomalies can lead to information that if there are any anomalous regions well above the normal crust. The aeromagnetic anomalies of whole of Turkey were surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey. The survey was completed during late 1980's. Five kilometers grid data were available and used for regional exploration purposes. Exploration of the geothermal energy potential of Turkey was done from west to east in the similar way to search for shallow high temperature regions. These are from west to east; i.) Western Turkey: Two major shallow depth regions were determined at the west of Kutahya and the north-east of Denizli. The Curie Point Depths (CPDs) were calculated as about 7 km and about 9 km in Kutahya and Denizli, respectively. Also, high heat flow values and crustal thinning (about 32 km from gravity anomalies of western Turkey) were calculated for western Turkey. ii.) Central Turkey: A CPD depth of 8 km was calculated. This gives us a temperature gradient of 0.073° C/m. Geothermal energy potential was studied using water chemistry and isotopic

  9. Some characteristics of Hirsizdere sedimentary magnesite deposits, Denizli, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedef, Veysel; Russell, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 8% of Turkey is covered by ultramafic rocks which host economically important deposits of magnesite, chromite and olivine. Magnesite deposits are of three types: (1) Massive or crystalline, (2) Cryptocrystalline and (3) Sedimentary. Cryptocrystalline and sedimentary type magnesite deposits are widespread all over Turkey although the massive type deposits are seemingly absent. In this study, we examined the sedimentary magnesite deposits of Hirsizdere, located in the province of Denizli, SW Turkey. The deposits formed as five beds within an ultramafic environment. The thickness of the magnesite beds can reach up to 4 meters and may be traced up to 3 km from west to east. The deposit comprises half a million tons of magnesite with some associated dolomite.

  10. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  11. Sociocultural determinants of infant and child mortality in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksit, B; Aksit, B

    1989-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to review and integrate international and Turkish research on infant and child mortality. Recent research and multivariate analyses in African, Latin American and Asian countries have revealed that in many countries mother's education is a powerful predictor of child survival. The present review of research in Turkey has indicated that urban/rural and regional differentials in infant mortality have been clearly established as by-products of fertility, contraception, and health surveys covering nationally representative samples. However, there are only a few multivariate explanatory models of infant/child mortality in Turkey to isolate and measure the effects of mother's education in relation to other variables. Nevertheless, existing studies in Turkey seem to suggest that mother's and father's education might link socio-economic, psychocultural, and biomedical variables with each other at community, household, and individual levels, providing clue for the formulation of future research designs and policy decisions. PMID:2648604

  12. Incidence of Salmonella in fresh dressed turkeys raised under Salmonella-controlled and uncontrolled environments.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D F; Green, S S; Custer, C S; Johnston, R W

    1982-10-01

    The incidence of salmonella in turkeys from experimental salmonella-controlled and uncontrolled, or normal, flocks processed at three turkey slaughter plants were compared. The results indicate that processing salmonella-controlled turkeys in a plant that routinely kills normal birds may result in the contamination of the salmonella-controlled birds, probably due to salmonella in the plant environment. The salmonella-controlled turkeys studied tended to have a lower incidence of salmonella than normal birds. These observation indicate that salmonella control practices in turkey raising can result in a salmonella reduction in market birds even under existing commercial slaughter, evisceration, and cooling procedures. PMID:6217458

  13. Liver transplantation in Turkey: historical review and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2015-07-01

    Since the first successful liver transplantation by Starzl et al. in 1967, liver transplantation has become the standard therapy for many liver diseases, mainly chronic liver disease. Most liver transplantations performed in Europe and North America utilize deceased donors while a considerable portion of organ requirements is supplied by living donors in Asian countries including Turkey. The actual history of solid organ transplantation in Turkey began with the pioneering work of Dr. Haberal in collaboration with Thomaz E. Starzl in 1974 in Colorado University at Denver. The first successful solid organ transplantation in Turkey was accomplished by Haberal in 1975 with a living donor renal transplantation. Subsequently, legislations no 2238 and 2594 dated 1979 and 1982, respectively, were passed, paving the way for cadaveric tissue/organ utilization and preservation in Turkey. The first deceased donor liver transplantation and the first living donor liver transplantation were performed in 1988 and 1990, respectively. There are currently 45 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. Of these, 25 are state universities, 8 are private (foundation) universities, 9 are private hospitals, and 3 are training and research hospitals belonging to the Ministry of Health. A total of 7152 liver transplantations were performed in Turkey between January 2002 and May 2014. Of these, 4848 (67.8%) used living donors and 2304 (32.2%) used deceased donors. These figures indicate that, despite widespread organ donation campaigns and media-sponsored propaganda, desired targets have not been met yet in providing deceased organ donation. Despite unsatisfactory levels attained in supplying deceased donors, both the number of annual liver transplantations and improvements in overall survival rates of organ transplanted patients continues to increase. Actually, the one-year patient survival rate after liver transplantation in 2013 was 80.5%. This rate is getting better with each passing year

  14. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Sting, R; Richter, A; Popp, C; Hafez, H M

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in turkeys in the southwest of Germany was investigated. For this purpose, 200 cloacal swab samples and 5 environmental dust samples (tested as a pooled sample) of each of the 20 flocks (10 female and 10 male flocks) included in this study were examined. The VRE could be isolated by means of a procedure combining bacterial cultivation in an enrichment broth and on a selective solid media. Enterococci were identified biochemically and subsequently tested on the presence of the vancomycin resistance genes vanA, vanB (B1/B2/B3), and vanC (C1/C2/C3) using real-time PCR assays. In 54 (27%) turkeys originating from 11 (55%) flocks and in 14 (70%) of the dust samples, exclusively vanA and vanC1 genes could be detected. Of the turkeys examined, 46 were colonized with VRE bearing the resistance gene vanC1 and 8 vanA, originating from 9 and 2 flocks, respectively. None of the birds carried vanB, vanC2, or vanC3 positive VRE. The results obtained from the birds are largely confirmed by the dust samples originating from 4 vanA and 10 vanC1 positive flocks. However, one flock housing animals colonized with vanC1 positive VRE could not be confirmed by the dust samples that revealed vanA bearing VRE. However, in one case vanA and in 3 cases vanC1 carrying VRE could be detected in dust samples of the turkey houses, but not in the turkeys of the associated flock. In 5 flocks the turkeys as well as the dust samples were free of VRE. PMID:23300299

  15. Rare earth element content of cryptocrystalline magnesites of Konya, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedef, Veysel; Russell, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We examined the rare earth element content of several cryptocrystalline magnesites as well as hydromagnesite, host rock serpentinites, lake water and hot spring water from Turkey. Southwestern Turkey hosts cryptocrystalline magnesites, sedimentary magnesites with presently forming, biologically mediated hydromagnesites and travertines. Our results show the REE content of the minerals, rocks and waters are well below detection limits. One hydromagnesite sample from Lake Salda has slightly high La (2.38ppb), Ce (3.91 ppb) and Nd (1.68 ppb) when compared to other samples, but these are also still below detection limits of the method we followed.

  16. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey. PMID:24810139

  17. A case of biliary Fascioliasis by Fasciola gigantica in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Goral, Vedat; Senturk, Senem; Mete, Omer; Cicek, Mutallib; Ebik, Berat; Kaya, Beşir

    2011-03-01

    A case of Fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis is reported in Turkey. The patient was a 37- year-old woman, and suffered from icterus, ascites, and pain in her right upper abdominal region. A total of 7 living adult flukes were recovered during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A single dose of triclabendazole was administered to treat possible remaining worms. She was living in a village of southeast of Anatolia region and had sheeps and cows. She had the history of eating lettuce, mallow, dill, and parsley without washing. This is the first case of fascioliasis which was treated via endoscopic biliary extraction during ERCP in Turkey. PMID:21461271

  18. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F.; Steadman, David W.; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

    2012-01-01

    Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic. PMID:22905156

  19. Prevalence of bruxism awareness in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nekora-Azak, Aysen; Yengin, Esengun; Evlioglu, Gulumser; Ceyhan, Arzu; Ocak, Ozlem; Issever, Halim

    2010-04-01

    The reported prevalence of symptoms related to bruxism varies in the general population because of different investigative methodologies, operational definitions, clinical criteria, and samples of population. Awareness of bruxism in the general population is 15% to 23%, however, this rate increases to 50% to 90% in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms associated with bruxism in Istanbul, Turkey and to analyze the correlation between bruxism and factors such as age, gender, marital status, and occupation. Seven-hundred-ninety-five (795) adult subjects who resided in the city of Istanbul were interviewed by telephone about their age, gender, marital status, occupation, and description of the prevalence of bruxism awareness. The overall prevalence of clenching teeth was 45.7% and that of grinding teeth was 21.6%. Women responded positively to the questions more often than men. The data showed significant differences between males and females, regarding clenching teeth OR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.05-1.87), difficulty opening OR: 2.64 (95% CI: 1.63-4.26), headache on awakening OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.58-3.27) joint sounds OR: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.24-2.38), sore on awakening OR: 2.97 (95% CI: 1.91-4.61), influence in daily activity (OR: 2.26 CI: 1.38-3.67). Tooth wear in the married group was higher than the single group. Age distribution showed significant differences related to grinding teeth, tooth wear and joint sounds. There were statistically significant differences between bruxism and job categories. As a conclusion, this study suggest an association between bruxism and stressful events such as marital status and job problems. PMID:20491234

  20. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Damla, N; Cevik, U; Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using gamma-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and a fission product (137)Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l(-1), respectively. The concentrations of gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross alpha and beta activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l(-1) and 1.0 Bq l(-1) gross alpha and beta radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m(-3) and the average value was 56 Bq m(-3). The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country. PMID:19690358