Science.gov

Sample records for bights

  1. Modelling cyclonic eddies in the Delagoa Bight region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, O.; Pous, S.; Penven, P.; Capet, X.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to document and shed light on the circulation around the Delagoa Bight region in the southern Mozambique Channel using a realistic modelling approach. A simulation including mesoscale forcings at the boundaries of our regional configuration succeeds in reproducing the general circulation in the region as well as the existence of a semi-permanent cyclonic eddy, whose existence is attested by in situ measurements in the Bight. Characterised by a persistent local minimum in SSH located around 26°S-34°E, this cyclonic eddy termed herein the Delagoa Bight lee eddy occurs about 25% of the time with no clear seasonal preference. Poleward moving cyclones, mostly generated further north, occur another 25% of the time in the Bight area. A tracking method applied to eddies generated in Delagoa Bight using model outputs as well as AVISO data confirms the model realism and provides additional statistics. The diameter of the eddy core varies between 61 and 147 km and the average life time exceeds 20 days. Additional model analyses reveal the systematic presence of negative vorticity in the Bight that can organise and form a Delagoa Bight lee eddy depending on the intensity of an intermittent southward flow along the shore and the spatial distribution of surrounding mesoscale features. In addition, the model solution shows other cyclonic eddies generated near Inhambane and eventually travelling through the Bight. Their generation and pathways appears to be linked with large Mozambique Channel rings.

  2. New York Bight: A Case Study, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Walter G., III

    1970-01-01

    Cites legislation which was not implemented to prevent pollution of the New York Bight. Summarizes testimony heard by the Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution, and subsequent political action. Discusses problems of implementing controls. (EB)

  3. Ecological stress and the New York Bight: science and management

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Intensive quantitative ecological studies of the benthos of the New York Bight were not begun until the early 1960's, by which time significant alteration of benthic communities had already occurred. This paper summarizes investigations on the effects of organic loading, petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic organics (e.g., pesticides and industrial compounds), and toxic metals on the structure and function of benthic communities of the New York Bight. 52 references.

  4. Antarctic intermediate water intrusion into South Atlantic Bight shelf waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashgarian, Michaele; Tanaka, Noriyuki

    1991-02-01

    Surface seawater samples were collected from seven stations on the coastline bordering the South Atlantic Bight and the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight in March 1986 and analysed for radiocarbon. Depletion in radiocarbon activity was observed in shelf water along the South Carolina coast at Myrtle Beach and Isle of Palms. If Sargasso Sea surface water withΔ 14C = 168‰ and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) withΔ 14C = -90‰ are two end members which supply water to this coastal region, a contribution of about 20-25% AAIW is required to produce theΔ 14C values observed.

  5. GEOS-3 radar altimeter study for the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N.; Parsons, C. L.; Parra, C. G.; Mcmill, J. D.; Hayes, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Three years of radar altimeter data from GEOS-3 for the South Atlantic Bight were processed. Mean monthly topographic maps were produced which estimate geostrophic flow in the region. Statistical distribution of the surface wind speed and significant wave height as a function of both space and time are presented.

  6. New York Bight Study. Report 1. Hydrodynamic modeling. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffner, N.W.; Vemulakonda, S.R.; Mark, D.J.; Butler, H.L.; Kim, K.W.

    1994-08-01

    As a part of the New York (NY) Bight Feasibility Study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the NY Bight was developed and applied by the Coastal Engineering R h Center of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The study used the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model CH3D-WES for this purpose. A 76 x 45 cell boundary-fitted curvilinear grid was employed in the horizontal and five to ten sigma layers were used in the vertical. Steady-state and diagnostic tests were initially performed, using M, and mixed tides, cross-shelf gradients, winds, and freshwater flows in the Hudson River. All of the tests were successful in reproducing known circulation patterns of the NY Bight system. The model was next successfully calibrated and verified against prototype tidal elevations and currents measured during April and May 1976. As a demonstration of the feasibility of long-term modeling, the hydrodynamics, including salinity and temperature, were simulated for the period April-October 1976. Model results compared favorably with available prototype temperature measurements. Model output was furnished to a water quality model of the NY Bight, which successfully reproduced the hypoxic event of 1976. Model results also were used successfully to run particle tracking and oil spill models of the NY Bight. Finally, the model was demonstrated for the Long Island Sound and East River areas, for the period of May-July 1990. Computed results for elevation, velocity, salinity, and temperature in the Sound as well as net flux in the East River matched measurements reasonably.

  7. Detection of ocean waste in the New York Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W.; Klemas, V.

    1979-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to detection and monitoring of ocean waste disposal in the New York Bight is discussed. Attention is focused on the two major pollutants in this area--sewage sludge and iron-acid waste--and on detecting and identifying these pollutants. The emphasis is on the use of LANDSAT multispectral data in identifying these pollutants and distinguishing them from other substances. The analysis technique applied to the LANDSAT data is the eigenvector. This approach proved to be quite successful in detecting iron-acid waste of the coast of Delaware and is applied here with relatively minor modifications. The results of the New York Bight work are compared to the Delaware results. Finally, other remote sensing systems (Nimbus G, aircraft photography and multispectral scanner systems) are discussed as possible complements of or replacements for the Landsat observations.

  8. Analysis of nonlinear internal waves in the New York Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the nonlinear-internal-wave evolution in the New York Bight was performed on the basis of current meter mooring data obtained in the New York Bight during the SAR Internal Wave Signature Experiment (SARSEX). The solitary wave theory was extended to include dissipation and shoaling effects, and a series of numerical experiments were performed by solving the wave evolution equation, with waveforms observed in the SARSEX area as initial conditions. The results of calculations demonstrate that the relative balance of dissipation and shoaling effects is crucial to the detailed evolution of internal wave packets. From an observed initial wave packet at the upstream mooring, the numerical evolution simulation agreed reasonably well with the measurements at the distant mooring for the leading two large solitons.

  9. Coastal ocean transport patterns in the central Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Rosenberger, K.J.; Hamilton, P.; Xu, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, several large programs that monitor currents and transport patterns for periods from a few months to a few years were conducted by a consortium of university, federal, state, and municipal agencies in the central Southern California Bight, a heavily urbanized section of the coastal ocean off the west coast of the United States encompassing Santa Monica Bay, San Pedro Bay, and the Palos Verdes shelf. These programs were designed in part to determine how alongshelf and cross-shelf currents move sediments, pollutants, and suspended material through the region. Analysis of the data sets showed that the current patterns in this portion of the Bight have distinct changes in frequency and amplitude with location, in part because the topography of the shelf and upper slope varies rapidly over small spatial scales. However, because the mean, subtidal, and tidal-current patterns in any particular location were reasonably stable with time, one could determine a regional pattern for these current fields in the central Southern California Bight even though measurements at the various locations were obtained at different times. In particular, because the mean near-surface flows over the San Pedro and Palos Verdes shelves are divergent, near-surface waters from the upper slope tend to carry suspended material onto the shelf in the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. Water and suspended material are also carried off the shelf by the mean and subtidal flow fields in places where the orientation of the shelf break changes abruptly. The barotropic tidal currents in the central Southern California Bight flow primarily alongshore, but they have pronounced amplitude variations over relatively small changes in alongshelf location that are not totally predicted by numerical tidal models. Nonlinear internal tides and internal bores at tidal frequencies are oriented more across the shelf. They do not have a uniform transport direction, since they move fine sediment

  10. Upwelling and convergence in the Middle Atlantic Bight Shelfbreak Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Robert W.; Visbeck, Martin

    Convergent and up welling circulation within the shelfbreak front in the Middle Atlantic Bight are detected using a dye tracer injected into the bottom boundary layer at the foot of the front. From the three day displacement and dispersion of two dye injections within the front we infer Lagrangian isopycnal (diapycnal) velocities and diffusivities of 2 × 10-2 m/s (4 × 10-6 m/s) and 9 m²/s (6 × 10-6 m²/s). These results substantiate model predictions of Chapman and Lentz [1994] and previous dye tracer observations by Houghton [1997].

  11. Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Yoder, James A.; Blanton, J. O.; Atkinson, L. P.; Lee, T. N.

    1988-01-01

    A time sequence of surface pigment images of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), derived from the Nimbus 7 CZCS for the period between November 1978 and October 1979, was correlated with in situ observations of hydrographic parameters, fresh-water discharge, sea level, coastal winds, and currents in order to couple physical processes and the spatial and temporal variability of the surface pigment fields. A definite seasonal modulation of the surface pigment fields was found, with the concentrations in the Georgia Bight being highest in summer, and those north of Cape Romain highest in winter. This phase difference was found to be the result of variations in wind fields, Gulf Stream-shelf interactions, and fresh-water discharge patterns. At some locations (e.g., near Charleston) the alongshore band of high pigment concentrations increased in width throughout the year; at other locations (near Jacksonville), the alongsore band exhibited a minimum width in the summer and a maximum width in the fall of 1979.

  12. Sewage contamination in the new york bight. Coprostanol as an indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; McGillivary, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Sediments of the New York Bight are analyzed for coprostanol, a fecal steroid, to determine the degree of sewage contamination. Coprostanol, when reported as a percentage of total steroids (% coprostanol), can be quantitatively related to the amount of sewage-derived organic matter. Furthermore, coprostanol is quite persistent in anoxic silts of the Bight and, thus, can be used to delineate historical contamination in these silts. Based on the sediments analyzed, the New York Bight is shown to be highly contaminated with sewage (most likely ocean-dumped sewage sludge), especially in the topographically low areas near the dump site, where black silts have been known to accumulate.

  13. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic bight

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Yoder, J.A.

    1980-01-31

    Progress is reported on research conducted during 1979 on the biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. The presentation consists of a number of published articles and abstracts of oral presentations. (ACR)

  14. Sources and Fates of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, C. S.

    2000-08-16

    The objectives of the research program were to identify and determine the relative importance of various sources of dissolved organic matter to the continental shelf, and to estimate the net carbon balance for the Middle Atlantic Bight.

  15. The Geyser Bight geothermal area, Umnak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J. ); Nye, C.J. Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK . Geophysical Inst.); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs in Alaska, and is the only site in the state with geysers. Heat for the geothermal system is derived from crustal magma associated with Mt. Recheshnoi volcano. Successive injections of magma have probably heated the crust to near its minimum melting point and produced the only high-SiO[sub 2] rhyolites in the oceanic part of the Aleutian arc. At least two hydrothermal reservoirs are postulated to underlie the geothermal area and have temperatures of 165 and 200 C, respectively, as estimated by geothermometry. Sulfate-water isotope geothermometers suggest a deeper reservoir with a temperature of 265 C. The thermal spring waters have relatively low concentrations of Cl (600 ppm) but are rich in B (60 ppm) and As (6 ppm). The As/Cl ratio is among the highest reported for geothermal waters. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Automated ocean color product validation for the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Jones, Burt; Arnone, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Automated match ups allow us to maintain and improve the products of current satellite ocean color sensors (MODIS, MERIS), and new sensors (VIIRS). As part of the VIIRS mission preparation, we have created a web based automated match up tool that provides access to searchable fields for date, site, and products, and creates match-ups between satellite (MODIS, MERIS, VIIRS), and in-situ measurements (HyperPRO and SeaPRISM). The back end of the system is a 'mySQL' database, and the front end is a `php' web portal with pull down menus for searchable fields. Based on selections, graphics are generated showing match-ups and statistics, and ascii files are created for downloads for the matchup data. Examples are shown for matching the satellite data with the data from Platform Eureka SeaPRISM off L.A. Harbor in the Southern California Bight.

  17. Lagrangian study of the Panama Bight and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigneau, Alexis; Abarca Del Rio, Rodrigo; Colas, FrançOis

    2006-09-01

    Near-surface circulation of the Panama Bight and surrounding regions [0-9°N; 73°W-90°W] was studied using satellite-tracked drifter trajectories from 1979-2004. This region encompasses three major currents showing typical velocities of ˜30 cm s-1: (1) the eastward North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC), (2) the near-circular Panama Bight Cyclonic Gyre (PBCG), and (3) the westward South Equatorial Current (SEC). We do not observe significant modification of the mean surface circulation during El Niño Southern Oscillation events, even if the SEC is slightly reinforced during relatively warm El Niño periods. At seasonal scales, the circulation is strongly controlled by the activity of the Panama wind-jet: in boreal winter, the currents are stronger and an anticyclonic cell is present west of the PBCG. This dipole leads to a strong ˜200 km wide southward current which then disappears during the rest of the year. In summer, the three major currents have reduced intensity by 30%-40%. Large-scale current vorticity shows that the upwelling associated with the PBCG is also 3-4 times stronger in winter than during summer months. The kinetic energy is largely dominated by eddy activity and its intensity is double in winter than during summer. Ageostrophic motions and eddy activity appear to have a substantial impact on the energy spatial distribution. In the NECC and SEC regions, Lagrangian scales are anisotropic and zonally enhanced in the direction of the mean currents. The typical integral time and length scales of these regions are 2.5 days and 50-60 km in the zonal direction and 1.5 days and 25-30 km in the meridional direction. Lateral eddy diffusivity coefficients are on the order of 11-14 107 cm2 s-1 zonally and 5-6 107 cm2 s-1 meridionally. In contrast, in the PBCG region, the Lagrangian characteristics are isotropic with typical timescales of 1.7 days, space scales of 30 km and eddy diffusivity coefficients of 6 107 cm2 s-1 in both directions.

  18. NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY HARBOR ESTUARY PROGRAM INCLUDING THE BIGHT RESTORATION PLAN FINAL COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    New York-New Jersey Harbor and the New York Bight are extraordinary in many ways -- their abundant resources, their beauty, and their many competing uses. The Harbor/Bight abounds with diverse natural resources, yet it is the heart of the most densely populated region of the nati...

  19. Sonar Seafloor Exploration within the Central South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, C. C.; Sautter, L. R.; Harris, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the College of Charleston's Transect Program, research cruises conducted aboard the RV Savannah of the Skidaway Institution of Oceanography and the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster have explored and sampled several localities within the central portion of the South Atlantic Bight, the continental shelf region between Florida and Cape Hatteras, NC. Klein sidescan and Kongsberg multibeam sonar arrays collected seafloor images and bathymetric data that were processed by CofC undergraduate geology researchers using Caris HIPS/SIPS software. Several of the data sets have been ground-truthed using sediment grabs, footage from ROV cameras and SCUBA videography. Two of the prominent seafloor features discovered are (1) an outcropping hard-ground shelf-edge structure approximately 650 by 150 m, with 10 m relief. It is oriented parallel to shore in water depths of 60 m. Possible geological and biological influences on the structure's origin and morphology are being explored; and (2) a meandering river channel located on the mid-shelf, where water depth is approximately 22 m. Rock and sediment samples as well as video documentation of this feature reveal a channel with 1.5 m of relief, cut into the hard-ground, and includes coarse sands and abundant river pebbles. Additional shelf hard-ground features will be presented.

  20. Nearshore surface currents in the Chesapeake Bight during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald R.

    1987-04-01

    In this study, several different approaches are used to study coastal surface currents in an application to the dispersion of blue crab larvae from Chesapeake Bay onto the Middle Atlantic Bight. Observations from the deployment of a newly developed surface current meter (RBCM—Rapid Boundary Current Meter) are presented and compared to calculated surface currents from a simple model. In addition, using currents calculated with actual winds in this model, traces are constructed from point of encounter of larvae on the shelf back to the bay entrance. This has provided a unique Lagrangian tag for evaluating model parameters and forcing terms. Comparisons to Lagrangian traces and to RBCM measurements led to the inclusion of "wall" layer boundary conditions in the model. Without this layer, modeled currents seriously underestimated measured currents. Vector correlations between wind stress and measured currents were high with average veering suggestive of Ekman dynamics at a site offshore of the entrance to Chesapeake Bay. At a shallower site, correlations were relatively high, but topography or coastline guidance was strong.

  1. The New York Bight 25 years later: use impairments and policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Ofiara, Douglas D

    2015-01-15

    This paper reexamines policies and outcomes concerning the NY Bight Restoration Plan, and the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary Program (NYNJHEP) precipitated by washups of marine debris and medical wastes in the New York Bight some 25-years ago. Findings indicate progress has been made but further work is necessary. Extensive beach closures have not occurred since 1987-88, although localized closings occur annually from pathogens. Objectives of "0" beach closures may not be feasible for some beaches, not to exceed 5% closures may be more achievable. Pathogen and DO data show further reductions of the last 10-20% will be more challenging and costly, suggesting "hot spots" be a focus for further remediation. Marine debris show increasing trends on beaches; presence of balloons, plastic bags, syringes and personal hygiene items found annually is another concern. Future challenges are on two fronts, upstream (harbor estuary based)-toxics, nutrient/organic loads, and atmospheric (bight based)-toxics, metals. PMID:25500197

  2. Seasonal variations in Be-7 activity in the sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuel, E. A.; Martens, C. S.; Benninger, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    The short-term sediment-accumulation rates in the interior of the Cape Lookout Bight (North Caroline) were determined using data on Be-7 activity distribution in the surface of sediments of the bight. Lack of a significant bioturbation in this lagoon made it possible to interpret variations in depth-integrated activity profiles of Be-7 as short-term accumulation events. The accumulation rates calculated from Be-7 activity profiles indicate that the delivery of particulate matter to the sediments of Cape Lookout Bight is not constant throughout an annual cycle, with the highest monthly accumulation rates being associated with north/northeast storm activity. Inputs were found to be highest during the late winter/early spring season, when the storm frequency is greatest.

  3. Seasonal hypoxia regulates macrobenthic function and structure in the Mississippi Bight.

    PubMed

    Rakocinski, Chet F; Menke, Daneen P

    2016-04-15

    Hypoxic conditions are escalating to the east of the Mississippi River within the Mississippi Bight. The objective of this study was to examine changes in macrobenthic function and structure relative to seasonal hypoxia over a 3.5year period at the 10m (Site 6) and 20m (Site 8) isobaths within the Mississippi Bight. Seasonal hypoxia acted as a regular periodic disturbance during the study period, although the magnitude and duration of hypoxia varied inter-annually. Macrobenthic metrics revealed seasonal hypoxia effects on secondary production potential and community maturity, which agrees with previous studies. In addition, metrics were notably higher at the 20m isobath during the latter half of the study period, following the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill. This study confirms hypoxia as a major driver affecting the function and structure of soft-bottom macrobenthos in the Mississippi Bight. PMID:26920427

  4. Spatio-temporal distribution of floating objects in the German Bight (North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Martin; Hinojosa, Iván A.; Joschko, Tanja; Gutow, Lars

    2011-04-01

    Floating objects facilitate the dispersal of marine and terrestrial species but also represent a major environmental hazard in the case of anthropogenic plastic litter. They can be found throughout the world's oceans but information on their abundance and the spatio-temporal dynamics is scarce for many regions of the world. This information, however, is essential to evaluate the ecological role of floating objects. Herein, we report the results from a ship-based visual survey on the abundance and composition of flotsam in the German Bight (North Sea) during the years 2006 to 2008. The aim of this study was to identify potential sources of floating objects and to relate spatio-temporal density variations to environmental conditions. Three major flotsam categories were identified: buoyant seaweed (mainly fucoid brown algae), natural wood and anthropogenic debris. Densities of these floating objects in the German Bight were similar to those reported from other coastal regions of the world. Temporal variations in flotsam densities are probably the result of seasonal growth cycles of seaweeds and fluctuating river runoff (wood). Higher abundances were often found in areas where coastal fronts and eddies develop during calm weather conditions. Accordingly, flotsam densities were often higher in the inner German Bight than in areas farther offshore. Import of floating objects and retention times in the German Bight are influenced by wind force and direction. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of floating objects is of coastal origin or introduced into the German Bight from western source areas such as the British Channel. Rapid transport of floating objects through the German Bight is driven by strong westerly winds and likely facilitates dispersal of associated organisms and gene flow among distant populations.

  5. Remote sensing operations (multispectral scanner and photographic) in the New York Bight, 22 September 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ocean dumping of waste materials is a significant environmental concern in the New York Bight. One of these waste materials, sewage sludge, was monitored in an experiment conducted in the New York Bight on September 22, 1975. Remote sensing over controlled sewage sludge dumping included an 11-band multispectral scanner, fiver multispectral cameras and one mapping camera. Concurrent in situ water samples were taken and acoustical measurements were made of the sewage sludge plumes. Data were obtained for sewage sludge plumes resulting from line (moving barge) and spot (stationary barge) dumps. Multiple aircraft overpasses were made to evaluate temporal effects on the plume signature.

  6. Phytoplankton Assemblage Patterns in the Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Carla; Moisan, Tiffany A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Wallops Coastal Oceans Observing Laboratory (Wa-COOL) Project, we sampled a time-series transect in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) biweekly. Our 2-year time-series data included physical parameters, nutrient concentrations, and chlorophyll a concentrations. A detailed phytoplankton assemblage structure was examined in the second year. During the 2-year study, chlorophyll a concentration (and ocean color satellite imagery) indicated that phytoplankton blooms occurred in January/February during mixing conditions and in early autumn under stratified conditions. The chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.25 microgram 1(exp -1) to 15.49 microgram 1(exp -1) during the 2-year period. We were able to discriminate approximately 116 different species under phase contrast microscopy. Dominant phytoplankton included Skeletonema costatum, Rhizosolenia spp., and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. In an attempt to determine phytoplankton species competition/succession within the assemblage, we calculated a Shannon Weaver diversity index for our diatom microscopy data. Diatom diversity was greatest during the winter and minimal during the spring. Diatom diversity was also greater at nearshore stations than at offshore stations. Individual genera appeared patchy, with surface and subsurface patches appearing abruptly and persisting for only 1-2 months at a time. The distribution of individual species differed significantly from bulk variables of the assemblage (chlorophyll a ) and total phytoplankton assemblage (cells), which indicates that phytoplankton species may be limited in growth in ways that differ from those of the total assemblage. Our study demonstrated a highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage throughout the year, with opportunistic species dominating during spring and fall in response to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients in the southern MAB.

  7. River plume patterns and dynamics within the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, J. A.; DiGiacomo, P. M.; Weisberg, S. B.; Nezlin, N. P.; Mengel, M.; Jones, B. H.; Ohlmann, J. C.; Washburn, L.; Terrill, E. J.; Farnsworth, K. L.

    2007-11-01

    Stormwater river plumes are important vectors of marine contaminants and pathogens in the Southern California Bight. Here we report the results of a multi-institution investigation of the river plumes across eight major river systems of southern California. We use in situ water samples from multi-day cruises in combination with MODIS satellite remote sensing, buoy meteorological observations, drifters, and HF radar current measurements to evaluate the dispersal patterns and dynamics of the freshwater plumes. River discharge was exceptionally episodic, and the majority of storm discharge occurred in a few hours. The combined plume observing techniques revealed that plumes commonly detach from the coast and turn to the left, which is the opposite direction of Coriolis influence. Although initial offshore velocity of the buoyant plumes was ˜50 cm/s and was influenced by river discharge inertia (i.e., the direct momentum of the river flux) and buoyancy, subsequent advection of the plumes was largely observed in an alongshore direction and dominated by local winds. Due to the multiple day upwelling wind conditions that commonly follow discharge events, plumes were observed to flow from their respective river mouths to down-coast waters at rates of 20-40 km/d. Lastly, we note that suspended-sediment concentration and beam-attenuation were poorly correlated with plume salinity across and within the sampled plumes (mean r2=0.12 and 0.25, respectively), while colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence was well correlated (mean r2=0.56), suggesting that CDOM may serve as a good tracer of the discharged freshwater in subsequent remote sensing and monitoring efforts of plumes.

  8. Inventory of ocean monitoring in the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth C; Weisberg, Stephen B; Raco-Rands, Valerie

    2002-06-01

    Monitoring of the ocean environment in southern California, USA, has been conducted by a diverse array of public and private organizations with different motivations, working on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To create a basis from which to integrate information from these diverse programs, we conducted an inventory of ocean monitoring activities in the Southern California Bight to address the following questions: (1) How much money is being expended annually on marine monitoring programs? (2) Which organizations are conducting the most monitoring? (3) How are resources allocated among the different types of monitoring programs? This inventory focused on programs existing, or those expected to be in existence, for at least 10 years and that were active at any time between 1994 and 1997. For each program identified for inclusion in this study, information was collected on the number of sites, sampling intensity, parameters measured, and methods used. Levels of effort were translated into cost estimates based upon a market survey of local consulting firms. One hundred fourteen marine monitoring programs, conducted by 65 organizations and costing US $31 million annually, were identified. Most of the effort (81 programs, 65% of samples, 70% of costs) was expended by ocean dischargers as part of their compliance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements. Federal programs (11 programs, 25% of samples, 10% of total expenditures) expended more than state or local government programs. More than one quarter of monitoring expenditures were conducted to measure concentrations and mass of effluent inputs to the ocean. The largest effort expended on receiving water monitoring was for measuring bacteria, followed by sediments, fish/shellfish, water quality, and intertidal habitats. The large level of expenditures by individual agencies has presented opportunities for integrating small, site-specific ocean monitoring programs into

  9. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in flatfishes from the Southern California, USA, Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, K.; Allen, M.J.

    2000-06-01

    Although inputs of chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds to the Southern California Bight (SCB) are presently low, historical deposits represent a source of bioaccumulation potential to sediment-associated fauna. To assess this bioaccumulation potential, 14 chlorinated hydrocarbon classes were measured in livers of three species of flatfish collected from 63 randomly selected sites on the coastal shelf between Point Conception and the United States-Mexico international border. Tissue contamination was widespread throughout the SCB, but was limited to just two chlorinated hydrocarbon classes. Virtually 100% of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) and longfin sanddab (Citharichthys xanthostigma) populations were estimated to be contaminated with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDT = sum of o.p{prime} and p,p{prime} isomers of DDT + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE] + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs). Total DDT also contaminated the majority (64%) of the Dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) population in the SCB. Total PCB measurements in tissues of SCB flatfish were dominated by 12 congeners (52, 66, 87, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 170, 180, and 187), which averaged 95% of the combined mass of the 27 congeners analyzed. Sediment concentrations accounted for most of the variability observed in tissue concentrations for 8 of these 12 congeners and total PCBs. Normalized sediment concentrations were also significantly correlated to normalized tissue concentrations for total DDT and p,p{prime}-DDE. Tissue concentrations measured in this study from reference areas of the SCB were compared to tissue concentrations measured form reference areas in studies conducted in 1977 and 1985. Total DDT and total PCB liver concentrations were found to have decreased one to two orders of magnitude in pacific and longfin sanddabs between 1985 and 1994. Total DDT and total PCB liver concentrations decreased 5- to 35-fold in

  10. Spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids in surface sediments of the German Bight, North Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been determined in the environment globally. However, studies on the occurrence of PFAAs in marine sediment remain limited. In this study, 16 PFAAs are investigated in surface sediments from the German Bight, which provided a good overview of the spatial distribution. The concentrations of ΣPFAAs ranged from 0.056 to 7.4 ng/g dry weight. The highest concentration was found at the estuary of the River Ems, which might be the result of local discharge source. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant compound, and the enrichment of PFOS in sediment might be strongly related to the compound structure itself. The geographical condition of the German Bight influenced the movement of water and sediment, resulting in complex distribution. Following normalization according to total organic carbon (TOC) content, PFAA distributions showed a different picture. Significant linear relationships were found between total PFAA concentrations and TOC (R2=0.50, p<0.01). Compared with a previous study conducted in the same area, a declining trend was presented for the concentrations of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Compound structure, geographical condition, and organic carbon in the sediment influence the distribution of PFAAs in the German Bight. Environmental risk assessment indicated that the risk from PFOA is negligible, whereas PFOS in marine sediment may present a risk for benthic organisms in the German Bight. PMID:25544333

  11. TAXONOMIC LEVEL AND SAMPLE SIZE SUFFICIENT FOR ASSESSING POLLUTION IMPACTS ON THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT MACROBENTHOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic data from samples taken in 1980, 1983 and 1985 along a pollution gradient in the Southern California Bight (USA) were analyzed at 5 taxonomic levels (species, genus, family, order, phylum) to determIne the taxon and sample size sufficient for assessing pollution impa...

  12. The importance of cross-shore winds on freshwater dispersal in the New York Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurisa, J. T.; Chant, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The mixing and the structure of the Hudson River plume is analyzed using a numerical model with both realistic and idealized forcings. The study focuses on the impact cross-shore winds have on the Hudson River plume and freshwater transport in the New York Bight. A strictly offshore wind forces the Hudson plume offshore, where it reaches steady offshore position. After the cross-shore transport ceases, the freshwater transport in the plume is in the alongshore direction with the main transport being downshelf on the offshore side of the plume with a upshelf component on the inshore side. The presence of Long Island leads to a significant eastward transport of freshwater offshore of the outflow than is expected by the theory. Downstream the plume is forced closer to the New Jersey coast by the prevailing shelf circulation. While the unique geometry and bathymetry of the New York Bight complicates the response, the results generally agree with those from Jurisa and Chant (submitted) on the response to offshore winds and those of Choi and Wilkin (2007) examining the wind response of the Hudson River plume. Offshore winds are the dominant wind forcing during the winter in the New York Bight; however, the season has been typically described as downwelling dominant. Using a hindcast of the 2005/2006 winter season, it is determined that the structure of the freshwater transport in the New York Bight observed by Zhang et al. (2009) is due to the dominance of the offshore directed wind stress.

  13. OPTIMUM MACROBENTHIC SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING POLLUTION IMPACTS IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The optimum macrobenthic sampling protocol sampling unit, sieve mesh size, and sample size (n)] was determined for detecting ecologically important pollution impacts in the Southern California Bight, U.S.A. Cost, in laboratory processing time, was determined for samples obtained ...

  14. Ecological Condition of Coastal Ocean Waters Along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight: 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of an assessment of ecological condition in coastal-ocean waters of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB), along the U.S. continental shelf from Cape Cod, MA and Nantucket Shoals to the northeast to Cape Hatteras to the south, based on sampling conduc...

  15. DISPERSION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE DISCHARGED INTO NEW YORK BIGHT. PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA AND LABORATORY ANALYSES - 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume contains data on the dispersion of sewage sludge subsequent to its disposal at a site near the apex of the New York Bight. Cruises were made in May, July, and October, 1975. An optical tracer method was used to measure the water column distribution of waste material f...

  16. Dispersal of river sediment in the Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    (??10 cm/s) and only with adequate wave-generated shear stress and sediment loading. Calleguas Creek is unique in that it discharges directly into a steepsloped canyon (greater than 0.1) that should allow for violent auto-suspending gravity currents. In light of this, only one shelf setting-the Santa Clara and Ventura-has considerable Holocene sediment accumulation (exceeding 60 m), and here we show that the morphology of this shelf is very similar to an equilibrium shape predicted by gravity-current sediment transport. Thus, we conclude that a wide distribution of river-shelf settings occur in the Southern California Bight, which will directly influence sediment dispersal processes-both dilute suspended and gravity-current transport-and sediment-accumulation patterns. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  17. Shelf-Slope Exchange in the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, P. J.; Wilkin, J.

    2004-12-01

    A high resolution model (ROMS, the Regional Ocean Modeling System) of U.S. East Coast circulation from Newfoundland to Cuba is used to explore features of alongshelf freshwater transport, residence time, and shelf-sea/deep-ocean exchange. The focus of the analysis is the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf-slope system which, like continental shelves throughout the world, contributes to the oceanic budgets of heat, salt, and fresh water. In addition, the "continental shelf pump" transfers carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean through fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic carbon off the shelves. Solar radiation, evaporation, rainfall, riverine input, gas exchange with the atmosphere, and biological production all modify the character of shelf waters. In the MAB, the shelf-slope front separates shallow coastal waters from slope waters and the Gulf Stream, extending residence times on the shelf and maintaining coastal salinities at significantly lower levels than those offshore. The southwestward coastal mean flow exchanges weakly with slope waters along most of the MAB, with the strongest offshore flow occurring at Cape Hatteras where much of the flow is entrained into the Gulf Stream front. The shelf circulation is influenced by input from the Hudson and Delaware Rivers and Chesapeake Bay. Along the shelf break, exchange is modulated by warm-core rings from the Gulf Stream and variability of the shelf-break front. Key features of the seasonal circulation such as the MAB "Cold Pool" are captured by the simulation. Measurements suggest that DOC in shelf and shallow slope waters of the MAB include both old marine carbon and a young terrestrial-riverine-estuarine component, and these carbon cycling processes are being studied with a companion primary production, nitogen and carbon cycle model directly coupled to ROMS. Results showing salinity, idealized dye and Lagrangian float tracking results from a ROMS simulation of the MAB shelf circulation

  18. Towards an integrated view of benthic and pelagic processes in the southern North Sea (German Bight)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; van Beusekom, Justus; Neumann, Andreas; Naderipour, Celine

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea can be classified as a semi-enclosed shelf on the western-European continent. Atlantic influences are mainly through the Fair Isle current Channel in the North, and through the Strait of Dover in the South. An anti-clockwise circulation prevails, driven by mainly semi-diurnal tides and winds. The German Bight is located in the south-eastern part of the North Sea, and is strongly influenced by continental rivers. The outflow from the rivers Scheldt, Maas and Rhine is carried towards the German Bight with the residual currents. The German rivers Ems, Weser and Elbe directly debouche into the German Bight. On the shallow shelf, the water column is completely mixed by tidal forces and wind, largely preventing downward flux of particles and instead fostering temporary deposition and resuspension, which influences benthic mineralization. Hence, complex interactions between pelagic and benthic processes occur. Previous budget calculations indicate that the nutrient inventory has to be processed several times to support observed primary production, and, depending on water depth; only 10-20% remineralisation occurs in sediments of the German Bight whereas about 50% of organic matter is remineralised in the sediments of the shallow Wadden Sea. In this presentation, we use in-situ and ex-situ field data on pelagic and benthic oxygen respiration and benthic nutrient fluxes to assess the intense mineralization activity in the German Bight, the partitioning of benthic and pelagic processes and the factors influencing organic matter mineralization. Measurements of pelagic oxygen respiration based on Winkler titration, in-situ benthic oxygen uptake measurements based on flux-chamber landers and ex-situ incubations of intact sediment cores revealed that benthic remineralisation rates are about an order of magnitude smaller than pelagic rates, in agreement with previous budget estimates. Both benthic and pelagic oxygen respiration show a strong seasonality; with higher

  19. MOCHA: A three dimensional climatology of salinity and temperature of the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, N. E.; Wilkin, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    A 3-D climatology of the salinity and temperature of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) is developed to provide a synthesis of observations and a tool for understanding the heat and freshwater budgets, and dynamics, of this area. 150 years of historical data are quality controlled and combined by weighted least squares to a 3-D grid encompassing the Middle Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Maine, including Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and the Hudson River Estuary. Half degree grid spacing, along with weighted fitting in horizontal distance, vertical distance, time and bathymetry provide highly resolved maps for each month of the year that compare well to independent data sets. Features such as the MAB "Cold Pool", and the seasonal cycle of heating and cooling are clearly visible throughout the months.

  20. MOCHA: A three dimensional climatology of salinity and temperature of the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, N. E.; Wilkin, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    A 3-D climatology of the salinity and temperature of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) is developed to provide a synthesis of observations and a tool for understanding the heat and freshwater budgets, and dynamics, of this area. 150 years of historical data are quality controlled and combined by weighted least squares to a 3-D grid encompassing the Middle Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Maine, including Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and the Hudson River Estuary. Half degree grid spacing, along with weighted fitting in horizontal distance, vertical distance, time and bathymetry provide highly resolved maps for each month of the year that compare well to independent data sets. Features such as the MAB "Cold Pool", and the seasonal cycle of heating and cooling are clearly visible throughout the months.

  1. Synoptic thermal and oceanographic parameter distributions in the New York Bight Apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Bahn, G. S.; Thomas, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Concurrent surface water measurements made from a moving oceanographic research vessel were used to calibrate and interpret remotely sensed data collected over a plume in the New York Bight Apex on 23 June 1977. Multiple regression techniques were used to develop equations to map synoptic distributions of chlorophyll a and total suspended matter in the remotely sensed scene. Thermal (which did not have surface calibration values) and water quality parameter distributions indicated a cold mass of water in the Bight Apex with an overflowing nutrient-rich warm water plume that originated in the Sandy Hook Bay and flowed south near the New Jersey shoreline. Data analysis indicates that remotely sensed data may be particularly useful for studying physical and biological processes in the top several metres of surface water at plume boundaries.

  2. A test of sediment effects concentrations: DDT and PCB in the Southern California Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.

    1996-07-01

    Full life-cycle (120-d) toxicity tests using the marine polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata were conducted on Southern California Bight sediments contaminated with PCBs and DDTs. Independent efforts to determine concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) along the Southern California Bight which result in adverse biological effects resulted in similar values. A correlative approach using historic data calculated the following likely sediment effects concentrations: total DDTs, 7.12 mg/dry kg (199 mg/kg organic carbon [OC]); and total PCBs, 0.592 mg/dry kg (30.4 mg/kg OC). Testing of field-collected sediments yielded the following no-observed-effect concentrations based on full life-cycle testing: total DDTs, 8.51 mg/dry kg (269 mg/kg OC); and total PCBs, 1.07 mg/dry kg (36.6 mg/kg OC).

  3. The ecology of rubble structures of the South Atlantic Bight: A community profile. [Jetties

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.E.; Sutherland, J.P.

    1988-09-01

    This community profile provides an introduction to the ecology of the communities living on and around rubble structures in the South Atlantic Bight (Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral). The most prominent rubble structures in the bight are jetties built at the entrances to major harbors. After an initial discussion of the various kinds of rubble structures and physical factors that affect the organisms associated with them, the major portion of the text is devoted to the ecology of rubble structure habitats. Community composition, distribution, seasonality, and the recruitment patterns of the major groups of organisms are described. The major physical and biological factors affecting the organization of intertidal, sunlit subtidal, and shaded subtidal communities are presented and the potential effects of complex interactions in structuring these communities are evaluated. The profile concludes with a general review of the effects of rubble structures on nearshore sediment dynamics and shoreline evolution. 295 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Ship and satellite bio-optical research in the California Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.; Baker, K. S.

    1982-01-01

    Mesoscale biological patterns and processes in productive coastal waters were studied. The physical and biological processes leading to chlorophyll variability were investigated. The ecological and evolutionary significance of this variability, and its relation to the prediction of fish recruitment and marine mammal distributions was studied. Seasonal primary productivity (using chlorophyll as an indication of phytoplankton biomass) for the entire Southern California Bight region was assessed. Complementary and contemporaneous ship and satellite (Nimbus 7-CZCS) bio-optical data from the Southern California Bight and surrounding waters were obtained and analyzed. These data were also utilized for the development of multi-platform sampling strategies and the optimization of algorithms for the estimation of phytoplankton biomass and primary production from satellite imagery.

  5. On the occurrence of the thumbnail crab Thia scutellata in the inner German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkay, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The thumbnail crab Thia scutellata occurs in the German Bight in at least two stable populations: at Borkum Riff and Loreley Bank. The western (Borkum Riff) population is larger than the eastern (Loreley Bank) one, probably because of the more frequent ingression of south-western warmer water along the Dutch coast. The sediments of these two localities are well-sorted middle sands with a very low amount of finer fractions.

  6. Contaminated sediments database for Long Island Sound and the New York Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mecray, Ellen L.; Reid, Jamey M.; Hastings, Mary E.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.

    2003-01-01

    The Contaminated Sediments Database for Long Island Sound and the New York Bight provides a compilation of published and unpublished sediment texture and contaminant data. This report provides maps of several of the contaminants in the database as well as references and a section on using the data to assess the environmental status of these coastal areas. The database contains information collected between 1956-1997; providing an historical foundation for future contaminant studies in the region.

  7. Data assimilation of ocean wind waves using Neural Networks. A case study for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Kathrin; Staneva, Joanna; Guenther, Heinz

    2015-12-01

    A novel approach of data assimilation based on Neural Networks (NN's) is presented and applied to wave modeling in the German Bight. The method takes advantage from the ability of NN's to emulate models and to invert them. Combining forward and inverse model NN with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm provides boundary values or wind fields in agreement with measured wave integrated parameters. Synthesized HF-radar wave data are used to test the technique for two academic cases.

  8. Benthic enrichment in the Georgia Bight related to Gulf Stream intrusions and estuarine outwelling

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.B.; Tenore, K.R.; Bishop, S.; Chamberlain, C.; Pamatmat, M.M.; Tietjen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Twelve stations in the Georgia Bight were sampled in June 1977. Bottom sediments were collected at depths of 20-25 cm at inner, middle and outer shelf regions. Results suggest that the shelf break benthos is enriched by intrusion of nutrient-rich deep Gulf Stream waters off Florida. However, the mid shelf benthos is, in general, impoverished because of sporadic and patchy nutrient inputs from intrusions and meager nutrient enrichments from estuarine outwelling beyond the outer shelf. (JMT)

  9. Ecosystem functioning in the German bight under continental nutrient inputs by rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Radach, G. )

    1992-12-01

    The functioning of the German Bight ecosystem is determined largely by nutrient fluxes in and out of the system from the central and southern North Sea; by nutrient inputs through direct continental river runoff into the German Bight (Elbe, Weser, and Ems rivers); and by atmospheric nutrient inputs originating from land. The nutrient situation is assessed by estimating from available data. For the entire North Sea, the total input of phosphorus increased by 7.7% and nitrogen by about 11.4% from 1950 to 1980. The percentage of Atlantic input of phosphorus into the entire North Sea decreased from 91% to 85%, while river input increased from 2% to 13%. In the continental coastal strip the total inputs increased by 80%. The share of river input increased to 52%, both for phosphorus (1950: 14%) and nitrogen (1950: 20%). Of the winter nutrient content of the upper 30 m of the North Sea 33.5% of phosphate and 16.1% of nitrate are taken up by algae until summer. About 50% of total new production is generated in the coastal areas, with 32.8% of the volume and 34.4% of the area of the North Sea. In the German Bight, phosphate and nitrate concentrations increased during the last four decades. At Helgoland the five-year-medians of phosphate and nitrate increased by a factor of 1.7 and 2.5, respectively. As the nutrient inputs by river discharges are only slightly larger than advective contributions, the nutrient concentrations rose comparatively slowly. Diatoms stagnated and flagellates increased 10-fold. Common winter values in the early 1980s resemble those during summer blooms in the early 1960's. The German Bight ecosystem has changed drastically on all time scales under the anthropogenic nutrient inputs during the last 40 years; the plankton system is no longer in an annual quasiperiodic state.54 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Quantitative mapping of suspended solids in wastewater sludge plumes in the New York Bight apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Duedall, I. W.; Glasgow, R. M.; Proni, J. R.; Nelsen, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to apply the previously reported methodology to remotely sensed data that were collected over wastewater sludge plumes in the New York Bight apex on September 22, 1975. Spectral signatures were also determined during this study. These signatures may be useful in the specific identification of sludge plumes, as opposed to other plumes such as those created by the disposal of industrial acid wastes.

  11. Benthic dynamics at the carbonate mound regions of the Porcupine Sea Bight continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Martin

    2007-02-01

    A brief review is given of some dynamical processes that influence the benthic dynamics within the carbonate mound provinces located at the Porcupine Bank/Sea Bight margin, NE Atlantic. The depth range of the mounds in this region (600-1,000 m) marks the upper boundary of the Mediterranean outflow water above which Eastern North Atlantic Water dominates. Both water masses are carried northwards by the eastern boundary slope current. In the benthic boundary layer both the action of internal waves, and other tidal period baroclinic waves, may enhance the bottom currents and add to both the residual and maximum flow strength. Both residual and maximum bottom currents vary at different mound locations, with stronger currents found at Belgica (SE Porcupine Sea Bight) mound and Pelagia (NW Porcupine Bank) mound regions, whilst weakest currents are found at the Hovland and Magellan Mounds at the northern Sea Bight margin. The differences may be attributed to the presence of internal waves (Pelagia) or bottom intensified diurnal waves (Belgica). These different dynamical regimes are likely to have implications for the distribution patterns of live coral at the different locations.

  12. Risk analysis model for marine mammals and seabirds: a southern California bight scenario. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, R.G.

    1985-05-01

    The objective of this study was to model the risks to selected species of marine mammal and seabird populations in the Southern California Bight from oil spills during OCS oil and gas development and operations. Risk analysis is a procedure designed to investigate the possible negative effects of projects and activities. The conventional approach to analyzing oil and gas reserves is through the use of the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis Model (OSRAM). OSRAM was developed to aid in estimating the environmental hazards of developing oil resources in OCS lease areas. Two other computer models were used in these analyses. They are: (2) the short-term oil response model, STORM and (3) the oil-spill population response model, OSPREY. In the report, a methodology for describing the range of consequences which oil spills might have on Southern California Bight seabird and marine mammal populations and the likelihood of those effects were developed. Two general categories of spill consequences were examined: (1) the immediate mortality to a population caused by a spill from a given source, and (2) the long term marine mammal and seabird populations effects of the projected Southern California Bight OCS development.

  13. Satellite-Based Radar Measurements for Validation of Highresolution Sea State Forecast Models in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleskachevsky, A.; Gebhardt, C.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Kieser, J.; Bruns, T.; Lindenthal, A.; Jansen, F.; Behrens, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from TerraSAR-X and Tandem-X (TS-X and TD-X) satellites have been used for validation and verification of newly developed coastal forecast models in the German Bight of the North Sea. The empirical XWAVE algorithm for estimation of significant wave height has been adopted for coastal application and implemented for NRT services. All available TS-X images in the German Bight collocated with buoy measurements (6 buoys) since 2013 were processed and analysed (total of 46 scenes/passages with 184 StripMap images). Sea state estimated from series of TS-X images cover strips with length of ~200km and width of 30km over the German Bight from East-Frisian Islands to the Danish coast. The comparisons with results of wave prediction model show a number of local variations due to variety in bathymetry and wind fronts

  14. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  15. Water mass analysis and alongshore variation in upwelling intensity in the eastern Great Australian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchie, Sam; Middleton, John F.; Ward, Tim M.

    2006-08-01

    A study of climatological and conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data for 2004 is made to provide a conceptual model of upwelling for the eastern region of the Great Australian Bight. In particular, the data and other studies provide strong evidence that shelf break upwelling is confined to the southwest Kangaroo Island region and does not occur farther to the west off the Eyre Peninsula. Rather, the upwelled water is likely to remain in a Kangaroo Island "pool" until subsequent upwelling events draw the water to the shallower and surface coastal regions of the eastern Bight. In this manner the surface upwelling apparent off the Bonney Coast, Kangaroo Island, and the eastern Great Australian Bight (GAB) can appear to be simultaneous. Moreover, it appears likely that the water within the Kangaroo Island pool remains nutrient rich. Support for this model comes from CTD sections collected in 2004 that show that the upwelled signal (cool, <17°C fresher, <35.6 dense, σt > 26 kg m-3) diminishes in width and intensity with increasing distance from Kangaroo Island. The pattern of fluorescence is similar to that for temperature in the upwelled plume and indicates that the Kangaroo Island pool remains nutrient rich. Relatively low oxygen concentrations may indicate a previous bloom. The warmest water is found near the shelf break along with very low values of fluorescence and relatively higher levels of oxygen suggesting nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton. These data also support the notion that the upwelled nutrient-rich water is supplied from the Kangaroo Island pool and not by shelf break upwelling in the eastern GAB. Anomalously salty and fresh water is identified as resulting from evaporation in coastal bays and groundwater aquifer discharge.

  16. Remote Versus Local Forcing of Chlorophyll Variability in the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; McClain, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    This TM documents results of analyses addressing the local versus remote forcing of chlorophyll variability on the shelf and slope regions of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) based on satellite-derived products and a limited amount of in situ data. This study is part of a larger multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional effort to study the Eastern U.S. Continental Shelf carbon budget (U.S. Eastern Continental Shelf Carbon Budget: Modeling, Data Assimilation, and Analysis, U.S. ECoS), a project funded by the NASA Earth System Enterprise Interdisciplinary Science Program that started in the summer of 2004.

  17. Contaminant trends in the Southern California Bight: Inventory and assessment. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, A.J.; Matta, M.; Shigenaka, G.; MacDonald, D.; Buchman, M.

    1991-10-01

    The document is one of a series of regional reports summarizing existing information on contaminants measured by NOAA's National Status and Trends (NS and T) Program. It describes existing data for documenting the geographic distribution and long-term trends of 17 groups of contaminants in sediments, mussels, fish, and other species of the Southern California Bight. It also provides a guide to contaminant monitoring data sets covering samples collected over the past 50 years. Also reviewed were 10 trace elements, organotin compounds, PAHs, PCBs, and several pesticides.

  18. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, C.J. . Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  19. Middle Atlantic Bight cold pool: Evolution of the temperature structure during summer 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, R.W.; Schlitz, R.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.; Chamberlin, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Temperature data spanning the entire Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) during 1979 are used to study the structure and evolution of the cold pool. The Nantucket Shoals and New England Shelf appear to be the souce of the coldest water found in the MAB in late winter. During the spring and summer, water within the cold pool in the New York Bight north of Hudson Canyon remains colder than any shelf water either to the northeast or southwest. Thus the coldest cold-pool water persists there as a remnant of winter-cooled water rather than being replenished by a colder upstream source, and south of Hudson Canyon, cold-pool temperatures decrease in June and July as colder water from upstream is advected southwestward along the coast. Both temperature data and direct current measurements suggest that the mean alongshore current has a minimum between Nantucket Shoals and Hudson Canyon. The alongshore variation of shelf topography appears to be responsible for the spatial variation in both the alongshelf drift speed and the thermal structure of the cold pool.

  20. The recovery of benthos following the impact of low oxygen content in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niermann, U.; Bauerfeind, E.; Hickel, W.; Westernhagen, H. V.

    The oxygen deficiency in the German Bight and in Danish waters 1981-1983 with ensuing benthos mortality was the reason for studying the development and re-establishment of the macrofauna in the following years. These years, from 1984-1987, exhibited more favourable oxygen conditions. The macrofauna of this region with its predominantly sandy substrate belongs to the Tellina fabula community. It is dominated by regular seasonal and ephemeral species such as Spio filicornis, Phoronis spec., Spiophanes bombyx and Lanice conchilega. In 1983, a year with exceptionally low oxygen content in bottom waters (< 1 mg O 2 dm -3), the macrofauna showed, in some parts of the investigated area, as reduction of approx. 30-50% in species numbers. Concurrently, the individual numbers of the remaining species were reduced. Beginning in 1984, a rapid recovery of benthic communities was observed. By 1986, biomass as well as species- and individual numbers rose to values similar to those determined by other authors in earlier surveys of the German Bight. In particular, juvenile Echinocardium cordatum and crustaceans have been observed since 1984 in larger numbers.

  1. Wind-forced dispersion of blue crab larvae in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald R.

    Blue crab larvae are advected out of Middle Atlantic Bight estuaries immediately after spawning occurs in the estuary entrance. For the next 30 to 50 days the larvae are found offshore and mainly at the surface where they are influenced by wind-driven currents. Using a previously derived circulation model and winds from Norfolk (VA) airport, a backward trace is made from where relatively dense concentrations of megalopae were found in the Chesapeake Bight during 1983 to a point of origin (spawning). During 1983, the megalopae encountered on the shelf had their origin in Chesapeake Bay and took, at minimum, 31 to 36 days to grow to the megalopae stage. Wind forcing dominated the inner shelf region in the summer of 1983 and the resulting dispersion of Chesapeake Bay megalopae occurred briefly in the southern sector early in the season, but toward the northern sector over most of the season. Although no firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the mechanism for return, it did not seem likely that wind advection back to the point of origin would be effective.

  2. Remote sensing and spectral analysis of plumes from ocean dumping in the New York Bight Apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the remote sensing techniques of aerial photography and multispectral scanning in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plumes from ocean dumping of waste materials is investigated in the New York Bight Apex. Plumes resulting from the dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge were observed by Ocean Color Scanner at an altitude of 19.7 km and by Modular Multispectral Scanner and mapping camera at an altitude of 3.0 km. Results of the qualitative analysis of multispectral and photographic data for the mapping, location, and identification of pollution features without concurrent sea truth measurements are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of in-scene calibration. Quantitative distributions of the suspended solids in sewage sludge released in spot and line dumps are also determined by a multiple regression analysis of multispectral and sea truth data.

  3. A nested numerical tidal model of the southern New England bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, R. B.; Spaulding, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Efforts were focused on the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for predicting pollutant and sediment transport in estuarine and coastal environments. To successfully apply the pollutant and sediment transport model to Rhode Island coastal waters, it was determined that the flow field in this region had to be better described through the use of existing numerical circulation models. A nested, barotropic numerical tidal model was applied to the southern New England Bight (Long Island, Block Island, Rhode Island Sounds, Buzzards Bay, and the shelf south of Block Island). Forward time and centered spatial differences were employed with the bottom friction term evaluated at both time levels. Using existing tide records on the New England shelf, adequate information was available to specify the tide height boundary condition further out on the shelf. Preliminary results are within the accuracy of the National Ocean Survey tide table data.

  4. Summer/winter stratification variability in the central part of the South Brazil Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Belmiro M.

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of the hydrographic data collected during seven consecutive high resolution summer/winter cruises in the central part of the South Brazil Bight off the coastal city of Ubatuba confirmed an observable summer/winter stratification variability of the shelf waters. The maximum bulk stratification occurred at mean distances of 85.6 km and 39.1 km from the coast in the austral winter and summer cruises, respectively. Estimates of the equivalent mixing power of the physical processes that increase or decrease the stratification in the inner and middle shelves showed that both shelf regions would be vertically well mixed were it not for buoyancy advection. In the inner shelf, buoyancy advection was associated with the along-shelf transport of low salinity waters originating from river runoff. In the middle shelf, buoyancy advection was due to the oceanic South Atlantic Central Water intrusions toward the coast.

  5. A seafloor crater in the German Bight and its effects on the benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, S.; Gerdes, D.; Rachor, E.

    1999-08-01

    In 1963 a deep crater was formed about 65 m below sea level in the western part of the German Bight, due to a gas eruption caused by drilling carried out from the platform 'Mr. Louie'. The study area is situated in a sandy to muddy bottom area inhabited by an Amphiura filiformis association (sensu Salzwedel et al. 1985). The crater, sometimes called 'Figge-Maar', functions as a sediment trap, concentrating particles and organisms from the water column, thus leading to extreme sedimentation rates of about 50 cm, on average, per year. Crater stations, compared with stations situated in the vicinity, show enrichments of juveniles. Echinoderms, especially the subsurface-dwelling heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum and ophiuroids are responsive to enrichment. Other species that are typical of the Amphiura filiformis association are shown to be unable to cope with the special conditions in the crater.

  6. Large-scale forcing impact on biomass variability in the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; McClain, Charles R.

    2007-11-01

    The Gulf Stream western front (GSF) follows the shelf slope topography for a great extent of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Sub-surface intrusions of the Gulf Stream are known to provide nutrient-rich waters to the outer shelf regions of the SAB and, consequently, promote phytoplankton growth. These intrusions are much more frequent during summer and are responsible for a significant portion of the annual SAB shelf carbon production. Based on the analysis of satellite ocean color data, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and climatologic data sets, we present evidence for a connection between these Gulf Stream intrusions and the seasonal variability of the size and strength of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG). The intensity and frequency of intrusions depend on the proximity of the GSF to the shelf, which is modulated by the seasonal expansion and contraction of the NASG.

  7. Gulf stream meanders in the South Atlantic Bight 2: Momentum balances

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.L.; Lee, T.N.

    1995-04-15

    Gulf Stream meanders and their associated frontal eddies have been numerically simulated using a model tuned to the southern portion of the South Atlantic Bight. A run which produced events most similar to those observed in nature was identified, and the dynamics of a particular meander event were examined in detail. A complex array of momentum balances are obtained, and they vary with position within the feature. While the along-isobath flow is predominantly in geostrophic balance, several of the nonlinear advection terms in both horizontal momentum equations play important roles in the space-time development of the flow. In particular, the vertical advection of horizontal momentum as well as frictional dissipation are now recognized as important contributors to the dynamical balances in the vicinity of the steep continental slope. It would appear that the semigeostrophic equations constitute the simplest description of this system. 10 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Late Pleistocene bryozoan reef mounds of the Great Australian Bight: Isotope stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; James, Noel

    2002-08-01

    Cores from Sites 1129, 1131, and 1132 (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 182) on the uppermost slope at the edge of the continental shelf in the Great Australian Bight reveal the existence of upper Pleistocene bryozoan reef mounds, previously only detected on seismic lines. Benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope data for the last 450,000 years indicate that bryozoan reef mounds predominantly accumulated during periods of lower sea level and colder climate since stage 8 at Sites 1129 and 1132 and since stage 4 at the deeper Site 1131. During glacials and interstadials (stages 2-8) the combination of lowered sea level, increased upwelling, and absence of the Leeuwin Current probably led to an enhanced carbon flux at the seafloor that favored prolific bryozoan growth and mound formation at Site 1132. At Site 1129, higher temperatures and downwelling appear to have inhibited the full development of bryozoan mounds during stages 2-4. During that time, favorable hydrographic conditions for the growth of bryozoan mounds shifted downslope from Site 1129 to Site 1131. Superimposed on these glacial-interglacial fluctuations is a distinct long-term paleoceanographic change. Prior to stage 8, benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate low carbon flux to the seafloor, and bryozoan mounds, although present closer inshore, did not accumulate significantly at Sites 1129 and 1132, even during glacials. Our results show that the interplay of sea level change (eustatic and local, linked to platform progradation), glacial-interglacial carbon flux fluctuations (linked to local hydrographic variations), and possibly long-term climatic change strongly influenced the evolution of the Great Australian Bight carbonate margin during the late Pleistocene.

  9. Modelling the seasonal occurrence and distribution of humanpathogenic bacteria within the German Bight, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schakau, Vanessa; Lettmann, Karsten A.; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of human-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Vibrio in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea has come into the focus of many marine research activities, as different Vibrio strains caused harmful infections, especially in summers 2003, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Furthermore, it is anticipated that under global warming conditions, the risk of the occurrence of human-pathogenic in summer season will increase very likely. To present knowledge temperature and salinity are the most powerful predictors of the occurrence of Vibrio spp. in coastal waters. However, studies support the interaction of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. with different host and vector organisms like chitinous zooplankton or with predator organisms such as Vibrio-specific bacteriophages. A modeling system has been developed to understand and predict the occurrence and distribution of harmful Vibrio spp. within the North Sea with a special focus on the German Bight including the shallower Wadden Sea areas and the estuaries of Ems, Weser and Elbe. On the one hand, this modeling system is based on the unstructured-mesh hydrodynamic model FVCOM, which can predict the oceanic circulation and distributions of temperature and salinity within the German Bight for appropriate present and future climate conditions. On the other hand, a biological module has been attached, which can simulate the distribution and abundances of Vibrio spp.. In detail, apart from specific Vibrio strains, this biological module incorporates functional groups of phyto- and zooplankton and bacteriophages as potential host- and predator-organisms. In a first study, this modeling system has been applied to a hot summer season in 2006. It has been demonstrated that this system can reproduce the valid hydrodynamic conditions within the North Sea region of interest including temperature and salinity distribution patterns. In addition, reasonable temporal and spatial patterns of Vibrio abundances have been obtained.

  10. Acoustic bottom detection and seabed classification in the German Bight, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomä, Alexander

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the hydrodynamic activity of the seabed in the German Bight, underwater remote sensing was carried out over an area of 32 km2 located 20 km northeast of Helgoland island in the southern North Sea in January, May and August 2001. On the basis of acoustic seabed classification, six seabed types have been identified by the combined evaluation of side-scan sonar records, wave-shape analysis of echo-sounder data, and 100 grab samples. In five seabed types, the acoustic classes can be distinguished on the basis of sediment characteristics, comprising size components ranging from coarse pebbles to fine sand. The sixth seabed type corresponds to large pebbles and cobbles which are completely overgrown with brown algae. Statistically, the complex spatial patchiness of the six classes varied significantly in the course of the study period. During the winter period (January 2001), the study site was dominated by coarse material, except for a small area of finer sediment in the centre. With the onset of more moderate weather conditions in spring (May 2001), a general fining trend in sediment composition was observed, especially in the deeper western parts of the study area. In summer (August 2001), finer sediments still dominated but a slight increase in signal roughness suggests an overprint by coarser lag deposits and/or denser coverage by benthic organisms (e.g. Lanice conchilega) which then were found more frequently in grab samples, in association with finer sand. These findings demonstrate that the distribution of seafloor sediments and their benthic fauna in the deeper part of the German Bight region are controlled largely by seasonal changes in hydrodynamic conditions. These changes are reflected in correspondingly high variability in the complex patchiness of sediment distribution patterns, which would not have been adequately resolved by any standard sampling procedure.

  11. Gulf stream meanders in the South Atlantic Bight 1. Scaling and energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.L.; Lee, T.N.

    1995-04-15

    As the Gulf Stream flows along the outer edge of the southeastern United States` continental shelf, it meanders on and offshore, creating frontal eddies which influence the exchange of water between the shelf and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean on weekly timescales. The dynamics controlling the development of such features in this region, the {open_quotes}South Atlantic Bight{close_quotes} or SAB, is the subject of this pair of papers. In the present paper the authors provide the background on the subject, summarize the length, time, and velocity scales associated with these features, and discuss meander energetics as simulated by a numerical model. The scaling indicates that significant ageostgrophic dynamics may be crucial to the development of these flows and that the semigeostrophic equations may provide the simplest description of the system. These nonlinear dynamics may permit complex interactions among meander modes and with topography resulting in the observed behavior of the Gulf Stream in the SAB. The Princeton Ocean Model was tuned for conditions which prevail in the southern South Atlantic Bight, and idealized numerical simulations of Gulf Stream meanders and associated frontal eddies were performed. The system was found to be sensitive to both the amplitude and period of a small perturbation applied at the southern boundary. The energetics indicate that the development of these features is controlled by a mixture of both baroclinic and barotropic instabilities of the mean Gulf Stream flow. Tantalizing hints of a period-doubling phenomenon are present in the energy conversion time series. 47 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report, 1 June 1979-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, L P

    1980-02-29

    The papers included in this progress report summarize some significant developments in understanding the South Atlantic Bight. Some of the results are summarized as follows: Onslow Bay flushing rates can be determined using a model based on an exponential dilution model; eddy induced nitrate flux accounts for most input of new nitrogen into shelf waters; and tarballs in the Gulf Stream are not transported to the nearshore because of an apparent inner shelf density front.

  13. Isotopic composition of a large photosymbiotic foraminifer: Evidence for hypersaline environments across the Great Australian Bight during the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, John M.; Kyser, T. Kurt; James, Noel P.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of large benthic foraminifera tests ( Marginopora vertebralis) that lived in the Great Australian Bight during the late Pleistocene, reveal that the tests are enriched by 1 to 3‰ in both 18O and 13C relative to modern specimens from the same region. The intolerance of M. vertebralis for cool waters negates lower ocean water temperature as an explanation for such high δ 18O values. The oxygen isotopic compositions are thus interpreted to reflect tests secreted in hypersaline waters of up to 56 ppt salinity, concentrated from seawater by evaporation. M. vertebralis thrives today in waters of similar salinity at Shark Bay, Western Australia. The Pleistocene sedimentary assemblage supports an interpretation that environments broadly similar to those in outer modern-day Shark Bay were wide spread across the Great Australian Bight during portions of marine isotope stages 2, 3 and 4. The high δ 13C values of the Pleistocene M. vertebralis are interpreted to reflect enhanced photosynthetic activity that depletes dissolved carbonate in 12C in such shallow, saline settings. These hypersaline environments formed during periods of lower sea-level when shallow-waters (< 20 m depth) extended from the shoreline over ~ 100 km across what is currently a relatively deep shelf. This study indicates that shelf bathymetry was a critical determinant of past environments of deposition across the Great Australian Bight.

  14. Surface CO 2 measurements in the English Channel and Southern Bight of North Sea using voluntary observing ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padin, X. A.; Vázquez-Rodríquez, M.; Ríos, A. F.; Pérez, F. F.

    2007-06-01

    Ships of opportunity have been used to investigate ocean-atmosphere CO 2 fluxes in the English Channel and Southern Bight of the North Sea. Continuous underway measurements of the fugacity of seawater carbon dioxide ( fCO 2sw), chlorophyll, temperature and salinity have been performed along 26 transects during the spring and autumn periods. The spatial fCO 2sw distribution along the Channel and Southern Bight is modulated by the photosynthetic activity, temperature changes and water mixing between inputs from the North Atlantic Ocean and riverine discharges. The seasonal variability of fCO 2sw is assessed and discussed in terms of the biology and temperature effects, these having similar impacts. The variation of fCO 2sw shows similar interannual patterns, with lower values in spring. The annual average of air-sea CO 2 fluxes places the English Channel as neutral area of CO 2 uptake. The spring and autumn data allow differentiating between distal and proximal continental areas. The Southern Bight shows a tendency towards net CO 2 uptake on the distal continental shelf, whereas the Scheldt and Thames Plumes show a CO 2 source behaviour on the proximal continental shelves.

  15. Common trends in German Bight benthic macrofaunal communities: Assessing temporal variability and the relative importance of environmental variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodrati Shojaei, Mehdi; Gutow, Lars; Dannheim, Jennifer; Rachor, Eike; Schröder, Alexander; Brey, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We examined long-term variability in the abundance of German Bight soft bottom macro-zoobenthos together with major environmental factors (sea surface temperature, winter NAO index, salinity, phosphate, nitrate and silicate) using one of the most comprehensive ecological long-term data sets in the North Sea (1981-2011). Two techniques, Min/Max Autocorrelation Factor Analysis (MAFA) and Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA) were used to identify underlying common trends in the macrofaunal time series and the relationships between this series and environmental variables. These methods are particularly suitable for relatively short (> 15-25 years), non-stationary multivariate data series. Both MAFA and DFA identify a common trend in German Bight macrofaunal abundance i.e. a slight decrease (1981-mid-1990s) followed by a sharp trough in the late 1990s. Subsequently, scores increased again towards 2011. Our analysis indicates that winter temperature and North Atlantic Oscillation were the predominant environmental drivers of temporal variation in German Bight macrofaunal abundance. The techniques applied here are suitable tools to describe temporal fluctuations in complex and noisy multiple time series data and can detect distinct shifts and trends within such time series.

  16. Nutrient dynamics in the Sylt-Rømø Bight ecosystem, German Wadden Sea: An ecological network analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Dan; Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild

    2008-11-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus flow networks, consisting of 59 compartments, were constructed for the Sylt-Rømø Bight, a large shallow sea in the German Wadden Sea. These networks were analysed using ecological network analysis. Each network depicts the standing stock of each component in the ecosystem, and the flows between them. The trophic efficiency by which material is utilised in the Bight increase from 3%, to 6% to 17% for C, N and P, respectively. The number of cycles though which these elements pass increase from 1 197 for carbon, to 414 744 and 538 800 for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. The Finn Cycling Index, reflecting the amount of material recycled as a fraction of the total system activity, TST, increases from 17% for carbon, to 43% for nitrogen, to 81% for phosphorus. Other system level attributes such as the Average Path Length, the Average Internal Mutual Information, Relative Ascendancy, Relative and Normalized Redundancy, show an increase from the carbon to the nitrogen to the phosphorus networks. Phosphorus is tightly cycled over longer pathways than the other two elements, and also has the longest residence time in the Bight. Postulated differences between the behaviour of energy (or carbon) and biogeochemical networks in coastal ecosystems are evident from the results obtained from ecological network analysis.

  17. The telegraph office of the Pacific; Subpolar and tropical signals in the Southern California Bight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, I.; Kennett, J.; Pedersen, T.

    2003-04-01

    Detailed comparison between Greenland records and a Southern California Bight transect (ODP Sites 1017, 893A and 1014) provide critical insights into temporal responses of atmosphere, cryosphere and ocean during late Quaternary multi-decadal climate change. Planktonic foraminiferal isotopic and assemblage shifts at ODP hole 893A (Santa Barbara Basin) [34^o 17.25'N, 120^o 2.2'W; 576.5 m water depth] record the full sequence of brief interstadials (Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles) from 60 to 10 Ka. Surface dwelling Globigerina bulloides and thermocline dwelling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma δ18O values infer sea surface temperature (SST) warming of up to 5^oC within a few decades at interstadial initiations, a result supported by planktonic foraminiferal faunal SST reconstructions. At a lower resolution (400 years) similar evidence from ODP Site 1014 (Tanner Basin) [32^o50.046'N, 119^o58.879'W, 1177m] infer 4^oC increases in SST associated with the more prolonged D/O events. Isotopic shifts are accompanied by up to a 70% increase in the ratio of dextral to sinistral N. pachyderma. At a resolution of 150 years, results from ODP site 1017 (Santa Lucia slope) [34^o32.099'N, 121^o6.430'W, 955.5 m] display increases in the dextral to sinistral N. pachyderma ratio of 50 to 70% and ˜4^oC SST shifts inferred by isotopic results. SST differences between all three sites suggest a dramatic response to rapid climate change from north to south over the Southern Californian Bight suggesting relative changes in the contribution of surface water masses via the California Current System (CCS). Cool intervals were dominated by a cool subpolar California Current, while interstadials were marked by an increased influence of the subtropical California Countercurrent. As ocean-atmosphere interactions over the North Pacific determine the strength and location of surface currents, it follows some global climatic signals were atmospherically transmitted. As well ODP Hole 1017E located under a

  18. The Role of Intense Storms on Backbarrier Morphodynamics: Examples From the New York/New Jersey Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scileppi, E.; Donnelly, J. P.; Mahoney, M.

    2004-12-01

    Intense storms can significantly modify coastal landforms. Understanding the influence of these relatively rare, but potentially important, events on the evolution of coastal systems is important if we are to reliably forecast future changes. In the New York/New Jersey Bight the most intense storms are landfalling tropical cyclones that approach the region from the south. Since European settlement, four severe tropical cyclones, occurring in 1693, 1788, 1821, and 1893, have made landfall in the New York/New Jersey Bight. Each of these storms resulted in a rise in water level of over 2.5 meters above mean sea level (MSL) in New York City. Storm surges of this magnitude can overtop and breach barrier beaches creating inlets and depositing overwash deposits across the surface of backbarrier marshes. Severe winter storms, near miss, and minimal hurricanes impacting the region in the 20th century caused water levels to rise approximately 1.5-2 meters above MSL. Events of this magnitude likely caused erosion of the beach face, and limited overtopping and breaching restricted to areas with little or no dune development. Backbarrier sediments can preserve an archive of environmental changes. We collected a series of vibracores from four backbarrier marshes in the New York/New Jersey Bight. High-resolution grain-size and loss-on-ignition analyses were used to characterize the sediments and yield evidence of multiple storm-induced deposits. Heavy metal pollution horizons, pollen stratigraphic data, and C-14 ages were used to provide chronological control. In order to link the dynamics of the barriers with the sedimentary framework of the backbarrier estuary, we used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to map the subsurface character of the barrier sediments. Our results indicate that intense tropical cyclones are very important in shaping the barrier and backbarrier environments in the New York/New Jersey Bight. Backbarrier and barrier sediments reveal records of overwash

  19. A model of p, p'-DDE and total PCB bioaccumulation in birds from the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, David; Connolly, John P.

    2002-05-01

    Pathways of p, p'-DDE and PCB transfer to three species of birds were characterized as part of the Southern California Bight Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Based upon analysis of the results of extensive field studies conducted by other investigators to characterize the dietary composition, foraging behavior, and contaminant levels in the predators and in their prey, 70-80 percent of the contaminant dose received by the peregrine falcon and 90-95 percent of the dose to the bald eagle originated within the Bight. Dynamic, mechanistic, bioenergetics-based bioaccumulation models for p, p'-DDE and PCBs were developed for both species. Measured contaminant levels in predator eggs were found to be quantitatively consistent with measured levels in their prey, providing support for the estimates of dietary composition and foraging behavior, and therefore for the characterization of contaminant sources. Based on the model, most of the contaminant dose to the bald eagles on Santa Catalina Island is accumulated from sea lion carrion, and, based on a model of female sea lion bioaccumulation described in a companion publication, much of the dose to the sea lion originates in the more highly contaminated regions of the Bight which include the Palos Verdes Shelf and Santa Monica Bay. The importance of non-local contaminant sources to the eagle was surprising, since the eagles are non-migratory and forage locally on Santa Catalina, and consume 90 percent fish, most of which are nearshore species. A third model constructed for the double-crested cormorant indicated that cormorants from Anacapa Island are likely to feed to some degree in the more highly contaminated regions of the Bight near the Palos Verdes Shelf. In contrast, the cormorants from Santa Barbara Island probably feed less intensively in the more contaminated regions of the Bight than previously thought. The model framework developed here is generally applicable. It can aid in predicting the course of natural

  20. Development and validation of hydroacoustic monitoring concepts for the coastal German Bight (SE North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, Finn; Hass, H. Christian; Holler, Peter; Bartholomä, Alexander; Neumann, Andreas; Kröncke, Ingrid; Reimers, Hans-Christian; Capperucci, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    The joint research project WIMO (Wissenschaftliche Monitoringkonzepte für die Deutsche Bucht/Scientific Monitoring Concepts for the German Bight, NE North Sea) aims at providing methods for detection and analysis of seabed habitats using modern remote sensing techniques. Our subproject focuses on hydroacoustic techniques in order to gain information about seafloor environments and sediment dynamics. In a timeframe of four years, several key areas in the German Bight were repeatedly observed using different hydroacoustic gear (i. e. sidescan sonars, single/multibeam echo sounders and sub-bottom profilers). In order to ground-truth the acoustic data, hundreds of grab samples and underwater videos were taken. With these techniques it is possible to distinguish between different seafloor habitats, which range from muddy to sandy seafloors (esp. near the barrier islands) to rugged or vegetated/populated reefs around Helgoland. The conducted monitoring program revealed seasonal changes regarding the abundance of the sand mason worm (Lanice conchilega) and the brittle star (Amphiora filiformis) as well as ongoing sedimentary processes driven by tidal currents and wind/storms. It was also possible to determine relationships between sediment characteristics and benthos in some key areas. An essential part of our project included a comparison between the datasets obtained with different hydroacoustic devices, configurations, and evaluation methods in the same study areas. The investigation reveals that there could be distinct differences in interpreting the data and hence in the determination of prevailing seafloor habitats, especially in very heterogeneous areas and at transition zones between the habitats. Therefore, it is recommended to employ more than one hydroacoustic system (preferably a singlebeam device combined with a wide-swath sonar system) synchronously during a survey in order to gain more reliable and detailed information about the seafloor environments. The

  1. Impacts of stormwater runoff in the Southern California Bight: Relationships among plume constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reifel, K.M.; Johnson, S.C.; DiGiacomo, P.M.; Mengel, M.J.; Nezlin, N.P.; Warrick, J.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The effects from two winter rain storms on the coastal ocean of the Southern California Bight were examined as part of the Bight '03 program during February 2004 and February-March 2005. The impacts of stormwater from fecal indicator bacteria, water column toxicity, and nutrients were evaluated for five major river discharges: the Santa Clara River, Ballona Creek, the San Pedro Shelf (including the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana Rivers), the San Diego River, and the Tijuana River. Exceedances of bacterial standards were observed in most of the systems. However, the areas of impact were generally spatially limited, and contaminant concentrations decreased below California Ocean Plan standards typically within 2-3 days. The largest bacterial concentrations occurred in the Tijuana River system where exceedances of fecal indicator bacteria were noted well away from the river mouth. Maximum nitrate concentrations (~40 ??M) occurred in the San Pedro Shelf region near the mouth of the Los Angeles River. Based on the results of general linear models, individual sources of stormwater differ in both nutrient concentrations and the concentration and composition of fecal indicator bacteria. While nutrients appeared to decrease in plume waters due to simple mixing and dilution, the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria in plumes depends on more than loading and dilution rates. The relationships between contaminants (nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria) and plume indicators (salinity and total suspended solids) were not strong indicating the presence of other potentially important sources and/or sinks of both nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. California Ocean Plan standards were often exceeded in waters containing greater than 10% stormwater (<28-30 salinity range). The median concentration dropped below the standard in the 32-33 salinity range (1-4% stormwater) for total coliforms and Enterococcus spp. and in the 28-30 salinity range (10-16% stormwater

  2. Exploring German Bight coastal morphodynamics based on modelled bed shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kösters, Frank; Winter, Christian

    2014-02-01

    The prediction of large-scale coastal and estuarine morphodynamics requires a sound understanding of the relevant driving processes and forcing factors. Data- and process-based methods and models suffer from limitations when applied individually to investigate these systems and, therefore, a combined approach is needed. The morphodynamics of coastal environments can be assessed in terms of a mean bed elevation range (BER), which is the difference of the lowest to highest seabed elevation occurring within a defined time interval. In this study of the coastal sector of the German Bight, North Sea, the highly variable distribution of observed BER for the period 1984-2006 is correlated to local bed shear stresses based on hindcast simulations with a well-validated high-resolution (typically 1,000 m in coastal settings) process-based numerical model of the North Sea. A significant correlation of the 95th percentile of bed shear stress and BER was found, explaining between 49 % and 60 % of the observed variance of the BER under realistic forcing conditions. The model then was applied to differentiate the effects of three main hydrodynamic drivers, i.e. tides, wind-induced currents, and waves. Large-scale mapping of these model results quantify previous qualitative suggestions: tides act as main drivers of the East Frisian coast, whereas waves are more relevant for the morphodynamics of the German west coast. Tidal currents are the main driver of the very high morphological activity of the tidal channels of the Ems, Weser and Elbe estuaries, the Jade Bay, and tidal inlets between the islands. This also holds for the backbarrier tidal flats of the North Frisian Wadden Sea. The morphodynamics of the foreshore areas of the barrier island systems are mainly wave-driven; in the deeper areas tides, waves and wind-driven currents have a combined effect. The open tidal flats (outer Ems, Neuwerker Watt, Dithmarschen Bight) are affected by a combination of tides, wind

  3. Impacts of stormwater runoff in the Southern California Bight: Relationships among plume constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifel, Kristen M.; Johnson, Scott C.; DiGiacomo, Paul M.; Mengel, Michael J.; Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Jones, Burton H.

    2009-08-01

    The effects from two winter rain storms on the coastal ocean of the Southern California Bight were examined as part of the Bight '03 program during February 2004 and February-March 2005. The impacts of stormwater from fecal indicator bacteria, water column toxicity, and nutrients were evaluated for five major river discharges: the Santa Clara River, Ballona Creek, the San Pedro Shelf (including the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana Rivers), the San Diego River, and the Tijuana River. Exceedances of bacterial standards were observed in most of the systems. However, the areas of impact were generally spatially limited, and contaminant concentrations decreased below California Ocean Plan standards typically within 2-3 days. The largest bacterial concentrations occurred in the Tijuana River system where exceedances of fecal indicator bacteria were noted well away from the river mouth. Maximum nitrate concentrations (~40 μM) occurred in the San Pedro Shelf region near the mouth of the Los Angeles River. Based on the results of general linear models, individual sources of stormwater differ in both nutrient concentrations and the concentration and composition of fecal indicator bacteria. While nutrients appeared to decrease in plume waters due to simple mixing and dilution, the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria in plumes depends on more than loading and dilution rates. The relationships between contaminants (nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria) and plume indicators (salinity and total suspended solids) were not strong indicating the presence of other potentially important sources and/or sinks of both nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. California Ocean Plan standards were often exceeded in waters containing greater than 10% stormwater (<28-30 salinity range). The median concentration dropped below the standard in the 32-33 salinity range (1-4% stormwater) for total coliforms and Enterococcus spp. and in the 28-30 salinity range (10-16% stormwater

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns in oxygen and nutrient fluxes in sediment of German Bight (North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Andreas; Friedrich, Jana; van Beusekom, Justus; Naderipour, Céline

    2016-04-01

    The German Bight in the southern North Sea is affected by intensive anthropogenic exploitation. Over a century of intensive use by shipping, fishery, and input by polluted rivers has pushed the coastal ecosystem far from its pristine state. The nutrient load reached a maximum in the early 1990s (Amann et al. 2012), and implementation of environmental protection policies substantially decreased the riverine nutrient load. While the riverine input of pollutants has constantly reduced since then, new forms of sea exploitation emerge. The most noticeable example is the installation of more than 600 wind turbines over the past few years in the German EEZ, and additionally 1,200 are already planned. The impact of these installations on hydrology and biogeochemical cycles is largely unclear. In a series of monitoring cruises we repeatedly sampled the sediment at a set of monitoring stations, which represent all typical habitats of the German Bight. We deployed benthic landers for in-situ chamber incubations and performed ex-situ whole-core incubations to investigate the benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients, and their spatial and temporal variability. Our first results indicate that benthic nutrient recycling is more intense during summer than during winter, which suggests that biological processes contribute substantially to the recycling of nutrients. The fluxes of reactive nitrogen appear lower than observations from 1992 (Lohse et al. 1993), when riverine N loads were at their maximum (Amann et al. 2012). The comparison of our recent measurements with observations from the past decades will enable us to assess the effect of decreasing nutrient discharge into the coastal North Sea. Our results will further set a baseline for elucidating the impact of the massive installation of wind turbines in the near future. This study contributes to the NOAH project (North Sea; Observation and Assessment of Habitats). References Amann T., A. Weiss, and J. Hartmann (2012): Carbon

  5. Circulation in the Hudson Shelf Valley: MESA Physical Oceanographic Studies in New York Bight, 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Dennis A.; Han, Gregory C.; Hansen, Donald V.

    1982-11-01

    Over 900 days of current velocity data were obtained at mainly two locations in the inner and outer Hudson Shelf Valley (HSV). The large cross-axis depth gradients in the HSV, together with the strong winter cyclones and the baroclinic density distribution over the shelf, are primarily responsible for the major circulation features observed in the valley. CSTD data from 12 cruises and meteorological data from JFK International Airport and an environmental buoy were collected concurrently with the current meter data. Although the mean cross-shelf pressure gradient is generally seaward in the Middle Atlantic Bight, it is shoreward in the HSV below the level of the adjacent continental shelf (shelf horizon), thus imposing a bias toward upvalley flow. The average velocity below the surrounding shelf horizon in the HSV is upvalley or shoreward (west-northwestward ≈ 290° T) in the range of 2-5 cm/s. The circulation in the HSV is seasonal and individual events can drastically alter the mean picture. The several day average upvalley flow can sometimes approach 20 cm/s when intense winter cyclones pass over the bight and can sometimes also be directed downvalley depending upon the path of the winter cyclone. A topographically controlled barotropic flow commonly opposes the dominant (southeast-ward) wind direction even near the surface in the winter. In the context of circulation on the open shelf, upvalley (downvalley) flow events generated by winter cyclones are associated with reduced (enhanced) southwestward flow or flow reversals that are northeastward in the lower half of the water column at LTM, a typical mid/shelf site (Mayer et al., 1979). Current meter data suggest that whether or not reversals occur on the open shelf depends upon the interannual variability of the winter wind regime. Upvalley flow events are not confined only to the winter (unstratified) season but are stronger in the winter and can last for several days and longer. During the summer

  6. High Resolution Quaternary Seismic Stratigraphy of the New York Bight Continental Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, William C.; Denny, J.F.; Foster, D.S.; Lotto, L.L.; Allison, M.A.; Uchupi, E.; Swift, B.A.; Danforth, W.W.; Thieler, E.R.; Butman, Bradford

    2003-01-01

    A principal focus for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (marine.usgs.gov) is regional reconnaissance mapping of inner-continental shelf areas, with initial emphasis on heavily used areas of the sea floor near major population centers. The objectives are to develop a detailed regional synthesis of the sea-floor geology in order to provide information for a wide range of management decisions and to form a basis for further investigations of marine geological processes. In 1995, the USGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE), New York District, began to generate reconnaissance maps of the continental shelf seaward of the New York - New Jersey metropolitan area. This mapping encompassed the New York Bight inner-continental shelf, one of the most heavily trafficked and exploited coastal regions in the United States. Contiguous areas of the Hudson Shelf Valley, the largest physiographic feature on this segment of the continental shelf, also were mapped as part of a USGS study of contaminated sediments (Buchholtz ten Brink and others, 1994; 1996). The goal of the reconnaissance mapping was to provide a regional synthesis of the sea-floor geology in the New York Bight area, including: (a) a description of sea-floor morphology; (b) a map of sea-floor sedimentary lithotypes; (c) the geometry and structure of the Cretaceous strata and Quaternary deposits; and (d) the geologic history of the region. Pursuing the course of this mapping effort, we obtained sidescan-sonar images of 100 % of the sea floor in the study area. Initial interpretations of these sidescan data were presented by Schwab and others, (1997a, 1997b, 2000a). High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles collected along each sidescan-sonar line used multiple acoustic sources (e.g., watergun, CHIRP, Geopulse). Multibeam swath-bathymetry data also were obtained for a portion of the study area (Butman and others, 1998;). In this report, we present a series

  7. Determination of shell deposition rates of Arctica islandica from the New York Bight using natural /sup 228/Ra and /sup 228/Th and bomb-produced /sup 14/C

    SciTech Connect

    Turekian, K.K.; Cochran, J.K.; Nozaki, Y.; Thompson, I.; Jones, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Shell deposition rates of specimens of Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the New York Bight were determined using natural /sup 228/Ra and /sup 228/Th and bomb /sup 14/C. The specimens from deep (>55 m) offshore waters show annual growth banding. A shell obtained from the inner bight at <30-m depth seems to be younger than indicated by band counting.

  8. [Circulation and exchange processes on the South Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf]. [Progress summary for 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-31

    A continuation of the physical oceanography program to investigate circulation and exchange processes on the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) Continental Shelf is proposed. The transport and dispersal of materials entering the inner shelf zone with river discharge is not well understood at present. Climatological data, satellite imagery, and numerical modeling results indicate two removal routes for these nearshore waters: northeast transport and offshore exchange between Cape Fear and Savannah during the spring and summer when maximum run-off and northward winds prevail; and southward transport and offshore exchange near Cape Canaveral during the fall when southward winds prevail. We have conducted interdisciplinary experiments to investigate the transport processes in the inner to outer shelf between Savannah, Georgia and Cape Fear, North Carolina. In addition we propose to continue synthesis and interpretation of current measurements. The analyses will focus on determining the coupling mechanisms of inner shelf and outer shelf waters with special emphasis placed on resolving the modes and rates of shelf water removal.

  9. Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates.

    PubMed

    Gordon, H R; Clark, D K; Brown, J W; Brown, O B; Evans, R H; Broenkow, W W

    1983-01-01

    The processing algorithms used for relating the apparent color of the ocean observed with the Coastal-Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus-7 to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments (principally the pigment responsible for photosynthesis, chlorophyll a) are developed and discussed in detail. These algorithms are applied to the shelf and slope waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight and also to Sargasso Sea waters. In all, four images are examined, and the resulting pigment concentrations are compared to continuous measurements made along ship tracks. The results suggest that over the 0.08-1.5-mg/m3 range the error in the retrieved pigment concentration is of the order of 30-40% for a variety of atmospheric turbidities. In three direct comparisons between ship-measured and satellite-retrieved values of the water-leaving radiance the atmospheric correction algorithm retrieved the water-leaving radiance with an average error of approximately 10%. This atmospheric correction algorithm does not require any surface measurements for its application. PMID:18195744

  10. Bacterial communities associated with four ctenophore genera from the German Bight (North Sea).

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenjin; Gerdts, Gunnar; Peplies, Jörg; Wichels, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Intense research has been conducted on jellyfish and ctenophores in recent years. They are increasingly recognized as key elements in the marine ecosystem that serve as critical indicators and drivers of ecosystem performance and change. However, the bacterial community associated with ctenophores is still poorly investigated. Based on automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, we investigated bacterial communities associated with the frequently occurring ctenophore species Mnemiopsis leidyi, Beroe sp., Bolinopsis infundibulum and Pleurobrachia pileus at Helgoland Roads in the German Bight (North Sea). We observed significant differences between the associated bacterial communities of the different ctenophore species based on ARISA patterns. With respect to bacterial taxa, all ctenophore species were dominated by Proteobacteria as revealed by pyrosequencing. Mnemiopsis leidyi and P. pileus mainly harboured Gammaproteobacteria, with Marinomonas as the dominant phylotype of M. leidyi. By contrast, Pseudoalteromonas and Psychrobacter were the most abundant Gammaproteobacteria in P. pileus. Beroe sp. was mainly dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, particularly by the genus Thalassospira. For B. infundibulum, the bacterial community was composed of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in equal parts, which consisted of the genera Thalassospira and Marinomonas. In addition, the bacterial communities associated with M. leidyi display a clear variation over time that needs further investigation. Our results indicate that the bacterial communities associated with ctenophores are highly species- specific. PMID:25764531

  11. Seasonal patterns of surface wind stress and heat flux over the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winant, Clinton D.; Dorman, Clive E.

    1997-03-01

    Patterns of wind stress and heat flux between the atmosphere and the ocean over the Southern California Bight are described based on observations from buoys and ships. During the winter, the wind stress is spatially homogeneous and temporally variable, with strong events corresponding to low-pressure systems sweeping through the area. During the summer, spatial patterns are more persistent, with large gradients. Inshore of a line running approximately between Point Conception and Ensenada, Mexico, winds are weak. Offshore wind speeds are comparable in magnitude to those found over the continental shelf north of Point Conception. The boundary is the location of maximum wind stress curl, and the spatial resolution afforded by California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI) observations suggests maximum wind stress curls over 3 times larger than the values proposed by Nelson [1977]. Net heat flux estimates derived from the CalCOFI measurements are somewhat larger than the values proposed by Nelson and Husby [1983], due to differences in latent heat flux estimates. Possible mechanisms responsible for the spring-summer spatial structure in the wind and the relationship between these gradients and the properties of the underlying ocean are discussed.

  12. Food and feeding ecology of purple sandpipers Calidris maritima on rocky intertidal habitats (Helgoland, German Bight)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierschke, Volker

    On the island of Helgoland (German Bight) Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima feed mainly in the intertidal of piers and rocky shores. The main prey species are Littorina saxatilis and Mytilus edulis, complemented by crustaceans, polychaetes, other molluscs and green algae. Beach habitats are used as alternative feeding sites during storms. Feeding sites seem to be selected according to rates of assimilated energy intake. The most profitable habitat (wrack beds on the high-tide line with kelp-fly larvae, 16.8 W) is used after arrival in October but is not available during winter. Because of high intake rates in rocky habitats (13.1 W on piers, 5.5 W on mussel beds), which allow short daily feeding times, and available alternative feeding sites during storms, Purple Sandpipers do not need to carry fat reserves in winter like other waders wintering in central and Western Europe. This, and the ever accessible food supply of epibenthic macrofauna on rocky shores, may enable Purple Sandpipers to winter further north than other wader species.

  13. The role of density gradients on tidal asymmetries in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Al-Nadhairi, Rahma; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of the German Bight associated with river plumes and fresh water intrusions from tidal flats have been studied with numerical simulations. The horizontal and vertical patterns of the M2, M4 and M6 tides revealed complex distortions along the bathymetric channels connecting the coast and the open sea. A major focus was on the surface-to-bottom change in tidal asymmetries, which provides a major control on draining the tidal flats around the Elbe and Weser River mouths. Comparisons between baroclinic and barotropic experiments demonstrated that the estuarine gravitational circulation is responsible for pronounced differences in surface and bottom asymmetries. These differences could be considered as a basic control mechanism for sediment dynamics. The most prominent area of tidal distortions, manifested by a delay of the tidal wave, was located between the estuarine turbidity maximum and the estuarine mouth north of Cuxhaven. This area was characterized by the strongest periodic convergence and divergence of the flow and by the largest salinity gradients. The enhancement of the gravitational circulation occurred during the transition between spring and neap tides. The large-scale dynamics and small-scale topographic features could impact the sediment distribution as there was a marked interplay in the channels between stratification and turbulence. Also an explanation has been given for the mechanisms supporting the existence of a mud area ( Schlickgebiet) south of Helgoland Island, associated with trapping suspended particular matter.

  14. Parasite transfer from crustacean to fish hosts in the Lübeck Bight, SW Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Groenewold, S.; Strohbach, U.

    1994-03-01

    Four helminth parasites out of 19 species found in the Lübeck Bight, Baltic Sea, were chosen for investigations on the transfer from invertebrate to small-sized fish hosts: larvae of the tapeworms Schistocephalus sp. and Bothriocephalus sp. (Cestoda) living in planktonic copepods as primary hosts; Podocotyle atomon (Digenea) and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda) were found in benthic crustaceans, especially Gammarus spp. These hosts were the prey of 3 gobiid fishes, Gobiusculus flavescens (feeding mainly on plankton), Pomatoschistus minutus (preferring benthos), and P. pictus (feeding more on plankton than benthos). Because the fishes selected smaller sizes of crustaceans, they ingested all stages of the copepods but only the smaller-sized groups of gammarids which were often less infested by parasites. In order to evaluate the probability for a fish to be parasitized by a helminth, an infestation potential index (IP) was calculated. Podocotyle atomon and Hysterothylacium sp. revealed an IP which was far lower in gobies than expected when the prevalences of the previous hosts were taken into consideration. The IP of tapeworm larvae was mainly influenced by the feeding pressure of the gobiid predators, which might change with developmental stage and season. It is concluded that parasite transfer to the next host decreases when sizes of prey and predator differ only moderately. This mechanism can reduce the numbers of parasites transferred to less suitable or wrong hosts.

  15. The life history and sexual biology of Pseudunciola obliquua (crustacea: amphipoda) in the New York Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. A.; Woodhead, P. M. J.

    1984-06-01

    Pseudunciola obliquua is the most abundant subtidal amphipod of the near-shore macrobenthos in the New York Bight south of Fire Island. It has an annual life-cycle. Breeding occurs in March and April, and a single brood of between 8 and 20 eggs per female is produced. Fecundity is linearly proportional to maternal length. The eggs take about two months to develop; the juveniles emerge in June and July. Initial recruitment in the study area was estimated to be 2980 and 5850 per m 2 for the 1979-1980 and 1980-1981 year classes, respectively. Of the initial recruits only about 10% survive to form the reproductive stock of the following spring. Females and males grow at similar rates and are equally abundant as juveniles and initially as adults, until they reach sexual maturity. After breeding, the abundance of males decreases rapidly due to post-reproductive death. Females continue to live, carrying the developing eggs in their brood pouches. Mean female growth increases throughout the brooding period until the young are released, shortly after which adult females also die. The entire generation of reproductive adults has died by September.

  16. Temperature, salinity, and density variability in the central Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelao, Renato; Glenn, Scott; Schofield, Oscar

    2010-10-01

    Four years of sustained glider observations are used to compute the seasonal cycle of hydrographic fields in the central Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). Results reveal a large phase lag in near bottom temperatures, with peak values occurring in September at the inner shelf, in October at the mid shelf, and in November at the outer shelf. Unlike the northern MAB, the seasonal cycle explains over 70% of the near-surface salinity variability. At the inner shelf and offshore near the bottom, however, most of the variance is due to pulses in river discharge and to shifts in the position of the shelfbreak front. Cross-shelf density gradients inshore of the 60-m isobath are dominated by salinity during winter and spring, with temperature contributing significantly from August to October. This is because bottom waters near the coast are warm due to the deepening of the thermocline during fall, but offshore waters are still influenced by the cold pool. The vertical stratification seasonal variability is also large. Early in the year, stratification is small and entirely due to salinity. By May, salinity still dominates vertical gradients near the coast, but temperature and salinity contribute equally to the density stratification offshore. During summer, stratification is dominated by temperature. Temperature interannual variability was small during the sampling period, but surface salinity was anomalously low by 1.2 psu in summer 2006. The anomaly was due to larger than average discharge from the Hudson River in early summer during a period of strong upwelling favorable winds.

  17. Optimum macrobenthic sampling protocol for detecting pollution impacts in the southern California bight

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraro, S.P.; Swartz, R.C.; Cole, F.A.; Deben, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    The optimum macrobenthic sampling protocol (sampling unit, sieve mesh size, and sample size) was determined for detecting ecologically important pollution impacts in the Southern California Bight, U.S.A. Cost, in Laboratory processing time, was determined for samples obtained using fourteen sampling units (0.005 - 0.1 sq m surface area) and two sieve mesh sizes (1.0 and 0.5 mm). Five replicate, 0.02 sq m x 5 cm deep, 1.0 mm mesh samples per station could reliably distinguish reference from impacted conditions on nine or ten measures of community structure at less than one quarter of the cost of the standard sampling protocol of 5 replicate, 0.1 sq m, 1.0 mm mesh samples per station. About 5 replicate, small (< 0.1 sq m), 1.0 mm mesh samples per station may often be optimal for detecting important structural changes in macrobenthic communities with naturally high species richness and abundance. (Copyright (c) 1994 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  18. Passive microwave detection of river-plume fronts in the German Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H.-J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA P-3 aircraft with the L- and S-band radiometer system on board participated in the MARSEN experiments carried out between August 30 and September 23, 1979. Measurements of surface temperature and salinity were concentrated on freshwater outflows of the Rivers Weser and Elbe in the German Bight. Three missions were carried out, on September 19, 22, and 23. The values of salinity are plotted as a function of geographic position, and contour maps of the salinity distribution are generated from the value plots. It is noted that on September 22, during a noon flood-tide, two river-plume salinity fronts were detected when a body of water with higher salinity existed in front of the Weser delta near Bremerhaven generating with the river outflow of lower saline waters a front of delta-S equals 5 per thousand. Another pocket of lower saline waters was found in front of the Elbe delta at Cuxhaven, which in turn set up a strong front of delta-S equals 6 per thousand. The morning low tide of September 23 did not exhibit this extreme condition.

  19. Satellite detection of phytoplankton export from the mid-Atlantic Bight during the 1979 spring bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Dieterle, D. A.; Esaias, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery confirms shipboard and in situ moored fluorometer observations of resuspension of near-bottom chlorophyll within surface waters (1 to 10 m) by northwesterly wind events in the mid-Atlantic Bight. As much as 8 to 16 micrograms chl/l are found during these wind events from March to May, with a seasonal increase of algal biomass until onset of stratification of the water column. Rapid sinking or downwelling apparently occurs after subsequent wind events, however, such that the predominant surface chlorophyll pattern is approx. 0.5 to 1.5 micrograms/l over the continental shelf during most of the spring bloom. Perhaps half of the chlorophyll increase observed by satellite during a wind resuspension event represents in-situ production during the 4 to 5 day interval, with the remainder attributed to accumulation of algal biomass previously produced and temporarily stored within near-bottom water. Present calculations suggest that about 10% of the primary production of the spring bloom may be exported as ungrazed phytoplankton carbon from mid-Atlantic shelf waters to those of the continental slope.

  20. Newly Digitized Historical Climate Data of the German Bight and the Southern Baltic Sea Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrbein, Dörte; Tinz, Birger; von Storch, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The detection of historical climate information plays an important role with regard to the discussion on climate change, particularly on storminess. The German Meteorological Service houses huge archives of historical handwritten journals of weather observations. A considerable number of original observation sheets from stations along the coast of the German Bight and the southern Baltic Sea exists which has been until recently almost unnoticed. These stations are called signal stations and are positioned close to the shore. However, for this region meteorological observation data of 128 stations exist from 1877 to 1999 and are partly digitized. In this study we show an analysis of firstly newly digitized wind and surface air pressure data of 15 stations from 1877 to 1939 and we also present a case study of the storm surge at the coast of the southern Baltic Sea in December 1913. The data are quality controlled by formal, climatological, temporal and consistency checks. It is shown that these historical climate data are usable in consistency and quality for further investigations on climate change, e.g. as input for regional and global reanalysis.

  1. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the North Pacific Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Matthew T.; Mannino, Antonio; Kirchman, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophs was examined in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the central North Pacific Gyre using infrared fluorescence microscopy coupled with image analysis and flow cytometry. AAP bacteria comprised 5% to 16% of total prokaryotes in the Atlantic Ocean but only 5% or less in the Pacific Ocean. In the Atlantic, AAP bacterial abundance was as much as 2-fold higher than that of Prochlorococcus spp. and 10-fold higher than that of Synechococcus spp. In contrast, Prochlorococcus spp. outnumbered AAP bacteria 5- to 50-fold in the Pacific. In both oceans, subsurface abundance maxima occurred within the photic zone, and AAP bacteria were least abundant below the 1% light depth. The abundance of AAP bacteria rivaled some groups of strictly heterotrophic bacteria and was often higher than the abundance of known AAP bacterial genera (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter spp.). Concentrations of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) were low (∼1%) compared to those of chlorophyll a in the North Atlantic. Although the BChl a content of AAP bacteria per cell was typically 20- to 250-fold lower than the divinyl-chlorophyll a content of Prochlorococcus, the pigment content of AAP bacteria approached that of Prochlorococcus in shelf break water. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria can be quite abundant in some oceanic regimes and that their distribution in the water column is consistent with phototrophy. PMID:16391092

  2. Identification of polyamine-responsive bacterioplankton taxa in South Atlantic Bight.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxin; Sun, Shulei; Hollibaugh, James T; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2015-12-01

    Putrescine and spermidine are short-chained aliphatic polyamines (PAs) that are ubiquitously distributed in seawater. These compounds may be important sources of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen for marine bacterioplankton. Here, we used pyrotag sequencing to quantify the response of bacterioplankton to putrescine and spermidine amendments in microcosms established using surface waters collected at various stations in the South Atlantic Bight in October 2011. Our analysis showed that PA-responsive bacterioplankton consisted of bacterial taxa that are typically dominant in marine systems. Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria) was the taxon most responsive to PA additions at the nearshore site. Gammaproteobacteria of the families Piscirickettsiaceae; Vibrionaceae; and Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, were the dominant PA-responsive taxa in samples from the river-influenced coastal station, offshore station and open ocean station, respectively. The spatial variability of PA-responsive taxa may be attributed to differences in composition of the initial bacterial community and variations of in situ physiochemical conditions among sites. Our results also provided the first empirical evidence that Gammaproteobacteria might play an important role in PA transformation in marine systems. PMID:26109269

  3. Lead and cadmium accumulation in eggs and fledgling seabirds in the New York Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J. ); Gochfeld, M. )

    1993-02-01

    The authors measured lead and cadmium concentrations in eggs and in the breast feathers of fledglings of common tern (Sterna hirundo), roseate tern (S. dougallii), Forster's tern (S. forsteri), black skimmer (Rynchops niger), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) nesting in mixed-species colonies in the New York Bight in 1989. Metal concentrations in fledgling feathers represent in part metals sequestered in the egg by females and accumulation from food brought back to chicks by parents, and thus may be a measure of local metal acquisition. There were significant interspecific differences in lead in eggs, and lead and cadmium in fledgling feathers. Herring gulls had the most lead in eggs, whereas the terns had the least. Cadmium concentrations were generally low in all examined eggs. Lead concentrations were high in fledgling feathers in some populations of all species. Cadmium was highest in fledgling terns, the roseate tern had the highest concentrations. For all species except herring gull, the feathers of fledglings had higher levels of metals than did eggs.

  4. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the North Pacific Gyre. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottrell, Matthew T.; Mannino, Antonio; Kirchman, David L.

    2005-01-01

    The abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AM) bacteria, cyanobacteria and heterotrophs was examined in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the central North Pacific gyre using infrared fluorescence microscopy coupled with image analysis and flow cytometry. AAP bacteria comprised 5% to 16% of total prokaryotes in the Atlantic but only 5% or less in the Pacific. In the Atlantic, AAP bacterial abundance was as much as 2-fold higher than Prochlorococcus and 10-folder higher than Synechococcus. In contrast, Prochlorococcus outnumbered AAP bacteria 5- to 50-fold in the Pacific. In both oceans, subsurface abundance maxima occurred within the photic zone, and AAP bacteria were least abundant below the 1% light depth. Concentrations of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) were low (approx.1%) compared to chlorophyll a. Although the BChl a content of AAP bacteria per cell was typically 20- to 250-fold lower than the divinyl-chlorophyll a content of Prochlorococcus, in shelf break water the pigment content of AAP bacteria approached that of Prochlorococcus. The abundance of AAP bacteria rivaled some groups of strictly heterotrophic bacteria and was often higher than the abundance of known AAP genera (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter spp.). The distribution of AAP bacteria in the water column, which was similar in the Atlantic and the Pacific, was consistent with phototrophy.

  5. Invertebrate communities associated with hard bottom habitats in the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, E. L.; Knott, D. M.; Van Dolah, R. F.; Burrell, V. G.

    1983-08-01

    Epibenthic invertebrates associated with nine hard bottom areas in the South Atlantic Bight between South Carolina and northern Florida were collected with dredge, trawl, suction and grab samplers to evaluate species composition, biomass, abundance, diversity, spatial distributions, and seasonality (winter and summer). Species composition changed noticeably with depth and season. Inner and outer shelf stations were least similar in species composition. Middle shelf areas were transitional and contained taxa characteristic of both inner and outer sites. Bryozoa (88 taxa), Cnidaria (85 taxa), Porifera (67 taxa), Annelida (261 taxa) and Mollusca (203 taxa) represented the richest taxonomic groups of the 1175 taxa collected. Both diversity (1175 total taxa) and biomass (1995 kg total) of invertebrates from hard bottom areas exceeded those reported in the literature for sand bottom communities. Sponges accounted for >60% of the total invertebrate biomass collected by dredge and trawl during both seasons. High diversity values were attributed primarily to habitat complexity and did not exhibit any discernible pattern with depth or latitude.

  6. Numerical modelling of sea surface temperature and circulation in the Great Australian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, Michael; Tomczak, Matthias

    The Blumberg-Mellor 3D numerical ocean model was employed to investigate the seasonal cycle of sea surface temperature (SST) and circulation within the Great Australian Bight (GAB). An idealised representation of the GAB was modelled. Results indicated that a warm water mass could be established within the GAB, with features comparable to observation, due to the application of a positive net heat flux at the surface and forcing from the west to east passage of anticyclonic weather systems. These systems had a north-south migration representative of the shifting subtropical high pressure ridge over southern Australia. An anticyclonic gyre was established within the GAB as a result of the imposed wind stress, which contributed towards the formation of a warm tongue spreading across the GAB from west to east and a pool of significantly colder water in the eastern GAB. The SST distribution was found to be sensitive to the bottom topography and north-south gradient of heat flux applied to the model domain. Intrusion of an external current through the western boundary in winter, representing the Leeuwin Current, revealed that warm water associated with the intrusion did not penetrate into the GAB to any great distance.

  7. Seafloor habitat mapping of the New York Bight incorporating sidescan sonar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lathrop, R.G.; Cole, M.; Senyk, N.; Butman, B.

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of using sidescan sonar imagery, image classification algorithms and geographic information system (GIS) techniques to characterize the seafloor bottom of the New York Bight were assessed. The resulting seafloor bottom type map was compared with fish trawl survey data to determine whether there were any discernable habitat associations. An unsupervised classification with 20 spectral classes was produced using the sidescan sonar imagery, bathymetry and secondarily derived spatial heterogeneity to characterize homogenous regions within the study area. The spectral classes, geologic interpretations of the study region, bathymetry and a bottom landform index were used to produce a seafloor bottom type map of 9 different bottom types. Examination of sediment sample data by bottom type indicated that each bottom type class had a distinct composition of sediments. Analysis of adult summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and adult silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis, presence/absence data from trawl surveys did not show evidence of strong associations between the species distributions and seafloor bottom type. However, the absence of strong habitat associations may be more attributable to the coarse scale and geographic uncertainty of the trawl sampling data than conclusive evidence that no habitat associations exist for these two species. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicity of sediments and interstitial waters form the Southern California Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, S.; Greenstein, D.; Brown, J.; Jirik, A.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of 72 sediment samples collected during the EMAP Southern California Bight Pilot Project (SCBPP) was measured. Sediments from the mainland shelf between Point Conception and the Mexican border were collected from various depths and tested for toxicity using two methods. The toxicity of bulk sediment was measured using a 10-day amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) survival test. Interstitial water was also extracted from the samples and tested for toxicity using a 72-hour sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryo development test. Amphipod survival was high (> 80%) at all stations tested, although several sites near large sewage outfalls had statistically significant reductions in survival. No interference related to grain size variation was observed with the amphipod test. Most of the interstitial water samples produced abnormal sea urchin embryo development. Effects were not related to the presumed level of sediment contamination, but rather to ammonia concentration in virtually all cases. The impacts of sample handling procedures and ammonia on sediment toxicity data interpretation will be discussed.

  9. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Phytoplankton response. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, P.G.; Yoder, J.A.

    1992-03-10

    This study addressed shelf-wide processes and nearshore (coastal boundary zone) processes occurring in the southeastern. Coastal boundary zone (CBZ) US continental shelf dynamics involve studies of circulation and of biological and chemical transformations. Continental shelf processes affect the removal of material from the coastal boundary zone into areas where the material no longer interacts with or influences concentrations in the CBZ. The two arbitrarily separate components are, in fact, unified. The CBZ typically extends about 300 km along-shore and about 20 km offshore from its center off Savannah, Georgia, where most runoff occurs. The rates of biological and chemical transformations are controlled by proximity to the bottom and the amounts of fine suspended organic matter originating from rivers and salt marshes. Once material is removed from this zone, either by a long-shelf or cross-shelf advection to regions where the materials are no longer in contact with the bottom, the suite of factors governing the rates of chemical and biological transformations changes. The determination of contrasting rates in these two environments was one of the central focuses of the South Atlantic Bight program.

  10. Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchie, Sam; Cowen, Robert; Nieto, Karen; Greer, Adam; Luo, Jessica Y.; Guigand, Cedric; Demer, David; Griffith, David; Rudnick, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    We sampled a front detected by SST gradient, ocean color imagery, and a Spray glider south of San Nicolas Island in the Southern California Bight between 14 and 18 October 2010. We sampled the front with an unusually extensive array of instrumentation, including the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES), the undulating In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) (fitted with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence sensors), multifrequency acoustics, a surface pelagic trawl, a bongo net, and a neuston net. We found higher fluorescence and greater cladoceran, decapod, and euphausiid densities in the front, indicating increased primary and secondary production. Mesopelagic fish were most abundant in oceanic waters to the west of the front, market squid were abundant in the front associated with higher krill and decapod densities, and jack mackerel were most common in the front and on the shoreward side of the front. Egg densities peaked to either side of the front, consistent with both offshore (for oceanic squid and mesopelagic fish) and shelf origins (for white croaker and California halibut). We discovered unusually high concentrations of predatory narcomedusae in the surface layer of the frontal zone. Potential ichthyoplankton predators were more abundant either in the front (decapods, euphausiids, and squid) or shoreward of the front (medusae, chaetognaths, and jack mackerel). For pelagic fish like sardine, which can thrive in less productive waters, the safest place to spawn would be offshore because there are fewer potential predators.

  11. A simulation analysis of the fate of phytoplankton within the mid-Atlantic bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Dieterle, D. A.; Meyers, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    A time-dependent, three-dimensional simulation model of wind-induced changes of the circulation field, of light and nutrient regulation of photosynthesis, of vertical mixing as well as algal sinking, and of herbivore grazing stress, is used to analyze the seasonal production, consumption, and transport of the spring bloom within the mid-Atlantic Bight. The particular case (c) of a 58-day period in February-April 1979, simulated primary production, based on both nitrate and recycled nitrogen, with a mean of 0.62 g C sq m/day over the whole model domain, and an export at the shelf-break off Long Island of 2.60 g ch1 sq m/day within the lower third of the water column. About 57% of the carbon fixation was removed by herbivores, with 21% lost as export, either downshelf or offshore to slope waters, after the first 58 days of the spring bloom. Extension of the model for another 22 days of case (c) increased the mean export to 27%, while variation of the model's parameters in 8 other cases led to a range in export from 8% to 38% of the average primary production. Spatial and temporal variations of the simulated albal biomass, left behind in the shelf water column, reproduced chlorophyll fields sensed by satellite, shipboard, and in situ instruments.

  12. Quantifying connectivity in the coastal ocean with application to the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, S.; Siegel, D. A.; Watson, J. R.; Dong, C.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    The quantification of coastal connectivity is important for a wide range of real-world applications ranging from assessment of pollutant risk to nearshore fisheries management. For these purposes, coastal connectivity can be defined as the probability that water parcels from one location have advected to another site over a given time interval. Here we demonstrate how to quantify connectivity using Lagrangian probability-density functions (PDFs) based on numerical solutions of the coastal circulation of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Ensemble mean dispersal patterns from a single release site show strong dependencies on particle-release location, season, and year, reflecting annual and interannual circulation patterns in the SCB. Mean connectivity patterns are heterogeneous for the advection time of 30 days or less, due to local circulation patterns, and they become more homogeneous for longer advection times. However, connectivity patterns for a single realization are highly variable because of intrinsic eddy-driven transport and synoptic wind-forcing variability. In the long term, mainland sites are good sources while both Northern and Southern Channel Islands are poor sources, although they receive substantial fluxes of water parcels from the mainland. The predicted connectivity gives useful information to ecological and other applications for the SCB (e.g., designing marine protected areas and predicting the impact of a pollution event) and demonstrates how high-resolution numerical solutions of coastal ocean circulations can be used to quantify nearshore connectivity.

  13. Studies of a wind mechanism influencing the recruitment of blue crabs in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald R.; Hester, Betty S.; McConaugha, John R.

    This report forms part of an on-going effort to understand the large yearly variations in blue crab harvest of Chesapeake Bay. Recent sampling programs have indicated that the larvae are transported out of the bay immediately after being spawned, and spend their first month offshore at the sea surface. Although it is well established that a mid and outer shelf southward flow occurs during all seasons in the Middle Atlantic Bight, very little is known of the nearshore currents. This study constitutes an effort to determine if the characteristically light, but northward, wind stress during the critical summer months is sufficient to drive northward counter flow at the surface and, hence, to reduce the chances that the larvae are being advected south and lost from the area of Chesapeake Bay. We investigate a local model of wind-driven currents on the continental shelf with vertical decoupling at the pycnocline. Additional driving forces include an alongshore sea surface slope and horizontal pressure gradients. With characteristic forcing values, it is found that the wind stress is indeed sufficient to drive a light northward flow within 25 to 50 km of the shoreline. We expect, then, that blue crab larval recruitment back to Chesapeake Bay may be partially dependent on summer wind stress. A comparison between a wind index time series and harvest several years later is strongly suggestive of such a dependency.

  14. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, L P

    1980-02-29

    Progress is reported on research conducted from June, 1979 to May, 1980 on various oceanographic aspects of the South Atlantic Bight. Research topics included: (1) A flashing model of Onslow Bay, North Carolina based on intrusion volumes; (2) A description of a bottom intrusion in Onslow Bay, North Carolina; (3) Detailed observations of a Gulf Stream spin-off eddy on the Georgia continental shelf; (4) Pelagic tar of Georgia and Florida; (5) A surface diaton bloom in response to eddy-forced upwelling; and (6) Hydrographic observations off Savannah and Brunswick, Georgia.

  15. Analysis of the upscaling problem - A case study for the barotropic dynamics in the North Sea and the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.; Stanev, E. V.

    2016-04-01

    The upscaling problem is investigated using the barotropic dynamics of the North Sea and the German Bight as an example. The impact of small scale perturbations of bathymetry, bottom roughness, wind forcing, and boundary forcing is quantified using a two-dimensional linear barotropic model for the entire North Sea with 5 km resolution. The model is solved in the spectral domain for the dominant M2 tide. Comparisons with results from a fully nonlinear 3D circulation model show that the main circulation features are well captured by the spectral model. The impact of different types of perturbations is estimated by inversion of the model using the perturbation covariance matrix as input. Case studies with white noise and fully correlated noise are presented. It is shown that the German Bight area stands out in its sensitivity with respect to small scale uncertainties of bathymetry. Small scale changes of bottom roughness have a particularly strong effect in the English Channel. Small scale wind perturbations have a significant local effect only in very shallow near coastal areas. It is shown that uncorrelated noise introduced along an open boundary around the German Bight only has a very local effect. Perturbations with long correlation length are shown to lead to significant far field effects along the east coast of England. It is demonstrated that this effect is related to the boundary conditions used for the North Sea model. In a next step a German Bight grid with 1 km resolution is nested into the North Sea grid and the spectral model is solved in a two way nested configuration. It is shown that there are some significant local and far field effects caused by the change of resolution in this coastal area. Finally, the potential impact of observations taken in coastal areas is investigated by evaluating the Kalman a posteriori distribution of analysis vectors based on different assumptions about model errors. The area of influence of a single tide gauge is

  16. Simulation of the 1979 spring bloom in the Mid-Atlantic Bight - A coupled physical/biological/optical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Walsh, John J.

    1992-01-01

    A coupled physical/biological/optical model is developed for studies of phytoplankton variability in the spring 1979 Mid-Atlantic Bight, as observed by CZCS imagery. The model incorporates advection, mixing, sinking, growth as a function of light, temperature, nutrient availability, and death as a function of ingestion. It produced chlorophyll concentrations within the first attenuated depth within 1 standard deviation of CZCS imagery on large scale. The primary production estimates obtained using this model were within reasonable agreement with those measured in situ.

  17. National Aeronautics and Space Administration operations: Remote sensing experiments in the New York Bight, 7-17 April 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results are given of remote sensing experiments conducted in the New York Bight between April 7-17, 1975, to evaluate the role of remote sensing technology to aid in monitoring ocean dumping. Remote sensors were flown on the C-54, U-2, and C-130 aircraft while the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration obtained concurrent in situ sea truth data using helicopters and surface platforms. The test site, aircraft platforms, experiments, and supporting sensors are described. The operation of each aircraft are discussed and aircraft flight lines, flight parameters, and data identification parameters are presented in figures and tables.

  18. The wind driven currents on the Middle Atlantic Bight inner shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kuo-Chuin

    1999-05-01

    A set of month-long current meter data from two moorings deployed at the 20 and 30 m isobaths to the southeast of Atlantic City, New Jersey are examined to characterize the structure of the wind-induced subtidal currents in the Middle Atlantic Bight under summer time conditions. The wind stress and currents are dominated by variability at the 2-4 d time scales. The majority of the wind stress variance is oriented in the along-shelf direction (35°T), but the subtidal currents at both moorings also show substantial across-shelf variability, with the standard deviation of the across-shelf current component exceeding 50% of that of the along-shelf current component. Furthermore, there is an appreciable reduction in magnitude and a change in orientation of the subtidal current vector with depth. The currents from the mooring located at the 30 m isobath are significantly coherent with the wind stress, with surface current rotating clockwise and bottom current rotating anticlockwise of the wind. With an upwelling favorable wind, there is a significant offshore flow in the upper layer and an onshore flow in the lower layer, consistent with Ekman transport. The situation reverses with a downwelling favorable wind. The depth-averaged current is dominated by variability in the along-shelf direction. Wind stress and along-shelf surface slope are the leading terms in the depth-integrated along-shelf momentum balance, but bottom stress also plays an important role in the balance. The currents at the inner shelf mooring (20 m isobath) are much less coherent with the wind, particularly for the surface current. The reduced linear correlation between the wind and the observed subtidal current there may be caused by the influence of the buoyancy-driven coastal current originating from the Hudson River estuary to the north of the mooring site.

  19. Improving current forecasts for the German Bight using HF radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Stanev, Emil; Staneva, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Three HF radar stations located at the islands of Wangerooge and Sylt as well as on the mainland in Büsum are operated in the German Bight as part of COSYNA system. The WERA system operates at 12.4 MHz and provides surface current measurements every 20 min. The observations are merged with numerical model data to optimise state estimates on a pre-operational basis. The presentation introduces the spatio temporal interpolation (STOI) method, which is a statistical approach to correct data from a free model run using an analysis window of typically one tidal cycle. The technique is thus able to resolve intra-tidal time scales. The scheme is based on an EOF analysis to estimate the model error background statistics and is capable of providing improved short term forecasts. Statistics of the free model run, the HF radar data and the STOI analysis are shown for several month. Both the three dimensional primitive equation model GETM and the operational BSH model are used to provide free model run data. GETM setups with boundary forcing from the MYOCEAN North West Shelf model are used. Maps of innovation and residuals are presented. Furthermore forecast errors for different forecast horizons are discussed. Results are also compared to independent measurements taken at the FINO-1 and FINO-2 platforms. The impact of the analysis is, e.g., illustrated by drifter trajectory simulations. First results are also shown regarding an extension of the STOI method, which includes a model restart to further improve the dynamical consistency of the results. Issues related to the treatment of the boundary forcing and the meteo forcing used during the forecast period are discussed. The impact of the HF radar data on water level estimates are analysed. Furthermore, some results concerning the potential impact of existing and hypothetical HF radar systems are presented, which were obtained making use of the STOI method as well as statistical OSE and OSSE techniques.

  20. Diet composition and resource partitioning in two small flatfish species in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, S.; Sell, A.; Kröncke, I.; Reiss, H.

    2011-10-01

    Since the late 1980s, the small-sized non-commercial flatfish species solenette ( Buglossidium luteum) and scaldfish ( Arnoglossus laterna) have increased in abundance in the southern North Sea. Because these species are considered as possible competitors for prey of commercial flatfish, this study aimed at advancing knowledge of their feeding ecology. Between January 2009 and January 2010 stomach contents of solenette and scaldfish and benthic infauna were sampled seasonally in a study area in the German Bight. The objectives were to investigate the seasonal variability of feeding activity and diet composition of both flatfish species related to benthic prey availability. For both flatfish, the highest feeding activity was found in summer, at the same time that the highest prey densities occurred in the study area. A reduced feeding activity was observed during the winter of 2010, but not in the winter of 2009, probably related to higher 2009 water temperatures. In all seasons, diet composition of solenette was dominated by meiofauna, mainly harpacticoid copepods. Macrofauna prey species, namely juveniles of bivalves and echinoderms became important in spring. An increase in amphipods and cumaceans was found in the stomach contents during summer and autumn, simultaneously with their increased abundance in the benthic infauna. In contrast, polychaetes were rarely found in the diet, but dominated the infauna during all seasons. Diet composition of scaldfish was dominated by larger and mobile prey, and, during all seasons, was mainly comprised of crustaceans. Amphipods characterised the diet in both winters, while decapods such as Crangon spp. and Liocarcinus spp. were the dominant prey from spring to autumn. Additionally, juveniles of flatfish (Pleuronectids) and bivalves were found in the scaldfish diet in spring, replaced by cumaceans in summer. No dietary overlap between both flatfish species was found across seasons, indicating partitioning of prey resources

  1. Identification of storm surge events over the German Bight from atmospheric reanalysis and climate model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befort, D. J.; Fischer, M.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Ulbrich, U.; Ganske, A.; Rosenhagen, G.; Heinrich, H.

    2015-06-01

    A new procedure for the identification of storm surge situations for the German Bight is developed and applied to reanalysis and global climate model data. This method is based on the empirical approach for estimating storm surge heights using information about wind speed and wind direction. Here, we hypothesize that storm surge events are caused by high wind speeds from north-westerly direction in combination with a large-scale wind storm event affecting the North Sea region. The method is calibrated for ERA-40 data, using the data from the storm surge atlas for Cuxhaven. It is shown that using information of both wind speed and direction as well as large-scale wind storm events improves the identification of storm surge events. To estimate possible future changes of potential storm surge events, we apply the new identification approach to an ensemble of three transient climate change simulations performed with the ECHAM5/MPIOM model under A1B greenhouse gas scenario forcing. We find an increase in the total number of potential storm surge events of about 12 % [(2001-2100)-(1901-2000)], mainly based on changes of moderate events. Yearly numbers of storm surge relevant events show high interannual and decadal variability and only one of three simulations shows a statistical significant increase in the yearly number of potential storm surge events between 1900 and 2100. However, no changes in the maximum intensity and duration of all potential events is determined. Extreme value statistic analysis confirms no frequency change of the most severe events.

  2. The epizoic diatom community on four bryozoan species from Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuchter, Cornelia; Marquardt, Jürgen; Krumbein, Wolfgang

    2002-09-01

    The composition of the diatom community on the bryozoans Electra pilosa, Membranipora membranacea, Flustra foliacea, and Alcyonidium gelatinosum from the German Bight was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. In total, members of 26 diatom genera were found, with Cocconeis, Tabularia, Licmophora, Amphora, and Navicula being the most abundant. The amount and the composition of the diatom covering seem to be typical for single bryozoan species. Electra pilosa and Membranipora membranacea showed a rather dense covering with 71-547 cells/mm2 and 77-110 cells/mm2, respectively. The most prominent genus on Electra pilosa was Cocconeis, reaching up to 58% of all diatoms in one sample, followed by Navicula, Tabularia and Amphora. The most abundant genera on Membranipora membranacea were Tabularia and Licmophora, making up almost 70% of all diatoms in one sample, followed by Navicula, Cocconeis and Amphora. The diatom composition was very stable on all Electra samples, but varied on Membranipora samples. With <1-27 cells/mm2, diatoms were much less abundant on Alcyonidium gelatinosum. Members of the genera Tabularia and Navicula were the most frequently found benthic diatoms, whereas the planktonic forms Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, and Thalassiosira made up 35% of the diatoms. On Flustra foliacea, diatoms were virtually absent, with fewer than 5 cells/mm2. The low diatom numbers are probably due to toxic metabolites produced by the host. The same may be true for Alcyonidium gelatinosum, but here they might also be a consequence of the surface properties of the bryozoan.

  3. The epizoic diatom community on four bryozoan species from Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuchter, Cornelia; Marquardt, Jürgen; Krumbein, Wolfgang E.

    2003-03-01

    The composition of the diatom community on the bryozoans Electra pilosa, Membranipora membranacea, Flustra foliacea, and Alcyonidium gelatinosum from the German Bight was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. In total, members of 26 diatom genera were found, with Cocconeis, Tabularia, Licmophora, Amphora, and Navicula being the most abundant. The amount and the composition of the diatom covering seem to be typical for single bryozoan species. Electra pilosa and Membranipora membranacea showed a rather dense covering with 71-547 cells/mm2 and 77-110 cells/mm2, respectively. The most prominent genus on Electra pilosa was Cocconeis, reaching up to 58% of all diatoms in one sample, followed by Navicula, Tabularia and Amphora. The most abundant genera on Membranipora membranacea were Tabularia and Licmophora, making up almost 70% of all diatoms in one sample, followed by Navicula, Cocconeis and Amphora. The diatom composition was very stable on all Electra samples, but varied on Membranipora samples. With <1-27 cells/mm2, diatoms were much less abundant on Alcyonidium gelatinosum. Members of the genera Tabularia and Navicula were the most frequently found benthic diatoms, whereas the planktonic forms Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, and Thalassiosira made up 35% of the diatoms. On Flustra foliacea, diatoms were virtually absent, with fewer than 5 cells/mm2. The low diatom numbers are probably due to toxic metabolites produced by the host . The same may be true for Alcyonidium gelatinosum, but here they might also be a consequence of the surface properties of the bryozoan.

  4. Interannual variability of wintertime temperature on the inner continental shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Thomas P.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    The shallow depth of the inner continental shelf allows for rapid adjustment of the ocean to air-sea exchange of heat and momentum compared with offshore locations. Observations during 2001-2013 are used to evaluate the contributions of air-sea heat flux and oceanic advection to interannual variability of inner-shelf temperature in the Middle Atlantic Bight. Wintertime processes are important for interpreting regional interannual variability at nearshore locations since winter anomalies account for 69-77% of the variance of the annual anomalies and are correlated over broad along-shelf scales, from New England to North Carolina. At the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory on the 12 m isobath, a heat budget is used to test the hypothesis that interannual differences in winter temperatures are due solely to air-sea heat flux. Bimonthly averages of air-sea heat flux are correlated with temporal changes in temperature, but overestimate the observed wintertime cooling. Velocity and satellite-derived temperature data show that interannual variability in wintertime surface cooling is partially compensated for by alongshore advection of warmer water from the west at this particular location. It is also shown that surface heat flux is a strong function of air-sea temperature difference. Because of this coupling between ocean and air temperatures in shallow water, along-shelf advection can significantly modify the surface heat flux at seasonal and interannual time scales. While along-shelf advection at relatively small (˜100 km) scales can be an important component of the heat budget over the inner shelf, interannual temperature variability is still largely determined by adjustment to large-scale air-temperature anomalies.

  5. Semidiurnal Perturbation to Storm Surge at the Apex of the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Olabarrieta, M.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Semidiurnal surge is a phenomenon that one can see M2 tidal energy in surge signals. The occurrence of semidiurnal surges was dominant at the apex of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) and was a product of tide-surge interactions. It is essential to storm surge forecasting system as the semidiurnal surge could significantly affect the timing and height of the peak storm surge. The presentation exposes the a real case study during the first week of October in 2005, which reals a consistent semidiurnal surge event induced by the passage of cold frond on the SAB, follow with a landfall event of Tropical Storm Tammy in the north of the Florida. It is found that the semidiurnal surge happened with a phase delay and tidal amplitude reduction of the observed tide at the apex of the SAB, as well as highly associated with parallel-to-shore wind stress. Coriolis acceleration, in the momentum equation of the primary tidal direction (normal-to-shore) on the SAB, is suspected to be one of the fundamental mechanisms contributing to the orientation of the semidiurnal surge. The relevance of the Coriolis force to this phenomenon enhanced with the increase of the parallel-to-shore wind stress. Meanwhile, sea bottom friction, which reinforced by the wind-induced oceanic current, retarded and dampened the tides, thus resulted in the semidiurnal tidal signal in the surge. Geophysical factors, including tidal amplitude, coastline shape and storm parameters, all influence the severity of the semidiurnal surges on the SAB, and their effects were explored via idealized numerical experiments.

  6. Mesoscale eddies in the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf Stream Recirculation region: Vertical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelao, Renato M.

    2014-03-01

    Sea level anomalies from altimeters are combined with decade-long potential temperature and salinity profiles from Argo floats to investigate the vertical structure of mesoscale eddies in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) and the Gulf Stream Recirculation region. Eddy detection and eddy tracking algorithms are applied to the satellite observations, and hydrography profiles from floats that surfaced inside eddies are used to construct three-dimensional composites of cyclones and anticyclones. Eddies are characterized by large temperature and salinity anomalies at 500-1000 m depth and near the surface, and by small anomalies at 200-400 m below the surface at the depth of the North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water. Anomalies associated with anticyclones are generally larger and found deeper in the water column compared to those due to the presence of cyclones. Geostrophic velocities around eddies generally exceed their translation speed in the top 1000 m of the water column. As such, these eddies can trap water in their interior as they propagate westward. Combining the volume of water inside eddies above their trapping depths with the number of eddies that propagate into the SAB each year, it is estimated that cyclones and anticyclones transport 3.5 ± 0.9 Sv and 4.1 ± 1.7 Sv onshore toward the Gulf Stream, respectively. The total volume transport of 7.6 ± 2.2 Sv represents an important fraction of previous estimates of the onshore transport in the Gulf Stream Recirculation gyre. Since eddies are characterized by large temperature and salinity anomalies, they also contribute significantly to the onshore transport of heat and salt.

  7. Spatially-explicit bioenergetics of Pacific sardine in the Southern California Bight: are mesoscale eddies areas of exceptional prerecruit production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logerwell, Elizabeth A.; Lavaniegos, Bertha; Smith, Paul E.

    Previous research shows that offshore mesoscale eddies in the Southern California Bight region are areas where sardine larval abundance is significantly increased relative to inshore, slope and surrounding offshore waters. In order for mesoscale eddies to be a mechanism linking climate and sardine population variability they must be areas of exceptional prerecruit production. Temperature and prey data from various Southern California Bight (SCB) habitats, including offshore eddies, were applied to a spatially-explicit bioenergetic model which predicts sardine prerecruit growth potential. Growth potential was similar in inshore, slope, and eddy regions (11% and 12% day -1), and was lower in the offshore region, 9% day -1. To estimate production in eddy and non-eddy habitats, growth potential was multiplied by habitat-specific estimates of sardine larval biomass from at-sea surveys. A production index, a measure of potential production resulting from individual growth rate potential and local abundance, was greater in the model cyclonic eddy than in all other regions by more than an order of magnitude. In fact, the production index in the eddy was four times greater than in all other regions combined.

  8. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA–Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later....

  9. A study of sediment motion and bottom boundary layer dynamics over the Middle Atlantic Bight shelf and upper slope. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, James H.; Williams, Albert J.

    2001-02-14

    This report summarizes research on circulation and particle dynamics over the Middle Atlantic Bight shelf and upper slope. It includes an overview of the field experiments conducted in the waters off North Carolina, and gives the principal results from these experiments.

  10. Improving Significant Wave Height detection for Coastal Satellite Altimetry: validation in the German Bight.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Marcello; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana

    For more than two decades, it has been possible to map the Significant Wave Height (SWH) globally through Satellite Altimetry. SWH estimation is possible because the shape of an altimetric waveform, which usually presents a sharp leading edge and a slowly decaying trailing edge, depends on the sea state: in particular, the higher the sea state, the longer the rising time of the leading edge. The algorithm for SWH also depends on the width of the point target response (PTR) function, which is usually approximated by a constant value that contributes to the rising time. Particularly challenging for SWH detection are coastal data and low sea states. The first are usually flagged as unreliable due to land and calm water interference in the altimeter footprint; the second are characterized by an extremely sharp leading edge that is consequently poorly sampled in the digitalized waveform. ALES, a new algorithm for reprocessing altimetric waveforms, has recently been validated for sea surface height estimation (Passaro et al. 2014). The aim of this work is to check its validity also for SWH estimation in a particularly challenging area. The German Bight region presents both low sea state and coastal issues and is particularly suitable for validation, thanks to the extended network of buoys of the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH). In-situ data include open sea, off-shore and coastal sea conditions, respectively at the Helgoland, lighthouse Alte Weser and Westerland locations. Reprocessed data from Envisat, Jason-1 and Jason-2 tracks are validated against those three buoys. The in-situ validation is applied both at the nearest point and at points along-track. The skill metrics is based on bias, standard deviation, slope of regression line, scatter index, number of cycles with correlation larger than 90%. The same metrics is applied to the altimeter data obtained by standard processing and the validation results are compared. Data are evaluated at high

  11. CZCS chlorophyll patterns in the South Atlantic Bight during low vertical stratification conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Martins, Ana; Pelegrí, Josep L.

    2006-03-01

    We examine all available high-resolution Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS) data for the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), and adjacent Gulf Stream, during low vertical stratification months (October-May, from 1978 to 1986) to investigate the seasonal/long-time variations and the dominant spatial scales and patterns of near surface pigment concentrations. Each CZCS image is divided into four regions and 21 areas, as well as into 24 across- and 21 along-shelf transects. A distinct seasonal cycle is observed everywhere, superimposed to a linear time decay that reached almost 50% by the end of the mission. Mean winter SAB pigment concentrations (1.3 mg m -3) are about 50% greater than spring values (0.8 mg m -3), confirming that winter chlorophyll production represents a significant fraction of the total year's production. Mean pigment concentration (and absolute variability) generally decreases seaward, in winter from 2.2 mg m -3 (1.3 mg m -3) over the inner shelf to about 0.3 mg m -3 (0.3 mg m -3) over the Gulf Stream. Local maxima take place in the inner and middle shelves off all capes, in the northern region separated by some 150 km. High relative pigment variability is observed both along and across-shelf in narrow bands (order 10 km) on the middle and outer shelves (except across-shelf off Charleston). Along-shelf dominant scales of pigment variability increase offshore, from some 50 km in the inner and middle shelves, possibly related to squirt type fingers, to some 90 km in the outer shelf, related to meander-streamer patterns, and up to 170 km in the Gulf Stream, associated to the meanders themselves. High pigment concentrations in the inner shelf appear to be overestimated due to high turbidity water, permanently off the capes and on a seasonal basis (fall/winter maxima) within the inner and middle shelves. There are instances of squirts that emanate from all along the coast, although the dominant feature in the northern inner and middle shelves are along

  12. The German Bight: A validation of CryoSat-2 altimeter data in SAR mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Dinardo, S.; Scharroo, R.; Roland, A.; Dutour Sikiric, M.; Lucas, B.; Becker, M.; Benveniste, J.; Weiss, R.

    2015-06-01

    The retrieval of the three geophysical parameters - sea surface height above the reference ellipsoid (SSH), significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed at 10 m above the sea surface (U10) - is the main goal of satellite altimetry and of primary importance for climate research. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) altimetry is expected to provide improved precision and along-track resolution compared to the conventional low-resolution mode (LRM) radar altimetry. CryoSat-2 enables a quantitative comparison of SAR and Pseudo-LRM (PLRM) data derived respectively from a coherent and an incoherent processing of the same SAR echoes. In this paper we perform their cross-validation and validation against in situ and model data to derive precision and accuracy at 1 Hz in open ocean, at distances larger than 10 km from the coast. The analysis is performed in the German Bight during 2011 and 2012. Both the PLRM and the SAR scheme include waveform zero-padding and identical environmental, geophysical, and atmospheric attenuation corrections. A Look Up Table is additionally used in SAR to correct for approximations of the Point Target Response (PTR) applied in the retracking procedure. The regional cross-validation analysis proves the good consistency between PLRM and SAR data, with no bias and rms differences of 3 cm, 21 cm, and 0.26 m/s for SSH, SWH, and U10, respectively. The precision of SSH and SWH is higher in SAR than in PLRM (by a factor of 2), while the precision of U10 is 1.4 times better in PLRM than in SAR. At 2 m waveheight, the SAR precision is 0.9 cm for SSH, 6.6 cm for SWH. and 5.8 cm/s for U10. The in situ analysis shows that SSH and U10 have comparable accuracy in SAR and PLRM, while SWH has a significantly higher accuracy in SAR. With a maximum distance of 20 km between altimeter and in situ data, the minimum values obtained for their rms differences are 7 cm, 14 cm, and 1.3 m/s for SAR and 6 cm, 29 cm, and 1.4 m/s for PLRM.

  13. Atlantic surfclam connectivity within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Mechanisms underlying variation in larval transport and settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Munroe, Daphne; Haidvogel, Dale; Powell, Eric N.

    2016-05-01

    Larval transport and settlement have been shown in various studies to be essential in determining population abundance and connectivity for benthic invertebrates. This transport is influenced by both the physical environment and biological behavior. The Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, is a commercially important benthic invertebrate fishery species along the U.S northeastern coast. In this study, a physical circulation model is coupled to a surfclam larval model to investigate the dynamics of larval transport and settlement within the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf in 2006. The main physical mechanisms causing variability in larval transport and settlement are also examined. Model results show that surfclam larvae released from July to early October experience relatively larger settlement rates, due to higher average temperatures experienced by larvae. Larval along-shore transport exhibits a mean down-coast pattern following the coastal current from the northeast to the southwest, with most high-frequency (period of 2-10 days) variations caused by fluctuations in the along-shore surface wind stress, and with seasonal variations speculated to be driven mainly by changes in the across-shelf density gradient. Larval across-shelf movement is highly correlated with the along-shore surface wind stress mediated by coastal upwelling and downwelling episodes, but the correlation is further dependent on the vertical distribution of the larvae, particularly their position relative to the thermocline. Most surfclam larvae released from the Middle Atlantic shelf stay below the thermocline and experience a net onshore transport during the summer-stratified season when upwelling-favorable wind forcing dominates. A proposed critical value of water temperature at the thermocline successfully regulates the observed patterns of vertical distribution of surfclam larvae and their across-shelf movement off the New Jersey and South Virginia shelves; that is, when the water

  14. Simulation of mechanisms for cross-shelf exchange in the middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udarbe, Marie Jayvee Biccay

    Two mechanisms for cross-shelf exchange in the Middle Atlantic Bight, namely wind and baroclinic instability, are examined using two- and three-dimensional primitive equation models, respectively. The aim is to determine the seasonality, structure, and location of the exchange processes solely associated with these mechanisms. Their relative contributions to the heat and salt budget in the shelf region are evaluated. Emphasis is on the lateral interchange between the shelf and the slope across the shelf/slope frontal boundary. Historical temperature and salinity data from the National Oceanographic Data Center hydrographic database are analyzed to extract the mean seasonal cross-shore configuration. For the two-dimensional study, the seasonal evolution of cross-shelf hydrography and circulation are simulated and forced by restoring the surface temperature and salinity to climatology. A case which includes only the surface heat and salt fluxes produces the gross seasonal features; however, the bottom shelf water is much colder than the climatology and the annual mean alongshore transport is too small, about 0.1 Sv. With the inclusion of wind, the temperature of the cold pool water is comparable with climatology, the timing of fall overturn is more consistent with observation, and the alongshelf transport increases to 0.3 Sv which is within the range of previous estimates. Salt budget and nutrient flux calculations are made using a case wherein only salt removal at the surface during the stratified season is allowed. Wind forcing potentially bring a significant amount of salt to the shelf. In the three-dimensional study, the cross-shore exchange process induced by baroclinic instability for stratified conditions with sloping geometry is determined. Rapid initial growth rates (less than 3 days) of the perturbations are observed. Net onshore and downward flow associated with a cyclonic eddy takes place at the trough and net upward and offshore flow associated with an

  15. Coastal observing and forecasting system for the German Bight - estimates of hydrophysical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, E. V.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.; Staneva, J.; Grayek, S.; Seemann, J.; Petersen, W.

    2011-04-01

    A coastal observing system for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) aims at construction of a long-term observatory for the German part of the North Sea, elements of which will be deployed as prototype modules in Arctic coastal waters. At present a coastal prediction system deployed in the area of the German Bight integrates near real-time measurements with numerical models in a pre-operational way and provides continuously state estimates and forecasts of coastal ocean state. The measurement suite contributing to the pre-operational set up includes in situ time series from stationary stations, a High-Frequency (HF) radar system measuring surface currents, a FerryBox system and remote sensing data from satellites. The forecasting suite includes nested 3-D hydrodynamic models running in a data-assimilation mode, which are forced with up-to-date meteorological forecast data. This paper reviews the present status of the system and its recent upgrades focusing on developments in the field of coastal data assimilation. Model supported data analysis and state estimates are illustrated using HF radar and FerryBox observations as examples. A new method combining radial surface current measurements from a single HF radar with a priori information from a hydrodynamic model is presented, which optimally relates tidal ellipses parameters of the 2-D current field and the M2 phase and magnitude of the radials. The method presents a robust and helpful first step towards the implementation of a more sophisticated assimilation system and demonstrates that even using only radials from one station can substantially benefit state estimates for surface currents. Assimilation of FerryBox data based on an optimal interpolation approach using a Kalman filter with a stationary background covariance matrix derived from a preliminary model run which was validated against remote sensing and in situ data demonstrated the capabilities of the pre-operational system. Data assimilation significantly

  16. Coastal observing and forecasting system for the German Bight - estimates of hydrophysical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, E. V.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.; Staneva, J.; Grayek, S.; Seemann, J.; Petersen, W.

    2011-09-01

    A coastal observing system for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) aims at construction of a long-term observatory for the German part of the North Sea, elements of which will be deployed as prototype modules in Arctic coastal waters. At present a coastal prediction system deployed in the area of the German Bight integrates near real-time measurements with numerical models in a pre-operational way and provides continuously state estimates and forecasts of coastal ocean state. The measurement suite contributing to the pre-operational set up includes in situ time series from stationary stations, a High-Frequency (HF) radar system measuring surface currents, a FerryBox system and remote sensing data from satellites. The forecasting suite includes nested 3-D hydrodynamic models running in a data-assimilation mode, which are forced with up-to-date meteorological forecast data. This paper reviews the present status of the system and its recent upgrades focusing on developments in the field of coastal data assimilation. Model supported data analysis and state estimates are illustrated using HF radar and FerryBox observations as examples. A new method combining radial surface current measurements from a single HF radar with a priori information from a hydrodynamic model is presented, which optimally relates tidal ellipses parameters of the 2-D current field and the M2 phase and magnitude of the radials. The method presents a robust and helpful first step towards the implementation of a more sophisticated assimilation system and demonstrates that even using only radials from one station can substantially benefit state estimates for surface currents. Assimilation of FerryBox data based on an optimal interpolation approach using a Kalman filter with a stationary background covariance matrix derived from a preliminary model run which was validated against remote sensing and in situ data demonstrated the capabilities of the pre-operational system. Data assimilation significantly

  17. Sulphur diagenesis in the sediments of the Kiel Bight, SW Baltic Sea, as reflected by multiple stable sulphur isotopes.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Harald; Bast, Rebecca; Cording, Anja; Diekrup, David; Fugmann, Artur; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Lutter, Andreas; Oeser, Martin; Rabe, Katharina; Reinke, Debora; Teichert, Barbara M A; Westernströer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the biogeochemistry of marine sediments from the Kiel Bight, coastal SW Baltic Sea, is studied based on the abundance and isotopic composition of organic carbon and different forms of sedimentary sulphur. Active bacterial sulphate reduction, partly under sulphate-limiting conditions, is evident from paired δ(34)S and δ(18)O values of pore water sulphate. The resulting pore water sulphide is partly precipitated as acid-volatile iron sulphide and subsequently forms sedimentary pyrite, partly serves in later diagenetic sulphurisation of organic matter, or remains dissolved in the pore water, all evident from the respective δ(34)S values. Microbial sulphate turnover is associated with an apparent isotopic fractionation between dissolved sulphate and dissolved sulphide (Δ(34)S) that varies between 46 and 66‰. PMID:22303924

  18. Dynamics of the direct intrusion of Gulf Stream ring water onto the Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weifeng G.; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.

    2015-09-01

    Onshore intrusions of offshore waters onto the Mid-Atlantic Bight shelf can greatly affect shelf circulation, biogeochemistry, and fisheries. Previous studies have concentrated on onshore intrusions of slope water. Here we present a direct intrusion of Gulf Stream warm-core ring water onto the shelf representing a previously unknown exchange process at the shelfbreak. Impingement of warm-core rings at the shelfbreak generates along-isobath intrusions that grow like Pinocchio's nose, extending hundreds of kilometers to the southwest. By combining satellite and Ocean Observatory Initiative Pioneer Array data and idealized numerical simulations, we discover that the intrusion results from topographically induced vorticity variation of the ring water, rather than from entrainment of the shelfbreak frontal jet. This intrusion of the Gulf Stream ring water has important biogeochemical implications and could facilitate migration of marine species across the shelfbreak barrier and transport low-nutrient surface Gulf Stream ring water to the otherwise productive shelfbreak region.

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed reference sites in the New York Bight, Great South Bay, and Ambrose Light, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The current reference site used in evaluations of dredged material proposed for open water disposal in the New York Bight is the Mud Dump Reference Site. The sediment at this reference site is predominantly sand. The US Army Corps of Engineers New York District is considering designation of a new reference site that (1) includes a fine-grained component, believed to be necessary for adequate amphipod survival in laboratory tests, (2) better reflects the physical characteristics of the fine-grained sediment dredged from the New York/New Jersey Harbor and (3) is further removed from the Mud Dump Site than the current Mud Dump Reference Site. The Battelle Marine Science Laboratory was requested to characterize sediment collected from seven candidate reference sites during two study phases. This report presents the results of physical, chemical, and toxicological characterizations of sediment from these sites in comparisons with those of the original Mud Dump Reference Site.

  20. Seasonal to decadal forcing of high water level percentiles in the German Bight throughout the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Mudersbach, Christoph; Jensen, Jürgen; Anette, Ganske; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2013-05-01

    For the purpose of coastal planning and management, especially under changing climatic conditions, enhanced knowledge about the evolution of extreme sea levels in the past, present, and future is required. This paper presents statistical analyses of high seasonal water level percentiles of 13 tide gauges in the German Bight, spanning over a period of up to 109 years throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Seasonal and annual high percentile time series of water levels were investigated in comparison to the mean sea level (MSL) for changes on seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal timescales. While throughout the first half of the twentieth century extreme water levels generally followed changes in MSL, during the second half of the century, linear extreme sea level trends exceeded those in MSL in the order of 9-64 cm per century. The largest, although insignificant, contribution to the magnitude of these trends occurs in the winter season (January to March), while smaller but, due to the generally lower atmospheric variability, significant changes are observed during spring (April to June). The observed multi-decadal trends are generally in good agreement with multi-decadal trends in the corresponding percentiles of local zonal surface winds. Only small parts of the trends remain unexplained. It is suggested that these remaining trends result from modifications in the local tidal regime. For the aspects of coastal planning, the findings clarify that in the German Bight, in addition to changes in MSL, potential changes in storminess and in the tidal regime significantly contribute to the development of extreme water levels. Since these factors have influenced the characteristic of extremes throughout the recent past, they also have to be taken into account when estimating design water levels for, e.g., dikes (in a warming climate) under changing greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Reinterpretation of the Franklin "Shore" in the Mid-Atlantic bight as a paleo-shelf edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.; Austin, James A.; Fulthorpe, Craig S.

    2013-06-01

    The presence of a scarp sub-parallel to, but landward of, the modern continental shelf edge is commonly used to infer a fossil shoreline preserved during the course of a sea level rise and shoreline transgression. Advances in geophysical imaging, including bathymetric data compilations and high-resolution acoustic reflection, merit a review of these scarps and their origins. We focus on the Mid-Atlantic Bight, east coast of the United States, where four siliciclastic fossil shorelines have previously been identified and are still cited as such in the literature. Two of the scarps are not in evidence in the newest compilation of bathymetry. A third, the Mid-Shelf Scarp, is of limited extent and, as established in previous studies, represents a seaward edge of delta lobes rather than a fossil shoreline. The fourth, the Franklin Scarp, is a major topographic feature that extends from Cape Hatteras to Cape Cod. However, morphologic and stratigraphic evidence leads us to conclude that, instead of a fossil shore, this scarp represents a paleo-shelf edge, likely formed during the MIS 4 lowstand (~65 ka). Both the modern shelf edge and the Franklin Scarp deepen to the north by ~50 m, while systematically maintaining a depth offset of ~40 m. This observation, which cannot be attributed to glacial isostatic processes, is enigmatic but suggests fundamental environmental controls on the depth of the clinoform rollover. Furthermore, all the major shelf-indenting canyons in the Mid-Atlantic Bight are bounded landward by the Franklin Scarp, which suggests that interfluve progradation may be a more significant mechanism for growth of these canyons than headward erosion.

  2. Coupling of wave and circulation models in coastal-ocean predicting systems: A case study for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staneva, Joanna; Wahle, Kathrin

    2015-04-01

    This study addresses the coupling between wind wave and circulation models on the example of the German Bight and its coastal area called the Wadden Sea (the area between the barrier islands and the coast). This topic reflects the increased interest in operational oceanography to reduce prediction errors of state estimates at coastal scales. The uncertainties in most of the presently used models result from the nonlinear feedback between strong tidal currents and wind-waves, which can no longer be ignored, in particular in the coastal zone where its role seems to be dominant. A nested modelling system is used in the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht to producing reliable now- and short-term forecasts of ocean state variables, including wind waves and hydrodynamics. In this study we present analysis of wave and hydrographic observations, as well as the results of numerical simulations. The data base includes ADCP observations and continuous measurements from data stations. The individual and collective role of wind, waves and tidal forcing are quantified. The performance of the forecasting system is illustrated for the cases of several extreme events. Effects of ocean waves on coastal circulation and SST simulations are investigated considering wave-dependent stress and wave breaking parameterization during extreme events, e.g. hurricane Xavier in December, 2013. Also the effect which the circulation exerts on the wind waves is tested for the coastal areas using different parameterizations. The improved skill resulting from the new developments in the forecasting system, in particular during extreme events, justifies further enhancements of the coastal pre-operational system for the North Sea and German Bight.

  3. Validation of Open-Sea CRYOSAT-2 Data in SAR Mode in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Scharroo, Remko

    This work aims to generate and validate the altimetric geophysical parameters measured by the CryoSat-2 in SAR Mode in the temporal interval 2011-2012 in the area of the German Bight at distance to coast larger than 10 Kilometers (open-sea). Instantaneous sea surface height (SSH), significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed at 10 meter from sea surface (U10), measured by CryoSat-2, are compared to in-situ measurements at platforms, buoys and tide gauges and to results from an operational circulation model run by the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH). The in-situ data were made available by the Wasser- und Schifffahrtsverwaltung des Bundes (WSV). These stations are part of a network of tide gauges and offshore platforms equipped with continuously operation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. Since the coordinates of the zero point of the tide gauge are computed in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) the absolute comparison between sea level from tide gauge and altimetry is possible. The relevant in-situ data are sea level, wave and wind data. The CryoSat-2 Data have been Delay-Doppler processed as from the FBR (Full Bit Rate) Level 1A to Level 1B and subsequently re-tracked using the SAMOSA's SAR Echo Model (full solution) and a curve-fitting scheme based on Levenberg-Marquard Least Square Minimization Algorithm. Sea surface height, significant wave height and wind speed at 20 Hz and 1 Hz have been derived. The Delay-Doppler processing (L1B) and the re-tracking processing (L2) has been carried out by the EOP-SER Altimetry Team at ESA/ESRIN. Pseudo pulse-limited (PLRM) data derived from CryoSat-2 in SAR mode and provided via the RADS database are compared with the same parameters derived from the CryoSat-2 SAR Data to estimate possible biases and trends between SAR mode and LRM mode and tune-up the SAR re-tracking scheme. Special attention will be paid to spot trends between SAR and PLRM with respect the orbital

  4. Terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter in the chesapeake bay and the middle atlantic bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Guo, Laodong; Santschi, Peter H.

    2000-10-01

    Concentrations of lignin-phenols were analyzed in high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (0.2 μm > HMW DOM > 1 kDa) isolated from surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay (C. Bay), and surface and bottom waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). The abundance of lignin-phenols in HMW DOM was higher in the C. Bay (0.128 ± 0.06 μg L -1) compared to MAB surface waters (0.016 ± 0.004 μg L -1) and MAB bottom waters (0.005 ± 0.003 μg L -1). On an organic carbon-normalized basis, lignin-phenol abundances in the HMW DOM (i.e., Λ 6), were significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in bottom waters compared to sediments at some stations in the MAB. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl phenols (S/V) in HMW DOM, indicative of angiosperm-derived lignin, ranged from 0.165 to 0.422 in C. Bay, 0.100 to 0.314 in MAB surface waters, and 0.076 to 0.357 in MAB bottom waters. Ratios of vanillic acid to vanillin (Ad/Al) V in HMW DOM, indicative of lignin decay, ranged from 0.611 to 1.37 in C. Bay, 0.534 to 2.62 in MAB surface waters, and 0.435 to 1.96 in MAB bottom water. Ratios of S/V and (Ad/Al) V showed no significant differences between each environment, providing no evidence of any compositionally distinct input of terrestrial organic matter into each environment. When considering depth profiles of suspended particulate matter in the MAB, with C:N ratios, and bulk radiocarbon ages and stable carbon isotopic values in HMW DOM isolated from these areas, two scenarios present themselves regarding the sources and transport of terrestrially derived HMW DOM in the MAB. Scenario #1 assumes that a low amount of refractory terrestrial organic matter and old DOC are uniformly distributed in the oceans, both in surface and bottom waters, and that primary production in surface waters increases DOC with low lignin and younger DOC which degrades easily. In this case, many of the trends in age and biomarker composition likely reflect general patterns of Atlantic Ocean surface and bottom water

  5. Results from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration remote sensing experiments in the New York Bight, 7-17 April 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr. (Compiler); Pearson, A. O. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A cooperative operation was conducted in the New York Bight to evaluate the role of remote sensing technology to monitor ocean dumping. Six NASA remote sensing experiments were flown on the C-54, U-2, and C-130 NASA aircraft, while NOAA obtained concurrent sea truth information using helicopters and surface platforms. The experiments included: (1) a Radiometer/Scatterometer (RADSCAT), (2) an Ocean Color Scanner (OCS), (3) a Multichannel Ocean Color Sensor (MOCS), (4) four Hasselblad cameras, (5) an Ebert spectrometer; and (6) a Reconafax IV infrared scanner and a Precision Radiation Thermometer (PRT-5). The results of these experiments relative to the use of remote sensors to detect, quantify, and determine the dispersion of pollutants dumped into the New York Bight are presented.

  6. Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German Bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The acquisition and application of airborne laser induced emission spectra from German Bight water during the 1979 MARSEN experiment is detailed for the synoptic location of estuarine fronts. The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) was operated in the fluorosensing mode. A nitrogen laser transmitter at 337.1 nm was used to stimulate the water column to obtain Gelbstoff or organic material fluorescence spectra together with water Raman backscatter. Maps showing the location and relative strength of estuarine fronts are presented. The distribution of the fronts indicates that mixing within the German Bight takes place across a relatively large area. Reasonable agreement between the patterns observed by the AOL and published results are obtained. The limitations and constraints of this technique are indicated and improvements to the AOL fluorosensor are discussed with respect to future ocean mapping applications.

  7. Fish and megainvertebrates collected in the New York bight apex during the 12-mile dumpsite recovery study, July 1986-September 1989. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, S.J.; Pikanowski, R.A.; Pacheco, A.J.; McMillan, D.G.; Phelan, B.A.

    1992-10-01

    Summary tabulations for 75 species representing 47 families of fish and megainvertebrates, as well as associated environmental observations, are given for 991 bottom trawl tows made at 24 stations in the New York Bight apex from July 1986 to September 1989. The 20 most frequently occurring species were accounted for greater than 95 percent and 93 percent of the total number and weight, respectively, of all species collected.

  8. Bio-optical profile data report: Southern California Bight Study (SCB2-29) R/V Robert G. Sproul, 20-25 August 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Donald J.; Tran, An Van

    1990-01-01

    Time series measurements of the incident surface downwelling irradiance and vertical profiles of the bio-optical properties of the ocean were studied during the 29th cruise of the Southern California Bight Study (SCBS) during the period of August 20-25, 1988. A summary of these data is presented to permit investigators an overview of the data collected. The data are available in digital form for scientific investigators.

  9. Assessment of observed and perceived changes in ecosystems over time, with special reference to the Sylt-Rømø Bight, German Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Dan

    2012-08-01

    Examples of state changes in three aquatic ecosystems (the Neuse River estuary, NC, USA, the Kromme River estuary (St. Francis Bay, South Africa), the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, FL, USA) over time have been quantitatively assessed using ecological network analysis (ENA). A suite of ENA indices were compared among the multiple states of these ecosystems to illustrate the usefulness of ENA for describing differences among system states. Quantitative network models were constructed for the Sylt-Rømø Bight ecosystem and for the mussel bed subsystem of the Bight, depicting standing stocks of the living and non-living components and flow of carbon [a surrogate for energy] between them. These models consist of 59 compartments, and were assessed by means of ENA protocols. The impact of invasive species, such as the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, on existing mussel beds [of Mytilus edulis], and on predators [mainly birds] dependent on mussels for energy were assessed using AUTOMOD, a routine that predict the impact of species on each other within the ecosystem model. Predictive modelling clearly shows variability in bird biomass due to change in abundance of their important prey species at lower trophic levels. The simulations illustrated that the numbers of eider duck and oystercatcher in the Bight could be reduced to 50% of their current abundance within about 10 years at a 20%-40% reduction in prey biomass. Ecosystem properties calculated using ENA for the initial and alternate state of the Bight and the mussel beds after a simulated reduction of 40% in prey biomass show a decline in virtually all metrics (Total System Throughput, Development Capacity, Ascendency, Redundancy), system trophic efficiency, cycling, and system ratios (e.g. Average Mutual Information, Flow Diversity, Food Web Connectance).

  10. Observations of bottom currents and estimates of resuspended sediment transport at the New York Bight 12-mile dumpsite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, J. P.; Oey, L. Y.; Packer, D.; Vitaliano, J.; Finneran, T. W.; You, K. W.; Fromm, S.

    1994-05-01

    To document storm events that may induce a redistribution of sediment in the vicinity of the New York Bight 12-mile sewage sludge dumpsite, current meter moorings were deployed in water depths from 20 m (near the mouth of New York Harbor) to 53 m (within the Hudson Shelf Valley) from July 1986 through June 1989. Ten usable instrument records ranging from one month to one year in duration were obtained; eight of them near-bottom records. Seasonal and geographic variability of wind-induced flow were examined. The wind is most efficient in driving the subtidal currents in the 2-10 day frequency band during winter when the water column is well mixed and when the eastward component of the wind often induces and sustains an up-valley (northward) bottom flow. Maximum efficiency occurs for wind from 300° (WNW) and at sites located within the Hudson Shelf Valley. A continental shelf bottom boundary layer model (Glenn and Grant, 1987) was used to estimate resuspended sediment transport. Model inputs include bottom currents (observed), orbital wave velocities (estimated), and sediment grain size (from the literature). Model output indicates that sediment resuspension at the current meter sites occurs approximately 5% of the time, primarily during winter months. The difference in along-valley flux between two moorings provides a rough estimate (6-month time series) of deposition and erosion. The net deposition (+.02 mm) was no greater than the deposition and erosion resulting from individual storms. A three-dimensional circulation model (You et al., 1991) is applied to increase the spatial resolution of the near-bottom current field (4 km grid) for a storm event in May of 1987. Given these velocities that vary in space and time, the redistribution of sediment was modeled for different surface wave conditions. Areas of deposition aligned with the Hudson Shelf Valley due to less wave-induced resuspension in deeper waters. Given all the uncertainties in the input variables

  11. Coupling of wave and circulation models in coastal-ocean predicting systems: a case study for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staneva, J.; Wahle, K.; Günther, H.; Stanev, E.

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the impact of coupling between wind wave and circulation models on the quality of coastal ocean predicting systems. This is exemplified for the German Bight and its coastal area known as the Wadden Sea. The latter is the area between the barrier islands and the coast. This topic reflects the increased interest in operational oceanography to reduce prediction errors of state estimates at coastal scales, which in many cases are due to unresolved nonlinear feedback between strong tidal currents and wind-waves. In this study we present analysis of wave and hydrographic observations, as well as results of numerical simulations. A nested-grid modelling system is used to producing reliable nowcasts and short-term forecasts of ocean state variables, including wind waves and hydrodynamics. The data base includes ADCP observations and continuous measurements from data stations. The individual and collective role of wind, waves and tidal forcing are quantified. The performance of the forecast system is illustrated for the cases of several extreme events. Effects of ocean waves on coastal circulation and sea level are investigated by considering the wave-dependent stress and wave breaking parameterization. Also the effects which the circulation exerts on the wind waves are tested for the coastal areas using different parameterizations. The improved skill of the coupled forecasts compared to the non-coupled ones, in particular during extreme events, justifies the further enhancements of coastal operational systems by including wind wave models.

  12. Distribution of planktonic cnidarians in response to South Atlantic Central Water intrusion in the South Brazilian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico P.; Codina, Juan C. U.

    2014-10-01

    Five oceanographic cruises were made between November 2005 and June 2006, sampling a cross-shelf transect off the South Brazilian Bight (SBB; 26°46‧S) to follow the seasonal development of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) intrusion over the shelf and its influence on the assemblage of planktonic cnidarians. An onshore wind-driven bottom intrusion of the SACW was clearly perceptible, reaching the coast in January. From March onward, the SACW influence was gradually displaced seaward due to wind and tidal mixing. By late June the SACW influence was offshore and the inshore was dominated by low-salinity waters (<34.5). The abundance, distribution, and general taxonomic composition of both medusae and siphonophores were strongly influenced by the onshore intrusion of the SACW. An inshore-offshore gradient was clear. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggested that coastal species - dominated by Liriope tetraphylla, actinula larvae and Muggiaea kochi - were mostly related to food availability and a vertically mixed environment inshore, and their abundance and extent were reduced during intrusion periods. In contrast, species with offshore affinities tended to increase their abundance and distribution during intrusion periods, and were mostly related to the presence of thermal stratification and a deep chlorophyll maximum layer. Most of these offshore species, such as Aglaura hemistoma, Rhopalonema velatum and many calycophorans, are associated with the warm upper layer. However, high concentrations of large (>20 mm in diameter) Solmaris corona were observed exclusively in cold waters, suggesting this medusa is a SACW indicator.

  13. Long-term impact of bottom trawling on pelagic-benthic coupling in the southern North Sea (German Bight)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Neumann, Andreas; Naderipour, Celine; Janssen, Felix; Ahmerkamp, Soeren; Holtappels, Moritz; Schueckel, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The southern North Sea, and the German Bight, has been systematically bottom-trawled at least since the late 19th century (Christiansen, 2009; Reiss et al., 2009; Kröncke 2011; Emeis et al., 2015, Neumann et al., 2016). As a result, benthic habitats and benthic biogenic structures created by bivalves, polychaetes and hydroids where destroyed or reduced. The parallel removal of hard substrate (gravel and boulders) avoids the resettlement of hard-substrate depended species. For example, the Oyster ground, a huge oyster bank a hundred years ago (Olsen, 1883), turned into a muddy depression today. In addition, shallow depth of max 40 m, strong tidal currents and frequent storms result in a high-energy environment with low sedimentation rates and recurrent sediment resuspension. The decrease in benthic filtering capacity by disturbance in epifauna and bottom roughness (Callaway et al., 2007) apparently influence pelagic-benthic coupling of biogeochemical fluxes. Heip et al. (1995) indicate that benthic respiration at depths prevailing in the German Bight accounts for 10-40% of total respiration, whereas pelagic respiration accounts for 60-90%. Previous estimates are in the middle of this range (Heip et al., 1995). To test these hypotheses and to assess the partitioning of benthic and pelagic processes, and the factors influencing organic matter mineralization, we measured pelagic production and respiration based on Winkler titration, in-situ benthic fluxes using chamber landers, we did ex-situ incubations of intact sediment cores and analysed still images from a towed benthic video sled. In addition, O2 fluxes in permeable sediments were estimated by integrating the volumetric rate measurements of the upper sediment layer over in-situ microsensor-measured O2 penetration depth. Our current results show significant seasonality in benthic respiration, with highest rates in summer and lowest rates in winter. No significant differences in total benthic respiration rates

  14. Coupling of wave and circulation models in coastal-ocean predicting systems: a case study for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staneva, Joanna; Wahle, Kathrin; Günther, Heinz; Stanev, Emil

    2016-06-01

    This study addresses the impact of coupling between wave and circulation models on the quality of coastal ocean predicting systems. This is exemplified for the German Bight and its coastal area known as the Wadden Sea. The latter is the area between the barrier islands and the coast. This topic reflects the increased interest in operational oceanography to reduce prediction errors of state estimates at coastal scales, which in many cases are due to unresolved non-linear feedback between strong currents and wind waves. In this study we present analysis of wave and hydrographic observations, as well as results of numerical simulations. A nested-grid modelling system is used to produce reliable nowcasts and short-term forecasts of ocean state variables, including waves and hydrodynamics. The database includes ADCP observations and continuous measurements from data stations. The individual and combined effects of wind, waves and tidal forcing are quantified. The performance of the forecast system is illustrated for the cases of several extreme events. The combined role of wave effects on coastal circulation and sea level are investigated by considering the wave-dependent stress and wave breaking parameterization. Also the response, which the circulation exerts on the waves, is tested for the coastal areas. The improved skill of the coupled forecasts compared to the non-coupled ones, in particular during extreme events, justifies the further enhancements of coastal operational systems by including wave effects in circulation models.

  15. Seasonal and spatial patterns of Penilia avirostris and three tunicate species in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambler, Julie W.; Kumar, Ajoy; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Aulenbach, Donielle L.; Day, Melissa C.; Dix, Stephanie A.; Winsor, Michele A.

    2013-10-01

    The cladoceran Penilia avirostris and three tunicate species, Oikopleura dioica, Dolioletta gegenbauri and Thalia democratica, form a mesozooplankton group which ingests a wide range of particles from pico- to micro- plankton, grows rapidly due to asexual reproduction, and thus can have major impacts on phytoplankton populations. These four zooplankton species were the most abundant tunicate and cladoceran species in a study where zooplankton were sampled biweekly at five stations across the inner continental shelf in the Mid-Atlantic Bight in 2005, 2006 and 2007. Vertical tows were taken at shallow stations and depth stratified vertical tows at stations >10 m. P. avirostris and O. dioica had highly predictable seasonal cycles with peak abundances in July and August. D. gegenbauri also was present during this time period if upwelling favorable winds were present, which implies cross shelf transport from source populations in slope waters and the Gulf Stream. T. democratica only appeared in pulses when southerly winds were increasing in strength. The co-occurrence P. avirostris and the tunicate species with abundant Synechococcus and heterotrophic nanoflagellates during highly stratified summer conditions provide potential connections to microbial food webs as well as grazing opportunities on event scale blooms of dinoflagellate and diatoms species present in the area.

  16. Nontargeted biomonitoring of halogenated organic compounds in two ecotypes of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Shaul, Nellie J; Dodder, Nathan G; Aluwihare, Lihini I; Mackintosh, Susan A; Maruya, Keith A; Chivers, Susan J; Danil, Kerri; Weller, David W; Hoh, Eunha

    2015-02-01

    Targeted environmental monitoring reveals contamination by known chemicals, but may exclude potentially pervasive but unknown compounds. Marine mammals are sentinels of persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. Using nontargeted analysis, we constructed a mass spectral library of 327 persistent and bioaccumulative compounds identified in blubber from two ecotypes of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled in the Southern California Bight. This library of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) consisted of 180 anthropogenic contaminants, 41 natural products, 4 with mixed sources, 8 with unknown sources, and 94 with partial structural characterization and unknown sources. The abundance of compounds whose structures could not be fully elucidated highlights the prevalence of undiscovered HOCs accumulating in marine food webs. Eighty-six percent of the identified compounds are not currently monitored, including 133 known anthropogenic chemicals. Compounds related to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were the most abundant. Natural products were, in some cases, detected at abundances similar to anthropogenic compounds. The profile of naturally occurring HOCs differed between ecotypes, suggesting more abundant offshore sources of these compounds. This nontargeted analytical framework provided a comprehensive list of HOCs that may be characteristic of the region, and its application within monitoring surveys may suggest new chemicals for evaluation. PMID:25526519

  17. The modulation of the seasonal cross-shelf sea level variation by the cold pool in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Jin; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Liu, W. T.

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the influence of the cold pool in the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) to cross-shelf sea surface slope by fitting an annual harmonic to temperature and salinity profiles from 1993 to 2012 and compares to the 20 year averaged altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA). The consistency within the bottom temperature, thermal steric height, total steric height, and altimetry observation validates that the cold pool induces a depressed sea level in the middle shelf overlapping with the dominant surface seasonal cycles. Temporally, the cold pool pattern is most apparent in July and August as a result of magnitude competition between the thermal and haline steric height. In addition, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is employed to reconstruct the altimetry SLA and reveals the middle-shelf depression pattern from single year's SLA data. The locations of the SLA depression from 1993 to 2012 agree with the cold pool locations identified from in situ measurements, suggesting a promising application of altimetry SLA in the cold pool study. Conclusively, this study reveals the modulation of the cross-shelf sea level variation by the cold pool, and contributes to the understanding of the sea level response to water masses on the continental shelf.

  18. Coastal ocean climatology of temperature and salinity off the Southern California Bight: Seasonal variability, climate index correlation, and linear trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Yong; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-11-01

    A coastal ocean climatology of temperature and salinity in the Southern California Bight is estimated from conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) and bottle sample profiles collected by historical California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI) cruises (1950-2009; quarterly after 1984) off southern California and quarterly/monthly nearshore CTD surveys (within 30 km from the coast except for the surfzone; 1999-2009) off San Diego and Los Angeles. As these fields are sampled regularly in space, but not in time, conventional Fourier analysis may not be possible. The time dependent temperature and salinity fields are modeled as linear combinations of an annual cycle and its five harmonics, as well as three standard climate indices (El Niňo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)), the Scripps Pier temperature time series, and a mean and linear trend without time lags. Since several of the predictor indices are correlated, the indices are successively orthogonalized to eliminate ambiguity in the identification of the contributed variance of each component. Regression coefficients are displayed in both vertical transects and horizontal maps to evaluate (1) whether the temporal and spatial scales of the two data sets of nearshore and offshore observations are consistent and (2) how oceanic variability at a regional scale is related to variability in the nearshore waters. The data-derived climatology can be used to identify anomalous events and atypical behaviors in regional-scale oceanic variability and to provide background ocean estimates for mapping or modeling.

  19. Circulation and exchange processes on the South Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf: Progress report, July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.N.

    1989-03-01

    The work reported here is part of the Department of Energy sponsored Southeast US Continental Shelf Program. The DOE Program is a coordinated, multi-university, interdisciplinary investigation aimed at understanding the physical, chemical and biological processes in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB: east coast continental shelf region from Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral). The program is coordinated by Dr. David Menzel of Skidaway Oceanographic Institute. The activities of the other Program Investigators will be discussed briefly under Program Overview. The University of Miami component of the program involves an investigation of the physical processes regulating the transport and exchange of materials in the shelf waters. The guiding scientific objective of this work is to improve the capability for prediction of the physical environment. The principal scientific task is to determine the relative importance of the forces driving shelf circulation and exchange and to measure the shelf waters' response over variable time and space scales. The influence of physical processes on chemical and biological distributions and their interactions is studied through interdisciplinary investigations, joint analysis and interpretation of data and joint publications. 103 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Statistical and dynamical analysis of internal waves on the continental shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight from Space Shuttle photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Klemas, Vic

    1993-01-01

    The internal waves on the continental shelf on the Middle Atlantic Bight seen on Space Shuttle photographs taken during the STS-40 mission in June 1991 are measured and analyzed. The internal wave field in the sample area has a three-level structure which consists of packet groups, packets, and solitons. An average packet group wavelength of 17.5 km and an average soliton wavelength of 0.6 km are measured. Finite-depth theory is used to derive the dynamic parameters of the internal solitons: the maximum amplitude of 5.6 m, the characteristic phase speed of 0.42 m/s, the characteristic period of 23.8 min, the velocity amplitude of the water particles in the upper and lower layers of 0.13 m/s and 0.030 m/s respectively, and the theoretical energy per unit crest line of 6.8 x 10 exp 4 J/m. The frequency distribution of solitons is triple-peaked rather than continuous. The major generation source is at 160 m water depth, and a second is at 1800 m depth, corresponding to the upper and lower edges of the shelf break.

  1. Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight - Comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates. [Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Brown, J. W.; Clark, D. K.; Brown, O. B.; Evans, R. H.; Broenkow, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The processing algorithms used for relating the apparent color of the ocean observed with the Coastal-Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus-7 to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments (principally the pigment responsible for photosynthesis, chlorophyll-a) are developed and discussed in detail. These algorithms are applied to the shelf and slope waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight and also to Sargasso Sea waters. In all, four images are examined, and the resulting pigment concentrations are compared to continuous measurements made along ship tracks. The results suggest that over the 0.08-1.5 mg/cu m range, the error in the retrieved pigment concentration is of the order of 30-40% for a variety of atmospheric turbidities. In three direct comparisons between ship-measured and satellite-retrieved values of the water-leaving radiance, the atmospheric correction algorithm retrieved the water-leaving radiance with an average error of about 10%. This atmospheric correction algorithm does not require any surface measurements for its application.

  2. Long-term impact of bottom trawling on pelagic-benthic coupling in the southern North Sea (German Bight)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Neumann, Andreas; Naderipour, Celine; Janssen, Felix; Ahmerkamp, Soeren; Holtappels, Moritz; Schueckel, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The southern North Sea, and the German Bight, has been systematically bottom-trawled at least since the late 19th century (Christiansen, 2009; Reiss et al., 2009; Kröncke 2011; Emeis et al., 2015, Neumann et al., 2016). As a result, benthic habitats and benthic biogenic structures created by bivalves, polychaetes and hydroids where destroyed or reduced. The parallel removal of hard substrate (gravel and boulders) avoids the resettlement of hard-substrate depended species. For example, the Oyster ground, a huge oyster bank a hundred years ago (Olsen, 1883), turned into a muddy depression today. In addition, shallow depth of max 40 m, strong tidal currents and frequent storms result in a high-energy environment with low sedimentation rates and recurrent sediment resuspension. The decrease in benthic filtering capacity by disturbance in epifauna and bottom roughness (Callaway et al., 2007) apparently influence pelagic-benthic coupling of biogeochemical fluxes. Heip et al. (1995) indicate that benthic respiration at depths prevailing in the German Bight accounts for 10-40% of total respiration, whereas pelagic respiration accounts for 60-90%. Previous estimates are in the middle of this range (Heip et al., 1995). To test these hypotheses and to assess the partitioning of benthic and pelagic processes, and the factors influencing organic matter mineralization, we measured pelagic production and respiration based on Winkler titration, in-situ benthic fluxes using chamber landers, we did ex-situ incubations of intact sediment cores and analysed still images from a towed benthic video sled. In addition, O2 fluxes in permeable sediments were estimated by integrating the volumetric rate measurements of the upper sediment layer over in-situ microsensor-measured O2 penetration depth. Our current results show significant seasonality in benthic respiration, with highest rates in summer and lowest rates in winter. No significant differences in total benthic respiration rates

  3. A decadal trend study (1998-2008) of POPs in marine sediments at the south of the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Macías-Zamora, J V; Ramírez-Álvarez, N; Sánchez-Osorio, J L

    2014-09-01

    In this study we present a temporal analysis of two groups of persistent organic pollutants. We compare dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) collected in coastal sediment samples during 1998 and 2008 at the southern end of the Southern California Bight. Other group of organochlorine compounds (OCs) compared in this decadal analysis is the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). For DDTs, the most abundant isomer was dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene DDE followed by DDT. Although no statistically significant differences in total concentration were noticeable, composition-wise some differences were still observable. The fraction parameter FDDTe=p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT+p,p'-DDE) used as a measure of freshness of DDT use, is utilized here to show changes in composition. These changes are due to natural degradation of p,p-DDT under mostly oxic conditions. These changes indicate a slow transformation of DDT residues to DDE. In addition, during 1998, several stations (12 stations) showed concentrations above Effect Range Low (ERL) for the sum of DDTs while only six showed exceedance during 2008. The number of extreme values was also less frequently found in 2008 samples. For PCBs, we detected statistically significant changes, however, in both years the most abundant congeners were mostly heavy congeners (>PCB # 77) which may indicate old residues. PCBs concentrations were found in very low concentrations and do not appear to represent a danger to ecosystems. Possible explanations are offered as to the lack of observable temporal changes in concentration for DDTs in this important region. PMID:24555964

  4. Nontargeted Biomonitoring of Halogenated Organic Compounds in Two Ecotypes of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southern California Bight

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Targeted environmental monitoring reveals contamination by known chemicals, but may exclude potentially pervasive but unknown compounds. Marine mammals are sentinels of persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. Using nontargeted analysis, we constructed a mass spectral library of 327 persistent and bioaccumulative compounds identified in blubber from two ecotypes of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled in the Southern California Bight. This library of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) consisted of 180 anthropogenic contaminants, 41 natural products, 4 with mixed sources, 8 with unknown sources, and 94 with partial structural characterization and unknown sources. The abundance of compounds whose structures could not be fully elucidated highlights the prevalence of undiscovered HOCs accumulating in marine food webs. Eighty-six percent of the identified compounds are not currently monitored, including 133 known anthropogenic chemicals. Compounds related to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were the most abundant. Natural products were, in some cases, detected at abundances similar to anthropogenic compounds. The profile of naturally occurring HOCs differed between ecotypes, suggesting more abundant offshore sources of these compounds. This nontargeted analytical framework provided a comprehensive list of HOCs that may be characteristic of the region, and its application within monitoring surveys may suggest new chemicals for evaluation. PMID:25526519

  5. Simulation analysis of moored fluorometer time series from the Mid-Atlantic Bight during 1987--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the previous research during 1987-1990 within the DOE (Department of Energy) Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program in the Mid-Atlantic Bight was to understand the physical and biogeochemical processes effecting the diffusive exchange of the proxies of energy-related, by-products associated with particulate matter between estuarine, shelf, and slope waters on this continental margin. As originally envisioned in the SEEP program plan, SEEP-III would take place at Cape Hatteras to study the advective exchange of materials by a major boundary current. One problem of continuing interest is the determination of the local assimilative capacity of slope waters and sediments off the eastern seaboard of the US to lengthen the pathway between potentially harmful energy by-products and man. At basin scales, realistic specification of the lateral transport by western boundary currents of particulate matter is a necessary input to global models of carbon/nitrogen cycling. Finally, at these global scales, the generic role of continental margins in cycling greenhouse gases, e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, is now of equal interest. This continuing research of model construction and evaluation within the SEEP program focuses on all three questions at local, regional, and basin scales. Results from SEEP-I and II are discussed as well as plans for SEEP-III. 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. A continuous multi-millennial record of surficial bivalve mollusk shells from the São Paulo Bight, Brazilian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Troy A.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Krause, Richard A.; Barbour Wood, Susan L.; Simões, Marcello G.; Huntley, John Warren; Yanes, Yurena; Romanek, Christopher S.; Kowalewski, Michał

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the potential of using surficial shell accumulations for paleoenvironmental studies, an extensive time series of individually dated specimens of the marine infaunal bivalve mollusk Semele casali was assembled using amino acid racemization (AAR) ratios (n = 270) calibrated against radiocarbon ages (n = 32). The shells were collected from surface sediments at multiple sites across a sediment-starved shelf in the shallow sub-tropical São Paulo Bight (São Paulo State, Brazil). The resulting 14C-calibrated AAR time series, one of the largest AAR datasets compiled to date, ranges from modern to 10,307 cal yr BP, is right skewed, and represents a remarkably complete time series: the completeness of the Holocene record is 66% at 250-yr binning resolution and 81% at 500-yr binning resolution. Extensive time-averaging is observed for all sites across the sampled bathymetric range indicating long water depth-invariant survival of carbonate shells at the sediment surface with low net sedimentation rates. Benthic organisms collected from active depositional surfaces can provide multi-millennial time series of biomineral records and serve as a source of geochemical proxy data for reconstructing environmental and climatic trends throughout the Holocene at centennial resolution. Surface sediments can contain time-rich shell accumulations that record the entire Holocene, not just the present.

  7. Distinct Benthic Community Trends Driven by Particle Transport and Deposition in Mid-Atlantic Bight Canyons, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demopoulos, A. W.; Robertson, C. M.; Bourque, J. R.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Ross, S.; Brooke, S.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) is a well-studied region of the U.S. East coast continental margin, rich in submarine canyons. Baltimore and Norfolk canyons were studied during the multidisciplinary Atlantic Deepwater Canyons project through funding from BOEM, NOAA, and USGS. Sediment and water column properties were assessed in the context of canyon physical dynamics and ecosystem ecology. Sediment samples were collected by NIOZ box corer in 2012 and 2013 along canyon axes and comparative adjacent slopes at standardized depths. Sediments were analyzed for grain size, organic content, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, chlorophyll a, and benthic infauna. Water column properties were sampled using CTD transects, and benthic landers and moorings positioned along canyon axes. Significant differences in sediment transport regimes were found for each canyon where observed nepheloid layers corresponded to shifts in infaunal community structure. Significant community shifts were observed in stations at depths > 900m in Baltimore Canyon, coinciding with higher organic matter concentrations at depths below the nepheloid layer. In contrast, adjacent slope communities exhibited a more uniform infaunal assemblage where distinct zonation patterns by depth were observed. Preliminary data for Norfolk Canyon suggest very different sediment deposition rates in the canyon and also show clear differences between canyon and slope benthic communities. Geological processes and canyon topography coupled with organic inputs and disturbance events are clear factors in determining benthic infaunal diversity and standing stock dynamics in and around these canyons.

  8. Annual and seasonal evaluation of reproductive status in hornyhead turbot at municipal wastewater outfalls in the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Kristy L; Bay, Steven M; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Deng, Xin; Lu, Guanghua; Armstrong, Jeff; Gully, Joseph R; Schlenk, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Treated wastewater effluent containing endocrine-disrupting chemicals is discharged into the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB) daily. The present study investigated changes in indicators of reproductive health and environmental estrogen exposure in hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) near wastewater outfalls. Fish were collected from discharge areas, farfield stations, and a reference location in the SCB to examine spatial and temporal patterns. Fish from the Orange County outfall farfield site were younger and less sexually mature than fish from other sites. The sex ratio was skewed in some fish from outfall sites as well as from the Dana Point reference site. However, no consistent pattern in sex ratio was present over time. Low-level induction of vitellogenin was frequently observed in male fish from all sites, suggesting widespread exposure to estrogenic compounds, but did not appear to impact reproductive function as there was no incidence of gonad abnormalities (ova-testis). Analysis of historical hornyhead turbot trawl data indicated that populations are either increasing or stable in the SCB; thus, environmental estrogen exposure was not adversely impacting fish abundance. Additional research is needed to determine the cause of the estrogenic response in hornyhead turbot and whether the source of the estrogenic compounds is a consequence of historical contamination or of ongoing sources or representative of baseline characteristic of this species. PMID:22987602

  9. The recent arrival of the oceanic isopod Idotea metallica Bosc off Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea): an indication of a warming trend in the North Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, H.-D.; Gutow, L.; Janke, M.

    1998-09-01

    In 1988 a long-term study was started of the isopod fauna associated with surface drift material off Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea). In the summer of 1994 specimens of Idotea metallica Bosc were recorded for the first time. There is no evidence that this species has ever been present in the German Bight before. The samples contained males, both gravid and non-gravid females, and juveniles, indicating that the species reproduced successfully in the Helgoland region. Interbreeding of specimens from Helgoland and the western Mediterranean produced fertile off-spring. As a neustonic species, I. metallica shows a high natural capacity for dispersal. It thus seems unlikely that the arrival of the species in the North Sea resulted from an accidental introduction by man. We are probably witnessing an extension of the species’ geographical range by natural means of dispersal, as a response to recent changes in the ecological conditions of the German Bight. Temperature data measured by the Biologische Anstalt Helgoland since 1962 show that the last decade (except 1996) was characterized by unusually mild winters. Following the severe winter of 1996, I. metallica was again absent from the Helgoland region. After the subsequent mild winters (1997 and 1998), however, the species reappeared in the summer of 1998 with higher numbers than ever before. This suggests that the observed phenomena are closely connected with the recent temperature anomalies. I. metallica can be regarded as a potential immigrant to a warmer North Sea, and may be useful as a sensitive indicator of the predicted long-term warming trend.

  10. A study of sediment motions and bottom layer dynamics over the Middle Atlantic Bight shelf and upper slope. Final technical report, 1 June 1992--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    A study of sediment dynamics over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) in the vicinity of the Cape Hatteras Confluence (CHC), including the mouths of estuaries, the shelf and the slope, was carried out by investigators at North Carolina State University as part of the Department of Energy Ocean Margins Program. Studied were processes effecting sediment motion. In particular, the processes which determine rates of vertical transport of dissolved carbon dioxide and organic matter and particulates to and from the bottom by turbulent mixing resuspension and particulate sinking and vertical motions induced by BBL convergences; especially during periods of storm activity when both surface waves and currents are maxima.

  11. Measurement of Gulf Stream and wind induced shelf circulation in the South Atlantic Bight. Final report, June 1, 1982-May 31,1985

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    The report discusses a study to determine the relative importance of the forces driving shelf circulation and exchange in the South Atlantic Bight and to measure the shelf waters' response over variable time and space scales. Results indicate the outer shelf is controlled by Gulf Stream frontal disturbances such as wave-like meanders and eddy motions, the midshelf by local wind forcing with occasional Gulf Stream intrusions and density induced motions, and the inner shelf by density effects from fresh water river runoff. (ACR)

  12. Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem (South Brazilian Bight)

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Codina, Juan Carlos Ugaz

    2015-01-01

    The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45’S; 47°33’W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (>70 m); warm (>20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3–0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most species, which typically inhabit epipelagic warm waters. Even among migratory species, only a few (Aglaura hemistoma, Abylopsis tetragona eudoxids, Beroe sp., Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis) crossed the thermocline and reached the bottom layer. (ii) A general tendency of partial migrations, with variable intensity depending on the different species and developmental stages; populations tended to be more widely distributed through the water column during daylight, and to become more aggregated in the upper layer during the night, which can be explained based on the idea of the “hunger-satiation hypothesis”, maximizing feeding and minimizing the chances of being predated. PMID:26637179

  13. Analysis of phytoplankton distribution and community structure in the German Bight with respect to the different size classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollschläger, Jochen; Wiltshire, Karen Helen; Petersen, Wilhelm; Metfies, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Investigation of phytoplankton biodiversity, ecology, and biogeography is crucial for understanding marine ecosystems. Research is often carried out on the basis of microscopic observations, but due to the limitations of this approach regarding detection and identification of picophytoplankton (0.2-2 μm) and nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm), these investigations are mainly focused on the microphytoplankton (20-200 μm). In the last decades, various methods based on optical and molecular biological approaches have evolved which enable a more rapid and convenient analysis of phytoplankton samples and a more detailed assessment of small phytoplankton. In this study, a selection of these methods (in situ fluorescence, flow cytometry, genetic fingerprinting, and DNA microarray) was placed in complement to light microscopy and HPLC-based pigment analysis to investigate both biomass distribution and community structure of phytoplankton. As far as possible, the size classes were analyzed separately. Investigations were carried out on six cruises in the German Bight in 2010 and 2011 to analyze both spatial and seasonal variability. Microphytoplankton was identified as the major contributor to biomass in all seasons, followed by the nanophytoplankton. Generally, biomass distribution was patchy, but the overall contribution of small phytoplankton was higher in offshore areas and also in areas exhibiting higher turbidity. Regarding temporal development of the community, differences between the small phytoplankton community and the microphytoplankton were found. The latter exhibited a seasonal pattern regarding number of taxa present, alpha- and beta-diversity, and community structure, while for the nano- and especially the picophytoplankton, a general shift in the community between both years was observable without seasonality. Although the reason for this shift remains unclear, the results imply a different response of large and small phytoplankton to environmental influences.

  14. Dissolved organic carbon fluxes in the Middle Atlantic Bight: An integrated approach based on satellite data and ocean model products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Signorini, Sergio R.; Novak, Michael G.; Wilkin, John; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Najjar, Raymond G.

    2016-02-01

    Continental margins play an important role in global carbon cycle, accounting for 15-21% of the global marine primary production. Since carbon fluxes across continental margins from land to the open ocean are not well constrained, we undertook a study to develop satellite algorithms to retrieve dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and combined these satellite data with physical circulation model products to quantify the shelf boundary fluxes of DOC for the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). Satellite DOC was computed through seasonal relationships of DOC with colored dissolved organic matter absorption coefficients, which were derived from an extensive set of in situ measurements. The multiyear time series of satellite-derived DOC stocks (4.9 Teragrams C; Tg) shows that freshwater discharge influences the magnitude and seasonal variability of DOC on the continental shelf. For the 2010-2012 period studied, the average total estuarine export of DOC into the MAB shelf is 0.77 Tg C yr-1 (year). The integrated DOC tracer fluxes across the shelf boundaries are 12.1 Tg C yr-1 entering the MAB from the southwest alongshore boundary, 18.5 Tg C yr-1 entering the MAB from the northeast alongshore boundary, and 29.0 Tg C yr-1 flowing out of the MAB across the entire length of the 100 m isobath. The magnitude of the cross-shelf DOC flux is quite variable in time (monthly) and space (north to south). The highly dynamic exchange of water along the shelf boundaries regulates the DOC budget of the MAB at subseasonal time scales.

  15. Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem (South Brazilian Bight).

    PubMed

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Codina, Juan Carlos Ugaz

    2015-01-01

    The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45'S; 47°33'W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (>70 m); warm (>20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3-0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most species, which typically inhabit epipelagic warm waters. Even among migratory species, only a few (Aglaura hemistoma, Abylopsis tetragona eudoxids, Beroe sp., Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis) crossed the thermocline and reached the bottom layer. (ii) A general tendency of partial migrations, with variable intensity depending on the different species and developmental stages; populations tended to be more widely distributed through the water column during daylight, and to become more aggregated in the upper layer during the night, which can be explained based on the idea of the "hunger-satiation hypothesis", maximizing feeding and minimizing the chances of being predated. PMID:26637179

  16. Modeling larval connectivity of the Atlantic surfclams within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Model development, larval dispersal and metapopulation connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Haidvogel, Dale; Munroe, Daphne; Powell, Eric N.; Klinck, John; Mann, Roger; Castruccio, Frederic S.

    2015-02-01

    To study the primary larval transport pathways and inter-population connectivity patterns of the Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, a coupled modeling system combining a physical circulation model of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), Georges Bank (GBK) and the Gulf of Maine (GoM), and an individual-based surfclam larval model was implemented, validated and applied. Model validation shows that the model can reproduce the observed physical circulation patterns and surface and bottom water temperature, and recreates the observed distributions of surfclam larvae during upwelling and downwelling events. The model results show a typical along-shore connectivity pattern from the northeast to the southwest among the surfclam populations distributed from Georges Bank west and south along the MAB shelf. Continuous surfclam larval input into regions off Delmarva (DMV) and New Jersey (NJ) suggests that insufficient larval supply is unlikely to be the factor causing the failure of the population to recover after the observed decline of the surfclam populations in DMV and NJ from 1997 to 2005. The GBK surfclam population is relatively more isolated than populations to the west and south in the MAB; model results suggest substantial inter-population connectivity from southern New England to the Delmarva region. Simulated surfclam larvae generally drift for over one hundred kilometers along the shelf, but the distance traveled is highly variable in space and over time. Surfclam larval growth and transport are strongly impacted by the physical environment. This suggests the need to further examine how the interaction between environment, behavior, and physiology affects inter-population connectivity. Larval vertical swimming and sinking behaviors have a significant net effect of increasing larval drifting distances when compared with a purely passive model, confirming the need to include larval behavior.

  17. On the mass and salt budgets for a region of the continental shelf in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoo Yin; Weatherly, Georges L.; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.

    2001-12-01

    Two field studies were conducted across and along the continental shelf, one from February to May 1996 (deployment 1) and the other from July to October 1996 (deployment 2), in part to determine the mass and salt budgets of shelf water from south of Cape Henry to north of Cape Hatteras, the southernmost portion of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The temporal means of current meter records indicated that most of the water enters the region across its northern boundary near the shelf break as part of a southward, alongshore current and exits the southeast corner as a southeastward flowing current. Estimates of the volume transports indicated that not all the transport across the northern boundary was accounted for by transport across the southern boundary, and that the remainder occurred as a broad, diffusive flow across the eastern boundary at the shelf break. Time series of volume transport across northern and southern boundaries were very similar and associated with variations in the alongshore wind stress and sea level, indicative of a geostrophic balance. Examination of the individual current meter records indicated these fluctuations were very barotropic even during deployment 2, which included the stratified summer season. Time series of the volume transport across the eastern boundary at the shelf break strongly mirrored the volume transport across the northern boundary minus that across the southern boundary, suggesting that the inferred eastern boundary transport was real and accommodated whatever the southern boundary could not. The turbulent salt flux across each boundary contributes very little to the net respective mass fluxes because the salt fluxes are almost governed by current velocity fields. The instantaneous and mean salt fluxes across each boundary were very well approximated by the instantaneous and mean volume transports across the boundary times the deployment average salinity across that boundary, respectively. The Ocean Margins Program (OMP) moored

  18. Mapping and Monitoring of Dynamic Seafloor Features with Hydroacoustic Devices in Sandy Coastal Areas (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenmeier, S.; Mielck, F.; Hass, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand marine ecosystems and to provide basic data for a sustainable management in these vulnerable areas, seafloor mapping has become increasingly important. Since the knowledge regarding the seabed environments and their dynamics are still sparse, new mapping techniques have evolved in the last years and hydroacoustic devices became an important tool for quick and reliable mapping. In 2007 we started a monitoring program in the German Bight (North Sea) using sidescan sonar (Imagenex YellowFin, 330 kHz) in a study site comprising approximately 1,500 km2. In subsequent years, the area was mapped repeatedly with a resolution of ~25 cm. For ground truthing, several hundred sediment samples were taken. The investigations reveal that the area is mainly characterized by fine to coarse sand which is arranged in different seafloor features such as subaquatic dunes or relicts of Pleistocene moraines. While the alignment and position of the moraines was stable throughout the years, the dunes can be highly dynamic. Their migration indicates the amount of sediment transport in these areas. Some seafloor features could be identified as so-called sorted bedforms, which are spatially-grain-size-sorted patterns on the seafloor consisting of small rippled medium sand surrounded by smooth fine sand. These flow-transverse features are morphological linked to ridges and depressions and are further maintained by ebb and flood currents of almost equal strengths. The medium sand is separated from the fine sand by sharp boundaries in all directions which were generated by the bidirectional flow field. The extend and alignment of the sorted bedforms seem to be relatively stable in a time frame of 6 years, however small-scale variabilities up to serveral meters could be detected. We suppose that these processes mainly occur during storm surges while the fine-sand layers are winnowed away and hence the shapes of the bedforms changes.

  19. Mobile demersal megafauna at artificial structures in the German Bight - Likely effects of offshore wind farm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone, R.; Gutow, L.; Brey, T.; Dannheim, J.; Schröder, A.

    2013-07-01

    Within the next few decades, large underwater structures of thousands of wind turbines in the northern European shelf seas will substantially increase the amount of habitat available for mobile demersal megafauna. As a first indication of the possible effects of this large scale habitat creation on faunal stocks settling on hard substrata, we compared selected taxa of the mobile demersal megafauna (decapods and fish) associated with the foundation of an offshore research platform (a wind-power foundation equivalent) with those of five shipwrecks and different areas of soft bottoms in the southern German Bight, North Sea. When comparing the amount of approximately 5000 planned wind-power foundations (covering 5.1 × 106 m2 of bottom area) with the existing number of at least 1000 shipwrecks (covering 1.2 × 106 m2 of bottom area), it becomes clear that the southern North Sea will provide about 4.3 times more available artificial hard substratum habitats than currently available. With regard to the fauna found on shipwrecks, on soft substrata and on the investigated wind-power foundation, we predict that the amount of added hard substrata will allow the stocks of substrata-limited mobile demersal hard bottom species to increase by 25-165% in that area. The fauna found at the offshore platform foundations is very similar to that at shipwrecks. Megafauna abundances at the foundations, however, are lower compared to those at the highly fractured wrecks and are irregularly scattered over the foundations. The upper regions of the platform construction (5 and 15 m depth) were only sparsely colonized by mobile fauna, the anchorages, however, more densely. The faunal assemblages from the shipwrecks and the foundations, respectively, as well as from the soft bottoms clearly differed from each other. We predict that new wind-power foundations will support the spread of hard bottom fauna into soft bottom areas with low wreck densities.

  20. Evaluation of the diagenetic role of iron as a sulfide buffer at Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, B.; Meyers, S. R.; Alperin, M.

    2009-12-01

    Iron availability has critical impacts on primary productivity (micronutrient for cyanobacteria) and organic matter decomposition, as well as sedimentary diagenesis. This study is investigating the hypothesis that changes in iron concentration within marine sediments can control organic matter burial, via early diagenetic processes that impact pore water sulfide concentration (iron sulfidization), and phosphorus return flux to the water column (iron scavenging phosphorus and changing redox condition within sediments). The initial phase of this study is specifically focused on the diagenetic role of iron as a sulfide buffer in pore water, and its impact on bioturbation/bioirrigation. In this presentation, we outline a new approach to investigate the biogeochemistry of iron during early diagenesis, using controlled laboratory macrocosm experiments. Organic-rich coastal marine sediments were collected from Cape Lookout Bight (Outer Banks, North Carolina), a shallow coastal marine environment (depth < 8m) with an oxygenated water column, but organic-rich sediments dominated by sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. The uppermost portion of each sediment core was amended with synthetic sediment composed of kaolinite, variable amounts of hematite, and a geochemical tracer used to monitor bioturbation (samarium). The impact of iron concentration on oxygen penetration depth and bioturbation/bioirrigation is assessed using (1) detailed contour mapping of oxygen microelectrode measurements, and (2) X-ray fluorescence scanning of sub cores, which allows quantification for bioturbation induced samarium redistribution. The results from the experiments and employed statistical approaches (linear regressions and ANOVA) suggest that the oxygen penetration depth is determined by the number of the organisms in the sediments and the amount of iron addition. Future macrocosm study will develop quantitative diagenetic models that can provide insights for investigations of ancient

  1. In vivo bioassay-guided fractionation of marine sediment extracts from the Southern California Bight, USA, for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Schlenk, Daniel; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Irwin, Mary Ann; Xie, Lingtian; Hwang, Wendy; Reddy, Sharanya; Brownawell, Bruce J; Armstrong, Jeff; Kelly, Mike; Montagne, David E; Kolodziej, Edward P; Sedlak, David; Snyder, Shane

    2005-11-01

    The exposure and uptake of environmental estrogenic compounds have been reported in previous studies of demersal flatfish species in the central Southern California Bight (SCB), USA. The objective of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic or feminizing activity of marine sediments from the SCB by using in vivo vitellogenin (VTG) assays in male or juvenile fish. In 2003, sediments were collected near wastewater outfalls serving the counties of Los Angeles (LACSD) and Orange (OCSD), and the city of San Diego (SD), California, USA. Cultured male California halibut (CH; Paralichthys californicus) were either directly exposed to sediments for 7 d or treated with two intraperitoneal injections of sediment extract over 7 d. The 17beta-estradiol (E2) equivalent values ranged from 1 to 90 microg/kg with LACSD > SD > OCSD. Measurable concentrations of E2 were observed in all sediment extracts and ranged from 0.16 to 0.45 ng/g. Estrone (El) was only observed in sediments near the LACSD outfall (0.6 ng/g). Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates were observed in all sediment samples, but were highest near the OCSD outfall, where concentrations of nonylphenol were 3,200 ng/g. Fractionation studies of the LACSD sediment extract collected in 2004 failed to demonstrate relationships between VTG expression and 62 analytes, including E2, which was observed in the whole extract (2.9 ng/g). Oxybenzone (1.6 ng/g) was identified in bioactive fractions as well as unknown compounds of relatively high polarity. These results indicate that estrogen receptor-based assays may underestimate environmental estrogenic activity and estrogenic compounds other than classic natural and xenoestrogens may contribute to estrogenic activity of sediments from the SCB. PMID:16398118

  2. Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Composition of Dissolved Sulfate in Interstitial Waters of the Great Australian Bight, ODP Leg 182.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, S. M.; Böttcher, M. E.; Wormann, U. G.

    2005-12-01

    We measured the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of dissolved sulfides and sulfate at ODP Sites 1129, 1130, 1131 and 1132 in the Great Australian Bight (GAB). At all Sites, a saline brine is present in the subsurface as indicated by increasing chloride concentrations with depth to reach contents up to 3 times seawater. Sulfate also increases with depth but the concentrations are reduced by intense microbial sulfate reduction. The sulfur isotope fractionation between coexisting dissolved sulfate and sulfide is very large and reaches up to 70 ‰ at all studied Sites. Due to the high sulfide concentrations and the lack of a significant source of oxidants we consider that the large sulfur isotope fractionations are induced by sulfate reducing bacteria alone without a significant contribution of elemental sulfur disproportionation and sulfide oxidation processes. The oxygen isotope composition of dissolved sulfate reaches maximum values of approximately +27 ‰ vs. VSMOW at all sites, close to the equilibrium isotope fractionation between sulfate and water. The oxygen isotope composition of dissolved sulfate positively correlates with the sulfur isotope fractionation between sulfate and sulfide. These oxygen isotope data thus support the hypothesis that that the high sulfur isotope fractionation are related to a single step fractionation by sulfate reducing bacteria and do not involve significant sulfide oxidation reactions and/or elemental sulfur disproportionation. Sulfide oxidation processes would lead to a lowering of the oxygen isotope composition of residual sulfate. Elemental sulfur disproportionation has been shown to increase the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate but to a smaller extent than that that observed in the GAB. The patterns of the oxygen isotope increase with progressive sulfate reduction indicate a predominant influence of isotope exchange rather than a kinetic isotope fractionation controlling the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate

  3. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Particulate and Dissolved Organic Matter in the Mississippi River Bight From Optical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DSa, E. J.; Miller, R. L.; DelCastillo, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Mississippi River Bight is a highly dynamic region influenced by the seasonally variable outflow from the Mississippi River. In an effort to characterize the distribution of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the region, we conducted a two-year field program in the spring and fall (high and low flow river discharge) of 2000 and 2002. We collected a comprehensive set of bio-optical measurements consisting of vertical profiles (absorption, scattering, chlorophyll fluorescence and radiometry) and discrete measurements (pigment concentrations, particulate and CDOM absorption) that enabled us to obtain better insight into the seasonal and spatial variability of some important biogeochemical parameters. Our field measurements generally showed higher phytoplankton clorophyll concentrations in the plume waters (associated with lower surface salinities) and confirmed the high biological activity abserved in other studies. The seasonal flow of river discharge and advective currents due to wind forcing exerted a strong influence on the biological and optical properties of the region. An examination of absorption at 440 nm by the algal and non-algal fraction of the particulate pool and of CDOM revealed that at nearshore stations, contributions by the non-algal particles were high (about 40%) and decresed with increasing salinities. While CDOM absorption exhibited conservative mixing, its relative contribution to the total absorption was variable. Surface waters at most stations had lower salinities that generalliy increased with dept. Particulate matter and CDOM also decreased with depth as evidenced by absorption and scattering measurements. Good correlations in surface waters between concentrations of particulate and dissolved matter, the inherent optical properties of absorption and ackscattering and remote sensing reflectance values has allowed the development of robust empirical algorithms for phytoplankton chlorophyll and CDOM absorption.

  4. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  5. The barred grunt Conodon nobilis (Perciformes: Haemulidae) in shallow areas of a tropical bight: spatial and temporal distribution, body growth and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pombo, Maíra; Denadai, Márcia Regina; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flávia Borges; de Faria, Vanessa Hermann; Turra, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the population biology of Conodon nobilis (Perciformes, Haemulidae) in Caraguatatuba Bight, southeastern Brazil. Monthly trawls were performed from October 2003 through October 2004 in two areas of the bight that are similar to but distant from each other, South and North. For all specimens, the size was measured and the sex and reproductive stage identified. Abundance and size were compared over areas and months. Body growth parameters were parameterized according to the Von Bertalanffy growth function. The stomach contents were identified and quantified. C. nobilis occurred mainly in the North area and showed an erratic pattern of abundance over time. Several cohorts entered in different periods, but very few large and mature individuals were observed. The results indicate a preference for shallow, ocean-influenced habitats and some degree of segregation between young and older individuals. The species showed a distribution consistent with an r-strategist species, with high abundance and a high growth constant ( K = 0.68 year-1 and L max = 34.2 cm). Both the relative length of the digestive tube and the prey items indicated a carnivorous feeding habit; mysids were the main item of the diet throughout the study period, indicating that this grunt is a specialist feeder. Other frequently observed items were amphipods and fish fragments. Ingestion of scales is possibly intentional.

  6. USE OF δ13C, δ15N AND CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIOS TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF SEWAGE DERIVED PARTICULATE ORGANIC MATTER ON THE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES OF THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) measurements of particulate organic matter (POM) sources and benthic organic matter (OM) compartments, and sediment C/N ratios from the coastal area of the southern end of the Southern California Bight (SCB). We use ...

  7. Temporal and spatial patterns in wind stress and wind stress curl over the central Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Robertson, George L.

    2012-04-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, together with several other federal and municipal agencies, began a series of field programs to determine along and cross-shelf transport patterns over the continental shelves in the central Southern California Bight. As a part of these programs, moorings that monitor winds were deployed off the Palos Verdes peninsula and within San Pedro Bay for six 3-4 month summer and winter periods between 2001 and 2008. In addition, nearly continuous records of winds for this 7-year period were obtained from a terrestrial site at the coast and from a basin site offshore of the long-term coastal site. The mean annual winds are downcoast at all sites. The alongshelf components of wind stress, which are the largest part of the low-frequency wind stress fields, are well correlated between basin, shelf and coastal sites. On average, the amplitude of alongshelf fluctuations in wind stress are 3-4 times larger over the offshore basin, compared to the coastal site, irrespective of whether the fluctuations represent the total, or just the correlated portion of the wind stress field. The curl in the large-scale wind stress tends to be positive, especially in the winter season when the mean wind stress is downcoast and larger at the offshore basin site than at the beach. However, since the fluctuation in wind stress amplitudes are usually larger than the mean, periods of weak negative curl do occur, especially in the summer season when the largest normalized differences in the amplitude of wind stress fluctuations are found in the nearshore region of the coastal ocean. Even though the low-frequency wind stress field is well-correlated over the continental shelf and offshore basins, out to distances of 35 km or more from the coast, winds even 10 km inshore of the beach do not represent the coastal wind field, at least in the summer months. The seasonal changes in the spatial structures in wind stress amplitudes suggest that an assessment of the

  8. Drifter observations of the effects of shoals and tidal-currents on wave evolution in San Francisco Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearman, D. W.; Herbers, T. H. C.; Janssen, T. T.; van Ettinger, H. D.; McIntyre, S. A.; Jessen, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed observations of wave evolution and wave-current interaction in tidal inlets and river mouths are practically non-existent. This is in part due to the practical difficulty of installing and maintaining fixed instruments in this harsh environment with large waves, strong currents, dynamic seabed morphology, and often busy ship traffic, but also due to the fact that it is difficult to resolve the spatial variability and evolution of the wave and current field from an array of point measurements. This work explores the use of newly developed small, free-drifting buoys to collect wave and current measurements in a coastal inlet. The instruments, referred to as wave-resolving drifters (or WRD), are small and lightweight enough so that they can be deployed and retrieved from small vessels, and relatively inexpensive so that large numbers can be used. The surface-following drifters resolve the three-dimensional wave orbital motion and surface current field by combining GPS and accelerometer measurements. We validate the WRD platform and its sensor package in open ocean conditions in Monterey Bay by comparing the WRD observations to observations made by a collocated 40 cm-diameter Datawell Waverider buoy. To study wave evolution in the San Francisco Bight, 30 WRDs are deployed near the San Francisco Bay entrance (Golden Gate) during peak ebb tide so that the drifters flow out of the bay, and into the incident wave field. Wave statistics are estimated through local ensemble averaging of drifter observations, and ensemble-averaged wave spectra are used to capture the wave evolution through the inlet area. Comparisons with numerical simulations of the simulating waves near shore (SWAN) model help identify the various processes acting on different frequency ranges of the wave field, and ray diagrams show the distinct effects of refraction by variable depth on the lower-frequency swells and refraction by currents on the higher-frequency wind waves. This combined

  9. Inorganic and organic nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stratified Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Paul B.; Sanderson, Marta P.; Frischer, Marc E.; Brofft, Jennifer; Booth, Melissa G.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Bronk, Deborah A.

    2010-08-01

    Little is known about the relative importance of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) sources in fueling production of phytoplankton versus heterotrophic bacteria on the continental shelf. This issue was addressed during two diel experiments conducted in the Mid-Atlantic Bight at the Long-term Ecosystem Observatory, LEO-15, off southern New Jersey. Uptake of 15N-labeled ammonium (NH 4+), nitrate (NO 3-), and nitrite (NO 2-), and dual-labeled ( 15N and 13C) urea and dissolved free amino acids was measured in water taken from the surface and bottom mixed layers approximately every 4 h over two 24 h periods in July 2002. Two methods were used to quantify 15N uptake rates: (1) traditional filtration into various phytoplankton and bacterial size classes, and (2) flow cytometric (FCM) sorting of autotrophic cells based on the presence of chlorophyll autofluorescence. Due to a strong pycnocline, the nutrient composition was quite distinct between the surface and bottom mixed layers. Dissolved organic N (DON) comprised >99% of the total dissolved N (TDN) pool in surface waters, whereas the bottom-water TDN pool was roughly divided between NH 4+, NO 3-, and DON. Urea was the dominant N form used by all fractions at the surface, and although phytoplankton >3 μm was responsible for most of the urea uptake, bacterial use was detected using stable isotopes and also suggested by ureC sequence analysis. The majority of ureC sequences recovered from the 0.2-0.8 μm fraction belonged to members of the Alphaproteobacteria (46%), whereas those of the 0.8-3.0 μm size class consisted primarily of Cyanobacteria (70%). In contrast to the surface, N uptake in the bottom layer was dominated by NH 4+. The bacterial fraction was responsible for 20-49% of the size-fractionated NH 4+ and NO 3- uptake in surface samples and 36-93% at the bottom. These results suggest that organic N, such as urea, is a viable source of N nutrition to phytoplankton forced to compete with heterotrophic bacteria

  10. Influence of tides on the sea breeze in the German Bight: How much model complexity is needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischereit, Jana; Heinke Schlünzen, K.; Gierisch, Andrea M. U.; Grawe, David; Petrik, Ronny; Hübner, Udo; Backhaus, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The state of the atmosphere near the coast is affected by the interaction of atmosphere and ocean. Thus, in order to predict the state of the atmosphere in coastal areas correctly, different oceanic characteristics and processes need to be considered. The goal of the present study is to identify whether tidal effects are relevant for the prediction of sea breezes at the German North Sea coast. For that an atmosphere model was extended to simulate the ocean in different complexities, leading to a coupled ocean-atmosphere-model. In contrast to many other studies the present study considers a two-way-coupling for momentum. That is, the simulation not only consideres a transfer of momentum from the atmosphere to the ocean but also a transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere. The model system is tested for a sea breeze situation, which is a common phenomenon in the German Bight in May and June. Six different scenarios with a grid size of 1.5 km are calculated: Inundated/dry mudflats for the entire simulation, high/low tide at Heligoland at midday and high/low tide at Heligoland at midday with a two-way-coupling for momentum. Tides influence sea breezes in two ways. Firstly, they influence the heat budget in coastal areas, as mudflats are inundated and fall dry. The study reveals that the air temperature in 10 m height follows the tidal cycle and thus reflects an inundated scenario during high tide and a dry scenario during low tide, respectively. Because of the alternation of the air temperature above the mudflats, the temperature gradient between land and sea areas is influenced, which modifies the sea breeze development. A time difference of one hour is found for the formation of the sea breeze front and its related cloud formation between those scenarios where low tide and high tide occur at midday respectively. Also the inland penetration of sea breezes is influenced by tides: with incoming tide their fronts are moved further inland. Secondly, tidal currents

  11. Temporal and spatial patterns in wind stress and wind stress curl over the central Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Robertson, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, together with several other federal and municipal agencies, began a series of field programs to determine along and cross-shelf transport patterns over the continental shelves in the central Southern California Bight. As a part of these programs, moorings that monitor winds were deployed off the Palos Verdes peninsula and within San Pedro Bay for six 3–4 month summer and winter periods between 2001 and 2008. In addition, nearly continuous records of winds for this 7-year period were obtained from a terrestrial site at the coast and from a basin site offshore of the long-term coastal site. The mean annual winds are downcoast at all sites. The alongshelf components of wind stress, which are the largest part of the low-frequency wind stress fields, are well correlated between basin, shelf and coastal sites. On average, the amplitude of alongshelf fluctuations in wind stress are 3–4 times larger over the offshore basin, compared to the coastal site, irrespective of whether the fluctuations represent the total, or just the correlated portion of the wind stress field. The curl in the large-scale wind stress tends to be positive, especially in the winter season when the mean wind stress is downcoast and larger at the offshore basin site than at the beach. However, since the fluctuation in wind stress amplitudes are usually larger than the mean, periods of weak negative curl do occur, especially in the summer season when the largest normalized differences in the amplitude of wind stress fluctuations are found in the nearshore region of the coastal ocean. Even though the low-frequency wind stress field is well-correlated over the continental shelf and offshore basins, out to distances of 35 km or more from the coast, winds even 10 km inshore of the beach do not represent the coastal wind field, at least in the summer months. The seasonal changes in the spatial structures in wind stress amplitudes suggest that an assessment of the

  12. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin – Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers

    PubMed Central

    Larmuseau, Maarten H. D.; Vessi, Andrea; Jobling, Mark A.; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Ottoni, Claudio; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample. Therefore, the uniquely

  13. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin - Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vessi, Andrea; Jobling, Mark A; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Ottoni, Claudio; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample. Therefore, the uniquely

  14. Analysis of Thematic Mapper data for studying the suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Stoessel, M.; Brockmann, C.; Grassl, H.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data were analyzed with respect to its capability for mapping the complex structure and dynamics of suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea). Three independent pieces of information were found by factor analysis of all seven TM channels: suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature. For the required atmospheric correction, the signal-to-noise ratios of Channels 5 and 7 have to be improved by averaging over 25 x 25 pixels, which also makes it possible to monitor the aerosol optical depth and aerosol type over cloud-free water surfaces. Near-surface suspended matter concentrations may be detected with an accuracy of factor less than 2 by using an algorithm derived from radiative transfer model calculation. The patchiness of suspended matter and its relation to underwater topography was analyzed with autocorrelation and cross-correlation.

  15. Sea floor cycling of organic matter in the continental margin of the mid-Atlantic Bight. Final report, May 1, 1995--April 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this project was to examine quantitatively the cycling of organic matter at the sea floor of the mid-Atlantic Bight continental margin. This information would be used to better understand sedimentary geochemical processes and, when used in conjunction with other measurements made within the DOE Ocean Margins Program, would be used to constrain the offshore and surface-to-deep water transport of organic carbon in this region. The latter information is critical in assessing the role of continental margins in the sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, the dominant greenhouse gas, in the deep ocean. Because the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may cause significant changes in climate, this project had major societal importance.

  16. Biogeochemical and Optical Analysis of Coastal DOM for Satellite Retrieval of Terrigenous DOM in the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, A.; Dyda, R. Y.; Hernes, P. J.; Hooker, Stan; Hyde, Kim; Novak, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Estuaries and coastal ocean waters experience a high degree of variability in the composition and concentration of particulate and dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a consequence of riverine/estuarine fluxes of terrigenous DOM, sediments, detritus and nutrients into coastal waters and associated phytoplankton blooms. Our approach integrates biogeochemical measurements (elemental content, molecular analyses), optical properties (absorption) and remote sensing to examine terrestrial DOM contributions into the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). We measured lignin phenol composition, DOC and CDOM absorption within the Chesapeake and Delaware Bay mouths, plumes and adjacent coastal ocean waters to derive empirical relationships between CDOM and biogeochemical measurements for satellite remote sensing application. Lignin ranged from 0.03 to 6.6 ug/L between estuarine and outer shelf waters. Our results demonstrate that satellite-derived CDOM is useful as a tracer of terrigenous DOM in the coastal ocean

  17. Long-term changes of the annual cycles of meteorological, hydrographic, nutrient and phytoplankton time series at Helgoland and at LV ELBE 1 in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radach, Günther; Berg, Joachim; Hagmeier, Erik

    1990-04-01

    Long-term series of meteorological standard observations at LV ELBE 1, together with those of temperature, salinity, plant nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at Helgoland Reede in the German Bight, are investigated with respect to the changes of the annual cycles during the 23 years from 1962 to 1984. Most meteorological and oceanographic parameters exhibit unchanged annual cycles within natural variability, except for the air and sea surface temperatures which show an overall increase of about 1°C per 23 years. Conspicuous changes in the annual cycles are observed for the nutrients phosphate, nitrate, nitrite (all strongly increasing) and silicate (decreasing). Phytoplankton biomass increased as a result of the extreme increase of flagellates, although diatoms decreased slightly. This and the shifting and shortening of the nutrient depletion phases are indicative of a strong change in the ecosystem. The changes seem mainly to be because of anthropogenic eutrophication, over-riding possible influences of large-scale climatic changes.

  18. Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

  19. Biological interactions and their role in community structure in the rocky intertidal of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke, Klaus

    1990-06-01

    Over 3 successive seasonal cycles (April 1986 to October 1988), field experiments were established within 3 intertidal levels in the sheltered rocky intertidal of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight). Competitors for space ( Mytilus edulis, macroalgae), herbivores ( Littorina spp.) and predators ( Carcinus maenas) were either excluded from areas (0.25 m2) covered by undisturbed communities or enclosed at natural densities on areas that were cleared before of animals and plants. All the experimental fields (each 0.25 m2) were covered by cages with 4 mm gauze at the sides and a plexiglas top. The results of the experiments in the upper intertidal (occupied by Littorina spp. and Enteromorpha) showed that a natural density of herbivores could not prevent algal settlement and had only little influence on algal growth. Instead abiotic factors (storms, algae washed ashore) decreased the stock of the green algae. Experiments in the mid intertidal, dominated by Mytilus (50% cover), Fucus spp. (20%) and grazing L. littorea (100 ind. m-2) showed that community structure was directly changed both by grazing periwinkles and by competition for space between mussels and macroalgae. Whenever Littorina was excluded, the canopy of Fucus spp. increased continuously and reached total cover within two years. In addition to the increase of Fucus spp., the rock surface and the mussel shells were overgrown by Ulva pseudocurvata, which covered the experimental fields during parts of the summer in the absence of herbivores. As soon as perennial species (fucoids) covered most of the experimental areas, the seasonal growth of Ulva decreased drastically. Presence and growth of macroalgae were also controlled by serious competition for space with mussels. Established Mytilus prevented the growth of all perennial and ephemeral algae on the rocks. However, the shells of the mussels provided free space for a new settlement of Fucus and Ulva. In the lower intertidal (dominated by total algal cover

  20. Seismo-acoustic imaging of marine hard substrate habitats: a case study from the German Bight (SE North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenmeier, Svenja; Hass, H. Christian

    2016-04-01

    comparably small foot print which results in high spatial resolution (decimeter in the xyz directions) and hence allows a more precise demarcation of hard substrate areas. Data for this study were recorded in the "Sylt Outer Reef" (German Bight, North Sea) in May 2013 and March 2015. The investigated area is characterized by heterogeneously distributed moraine deposits and rippled coarse sediments partly draped with Holocene fine sands. The relict sediments and the rippled coarse sediments indicate both high backscatter intensities but can be distinguished by means of the hyperbola locations. The northeast of the study area is dominated by rippled coarse sediments (without hyperbolas) and the southwestern part by relict sediments with a high amount of stones represented by hyperbolas which is also proven by extensive ground-truthing (grab sampling and high quality underwater videos). An automated procedure to identify and export the hyperbola positions makes the demarcation of hard substrate grounds (here: relict sediments) reproducible, faster and less complex in comparison to the visual-manual identification on the basis of sidescan sonar data.

  1. A numerical approach for approximating the historical morphology of wave-dominated coasts—A case study of the Pomeranian Bight, southern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Junjie; Zhang, Wenyan; Harff, Jan; Schneider, Ralf; Dudzinska-Nowak, Joanna; Terefenko, Pawel; Giza, Andrzej; Furmanczyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Comparison between historical maps from the 1900s, 1980s and a modern map from the 2000s of the Pomeranian Bight at the southern Baltic Sea indicates that a major part of the coastline has been suffering continuous erosion. This also holds for a major part of other coasts on a global scale. Quantifying coastal geomorphological changes on a decadal-to-centennial temporal scale thus needs to be intensified for coastal protection activities and integrated coastal zone management. This study applies an estimation of sediment mass balance including the investigation of sediment source-to-sink transport. In the case of absent historical survey data, a numerical approach, namely the Dynamic Equilibrium Shore Model (DESM), is developed to approximate the historical morphology and to estimate sediment budget of wave-dominated coasts based on the information of historical coastline configuration derived from maps, a high-resolution modern Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and relative sea-level change. The basic concept of the model is a dynamic equilibrium of the coastal cross-shore profiles adapting to sediment mass balancing of a semi-enclosed coastal area, in which the unknown parameters of the cross-shore profile shapes are calculated by numerical iterations. The model is applied at the Pomeranian Bight, in order to validate its capability in reflecting the pattern of bed level change and estimating sediment mass volume. Two tests of the model are conducted in approximating historical DEMs in 1980s and ca. 1900. The changes of approximated DEMs from past to present are then respectively compared with the ones derived from a nautical sea chart in 1980s, and the ones produced by a complex morphodynamic model that uses the approximated DEM at ca. 1900 as a starting point to hindcast the coastal morphological evolution of the research area. The deposition/erosion patterns along the coastline are consistent in both comparisons. The pre-conditions and limitations of the model are

  2. Distribution and Mass Inventories of p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE in the Water Column of the Southern California Bight, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, E. Y.; Peng, J.; Tsukada, D.; Diehl, D.; Noblet, J.; Schiff, K.

    2005-05-01

    As part of the Southern California Bight(SCB) 2003 Regional Marine Monitoring Survey (Bight' 03), we examined the concentrations and distribution patterns of p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE in the water columns at randomly-selected sites throughout SCB using solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. The technique involves deployment of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated fibers at certain depths of the water column for a prolonged time (3 weeks or longer). The fibers were then retrieved and analyzed by GC-MS, and water column concentrations of DDTs were calculated based on an equilibrium partitioning between water and PDMS coating. Our results showed that p,p'-DDE concentrations were in the range of 0.05-0.22ng/L, and 0.005-0.036 for o,p'-DDE. For p,p'-DDE, there is a general increasing trend toward the sediment-water interface. Santa Monica Bay contains the highest concentrations of both p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE, indicative of the influence of `hot spots' at Palos Verdes Shelf. Concentrations of DDTs were lower in San Pedro Shelf and Santa Barbara Basin, and were mostly under detection limit in other areas. The results showed that water column DDT concentrations have decreased significantly compared with previous investigations, but a constant source of DDTs from sediment to the overlying water column is still significant. The spatial distribution patterns of water column p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE suggest that the Palos Verdes Shelf remains a dominant source of DDT contamination to the SCB. Based on the spatial data, we estimated that the total mass of DDTs in the entire SCB is rather low ( under 1 kg). The annual loss of DDTs from SCB to the open ocean should be about tens of kg. Based on the historical trend of the DDT input into SCB since the 1970s, SCB should have contributed considerable amount of DDTs to the open ocean.

  3. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in nine sub-systems of the Sylt-Rømø Bight ecosystem, German Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Dan; Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild

    2011-01-01

    Flow networks of nine sub-systems consisting of 59 components each of the Sylt-Rømø Bight, German Wadden Sea, were constructed depicting the standing stocks and flows of material and energy within and between the sub-systems. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were used as currencies for each sub-system, thus resulting in 27 network models, which were analyzed by ecological network analytical protocols. Results show substantial variability in the dynamics of these elements within and between the nine sub-systems, which differ in habitat structure, species diversity and in the standing stocks of their constituent living and non-living components. The relationship between the biodiversity and selected information indices and ratios, derived from ecological network analysis, of individual sub-systems is variable and differ substantially between them. Ecosystem properties such as the structure and magnitude of the recycling of these elements, number of cycles, and total sub-system activity were calculated and discussed, highlighting the differences between and complexity of the flow of C, N and P in a coastal marine ecosystem. The average number of cycles increase from 179 for C, to 16,923 and 20,580 for N and P respectively, while the average amount of recycled material, as measured by the Finn Cycling Index (FCI), increase from 17% for C, to 52% for P and to 61% for N. The number of cycles and the FCI vary considerably between the sub-systems for the different elements. The largest number of cycles of all three elements was observed in the muddy sand flat sub-system, but the highest FCIs were computed for both C (32%) and N (85%) in the Arenicola Flats, and in sparse Zostera noltii sea grass beds for P (67%). Indices reflecting on the growth, organization and resilience of the sub-systems also showed considerable variability between and within the inter-tidal ecosystems in the Bight. Indices such as, for example, the relative ascendency ratios increase on average

  4. A Lagrangian Physical-Biological Model to Study Water Parcels Associated with Algal Blooms from Southern California Bight to Todos Santos Bay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas Téllez, I. E.; Rivas, D.

    2015-12-01

    Lagrangian ocean circulation and biological dynamics are numerically studied in Todos Santos Bay during the spring of 2007. This period is particularly interesting after an intense toxic algal bloom occurred in April 2007 in this area, which was associated with the wind-driven upwelling in the region. High resolution, numerical model simulations were carried out to study dynamical features along of the Southern California Bight (SCB), the coast of the northern Baja California (BC), and the interior of Todos Santos Bay (TSB). These simulations are used in a three-dimensional Lagrangian (particle tracking) analysis which provides information about the origin and distribution of the waters present in the Bay during the occurrence of the toxic bloom. After the selection of trajectories of particles showing coherent patterns, a Nitrate-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) lower trophic model is implemented to study the influence of the environmental conditions that occur during the particle advection, solving the NPZD equations at every time-varying position of the advected particles. The model is also modified for phytoplankton growth as a function of the environmental temperature to somehow emulate the life cycle of Pseudo-nitzschia. The analysis of the trajectories shows that particles mainly come from two regions: from the north, in the southern portion of SCB and from regions west of the TSB. Knowing the regional circulation patterns and their phytoplankton dynamics can help to understand and even predict the origin and destination of the harmful algal blooms that occur in TSB and its surroundings.

  5. A numerical investigation of the interannual-to-interpentadal variability of the along-shelf transport in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Luo, Yiyong; Rothstein, Lewis M.; Gao, Kun

    2016-07-01

    A numerical simulation using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) indicates that there was significant interannual-to-interpentadal variability of along-shelf transport and water properties over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) from 2004 to 2013. To examine the relative contribution from local atmospheric forcing versus remote oceanic open boundary forcing to such low-frequency variability, we implement a suite of process oriented numerical experiments. Results show that the interannual variability is dominated by remote forcing from the open boundaries of the region rather than by local atmospheric forcing. The penetration of the Labrador Current into the region contributes to a significant increase of along-shelf transport in the winters of 2009 and 2010. By contrast, the anti-cyclonic mesoscale eddies associated with the Gulf Stream decrease the background along-shelf jet and, in certain cases, even reverse the along-shelf transport. In addition, the along-shelf transport appears to possess an interpentadal variation, i.e., weaker during 2004-2008 but stronger during 2009-2013, which is found caused by the migration of the Gulf Stream.

  6. Atmospheric concentrations and size distributions of aircraft-sampled Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn over the southern bight of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Injuk, J.; Otten, Ph.; Laane, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Van Grieken, R.

    In an effort to assess the atmospheric input of heavy metals to the Southern Bight of the North Sea, aircraft-based aerosol samplings in the lower troposphere were performed between September 1988 and October 1989. Total atmospheric particulate and size-differentiated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined as a function of altitude, wind direction, air-mass history and season. The obtained data are compared with results of ship-based measurements carried out previously and with literature values of Cu, Pb and Zn, for the marine troposphere of the southern North Sea. The results point out the high variability of the concentrations with the meterological conditions, as well as with time and location. The experimentally found particle size distribution are bimodal with a significant difference in fractions of small and large particles. These large aerosol particles have a direct and essential impact on the air-to-sea transfer of anthropogenic trace metals, in spite of their low numerical abundance and relatively low heavy metal content.

  7. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  8. Observations of Gulf Stream-induced and wind-driven upwelling in the Georgia Bight using ocean color and infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Pietrafesa, L. J.; Yoder, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Ocean color and infrared imagery from U2 aircraft and satellite sensors are used to study upwelling interaction between Gulf Stream and continental shelf waters in the Georgia Bight. The photographic data are combined with in situ measurements of currents, chlorophyll, temperature, salinity, coastal winds, and sea-level in observations of five different upwelling events including a near-short wind-driven upwelling caused by topographic effects, three filament-induced upwellings in the Gulf Stream, and a possible meander-induced upwelling event in the Gulf Stream. Chlorophyll distributions are used to trace the circulation and propagation of filaments along the advective routes by which the water moves offshore. Photographic and mooring array measurements of temperature time series are found to provide nearly identical results for the phase speeds of each event. Field measurements of surface pigments, and Nimbus/7 coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) estimates are found to agree well over the range of concentrations 0.1 to 0.7 mg/m to the third. Examples of U2/Ocean Color Scanner and Nimbus 7 CZCS photographs are provided.

  9. Variability in pigment concentration in warm-core rings as determined by coastal zone color scanner satellite imagery from the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Moliner, Graciela; Yoder, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A time series of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) derived chlorophyll (CZCS-chl) and sea surface temperature (SST) satellite imagery was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB). Warm-core rings (WCR) were identified by both the warmer SST signal as well as the low pigment concentrations of their cores. The variation in pigment concentrations and SST observed in satellite imagery over the geographic range and life span of four WCRs is investigated. The hypotheses are that pigment concentration increase during the lifetime of the WCR is a response to processes such as convective overturn, upwelling, edge enhancement due to increased vertical mixing, active convergence, or lateral exchange. Empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF) is used to investigate the relationship between SST and pigment patterns observed in the presence of a WCR. The first two EOF modes explain more than 80% of the variability observed in all four WCRs and in both (SST and pigment) data sets. The results of this study show that, at the synoptic scales of staellite data, the variability observed in the WCRs is greater at the periphery of the rings. These results show that advective entrainment, rather than processes at ring center (e.g., shoaling of the pycnocline/nutricline in response to frictional decay) or at the periphery due to other processes such as vertical mixing, is the mechanism responsible for the observed variability.

  10. High-resolution stratigraphy of a Mississippi subdelta-lobe progradation in the Barataria Bight, north-central Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, J.G.; Ferina, N.F.; Dreher, C.; Kindinger, J.L.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Kulp, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The coastal zone of southeastern Louisiana is the product of numerous cycles of progradation, abandonment, and marine transgression of the Mississippi River delta. Currently, the shoreline in the Barataria Bight is undergoing significant erosion and retreat, and understanding its evolution is crucial in stabilization efforts. This study uses an extensive collection of geophysical and sediment core data from Barataria Bay and offshore to develop a geologic model of the shallow (< 10 m) subsurface. The purpose of the model is twofold: (1) establish the stratigraphic architecture of a subdelta lobe of the Bayou des Families delta, deposited by the Mississippi River approximately 4000 years before present; and (2) provide a high-resolution description of the geologic framework in a context that can be applied to coastal management issues in similar fluvially dominated coastal environments worldwide. The results of the study demonstrate how high-quality geologic data from the coastal environment can be used not only to further our understanding of shoreline evolution but also to provide pertinent information for coastal management needs.

  11. Benthic habitat mapping of sorted bedforms using hydroacoustic and ground-truthing methods in a coastal area of the German Bight/North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markert, Edith; Holler, Peter; Kröncke, Ingrid; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The continuously influence of human impacts on the seafloor and benthic habitats demands the knowledge of clearly defined habitats to assess recent conditions and to monitor future changes. In this study, a benthic habitat dominated by sorted bedforms was mapped in 2010 using biological, sedimentological and acoustic data. This approach reveals the first interdisciplinary analysis of macrofauna communities in sorted bedforms in the German Bight. The study area covered 4 km2, and was located ca. 3.5 km west of island of Sylt. Sorted bedforms formed as sinuous depressions with an east west orientation. Inside these depressions coarse sand covers the seafloor, while outside predominantly fine to medium sand was found. Based on the hydroacoustic data, two seafloor classes were identified. Acoustic class 1 was linked to coarse sand (type A) found inside these sorted bedforms, whereas acoustic class 2 was related to mainly fine to medium sands (type B). The two acoustic classes and sediment types corresponded with the macrofauna communities 1 and 2. The Aoinides paucibranchiata-Goniadella bobretzkii community on coarse sand and the Spiophanes bombyx - Magelona johnstonii community on fine sand. A transitional community 3 (Scoloplos armiger - Ophelia community), with species found in communities 1 and 2, could not be detected by hydroacoustic methods. This study showed the limits of the used acoustic methods, which were unable to detect insignificant differences in the fauna composition of sandy areas.

  12. Material exchange and food web of seagrass beds in the Sylt-Rømø Bight: how significant are community changes at the ecosystem level?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, H.; Asmus, R.

    2000-07-01

    Material exchange, biodiversity and trophic transfer within the food web were investigated in two different types of intertidal seagrass beds: a sheltered, dense Zostera marina bed and a more exposed, sparse Z. noltii bed, in the Northern Wadden Sea. Both types of Zostera beds show a seasonal development of above-ground biomass, and therefore measurements were carried out during the vegetation period in summer. The exchange of particles and nutrients between seagrass beds and the overlying water was measured directly using an in situ flume. Particle sedimentation [carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) constituents] from the water column prevailed in dense seagrass beds. In the sheltered, dense seagrass bed, a net particle uptake was found even on windy days (7-8 Beaufort). Dissolved inorganic N and orthophosphate were mainly taken up by the dense seagrass bed. At times of strong winds, nutrients were released from the benthic community to tidal waters. In a budget calculation of total N and total P, the dense seagrass beds were characterised as a material sink. The seagrass beds with sparse Z. noltii were a source of particles even during calm weather. The uptake of dissolved inorganic N in the sparse seagrass bed was low but significant, while the uptake of inorganic phosphate and silicate by seagrasses and their epiphytes was exceeded by release processes from the sediment into the overlying water. Estimates at the ecosystem level showed that material fluxes of seagrass beds in the Sylt-Rømø Bight are dominated by the dense type of Zostera beds. Therefore, seagrass beds act as a sink for particles and for dissolved inorganic nutrients. During storms, seagrass beds are distinct sources for inorganic nutrients. The total intertidal area of the Sylt-Rømø Bight could be described as a sink for particles and a source for dissolved nutrients. This balance of the material budget was estimated by either including or excluding seagrass beds. Including the

  13. Sources, fate, and pathways of Leeuwin Current water in the Indian Ocean and Great Australian Bight: A Lagrangian study in an eddy-resolving ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yit Sen Bull, Christopher; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-03-01

    The Leeuwin Current is the dominant circulation feature in the eastern Indian Ocean, transporting tropical and subtropical water southward. While it is known that the Leeuwin Current draws its water from a multitude of sources, existing Indian Ocean circulation schematics have never quantified the fluxes of tropical and subtropical source water flowing into the Leeuwin Current. This paper uses virtual Lagrangian particles to quantify the transport of these sources along the Leeuwin Current's mean pathway. Here the pathways and exchange of Leeuwin Current source waters across six coastally bound sectors on the south-west Australian coast are analyzed. This constitutes the first quantitative assessment of Leeuwin Current pathways within an offline, 50 year integration time, eddy-resolving global ocean model simulation. Along the Leeuwin Current's pathway, we find a mean poleward transport of 3.7 Sv in which the tropical sources account for 60-78% of the transport. While the net transport is small, we see large transports flowing in and out of all the offshore boundaries of the Leeuwin Current sectors. Along the Leeuwin Current's pathway, we find that water from the Indonesian Throughflow contributes 50-66% of the seasonal signal. By applying conditions on the routes particles take entering the Leeuwin Current, we find particles are more likely to travel offshore north of 30°S, while south of 30°S, particles are more likely to continue downstream. We find a 0.2 Sv pathway of water from the Leeuwin Current's source regions, flowing through the entire Leeuwin Current pathway into the Great Australian Bight.

  14. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Morales, Karel; Macías-Zamora, J. Vinicio; Canino-Herrera, S. Raúl; Burke, Roger A.

    2014-05-01

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA-Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later. High spatial variability in surface mixed layer (ML) [CH4] was observed, ranging from 2.2 nmol L-1 to 17.8 nmol L-1. ML-[CH4] was supersaturated at all BA stations during both cruises. The highest [CH4] was 72.4 nmol L-1 (2819 % supersaturated) measured at 10 m depth during S2, about 3 km southwest of the discharge point of the South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO). Our results show an apparent connection between wastewater treatment discharges and [CH4]. Application of a sewer CH4 production model suggests that the SBOO may be a large source of CH4 to the BA and points to the need to consider point sources in developing coastal marine CH4 budgets for highly populated areas. Based on our data, the SCBMex appears to be a relatively strong source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other Pacific Basin areas. The average BA sea-to-air CH4 flux (F) during S1 was (15.5 ± 8.6) × 10-2 nmol m-2 s-1, about 1.5 times higher than F during S2, which had a flux of (9.5 ± 6.9) × 10-2 nmol m-2 s-1 mainly due to the higher wind speed during S1.

  15. Remote Sensing of the Absorption Coefficients and Chlorophyll a Concentration in the U.S. Southern Middle Atlantic Bight from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaoju; Mannino, Antonio; Russ, Mary E.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2008-01-01

    At present, satellite remote sensing of coastal water quality and constituent concentration is subject to large errors as compared to the capability of satellite sensors in oceanic waters. In this study, field measurements collected on a series of cruises within U.S. southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) were applied to improve retrievals of satellite ocean color products in order to examine the factors that regulate the bio-optical properties within the continental shelf waters of the SMAB. The first objective was to develop improvements in satellite retrievals of absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a(sub ph)), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (a(sub g)), non-pigmented particles (a(sub d)), and non-pigmented particles plus CDOM (a(sub dg)), and chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl_a]). Several algorithms were compared to derive constituent absorption coefficients from remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs)) ratios. The validation match-ups showed that the mean absolute percent differences (MAPD) were typically less than 35%, although higher errors were found for a(sub d) retrievals. Seasonal and spatial variability of satellite-derived absorption coefficients and [Chl_a] was apparent and consistent with field data. CDOM is a major contributor to the bio-optical properties of the SMAB, accounting for 35-70% of total light absorption by particles plus CDOM at 443 nm, as compared to 30-45% for phytoplankton and 0-20% for non-pigmented particles. The overestimation of [Chl_a] from the operational satellite algorithms may be attributed to the strong CDOM absorption in this region. River discharge is important in controlling the bio-optical environment, but cannot explain all of the regional and seasonal variability of biogeochemical constituents in the SMAB.

  16. A numerical analysis of shipboard and coastal zone color scanner time series of new production within Gulf Stream cyclonic eddies in the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pribble, J. Raymond; Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-induced upwelling occurs along the western edge of the Gulf Stream between Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Coastal zone color scanner images of 1-km resolution spanning the period April 13-21, 1979, were processed to examine these eddy features in relation to concurrent shipboard and current/temperature measurements at moored arrays. A quasi-one-dimensional (z), time dependent biological model, using only nitrate as a nutrient source, has been combined with a three-dimensional physical model in an attempt to replicate the observed phytoplankton field at the northward edge of an eddy. The model is applicable only to the SAB south of the Charleston Bump, at approximately 31.5 deg N, since no feature analogous to the bump exists in the model bathymetry. The modeled chlorophyll, nitrate, and primary production fields of the euphotic zone are very similar to those obtained from the satellite and shipboard data at the leading edges of the observed eddies south of the Charleston Bump. The horizontal and vertical simulated fluxes of nitrate and chlorophyll show that only approximately 10% of the upwelled nitrate is utilized by the phytoplankton of the modeled grid box on the northern edge of the cyclone, while approximately 75% is lost horizontally, with the remainder still in the euphotic zone after the 10-day period of the model. Loss of chlorophyll due to sinking is very small in this strong upwelling region of the cyclone. The model is relatively insensitive to variations in the sinking parameterization and the external nitrate and chlorophyll fields but is very sensitive to a reduction of the maximum potential growth rate to half that measured. Given the success of this model in simulating the new production of the selcted upwelling region, other upwelling regions for which measurements or successful models of physical and biological quantities and rates exist could be modeled similarly.

  17. Body growth and reproduction of individuals of the sciaenid fish Stellifer rastrifer in a shallow tropical bight: A cautionary tale for assumptions regarding population parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pombo, Maíra; Denadai, Márcia Regina; Turra, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge of population parameters and the ability to predict their responses to environmental changes are useful tools to aid in the appropriate management and conservation of natural resources. Samples of the sciaenid fish Stellifer rastrifer were taken from August 2003 through October 2004 in shallow areas of Caraguatatuba Bight, southeastern Brazil. The results showed a consistent presence of length-frequency classes throughout the year and low values of the gonadosomatic index of this species, indicating that the area is not used for spawning or residence of adults, but rather shelters individuals in late stages of development. The results may serve as a caveat for assessments of transitional areas such as the present one, the nursery function of which is neglected compared to estuaries and mangroves. The danger of mismanaging these areas by not considering their peculiarities is emphasized by using these data as a study case for the development of some broadly used population-parameter analyses. The individuals' body growth parameters from the von Bertalanffy model were estimated based on the most common approaches, and the best values obtained from traditional quantification methods of selection were very prone to bias. The low gonadosomatic index (GSI) estimated during the period was an important factor in stimulating us to select more reliable parameters of body growth (L∞ = 20.9, K = 0.37 and Z = 2.81), which were estimated based on assuming the existence of spatial segregation by size. The data obtained suggest that the estimated mortality rate included a high rate of migration of older individuals to deeper areas, where we assume that they completed their development.

  18. Coupled physical, chemical, and microbiological measurements suggest a connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Simon H. C.; Santoro, Alyson E.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Hench, James L.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2012-02-01

    with phosphate concentration in both years, silicate in 2005, and fecal indicator bacteria measurements in 2006. The results suggest internal waves are an important transport mechanism of nutrient-rich subthermocline water to the very nearshore in the Southern California Bight, and may facilitate the transport of FIB into the surf zone or enhance persistence of land-derived FIB.

  19. In Situ Measurements of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Coastal Waters of the Southern California Bight with a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME)-Based Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, E. Y.; Tsukada, D.; Diehl, D.; Noblet, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Global distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have become an increasingly significant topic in environmental research, as POPs are potential agents of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity to both humans and non-human species. One of the important transport mechanisms for POPs is advection and dispersion from point sources via oceanic currents. Therefore, measurements of POPs in open coastal waters can provide key information about the global geochemical cycling of POPs. However, because concentrations of POPs in ocean waters are typically in sub-ppt (ng/L) levels or lower, accurate measurement of ambient concentrations is challenging. To obtain sufficient mass that can be detected by current analytical instrumentation, extremely large water volumes (e.g., thousands of liters) have to be processed. Such large sample volumes represent a practical impediment for regional-scale sampling efforts. In an attempt to improve our ability to study the fate of POPs in oceanic environments, we have developed an in-situ sampling approach based on the technique of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and tested it at several coastal locations within the Southern California Bight. A custom-made SPME sampler consists of a polydimethylsioxane-coated (100-μm thickness) fiber supported on a stainless steel needle and a copper cage shielding the SPME assembly (to slow bacterial growth). We were able to deploy a large number of the samplers simultaneously at different locations and water depths known to contain varying concentrations of DDTs. The SPME samplers were retrieved after about 15 to 30 days of deployment, and the organics partitioned on the SPME fibers were analyzed with GC/MS under optimized chromatographic conditions suitable for SPME analysis. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE (the most dominant component of all DDTs) measured by the in situ SPME approach were very similar as a function of water depth and spatial location as concentrations previously measured

  20. Fine-scale spatial and temporal plankton distributions in the Southern California Bight: lessons from in situ microscopes and broadband echosounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briseno-Avena, Christian

    Phytoplankton and zooplankton are important components of marine ecosystems, and play a major role in the biological pump, affecting carbon transport in the global oceans. Their dynamic heterogeneous spatial and temporal distributions require special tools for observing them at the ecological scales relevant to the individual organisms. In this work, I used optic and acoustic methods to study plankton organisms at spatial scales of meters and temporal scales ranging from minutes to months. Using two in situ microscopes I described the fine-scale vertical distribution of phytoplankton and several zooplankton taxa in a coastal location in the Southern California Bight. Highly resolved spatial observations revealed cryptic maxima of fluorescent particles not observed with traditional fluorometers. Furthermore, this high sampling resolution revealed that water density, and not depth, regulated the vertical position, and interactions between observed phytoplankton and zooplankton distributions. Underwater acoustic echosounders can be powerful tools to observe in situ plankton distributions. Interpreting the acoustic echoes, however, requires highly calibrated instruments and ground-truthing experiments to identify the source of acoustic signals. This work presents the description of a novel combination of a broadband, high-frequency (1.5-2.5 MHz) echosounder and a stereoscopic camera --combined, these systems can localize the echo produced by an individual target while simultaneously providing visual identification of the target. This work has provided one of the first comparisons of in situ measured broadband target strength (BTS) and the expected signal using a physical model. The results of this experiment revealed unexpected, important differences between measured and modeled BTS. This system was also used to make in situ observations of individual fragile gelatinous organisms, marine snow particles and phytoplankton, providing evidence of their significant acoustic

  1. Assessing the fidelity of surface currents from a coastal ocean model and HF radar using drifting buoys in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Liang; Blumberg, Alan F.; Georgas, Nickitas

    2012-08-01

    The rapid expansion of urbanization along the world's coastal areas requires a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of the coastal ocean. Over the past several decades, numerical ocean circulation models have tried to provide such insight, based on our developing understanding of physical ocean processes. The systematic establishment of coastal ocean observation systems adopting cutting-edge technology, such as high frequency (HF) radar, satellite sensing, and gliders, has put such ocean model predictions to the test, by providing comprehensive observational datasets for the validation of numerical model forecasts. The New York Harbor Observing and Prediction System (NYHOPS) is a comprehensive system for understanding coastal ocean processes on the continental shelf waters of New York and New Jersey. To increase confidence in the system's ocean circulation predictions in that area, a detailed validation exercise was carried out using HF radar and Lagrangian drifter-derived surface currents from three drifters obtained between March and October 2010. During that period, the root mean square (RMS) differences of both the east-west and north-south currents between NYHOPS and HF radar were approximately 15 cm s-1. Harmonic analysis of NYHOPS and HF radar surface currents shows similar tidal ellipse parameters for the dominant M2 tide, with a mean difference of 2.4 cm s-1 in the semi-major axis and 1.4 cm s-1 in the semi-minor axis and 3° in orientation and 10° in phase. Surface currents derived independently from drifters along their trajectories showed that NYHOPS and HF radar yielded similarly accurate results. RMS errors when compared to currents derived along the trajectory of the three drifters were approximately 10 cm s-1. Overall, the analysis suggests that NYHOPS and HF radar had similar skill in estimating the currents over the continental shelf waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight during this time period. An ensemble-based set of particle tracking

  2. Response of the Bight of Benin (Gulf of Guinea, West Africa) coastline to anthropogenic and natural forcing, Part1: Wave climate variability and impacts on the longshore sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almar, R.; Kestenare, E.; Reyns, J.; Jouanno, J.; Anthony, E. J.; Laibi, R.; Hemer, M.; Du Penhoat, Y.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2015-11-01

    The short, medium and long-term evolution of the sandy coastline of the Bight of Benin in the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa, has become a major regional focal point due to the rapid socio-economic development that is occurring in the region, including rapid urbanization and a sharp increase in harbor-based trade. Harbors have a significant impact on the present evolution of this coast, notably by affecting longshore sediment transport. However, little is known of the environmental drivers, notably the wave climate, that governs longshore sediment transport and the ensuing pattern of shoreline evolution of this coastal zone. This article aims to address this important knowledge gap by providing a general overview of coastal evolution in the Bight of Benin and the physical processes that control this evolution. Here, the 1979-2012 ERA-Interim hindcast is used to understand the temporal dynamics of longshore sediment transport. Oblique waves (annual average Hs=1.36 m, Tp=9.6 s, S-SW incidence) drive an eastward drift of approximately 500,000 m3/yr. The waves driving this large longshore transport can be separated into two components with distinct origins and behavior: wind waves generated locally in the Gulf of Guinea and swell waves generated in the southern hemisphere sub- (30-35°S), and extra-tropics (45-60°S). The analysis undertaken here shows that the contribution to the gross annual longshore transport from swell wave-driven longshore currents is an order of magnitude larger than the local wind wave-driven longshore currents. Swell waves are dominantly generated by westerlies in the 40-60°S zone and to a lesser extent by trade winds at 30-35°S. The longshore sediment drift decay (-5% over 1979-2012) is found to be linked with a decrease in the intensity of westerly winds associated with their southward shift, in addition to a strengthening of the trade winds, which reduces the eastward sediment transport potential. The equatorial fluctuation of the Inter

  3. The complex influences of back-barrier deposition, substrate slope and underlying stratigraphy in barrier island response to sea-level rise: Insights from the Virginia Barrier Islands, Mid-Atlantic Bight, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Owen T.; Moore, Laura J.; Murray, A. Brad

    2015-10-01

    To understand the relative importance of back barrier environment, substrate slope and underlying stratigraphy in determining barrier island response to RSLR (relative sea-level rise), we use a morphological-behavior model (GEOMBEST) to conduct a series of sensitivity experiments, based on late-Holocene hindcast simulations of an island in the U.S. mid-Atlantic Bight (Metompkin Island, VA) having both salt marsh and lagoonal back-barrier environments, and we draw comparisons between these results and future simulations (2000-2100 AD) of island response to RSLR. Sensitivity analyses indicate that, as a whole, the island is highly sensitive to factors that reduce overall sand availability (i.e., high sand-loss rates and substrates containing little sand). Results also indicate that for all predicted future RSLR scenarios tested, islands having high substrate sand proportions (if allowed to migrate freely) will likely remain subaerial for centuries because of sufficient substrate sand supply and elevation to assist in keeping islands above sea level. Simulation results also lead to basic insights regarding the interactions among substrate slope, back-barrier deposition and island migration rates. In contrast to previous studies, which suggest that changes in substrate slope directly affect the island migration trajectory, we find that-in the presence of back-barrier deposition-the connection between substrate slope and island behavior is modulated (i.e., variability in migration rates is dampened) by changes in back-barrier width. These interactions-which tend to produce changes in shoreface sand content-lead to a negative feedback when the back-barrier deposit contains less sand than the underlying layer, resulting in a stable back-barrier width. Alternatively, a positive feedback arises when the back-barrier deposit contains more sand than the underlying layer, resulting in either back-barrier disappearance or perpetual widening.

  4. A new 0.9 Ma oxygen isotope stratigraphy for a shallow-water sedimentary transect across three IODP 317 sites in the Canterbury Bight of southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuan; Wu, YingYing

    2016-04-01

    Sedimentary records in shallow-water environment provide unique opportunity to further our understanding on the regional relative sea level changes in relation to global climate change. Here we present a new 0.9 Ma oxygen isotope stratigraphy for a shallow-water sedimentary transect across three IODP 317 sites in the Canterbury Bight of southwest Pacific Ocean. The three sites are located on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand, including a continental slope site, IODP317-U1352 and two continental shelf sites, IODP317-U1354 and IODP317-U1351. We first generated high resolution benthic foraminifers (Nonionella flemingi) δ18O records for the three sites and a planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) record for the U1352B. An initial chronological framework for the benthic δ18O record of the U1352B was constructed using 8 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates and 4 biostratigraphic events. Then a refined age model was established by correlating the U1352B benthic δ18O record with the EDC δD record on the AICC2012 time-scale, and the LR04 benthic δ18O stack. Although the U1354B and U1351B have lower sedimentation rates, their benthic δ18O records correlate well with that of U1352B. In order to ensure the accuracy of the chronostratigraphic framework established, we also analyzed the characteristics of sedimentary grain size and the planktonic and benthic δ18O values. In accord with the adjacent sites, the results show that the melt of Southern Alps glaciers due to the warming climate during MIS 11 and 5.5 led to the increased fresh water delivery, with massive terrigenous deposit; and the warm SST during the MIS7 is related with the STF migration, which led to strong current activity, with coarser grain size. Meanwhile, records of benthic δ18O, sedimentation rate and content of >63μm coarse fraction of site U1352 all indicate the MIS 20 was indeed a colder interval compared to subsequent glacial times.

  5. Parasites of flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in biological effects monitoring. C. Pollution effects on the parasite community and a comparison to biomarker responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Broeg, K.; von Westernhagen, H.; Dizer, H.; Hansen, P. D.; Skouras, A.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    In the frame of an integrated biological effect monitoring programme, the parasite community of flounder (Platichthys flesus) was investigated at different locations in the German Bight from 1995 to 2000. In order to assess the impact of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic activities on the parasite community, selected parasitological parameters that displayed significant differences between the sampling sites were subjected to correlation analyses with site-specific contamination and individual pollution loads of their fish hosts. In addition, correlation analyses were conducted with the responses of selected genetic, biochemical, histopathological, physiological and immunological parameters of fish, used as potential biomarkers. In total, 802 flounder were analysed for these parameters. Information on the chemical background at the sampling sites was derived from sediment samples and from 120 samples of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue, collected at each of the sampling sites. Based on chemical data available from the sediment and blue mussel samples, a pollution gradient could be established between the sampling sites for individual contaminants. The relative abundance of Acanthochondria cornuta, Cucullanus heterochrous and Zoogonoides viviparus, and the community measures species richness and number of heteroxenous species decreased with increasing concentrations of individual heavy metals or hydrocarbons in sediment and blue mussel samples. Most of the parasitological parameters significantly reflected the established site-specific contamination gradient, when data were pooled over all sampling campaigns. Significant correlations were also found with the contamination level of individual flounder. The parasitological parameters included the parasite species Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis, which were not correlated to site-specific contamination. Several biomarkers were significantly correlated to the abundance of

  6. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Dieterle, D. A.; Zheng, L.; Carder, K. L.; Vargo, G. A.; Havens, J. A.; Peebles, E.; Hollander, D. J.; He, R.; Heil, C. A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Landsberg, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Toxic Florida red tides of the dinoflagellate Kareniabrevis have downstream consequences of 500-1000 km spatial extent. Fish stocks, shellfish beds, and harmful algal blooms of similar species occupy the same continental shelf waters of the southeastern United States, amounting to economic losses of more than 25 million dollars in some years. Under the aegis of the Center for Prediction of Red tides, we are now developing coupled biophysical models of the conditions that lead to red tides and impacted coastal fisheries, from the Florida Panhandle to Cape Hatteras. Here, a nitrogen isotope budget of the coastal food web of the West Florida shelf (WFS) and the downstream South Atlantic Bight (SAB) reaffirms that diazotrophs are the initial nutrient source for onset of red tides and now identifies clupeid fish as the major recycled nutrient source for their maintenance. The recent isotope budget of WFS and SAB coastal waters during 1998-2001 indicates that since prehistoric times of Timacua Indian settlements along the Georgia coast during 1075, ∼50% of the nutrients required for large red tides of >1 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis have been derived from nitrogen-fixers, with the other half from decomposing dead sardines and herrings. During 2001, >90% of the harvest of WFS clupeids was by large ichthyotoxic red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis, rather than by fishermen. After onset of the usual red tides in summer of 2006 and 2007, the simulated subsequent fall exports of Florida red tides in September 2007 to North Carolina shelf waters replicate observations of just ∼1 μg chl l -1 on the WFS that year. In contrast, the earlier red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 left behind off West Florida during 2006, with less physical export, are instead 10-fold larger than those of 2007. Earlier, 55 fish kills were associated with these coastal red tides during September 2006, between Tampa and Naples. Yet, only six fish kills were reported there in September 2007. With little

  7. Phycoerythrin-containing picoplankton in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Jackie L.; Palenik, Brian

    2003-08-01

    Flow cytometry was used to examine the distribution of phycoerythrin-rich picophytoplankton, referred to here as Synechococcus, off the Southern California coast during six California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) cruises. Depth profiles revealed that Synechococcus was most abundant in the surface mixed layer, gradually disappearing with depth below the thermocline. Within the surface mixed layer, Synechococcus abundance was generally greater and more variable at stations shoreward of the California Current than at stations offshore of it. In waters associated with the California Current not impacted by upwelling, Synechococcus abundance increased with increasing bulk chlorophyll. In contrast, Synechococcus abundance declined with increasing bulk chlorophyll at stations that were impacted by upwelling. Synechococcus at stations impacted by upwelling also had more phycoerythrin per cell than at non-upwelling stations. Offshore of the California Current, Synechococcus cells in waters intruding from the Central North Pacific displayed higher side-scatter relative to forward scatter than did Synechococcus cells elsewhere in the region. Flow cytometrically distinct Synechococcus cell types were also detected below the thermocline at most of the stations where depth profiles were analyzed. These patterns in Synechococcus abundance and cellular characteristics might reflect physiological and/or genetic differences among Synechococcus associated with the various water masses that comprise the CalCOFI region. The data presented here provide a framework from which to launch more detailed and mechanistic studies examining the role of Synechococcus in the CalCOFI ecosystem.

  8. Newly recognized submarine slide complexes in the southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, J. E.; Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    New high-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection surveys have imaged large (<0.5 km3) submarine landslides offshore southern California that have not been previously recognized in the Borderland. The new data show several large slides or slide complexes that include: 1) a slide complex consisting of numerous (>7) individual overlapping slides along the western margin of Santa Cruz Basin (SCB slide); 2) a series of slumps and slide scars on the slope south of San Pedro shelf (SPS slide); and 3) a slope failure along the shelf edge in northern San Diego County, termed the Del Mar slide. The SCB slide complex extends for 30 km along the western slope of Santa Cruz Basin, with debris lobes extending 5-8 km into the basin. Head scarps of some of these slides are 50-75 m high. The SPS slide complex also appears to consist of multiple slides, which roughly parallel the Palos Verdes Fault and the San Gabriel Canyon submarine channel on the shelf edge and slope south of San Pedro shelf. Slide deposits associated with this complex are only partially mapped due to limited high-resolution bathymetric coverage, but extend to the south in the area SW of Lasuen Knoll. Seismic-reflection profiles show that some of these deposits are up to 20 m thick. The Del Mar slide is located about 10 km north of La Jolla Canyon and extends about 6 km along the shelf edge. The head scarp lies along the trend of a branch of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone. Radiocarbon ages of sediment overlying this slide indicate the Del Mar slide is approximately 12-16 ka. These large slide complexes have several characteristics in common. Nearly all occur in areas of tectonic uplift. All of the complexes show evidence of recurrent slide activity, exhibiting multiple headwall scarps and debris lobes, and where available, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of these slide areas provide evidence of older, buried mass transport deposits. Assuming typical sedimentation rates, the recurrence interval of major slide events appears to be on the order of tens of thousands of years. Most of the slide complexes do not appear to be located in areas of high sediment input. The SCB and Del Mar slides are in areas receiving relatively small terrestrial sediment input from fluvial sources, as are most other previously recognized submarine slides in the Borderland. Only the SPS slide, which lies adjacent to the San Gabriel Canyon submarine channel, is associated with a significant fluvial sediment source.

  9. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  10. The 2002 ocean color anomaly in the Florida Bight: A cause of local coral reef decline?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Hackett, Keith E.; Callahan, Michael K.; Andréfouët, Serge; Wheaton, Jennifer L.; Porter, James W.; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2003-02-01

    The status of coral reef communities has been monitored annually since 1996 at two sites north of Key West, Florida, [Smith Shoal (24.72°N, 81.92°W) and Content Keys (24.82°N, 81.49°W)]. Percent cover of selected benthic community categories and stony (hermatypic) coral species number at these sites were relatively stable from 1996 to 2001, but decreased by >70% and >40%, respectively, from 2001 to 2002. Clionid sponges ranged from 12-16 colonies in 2001, but none were observed in 2002. Satellite ocean color imagery showed the transit of water with abnormally low water-leaving radiance values between March and May 2002 over these sites. Field observations showed that this ``black'' water contained the red tide organism Karenia brevis and high diatom concentrations. The observations from satellite ocean color data suggested that the decline in the benthic communities was related to the passage of the water patch over the reef sites.

  11. SYNOPTIC SURVEY OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON INPUTS TO THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT. VOLUME I: SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Of the seven input routes investigated (municipal wastewater, direct industrial discharge, vessel antifouling paints, harbor flushing, surface runoff, dry aerial fallout, and ocean current advection), during 1971-72 the largest quantities of DDTs and PCBs (the major residues obse...

  12. History of metal pollution in the Southern California Bight: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, B.P.; Huh, C.

    1989-03-01

    Box cores collected in 1985 and 1986 along an offshore transect in the Santa Monica Basin, CA, were analyzed for organic carbon, calcium carbonate, U-series radionuclides, and a suite of major and minor elements. Downcore profiles of metals and organic carbon reflect anthropogenic influence and diagenetic processes. The deep basin cores show pronounced subsurface maxima in Pb, Zn, Cr, and organic carbon during the time interval 1960-1970. Increases from the base of the core to this time horizon are consistent with increasing anthropogenic inputs to the Santa Monica Basin. The near-surface decreases in heavy-metal accumulation reflect recent improvements in waste water treatment. Sediment compositions cannot be fully explained by simple mixtures of sewage particles and natural sediment because of factors such as diagenesis of sewage during transport and sedimentation, additional metal sources, and variations in surface water productivity. The yellow-brown surface layer in deep basin cores is relatively enriched in Fe, Co, Cu, and P. This layer forms by reduction of Fe followed by upward diffusion and precipitation as amorphous oxyhydroxides; P, Cu, and Co, released during early diagenesis, are associated with this phase.

  13. Seabird use of discards from a nearshore shrimp fishery in the South Atlantic Bight, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Wickliffe, L.C.; Sachs, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA, but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic composition of bycatch, rate at which seabirds scavenged bycatch, and energy density of discarded bycatch in a nearshore commercial shrimp fishery. Bycatch was primarily comprised of demersal fish that are not typically accessible to the plunge-diving and surface-feeding seabirds that occur in the area. Hence, seabird diets in the region appear to be broadened taxonomically by the availability of discards. Results from discard experiments indicated that 70% of the nearly 5,500 items discarded by hand were scavenged by seabirds and that the fate of a discarded item was most strongly predicted by its taxonomic order. Laughing gulls scavenged the greatest proportion of discards, although brown pelicans were the only species to scavenge more discards than predicted based upon their abundance. Because this is the first such study in the region, it is difficult to ascertain the extent or intensity of the impact that discards have on nearshore seabirds. Nonetheless, our results suggest that it will be difficult for managers to clearly understand fluctuations in local seabird population dynamics without first understanding the extent to which these species rely upon discards. This may be especially problematic in situations where seabird populations are recovering following natural or anthropogenic stressors. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Circulation and particle fluxes in the southern California Bight. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Barbara M.

    1993-07-26

    Work funded by the grant consisted of a series of experiments designed to elucidate scales and forcing mechanisms of the circulation and water properties within Santa Monica/San Pedro basin. Each experiment consisted of a moored array of roughly 30 current meters, CTD surveys (usually upon deployment and retrieval of the moored array), and satellite imagery. The CROSS moored array was designed primarily to obtain information on cross-shelf and cross-basin coherence scales, vertical coherence scales and the principal forcing mechanisms for the circulation. Several papers are referenced.

  15. Seabird use of discards from a nearshore shrimp fishery in the South Atlantic Bight, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Wickliffe, Lisa C.; Sachs, Elena B.

    2011-01-01

    Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA, but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic composition of bycatch, rate at which seabirds scavenged bycatch, and energy density of discarded bycatch in a nearshore commercial shrimp fishery. Bycatch was primarily comprised of demersal fish that are not typically accessible to the plunge-diving and surface-feeding seabirds that occur in the area. Hence, seabird diets in the region appear to be broadened taxonomically by the availability of discards. Results from discard experiments indicated that 70% of the nearly 5,500 items discarded by hand were scavenged by seabirds and that the fate of a discarded item was most strongly predicted by its taxonomic order. Laughing gulls scavenged the greatest proportion of discards, although brown pelicans were the only species to scavenge more discards than predicted based upon their abundance. Because this is the first such study in the region, it is difficult to ascertain the extent or intensity of the impact that discards have on nearshore seabirds. Nonetheless, our results suggest that it will be difficult for managers to clearly understand fluctuations in local seabird population dynamics without first understanding the extent to which these species rely upon discards. This may be especially problematic in situations where seabird populations are recovering following natural or anthropogenic stressors.

  16. Community composition of the rocky intertidal at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Katharina; Buchholz, Friedrich; Giménez, Luis

    2008-12-01

    At the rocky island of Helgoland (North Sea), the distribution and abundances of intertidal communities were assessed and the effects of wave exposure and tidal height on the spatial distribution patterns of the communities were evaluated. Macroalgae and invertebrates were sampled quantitatively along line transects in three intertidal locations, a semi-exposed, an exposed and a sheltered one. The semi-exposed location was characterised by (1) Ulva spp. at the high intertidal ( Ulva-community), (2) mussels and periwinkles at the mid intertidal ( Mytilus-community) and (3) Corallina officinalis and mainly the large brown alga Fucus serratus at the low intertidal ( Fucus-community). The exposed location encompassed the mid and low intertidal; at both zones the Fucus-community occurred. The sheltered location was characterised by (1) barnacles ( Balanus-community) and (2) bryozoans, hydrozoans and mainly the large brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum ( Ascophyllum-community). At the semi-exposed, but not at the exposed location the communities changed with the intertidal position. A relationship between wave exposure and the occurrence of specific communities was shown for the sheltered location; in contrast, communities of the semi-exposed and the exposed location appear to be little influenced by wave exposure directly. The community concept and the potential causes of distribution patterns of the defined communities are discussed and suggestions for a future monitoring are given. Variations in the communities at different spatial scales speak in favour of a multiple scale sampling design to monitor changes in the intertidal communities at Helgoland.

  17. Ecological and political issues surrounding decommissioning of offshore oil facilities in the Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Donna M.; Love, Milton S.

    2004-01-01

    To aid legislators, resource managers, and the general public, this paper summarizes and clarifies some of the issues and options that the federal government and the state of California face in decommissioning offshore oil and gas production platforms, particularly as these relate to platform ecology. Both local marine ecology and political climate play a role in decommissioning offshore oil production platforms. Compared to the relatively supportive political climate in the Gulf of Mexico for “rigs-to-reefs” programs, conflicting social values among stakeholders in Southern California increases the need for understanding ecological impacts of various decommissioning alternatives (which range from total removal to allowing some or all of platform structure to remain in the ocean). Additional scientific needs in the decommissioning process include further assessment of platform habitat quality, estimation of regional impacts of decommissioning alternatives to marine populations, and determination of biological effects of any residual contaminants. The principal management need is a ranking of environmental priorities (e.g. species-of-interest and marine habitats). Because considerable numbers of economically important species reside near oil platforms, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries should consider the consequences of decommissioning alternatives in their overall management plans. Management strategies could include designating reefed platforms as marine protected areas. The overarching conclusion from both ecological and political perspectives is that decommissioning decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Centennial record of wind-field variations from a coastal dune (German Bight)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Sebastian; Costas, Iria; Betzler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    We show that coastal wandering dunes bear a valuable climate record on time scales of seasons to years and can provide data on past wind-field variations for regions and/or time spans where no instrumental weather observations exist. To access this archive, we propose a combined approach, integrating sedimentological and geophysical methods. Sedimentary architecture and grain-size properties of a 32 m high parabolic dune on the barrier island Sylt (southern North Sea) were investigated using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and laser-diffraction particle-size analyzer. A chronostratigraphic framework was established based on a series of historical aerial images covering the time period 1936 to 2009. GPR data reveal the internal sedimentary architecture of the dune with an effective resolution of about 0.3 m. Large inland-dipping foresets, being the result of the predominance of onshore winds, form the building block of the dune. The dune exhibits a complex internal architecture comprising numerous unconformities, i.e. gaps in the sedimentary record, slumps, top-lap geometries and shifting depocenters. Therefore, careful mapping of the dunes architectural elements prior to sediment sampling is essential. Grain-size statistics are based on 4900 samples taken equidistantly in a 245 m long trench parallel to the direction of dune movement. Sedimentological proxy data were calibrated using a time series of instrumental weather observations from a meteorological station, 2 km off the dune. These data reach back until the year 1950. Variations in wind speed are best reflected by the sorting of the grain-size distribution: periods of weaker winds result in better sorted sediments, whereas higher wind speeds yield a wider grain-size spectrum. This approach allows us to present a reconstruction of variations in the strength of onshore directed winds covering approximately the last 100 years. Our data show slightly increased wind speeds at the beginning of the 20th century, approx. until 1920, followed by a calmer period until the mid 1930s. Wind speeds in the time period 1935 to 1960 are elevated, comprable to the situation in the first quarter of the 20th century. The mid 1960s are characterized by a distinct increase in wind speed, wich stays elevated for the decades afterwards. These results are corroborated by published data on storminess in Northern Europe.

  19. CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE LOUISIANA BIGHT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Mississippi plume region may have several distinct sources: riverine (terrestrial soils), wetland (terrestrial plants), biological production (phytoplankton, zooplankton, microbial), and sediments. Complex mixing, photodegradati...

  20. Turbulence Observations in the Northern Bight of Monterey Bay from a Small AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Louis; Wang, Zhankun

    2009-06-01

    In this manuscript we show that in shallow water an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) can be used to quantify the horizontal and vertical structure of turbulence. We present data obtained during the Layered Organization in the Coastal Ocean (LOCO) experiment, which took place in a very shallow region of Monterey Bay at nighttime in the summer of 2006. The AUV employed was the T-REMUS vehicle, which contains a variety of the microscale and finescale sensors as well as supporting "hotel" sensors which monitor its position and performance. The vehicle was run in a 5-degree yoyo mode and, using the Rockland Microstructure Measurement System (RMMS), was able to obtain direct estimates of the turbulent dissipation rate on a vertical scale of 0.5 m. The yoyo sampling scheme allowed the finestructure and microstructure data to be obtained with an average horizontal sampling distance of 150 m. We examine the spatial structure of turbulence over a horizontal range of 2.5 km and throughout most of the water column, from 1 m from the surface to 4 m above the bottom. Eight hours of such data were collected. The experiment took place during a time period of very light wind forcing, little air sea exchange, and weak tidal flow. Nonetheless, strong turbulence, characterized by a turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate of ɛ > 10 - 7 W/kg and buoyancy Reynolds number of Reb > 10 3, was observed throughout the experimental region. The turbulence, for the most part, was patchy and typically confined to the surface and bottom boundary layer regions. However, towards the end of the experiment a spatially continuous region of turbulence of at least 2.5 km extent was observed in the upper part of the thermocline. This occurred during the time period when an internal wave train appeared in the experimental area. Evidence is presented which suggests that the internal wave induced vertical strain gradient was responsible for producing this turbulent field.

  1. Interannual variability of sorted bedforms in the coastal German Bight (SE North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, F.; Holler, P.; Bürk, D.; Hass, H. C.

    2015-12-01

    Sorted bedforms are ubiquitous on the inner continental shelves worldwide. They are described as spatially-grain-size-sorted features consisting of small rippled medium-to-coarse sand and can remain stable for decades. However, the knowledge about their genesis and development is still fragmentary. For this study, a representative investigation area (water depth<15 m) located on the shelf west of the island of Sylt (SE North Sea, Germany) was periodically surveyed with hydroacoustic means (i.e. sidescan sonar, multibeam echo sounder, and sub-bottom profiler) during 2010-2014. Since this area is influenced by tidal and wind-driven currents, the aim was to detect and examine interannual variabilities in the characteristics of the prevailing sorted bedforms. Our measurements reveal sinuous stripes of rippled medium sand which are embedded in shallow symmetrical depressions. These domains are surrounded by relatively smooth fine-sand areas. These sorted bedforms were identified as flow-transverse features that are maintained by ebb and flood currents of almost equal strengths that flow in opposite directions. This bidirectional flow field generates sharp boundaries between the medium- and fine-sand domains in both current directions. Further to the north, where flood currents are dominant, asymmetric sorted bedforms were detected which show sharp boundaries only in flood-current direction. Comparisons between the measurements of the different years show no significant variations in morphology and distribution of the sorted bedforms. However, variations of the boundaries between the medium and the fine-sand domains were observed. Additionally, new minor sorted bedforms and rippled excavation marks as well as new fine-sand areas developed and disappeared occasionally. It can be supposed that such sediment winnowing and focusing processes take place during periodically recurring storm surges, which change the shapes of the features. Moreover, variations in alignments and sizes of the small ripple formations were detected. They seem to indicate the directions and intensities of previous storm events.

  2. Factors controlling the summer development of copepod populations in the southern bight of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daan, Rogier

    In two consecutive years an intensive sampling programmed was implemented at a fixed station in Dutch coastal waters to obtain a detailed record of the summer development of copepod populations in relation to phytoplankton and macroplankton abundance. The central question was whether densities of copepods are controlled by predation, in particular by invertebrate pelagic carnivores, or by food limitation. Methods applied to estimate daily predation by observed stocks of carnivores included analysis of gut contents and digestion rate, extrapolation of experimental feeding rates and of literature data on daily rations and maintenance needs. Chlorophyll- a and cell concentrations served as a rough measure for algal food supply. Since a decline in copepod densities manifested itself most clearly in decreasing naupliar numbers in both years, populations were assumed to be regulated mainly by recruitment or survival of these early life stages. Naupliar declines coincided with maximum densities of the hydromedusa Phialidium hemisphaericum, which dominated the macroplankton both in abundance and in biomass and reached a maximum density of 467 specimens·m -3 or 7 mg C·m -3. Copepod eggs appeared by far the most frequent prey item in their guts. However, these eggs are digested very slowly, if at all, and may often be ejected without any visible damage. The effect of egg predation on naupliar recruitment seems therefore relatively unimportant. Predation on swimming copepod stages was generally low. There was no evidence of selective feeding on nauplii. The maximum values of calculated predation pressure exerted by Phialidium populations matched daily copepod production only by way of exception. Impact of other invertebrate carnivores was negligible. As predation did not play a significant role, food availability seems the key factor underlying copepod population dynamics. The consequences of food limitation (reduced egg production, production of diapause eggs and enhanced cannibalism) are discussed. The observed coincidence of maximum predator abundance and minimum chlorophyll- a and diatom concentrations does not support the hypothesis that carnivores are able to indirectly benefit phytoplankton growth by reducing grazing pressure of herbivores.

  3. The exceptional influence of storm ‘Xaver’ on design water levels in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ludwig, Patrick; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Design water levels for coastal structures are usually estimated based on extreme value statistics. Since their robustness depends heavily on the sample size of observations, regular statistical updates are needed, especially after extreme events. Here, we demonstrate the exceptional influence of such an event based on storm ‘Xaver’, which caused record breaking water levels for large parts of the southwestern German North Sea coastline on 6 December 2013. We show that the water level estimates for a 1 in 200 years event increased by up to 40 cm due to the update after ‘Xaver’, a value twice as large as the estimated regional sea level rise for the entire 20th century. However, a thorough analysis of different independent meteorological (winds and pressure) and oceanographic components (tides, surges, mean sea level (MSL) anomalies) driving the event reveals that their observed combination does not yet represent the physically possible worst case scenario. Neither tides, nor surges nor MSL anomalies were at their observational maximum, suggesting that there is a realistic risk of a storm like ‘Xaver’ to cause even higher extreme water levels by a few decimetres under current climate conditions. Our results question purely statistical design approaches of coastal structures, which neglect the physical boundary conditions of individual extreme events.

  4. SYSTEMWIDE (NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR, NEW YORK BIGHT, LONG ISLAND SOUND) EUTROPHICATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    SWEM is a coupled set of state-of-the-art, three-dimensional time-dependent models for computing circulation and mixing patterns for evaluating eutrophication dynamics. Information supplied by the hydrodynamic model to the water quality model consists of time-varying flows rates...

  5. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  6. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  7. Canyon and channel networks of Peru-Chile fore arc at Arica Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Coulbourn, W.T. )

    1990-05-01

    Canyons and channels of the Peru-Chile fore arc between 17{degree}30'S to 19{degree}30'S form a complex, integrated network revealed in SeaMARC II side-scan mosaics. The largest canyon, incised 200-600 m, is bordered by a series of sidewall slumps, producing a sinuosity that mimics subaerial meanders. The canyon courses across the Arequipa fore-arc basin floor, across a structural high and onto the middle trench slope to about 4,000 m where it disappears into a background of complex small-scale structures, From 500-2,500 m depth the canyon strikes north-south oblique to the regional slope. At 2,500 m, it abruptly turns to the southwest toward the trench axis. At this elbow, a second canyon heads on the midslope and also trends north-south until 3,500 m, where it too abruptly changes to a southwest course. A history of stream piracy analogous to subaerial systems is implied in this geometry. Tributaries join this main canyon from the landward side, forming a dendritic pattern. These channels have levees which are linked by submarine crevasse splays to sediment waves on the Arequipa basin floor. The orientation of the waves is reminiscent of bow waves from a passing ship, oblique to channel and pointing downslope, and may provide an indication of the vertical extent of passing turbidity currents. Sediments are dominantly olive gray, hemipelagic silts with sands present only immediately adjacent to the canyons. Boulders of mudstone line portions of the canyon floor. Sands are absent from the lowermost slope and trench axis, as are any indications of submarine fans. Sands may be rare in this system, with those that are present kneaded into the active margin system along the lower trench slope.

  8. On preconditioning of coastal upwelling in the eastern Great Australian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KäMpf, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    Using a high-resolution hydrodynamic model, this work explores the formation of a subsurface pool of cold and nutrient-rich water on the continental shelf southwest of Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Findings reveal that localized upwelling in shelf break canyons south of Kangaroo Island play an important role in the pool's formation. Supported by observational evidence, this study suggests a direct link between canyon upwelling, pool formation, and the appearance of coastal upwelling centers in austral summer. The shelf and slope circulation establishing during this season creates a particularly deep canyon upwelling from an average depth of ˜310 m, which is much deeper than previously suggested. Results indicate that model applications, not resolving the shelf break canyons, underestimate upwelling-related volume fluxes across the shelf break by a factor of 3.5 and nitrate fluxes by a factor of 5.

  9. Aerosol Retrieval from MERIS and Ground-Based Radiometers in the German Bight, Turbid Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnert, I.; Doerffer, R.; Becu, G.; Deschamps, P.-Y.; Fomferra, N.

    2004-05-01

    Optical properties of aerosols vary with regions and seasons. Thus, radiative transfer simulations, which are used for the atmospheric correction of remotely sensed imagery of ocean surfaces, have to be based on a regional aerosol climatology [1]. Furthermore data of aerosol optical properties is used also for the global radiative budget and aerosol pollution, caused by biomass burning such as forest fires and by traffic. Data from coastal regions are collected with high temporal frequency by ground-based measurements like the AERONET network of sun-photometers from NASA [2] or by hand-held radiometers as Simbada-LOA, University Lille [3, 4] but they contain only little spatial information. In contrast, ocean colour satellite sensors, as MERIS on Envisat, provide a high spatial information, but the data is limited generally to one sequence per day. Analysis and comparison of both data is presented.

  10. ECOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT NEAR A LARGE SEWAGE OUTFALL: BENTHIC CONDITIONS IN 1980 AND 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    The structure of the macrobenthic community, sediment toxicity, and sediment contamination changed greatly between 1980 and 1983 along a pollution gradient from the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts' (LACSD) sewage outfalls on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA to a re...