Sample records for biguanide derivatives chemical

  1. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

  2. Selective inhibition of deactivated mitochondrial complex I by biguanides.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2015-03-24

    Biguanides are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for diabetes mellitus and prediabetes treatment. Complex I is the rate-limiting step of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), a major source of mitochondrial free radical production, and a known target of biguanides. Complex I has two reversible conformational states, active and de-active. The deactivated state is promoted in the absence of substrates but is rapidly and fully reversed to the active state in the presence of NADH. The objective of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of active/de-active complex I to biguanide-mediated inhibition and resulting superoxide radical (O2(•-)) production. Using isolated rat heart mitochondria, we show that deactivation of complex I sensitizes it to metformin and phenformin (4- and 3-fold, respectively), but not to other known complex I inhibitors, such as rotenone. Mitochondrial O2(•-) production by deactivated complex I was measured fluorescently by NADH-dependent 2-hydroxyethidium formation at alkaline pH to impede reactivation. Superoxide production was 260.4% higher than in active complex I at pH 9.4. However, phenformin treatment of de-active complex I decreased O2(•-) production by 14.9%, while rotenone increased production by 42.9%. Mitochondria isolated from rat hearts subjected to cardiac ischemia, a condition known to induce complex I deactivation, were sensitized to phenformin-mediated complex I inhibition. This supports the idea that the effects of biguanides are likely to be influenced by the complex I state in vivo. These results demonstrate that the complex I active and de-active states are a determinant in biguanide-mediated inhibition. PMID:25719498

  3. Effects of metformin and other biguanides on oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Hannah R.; Jones, Andrew J. Y.; Pollak, Michael N.; Hirst, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The biguanide metformin is widely prescribed for Type II diabetes and has anti-neoplastic activity in laboratory models. Despite evidence that inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complex I by metformin is the primary cause of its cell-lineage-specific actions and therapeutic effects, the molecular interaction(s) between metformin and complex I remain uncharacterized. In the present paper, we describe the effects of five pharmacologically relevant biguanides on oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian mitochondria. We report that biguanides inhibit complex I by inhibiting ubiquinone reduction (but not competitively) and, independently, stimulate reactive oxygen species production by the complex I flavin. Biguanides also inhibit mitochondrial ATP synthase, and two of them inhibit only ATP hydrolysis, not synthesis. Thus we identify biguanides as a new class of complex I and ATP synthase inhibitor. By comparing biguanide effects on isolated complex I and cultured cells, we distinguish three anti-diabetic and potentially anti-neoplastic biguanides (metformin, buformin and phenformin) from two anti-malarial biguanides (cycloguanil and proguanil): the former are accumulated into mammalian mitochondria and affect oxidative phosphorylation, whereas the latter are excluded so act only on the parasite. Our mechanistic and pharmacokinetic insights are relevant to understanding and developing the role of biguanides in new and existing therapeutic applications, including cancer, diabetes and malaria. PMID:25017630

  4. Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolin Li; Xinran Wang; Li Zhang; Sangwon Lee; Hongjie Dai

    2008-01-01

    We developed a chemical route to produce graphene nanoribbons (GNR) with width below 10 nanometers, as well as single ribbons with varying widths along their lengths or containing lattice-defined graphene junctions for potential molecular electronics. The GNRs were solution-phase derived, stably suspended in solvents with noncovalent polymer functionalization, and exhibited ultrasmooth edges with possibly well-defined zigzag or armchair-edge structures. Electrical

  5. Occupationally derived chemicals in breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Exogenously derived chemicals have been widely reported in breast milk. Chemicals typically found in occupational exposures, including trace metals, solvents, and halogenated hydrocarbons, are reviewed, in terms of milk partition factors, potential infant exposures, and possible infant health effects. In addition to ingestion of a chemical from breast milk, an infant incurs a neonatal body burden of a chemical due to transplacental migration from maternal blood. For trace metals, neonatal blood levels are similar to maternal blood levels. Partition of metals to milk is less efficient, but nevertheless can contribute significantly to an infant's body burden. For lipid-soluble pesticide residues and halogenated biphenyls, neonatal body burden is much less than that of the mother, but transfer to milk is efficient, due to the high proportion of milk fat. It is suggested that potential organic mercury toxicity can be estimated from concentration in maternal blood or milk. For other chemicals, available data are not sufficient to evaluate short- or long-term health effects. However, for many halogenated hydrocarbons, concentrations in normal human milk would permit infant exposure above guidelines for allowable daily intake set by the World Health organization.

  6. Study of Epigenetic Properties of Poly(HexaMethylene Biguanide) Hydrochloride (PHMB)

    PubMed Central

    Creppy, Edmond E.; Diallo, Aboudoulatif; Moukha, Serge; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Christophe; Cros, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Poly(HexaMethylene Biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) CAS No. [32289-58-0] is a particularly effective member of the biguanides antiseptic chemical group, and has been in use since the early fifties in numerous applications. It has been proposed that PHMB be classified as a category 3 carcinogen although PHMB is not genotoxic. It has been hypothesized that PHMB may have epigenetic properties effects, including non-genotoxic modifications of DNA bases, DNA methylation and mitogenic cytokine production. These properties have been assessed in vitro using 3 cell types: Caco-2 cells (from a human colon adenocarcinoma) with a non-functional p53 gene. (?p53: mut p53), N2-A (Neuro-2A cells, mouse neural cells), the brain being a possible target organ in rodents and HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma) with functional p53 gene. From the concentration 1 ?g/mL up to 20 ?g/mL of PHMB, no effect was observed, either growth stimulation or inhibition. Viability testing using neutral red led to an IC 50 of 20–25 ?g/mL after treatment with PHMB for 3 h, whereas the MTT test led to IC50 values of 80 ?g/mL, 160 ?g/mL and 160 ?g/mL respectively for HepG2 cells, Neuro-2A cells and Caco-2 cells. PHMB does not induce significant oxidative stress (production of MDA or lipoperoxidation, nor does it induce hydroxylation of DNA (8-OH-dG) and/or its hypermethylation (m5dC), the latter being strongly implicated in DNA replication and regulation and cell division. PHMB does not induce significant production of mitogenic cytokines such as TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor), interleukins (IL-1 alpha), and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) which can cause either apoptosis or stimulate the growth of transformed cells or tumors. Instead, from concentrations of 20 to 100 ?g/mL, PHMB kills cells of all types in less than 3 h. The expression of genes involved in the mechanisms of cell death induced by PHMB, including p53, the pro apoptotic gene bax and others, the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and caspase-3 has been evaluated by RT-PCR. Finally, the status of GAP-junctions (GJIC) in the presence of PHMB has been determined and appeared to not be significantly affected. Taken together the data show that in vitro PHMB does not exhibit clear and remarkable epigenetic properties except a slight increase of some cytokines and transcription factor at higher concentrations at which cell lysis occurs rapidly. PMID:25111876

  7. Successful use of locally applied polyhexamethylene biguanide as an adjunct to the treatment of fungal osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Genevieve; Noonan, Lisa; Wilson, Elizabeth; Holland, David; Briggs, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Fungal osteomyelitis is rare in immunocompetent patients and is often difficult to cure, even with optimal medical and surgical management. The authors present two cases of fungal osteomyelitis in which the common swimming pool cleaner, polyhexamethylene biguanide, was used successfully as an adjunct to standard surgical and medical treatment. Also presented is a literature review on the use of polyhexamethylene biguanide for this indication. The authors recommend that this safe and well-tolerated compound be considered as part of the treatment for fungal osteomyelitis. PMID:24421812

  8. Production of Chemical Derivatives from Renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian; Nghiem, John; Donnelly, Mark; Tsai, Shih-Perng; Frye, John; Landucci, Ron; Griffin, Michael

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp., (LMER), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Battelle Memorial Institute, operator of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), (collectively referred to as the 'Contractor'), and Applied Carbochemicals, Inc. (Participant) was to scale-up from bench results an economically promising and competitive process for the production of chemical derivatives from biologically produced succinic acid. The products that were under consideration for production from the succinic acid platform included 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}y-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Preliminary economic analyses indicated that this platform was competitive with the most recent petrochemical routes. The Contractors and participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties.' Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on preliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. At the time, the current need was to provide the necessary laboratory follow-up information to properly optimize, design and operate a pilot scale process. The purpose of the pilot work was to validate the integrated process, assure 'robustness' of the process, define operating conditions, and provide samples for potential customer evaluation. The data from the pilot scale process was used in design and development of a full scale production facility. A new strain, AFP111 (patented), discovered at ANL was tested and developed for process use at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ANL. The operability and product formation are attractive for this strain and effort was being directed at process development and optimization. Key to the transition from the fermentative production unit operation to the chemical catalysis is the 'clean-up' of fermentation broth, succinic acid formation from the salt, and succinic acid concentration. These steps are accomplished by a two-stage membrane ED separation process developed at AWL. Although the current process is well developed, possible modifications and optimization may be called for as development work continues in both the fermentation and catalysis areas. Research to date performed at PNNL has demonstrated that succinic acid can be converted to value added chemicals such as 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, N-methyl pyrrolidinone, and 2 pyrrolidinone with high conversion and selectivities. Continued research will be performed in catalyst development and reaction condition optimization to move this work from the bench scale to the pilot scale. All development of the process was guided by the NREL technoeconomic model. The model showed that direct aqueous phase catalysis of succinic acid to 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, and N-methyl pyrrolidinone provided significant economical advantages in the market, the margin, and the return on capital investment over existing petrochemical processes for production of these compounds. The model also provided the baseline for evaluating current laboratory research. As data from the bench and pilot work were made available the model was modified and appropriate sensitivities ran to determine impact of the process changes and optimization. The report will present the planned CRADA tasks followed by the results. The results section has an overall project summary follwed by more detailed reports from the participants. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  9. Relevance of the OCT1 transporter to the antineoplastic effect of biguanides

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, Eric D.; Yasmeen, Amber; Beauchamp, Marie-Claude; Rosenblatt, Joshua [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada) [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Pollak, Michael [Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada) [Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gotlieb, Walter H., E-mail: walter.gotlieb@mcgill.ca [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of EOC cells to metformin, but not to another biguanide, phenformin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of OCT1 also affects the activation of AMP kinase in response to metformin, but not to phenformin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct actions of metformin may be limited by low OCT1 expression in EOC tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenformin could be used as an alternative biguanide. -- Abstract: Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggesting that metformin has antineoplastic activity have led to ongoing clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic issues that may influence metformin activity have not been studied in detail. The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is known to play an important role in cellular uptake of metformin in the liver. We show that siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to metformin, but interestingly not to another biguanide, phenformin, with respect to both activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of proliferation. We observed that there is heterogeneity between primary human tumors with respect to OCT1 expression. These results suggest that there may be settings where drug uptake limits direct action of metformin on neoplastic cells, raising the possibility that metformin may not be the optimal biguanide for clinical investigation.

  10. Oxygen consumption is depressed in patients with lactic acidosis due to biguanide intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Lactic acidosis can develop during biguanide (metformin and phenformin) intoxication, possibly as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated whether body oxygen consumption (VO2), that primarily depends on mitochondrial respiration, is depressed in patients with biguanide intoxication. Methods Multicentre retrospective analysis of data collected from 24 patients with lactic acidosis (pH 6.93 ± 0.20; lactate 18 ± 6 mM at hospital admission) due to metformin (n = 23) or phenformin (n = 1) intoxication. In 11 patients, VO2 was computed as the product of simultaneously recorded arterio-venous difference in O2 content [C(a-v)O2] and cardiac index (CI). In 13 additional cases, C(a-v)O2, but not CI, was available. Results On day 1, VO2 was markedly depressed (67 ± 28 ml/min/m2) despite a normal CI (3.4 ± 1.2 L/min/m2). C(a-v)O2 was abnormally low in both patients either with (2.0 ± 1.0 ml O2/100 ml) or without (2.5 ± 1.1 ml O2/100 ml) CI (and VO2) monitoring. Clearance of the accumulated drug was associated with the resolution of lactic acidosis and a parallel increase in VO2 (P < 0.001) and C(a-v)O2 (P < 0.05). Plasma lactate and VO2 were inversely correlated (R2 0.43; P < 0.001, n = 32). Conclusions VO2 is abnormally low in patients with lactic acidosis due to biguanide intoxication. This finding is in line with the hypothesis of inhibited mitochondrial respiration and consequent hyperlactatemia. PMID:20170489

  11. Revisiting the chemical reactivity indices as the state function derivatives. The role of classical chemical hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Ali; Balawender, Robert

    2015-02-01

    The chemical reactivity indices as the equilibrium state-function derivatives are revisited. They are obtained in terms of the central moments (fluctuation formulas). To analyze the role of the chemical hardness introduced by Pearson [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105, 7512 (1983)], the relations between the derivatives up to the third-order and the central moments are obtained. As shown, the chemical hardness and the chemical potential are really the principal indices of the chemical reactivity theory. It is clear from the results presented here that the chemical hardness is not the derivative of the Mulliken chemical potential (this means also not the second derivative of the energy at zero-temperature limit). The conventional quadratic dependence of energy, observed at finite temperature, reduces to linear dependence on the electron number at zero-temperature limit. The chemical hardness plays a double role in the admixture of ionic states to the reference neutral state energy: it determines the amplitude of the admixture and regulates the damping of its thermal factor.

  12. Regulation of the Proliferation of Colon Cancer Cells by Compounds that Affect Glycolysis, Including 3-Bromopyruvate, 2-Deoxyglucose and Biguanides

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Michael A.; Qureshi, Mehreen S.; Buxhoeveden, Michael; Gengel, Nicolette; Kleinschmit, Jessica; desBordes, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In previous studies we observed that 2-deoxyglucose blocked the acidification of the medium used for culture of colon cancer cells caused by incubation with biguanides and had an additive inhibitory effect on growth. In the present work, we found that 3-bromopyruvate can also prevent the lowering of pH caused by biguanide treatment. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibited colonic cancer cell proliferation but the effect was not always additive to that of biguanides and an additive effect was more notable in combined treatment with 3-bromopyruvate and 2-deoxyglucose. The induction of alkaline phosphatase activity by butyrate was not consistently affected by combination with other agents that modified glucose metabolism. The drug combinations that were examined inhibited proliferation of wild-type and P53 null cells and affected colonic cancer lines with different growth rates. PMID:23393330

  13. The biguanides metformin and phenformin inhibit angiogenesis, local and metastatic growth of breast cancer by targeting both neoplastic and microenvironment cells.

    PubMed

    Orecchioni, Stefania; Reggiani, Francesca; Talarico, Giovanna; Mancuso, Patrizia; Calleri, Angelica; Gregato, Giuliana; Labanca, Valentina; Noonan, Douglas M; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Albini, Adriana; Bertolini, Francesco

    2015-03-15

    The human white adipose tissue (WAT) contains progenitors with cooperative roles in breast cancer (BC) angiogenesis, local and metastatic progression. The biguanide Metformin (Met), commonly used for Type 2 diabetes, might have activity against BC and was found to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo. We studied Met and another biguanide, phenformin (Phe), in vitro and in vivo in BC models. In vitro, biguanides activated AMPK, inhibited Complex 1 of the respiratory chain and induced apoptosis of BC and WAT endothelial cells. In coculture, biguanides inhibited the production of several angiogenic proteins. In vivo, biguanides inhibited local and metastatic growth of triple negative and HER2+ BC in immune-competent and immune-deficient mice orthotopically injected with BC. Biguanides inhibited local and metastatic BC growth in a genetically engineered murine model model of HER2+ BC. In vivo, biguanides increased pimonidazole binding (but not HIF-1 expression) of WAT progenitors, reduced tumor microvessel density and altered the vascular pericyte/endothelial cell ratio, so that cancer vessels displayed a dysplastic phenotype. Phe was significantly more active than Met both in vitro and in vivo. Considering their safety profile, biguanides deserve to be further investigated for BC prevention in high-risk subjects, in combination with chemo and/or targeted therapy and/or as post-therapy consolidation or maintenance therapy for the prevention of BC recurrence. PMID:25196138

  14. Evaluation of novel hydrophilic derivatives for chemically amplified EUV resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanagi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyasu; Hayakawa, Shoichi; Furukawa, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    EUV lithography is the most favorable process for high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices beyond 1X nm half-pitch. Many efforts have revealed effective proton sources in acid generation in EUV resists, and the effective proton generation and the control of the generated acid diffusion are required to improve the breakthrough of the resolution ? line width roughness ? sensitivity(RLS) trade-off. To clarify the lithographic performance of these derivatives, we synthesized the acrylic terpolymers containing novel hydrophilic derivatives as model photopolymers and exposed the resist samples based on these polymers to EUV and EB radiation. On the basis of the lithographic performances of these resist samples, we evaluated the characteristics of hydrophilic derivatives upon exposure to EUV radiation. We discuss the relationship between the chemical structures of these derivatives and lithographic performance.

  15. Metabolic determinants of cancer cell sensitivity to glucose limitation and biguanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsoy, K?vanç; Possemato, Richard; Lorbeer, Franziska K.; Bayraktar, Erol C.; Thiru, Prathapan; Yucel, Burcu; Wang, Tim; Chen, Walter W.; Clish, Clary B.; Sabatini, David M.

    2014-04-01

    As the concentrations of highly consumed nutrients, particularly glucose, are generally lower in tumours than in normal tissues, cancer cells must adapt their metabolism to the tumour microenvironment. A better understanding of these adaptations might reveal cancer cell liabilities that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Here we developed a continuous-flow culture apparatus (Nutrostat) for maintaining proliferating cells in low-nutrient media for long periods of time, and used it to undertake competitive proliferation assays on a pooled collection of barcoded cancer cell lines cultured in low-glucose conditions. Sensitivity to low glucose varies amongst cell lines, and an RNA interference (RNAi) screen pinpointed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the major pathway required for optimal proliferation in low glucose. We found that cell lines most sensitive to low glucose are defective in the OXPHOS upregulation that is normally caused by glucose limitation as a result of either mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in complex I genes or impaired glucose utilization. These defects predict sensitivity to biguanides, antidiabetic drugs that inhibit OXPHOS, when cancer cells are grown in low glucose or as tumour xenografts. Notably, the biguanide sensitivity of cancer cells with mtDNA mutations was reversed by ectopic expression of yeast NDI1, a ubiquinone oxidoreductase that allows bypass of complex I function. Thus, we conclude that mtDNA mutations and impaired glucose utilization are potential biomarkers for identifying tumours with increased sensitivity to OXPHOS inhibitors.

  16. Metabolic determinants of cancer cell sensitivity to glucose limitation and biguanides

    PubMed Central

    Birsoy, K?vanç; Possemato, Richard; Lorbeer, Franziska K.; Bayraktar, Erol C.; Thiru, Prathapan; Yucel, Burcu; Wang, Tim; Chen, Walter W.; Clish, Clary B.; Sabatini, David M.

    2014-01-01

    As the concentrations of highly consumed nutrients, particularly glucose, are generally lower in tumours than in normal tissues1,2, cancer cells must adapt their metabolism to the tumour microenvironment. A better understanding of these adaptations might reveal cancer cell liabilities that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Here, we developed a continuous flow culture apparatus (Nutrostat) for maintaining proliferating cells in low nutrient media for long periods of time and used it to undertake competitive proliferation assays on a pooled collection of barcoded cancer cell lines cultured in low glucose conditions. Sensitivity to low glucose varies amongst cell lines, and an RNAi screen pinpointed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the major pathway required for optimal proliferation in low glucose. We found that cell lines most sensitive to low glucose are defective in the upregulation of OXPHOS normally caused by glucose limitation as a result of either mtDNA mutations in Complex I genes or impaired glucose utilization. These defects predict sensitivity to biguanides, anti-diabetic drugs that inhibit OXPHOS3,4, when cancer cells are grown in low glucose or as tumour xenografts. Remarkably, the biguanide sensitivity of cancer cells with mtDNA mutations was reversed by ectopic expression of yeast NDI1, a ubiquinone oxidoreductase that allows bypass of Complex I function5. Thus, we conclude that mtDNA mutations and impaired glucose utilization are potential biomarkers for identifying tumours with increased sensitivity to OXPHOS inhibitors. PMID:24670634

  17. Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.

    PubMed

    d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems. PMID:18830142

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars.

    PubMed

    Yargicoglu, Erin N; Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R; Spokas, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence (or near-absence) of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties. Favorable properties of biochar include its high surface area and porosity, and ability to adsorb a variety of compounds, including nutrients, organic contaminants, and some gases. Physical and chemical properties of biochars are dictated by the feedstock and production processes (pyrolysis or gasification temperature, conversion technology and pre- and post-treatment processes, if any), which vary widely across commercially produced biochars. In this study, several commercially available biochars derived from waste wood are characterized for physical and chemical properties that can signify their relevant environmental applications. Parameters characterized include: physical properties (particle size distribution, specific gravity, density, porosity, surface area), hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity), and chemical and electrochemical properties (organic matter and organic carbon contents, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity, zeta potential, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (CHN) elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and leachable PAHs and heavy metals). A wide range of fixed carbon (0-47.8%), volatile matter (28-74.1%), and ash contents (1.5-65.7%) were observed among tested biochars. A high variability in surface area (0.1-155.1g/m(2)) and PAH and heavy metal contents of the solid phase among commercially available biochars was also observed (0.7-83mgkg(-1)), underscoring the importance of pre-screening biochars prior to application. Production conditions appear to dictate PAH content - with the highest PAHs observed in biochar produced via fast pyrolysis and lowest among the gasification-produced biochars. PMID:25464942

  19. Determination of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride using photometric colloidal titration with crystal violet as a color indicator.

    PubMed

    Masadome, Takashi; Miyanishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Keita; Ueda, Hiroshi; Hattori, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    A solution of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB-HCl) was titrated with a standard solution of potassium poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVSK) using crystal violet (CV) as an photometric indicator cation. The end point was detected by a sharp absorbance change due to an abrupt decrease in the concentration of CV. A linear relationship between the concentration of PHMB-HCl and the end-point volume of the titrant existed in the concentration range from 2 to 10 × 10(-6) eq mol L(-1). Back-titration was based on adding an excess amount of PVSK to a sample solution containing CV, which was titrated with a standard solution of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC). The calibration curve of the PHMB-HCl concentration to the end point volume of the titrant was also linear in the concentration range from 2 to 8 × 10(-6) eq mol L(-1). Both photometric titrations were applied to the determination of PHMB-HCl in a few contact-lens detergents. Back-titration showed a clear end point, but direct titration showed an unclear end point. The results of the back-titration of PHMB-HCl were compared with the content registered in its labels. PMID:21828919

  20. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery. PMID:25336429

  1. The Evaluation of Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB) as a Disinfectant for Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; O’Connor, Katherine E.; Mah, Francis S.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Kowalski, Regis P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Swimming pools can be a vector for transmission of adenovirus ocular infections. Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is a disinfectant used in swimming pools and hot tubs. The current study determined whether PHMB is an effective disinfectant against ocular adenovirus serotypes at a concentration used to disinfect swimming pools and hot tubs. Methods The direct disinfecting activity of PHMB was determined in triplicate assays by incubating nine human adenovirus types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7a, 8, 19, and 37) with 50 and 0 PPM (µg/ml) of PHMB for 24 hours at room temperature, to simulate swimming pool temperatures, or 40°C, to simulate hot tub temperatures. Plaque assays determined adenovirus titers after incubation. Titers were Log10 converted and mean ± standard deviation Log10 reductions from controls were calculated. Virucidal (greater than 99.9%) decreases in mean adenovirus titers after PHMB treatment were determined for each adenovirus type and temperature tested. Results At room temperature, 50 PPM of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 Log10 for all adenovirus types tested. At 40°C, 50 PPM of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 Log10 for two adenovirus types and greater than 1 Log10, but less than 3 Log10, for seven of nine adenovirus types. Conclusions 50 PPM of PHMB was not virucidal against adenovirus at temperatures consistent with swimming pools or hot tubs. Clinical Relevance Recreational water maintained and sanitized with PHMB has the potential to serve as a vector for the transmission of ocular adenovirus infections. PMID:23450376

  2. Chemical Synthesis of U1 snRNA Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    U1 snRNA is an interesting biological tool for splicing correction and regulation of gene expression. However, U1 snRNA has never been chemically synthesized. In this study, the first chemical synthesis of U1snRNA and its analogues was carried out. Moreover, it was found that the binding affinity of the modified U1 snRNA with an ethylene glycol linkage to snurportin 1 (nuclear import adaptor) was as high as that of the unmodified RNA. PMID:23952175

  3. Microbial production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism is an attractive route to produce liquid transportation fuels and commodity oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recently, genes and enzymes, which comprise metabolic pathways for producing fatty acid-derived compounds (e.g. esters, alkanes, olefins, ketones, alcohols, polyesters) have been elucidated and used in engineered microbial hosts. The resulting strains often generate products at low percentages of maximum theoretical yields, leaving significant room for metabolic engineering. Economically viable processes will require strains to approach theoretical yields, particularly for replacement of petroleum-derived fuels. This review will describe recent progress toward this goal, highlighting the scientific discoveries of each pathway, ongoing biochemical studies to understand each enzyme, and metabolic engineering strategies that are being used to improve strain performance. PMID:23541503

  4. Evaluation of xanthine derivatives in chocolate – nutritional and chemical aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Matissek

    1997-01-01

    Organic substances containing nitrogen are widespread throughout the whole of the natural world. Also included amongst these\\u000a are the methylxanthine derivatives caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. These are very closely related and are to be found\\u000a in extremely varying contents in different plants. Because of their pharmacological effect, which is fundamentally of a stimulative\\u000a nature, methylxanthines have been significant since time

  5. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  6. Photovoltaic Study of Chemically Derived Titanium-Doped Polythiophene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takpire, S. R.; Waghuley, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, titanium (Ti)-doped polythiophene (PTh) was synthesized by a chemical route using titanium chloride as oxidant. As-synthesized composites were further used for fabrication of photovoltaic (PV) cells with indium tin oxide/Ti-doped PTh/aluminum architecture. Structural, morphological, and optical analyses of as-synthesized composites were carried out through x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. A broad peak was found in the PL spectra of the composites at around 480 nm, indicating high charge generation efficiency. Different PV parameters of the fabricated PV cells were measured at room temperature under incandescent light of 100 W/m2. The optimized PV cell exhibited short-circuit current (I sc) and open-circuit voltage (V oc) on the order of 176 ?A and 0.595 V, respectively. The values of I sc and V oc were used to compute the fill factor, which was found to be 0.521. The corresponding power conversion efficiency associated with the optimized cell was found to be 2.41%.

  7. Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Shin, Jae Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    Due to the growing concerns on the climate change and sustainability on petrochemical resources, DOE selected and announced the bio-based top 12 building blocks and discussed the needs for developing biorefinery technologies to replace the current petroleum based industry in 2004. Over the last 10 years after its announcement, many studies have been performed for the development of efficient technologies for the bio-based production of these chemicals and derivatives. Now, ten chemicals among these top 12 chemicals, excluding the l-aspartic acid and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, have already been commercialized or are close to commercialization. In this paper, we review the current status of biorefinery development for the production of these platform chemicals and their derivatives. In addition, current technological advances on industrial strain development for the production of platform chemicals using micro-organisms will be covered in detail with case studies on succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid as examples. PMID:25576747

  8. Evaluation of synthetic naphthalene derivatives as novel chemical chaperones that mimic 4-phenylbutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Mimori, Seisuke; Koshikawa, Yukari; Mashima, Yu; Mitsunaga, Katsuyoshi; Kawada, Koichi; Kaneko, Masayuki; Okuma, Yasunobu; Nomura, Yasuyuki; Murakami, Yasuoki; Kanzaki, Tetsuto; Hamana, Hiroshi

    2015-02-15

    The chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) has potential as an agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the requirement of high concentrations warrants chemical optimization for clinical use. In this study, novel naphthalene derivatives with a greater chemical chaperone activity than 4-PBA were synthesized with analogy to the benzene ring. All novel compounds showed chemical chaperone activity, and 2 and 5 possessed high activity. In subsequent experiments, the protective effects of the compounds were examined in Parkinson's disease model cells, and low toxicity of 9 and 11 was related to amphiphilic substitution with naphthalene. PMID:25595686

  9. (1)H chemical shift differences of Prelog-Djerassi lactone derivatives: DFT and NMR conformational studies.

    PubMed

    Aímola, Túlio J; Lima, Dimas J P; Dias, Luiz C; Tormena, Cláudio F; Ferreira, Marco A B

    2015-02-21

    This work reports an experimental and theoretical study of the conformational preferences of several Prelog-Djerassi lactone derivatives, to elucidate the (1)H NMR chemical shift differences in the lactonic core that are associated with the relative stereochemistry of these derivatives. The boat-like conformation of explains the anomalous (1)H chemical shift between H-5a and H-5b, in which the two methyl groups (C-8 and C-9) face H-5b, leading to its higher shielding effect. PMID:25530444

  10. Considerations in the Derivation of Water Quality Criteria for Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    When the USEPA?s 1985 guidelines for deriving numerical water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of aquatic life were developed there was little anticipation that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) would be come a widespread environmental issue. While the basic guidelin...

  11. Correlation between chemical structure and rodent repellency of benzoic acid derivatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearn, J.E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1965-01-01

    Sixty-five benzoic acid derivatives were either prepared or obtained from commercial concerns, tested for rat repellency, and their indices of repellency computed. The data from these tests were considered analytically for any correlation between chemical structure and rat repellency. The results suggest a qualitative relationship which is useful in deciding probability of repellency in other compounds.

  12. Development of novel protecting derivatives for chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyasu; Tanagi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Shoichi; Furukawa, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    EUV lithography is the most favorable process for high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices below 1X nm half-pitch. Many efforts have revealed that the effective proton generation and the control of the generated acid diffusion are required to improve the breakthrough of the RLS trade-off. For the development of EUV resists, the novel protecting derivatives were designed. To clarify the lithographic performance of these derivatives, we synthesized the acrylic polymers containing these derivatives as model photopolymers and exposed the resist samples based on these polymers to EUV/EB radiation. On the basis of the lithographic performances of these resist sample, we evaluated the characteristics of novel protecting derivatives upon exposure to EUV/EB radiation. We discuss the relationship between the chemical structures of these derivatives and lithographic performance.

  13. Prediction of 13C chemical shifts in methoxyflavonol derivatives using MIA-QSPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Freitas, Matheus P.; Ramalho, Teodorico C.

    2009-10-01

    The 13C chemical shifts of 19 methoxyflavonol derivatives have been modeled through using a structure-based quantitative structure-property relationship approach, which is based on the treatment of 2D images. In MIA-QSPR (multivariate image analysis applied to quantitative-structure-property relationships), descriptors correlating with dependent variables are pixels (binaries) of 2D chemical structures; variant pixels in the structures (substituents) account for the explained variance in the chemical shifts. Thus, a predictive model may be built from the regression between descriptors and experimental data. The MIA-QSPR approach coupled to partial least squares (PLS) regression built for the series of flavonols revealed that the predictive ability of MIA descriptors is comparable, or even superior for the fused rings moiety, when compared to the well-known Gauge Included Atomic Orbital (GIAO) procedure for 13C chemical shifts calculations.

  14. Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Valuable Chemicals in Synthetic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes. PMID:25566540

  15. Use of chemical genomics in assessment of the UPR.

    PubMed

    Saito, Sakae; Tomida, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    Glucose deprivation, one of the major physiological conditions in solid tumor, leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cancer cells. The UPR occurs through the transcriptional and translational regulatory mechanisms that improve the capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to fold and traffic proteins and allows the cell to survive under stress conditions. We previously reported that the macrocyclic compound versipelostatin and the antidiabetic biguanides metformin, buformin, and phenformin could inhibit the UPR during glucose deprivation as well as induce the UPR by treatment of cells with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG), a glycolysis inhibitor. Versipelostatin and biguanides show highly selective cytotoxicity to glucose-deprived tumor cells and exert in vivo antitumor activity; thus, these compounds would be interesting anticancer agent candidates. By microarray analysis, we demonstrated that cancer cells under glucose deprivation conditions caused activation of the UPR transcription program, which was suppressed broadly by versipelostatin and biguanides. We also identified the drug-driven gene signatures that can be used to discover pharmacologic UPR modulators. Indeed, we found several bioactive drugs, such as pyrvinium pamoate, valinomycin, and rottlerin, that selectively suppressed 2DG-induced GRP78 promoter activity as versipelostatin and biguanide did. Together with growing bioinformatics databases and analytical tools, our approach could provide a chemical genomic basis for developing UPR-targeting drugs against solid tumors. PMID:21329808

  16. Siderophore activity of chemically synthesized dihydroxybenzoyl derivatives of spermidines and cystamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Reissbrodt; Florence Ramiandrasoa; Laurent Bricard; Gerhard Kunesch

    1997-01-01

    Chemically synthesized dihydroxybenzoyl derivatives of spermidine and cystamide containing two-, three- and four-bidentates with the hydroxyl groups in 2,3 or 3,4 position were examined in cross-feeding tests using Gram-negative siderophore indicator strains carrying different iron-related markers, and two Mycobacterium spp. The catecholates were unable to feed tonB mutants of E. coli and S. typhimurium as well as the fepA, fiu,

  17. Effects of Hemoglobin Variants and Chemically Modified Derivatives on Assays for Glycohemoglobin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Bry; Philip C. Chen; David B. Sacks

    2001-01-01

    Background: Glycohemoglobin (gHb), measured as he- moglobin (Hb) A1c or as total gHb, provides a common means for assessing long-term glycemic control in indi- viduals with diabetes mellitus. Genetic variants and chemically modified derivatives of Hb can profoundly affect the accuracy of these measurements, although effects vary considerably among commercially available methods. The prevalence of genetic variants such as HbS,

  18. Chemical Enhancement in Embryo Development and Stem Cell Derivation from Single Blastomeres

    PubMed Central

    Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Piotrowska-Nitsche, Karolina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Several chemicals targeting the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway, which play an important role in regulating cell growth and differentiation, have shown enhancing effects on the development of the inner cell mass (ICM) and the derivation of ES cells. However, investigation of such chemicals on early embryonic development and the establishment of ES cell lines has not been elucidated. This study was aimed to determine if ACTH, MAP2K1 inhibitor [MAP2K1 (I)], and MAPK14 inhibitor [MAPK14 (I)] could enhance the development of the ICM in preimplantation mouse embryos and blastocyst outgrowths, and the establishment of ES cell lines from blastomeres of early embryos. We have demonstrated that both MAP2K1 (I) and MAPK14 (I) delay early embryo development and inhibit the development of embryos from early blastomeres. On the other hand, ACTH had a positive effect on embryos derived from early blastomeres. As a result, 17 ES cell lines were established. Among these ES cell lines, nine and five ES cell lines were established from single blastomeres of two-cell embryos with and without the supplement of ACTH, respectively. In addition to two-cell isolated blastomeres, three ES cell lines were established from blastomeres of four-cell embryos only with the supplement of ACTH. Our results suggest that ACTH can enhance the derivation of ES cells from single blastomere-derived embryos. PMID:18795871

  19. Inhibition of anthrax lethal factor by curcumin and chemically modified curcumin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Anthony C; Zhang, Yu; Golub, Lorne M; Johnson, Francis; Simon, Sanford R

    2014-10-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the active ingredient in the eastern spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been shown to inhibit the activities of numerous enzymes and signaling molecules involved in cancer, bacterial and viral infections and inflammatory diseases. We have investigated the inhibitory activities of curcumin and chemically modified curcumin (CMC) derivatives toward lethal factor (LF), the proteolytic component of anthrax toxin produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Curcumin (Compound 1) appears to inhibit the catalytic activity of LF through a mixture of inhibitory mechanisms, without significant compromise to the binding of oligopeptide substrates, and one CMC derivative in particular, Compound 3 (4-phenylaminocarbonylbis-demethoxycurcumin), is capable of inhibiting LF with potency comparable with the parent compound, while also showing improved solubility and stability. The quantitative reduction in catalytic activity achieved by the different CMC derivatives appears to be a function of the proportion of the multiple mechanisms through which they inhibit the enzyme. PMID:24102525

  20. Biguanide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction yields increased lactate production and cytotoxicity of aerobically-poised HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Dykens, James A. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer, Inc., Ramsgate Rd. Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jamesdykens@pfizer.com; Jamieson, Joseph; Marroquin, Lisa [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer, Inc., 10646 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Nadanaciva, Sashi; Billis, Puja A.; Will, Yvonne [Exploratory Safety Differentiation, Pfizer, Inc. Eastern Point Rd, Groton CT, 06340 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    As a class, the biguanides induce lactic acidosis, a hallmark of mitochondrial impairment. To assess potential mitochondrial impairment, we evaluated the effects of metformin, buformin and phenformin on: 1) viability of HepG2 cells grown in galactose, 2) respiration by isolated mitochondria, 3) metabolic poise of HepG2 and primary human hepatocytes, 4) activities of immunocaptured respiratory complexes, and 5) mitochondrial membrane potential and redox status in primary human hepatocytes. Phenformin was the most cytotoxic of the three with buformin showing moderate toxicity, and metformin toxicity only at mM concentrations. Importantly, HepG2 cells grown in galactose are markedly more susceptible to biguanide toxicity compared to cells grown in glucose, indicating mitochondrial toxicity as a primary mode of action. The same rank order of potency was observed for isolated mitochondrial respiration where preincubation (40 min) exacerbated respiratory impairment, and was required to reveal inhibition by metformin, suggesting intramitochondrial bio-accumulation. Metabolic profiling of intact cells corroborated respiratory inhibition, but also revealed compensatory increases in lactate production from accelerated glycolysis. High (mM) concentrations of the drugs were needed to inhibit immunocaptured respiratory complexes, supporting the contention that bioaccumulation is involved. The same rank order was found when monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, and glutathione levels in primary human hepatocytes. In toto, these data indicate that biguanide-induced lactic acidosis can be attributed to acceleration of glycolysis in response to mitochondrial impairment. Indeed, the desired clinical outcome, viz., decreased blood glucose, could be due to increased glucose uptake and glycolytic flux in response to drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  2. Accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals in tissues of seabirds ingesting marine plastics.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2013-04-15

    We analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in abdominal adipose of oceanic seabirds (short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris) collected in northern North Pacific Ocean. In 3 of 12 birds, we detected higher-brominated congeners (viz., BDE209 and BDE183), which are not present in the natural prey (pelagic fish) of the birds. The same compounds were present in plastic found in the stomachs of the 3 birds. These data suggested the transfer of plastic-derived chemicals from ingested plastics to the tissues of marine-based organisms. PMID:23298431

  3. Hierarchy of Electronic Properties of Chemically Derived and Pristine Graphene Probed by Microwave Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kundhikanjana, W.

    2010-06-02

    Local electrical imaging using microwave impedance microscope is performed on graphene in different modalities, yielding a rich hierarchy of the local conductivity. The low-conductivity graphite oxide and its derivatives show significant electronic inhomogeneity. For the conductive chemical graphene, the residual defects lead to a systematic reduction of the microwave signals. In contrast, the signals on pristine graphene agree well with a lumped-element circuit model. The local impedance information can also be used to verify the electrical contact between overlapped graphene pieces.

  4. Derivation of the chemical-equilibrium rate coefficient using scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Scattering theory is applied to derive the equilibrium rate coefficient for a general homogeneous chemical reaction involving ideal gases. The reaction rate is expressed in terms of the product of a number of normalized momentum distribution functions, the product of the number of molecules with a given internal energy state, and the spin-averaged T-matrix elements. An expression for momentum distribution at equilibrium for an arbitrary molecule is presented, and the number of molecules with a given internal-energy state is represented by an expression which includes the partition function.

  5. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    PubMed

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed. PMID:25443804

  6. Chemically defined sequential culture media for TH+ cell derivation from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianran; Chen, Guian; Wang, Yue; Mao, Genhong; Wang, Yanxia; Bai, Haiyan

    2008-11-01

    During the past few years several differentiation protocols to derive midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons from human embryonic stem (hES) cells have been developed, but the production of sufficient amounts of the 'right' therapeutic DA cells has not yet been accomplished. The aim of this study was to efficiently generate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in vitro from our hES cells using a chemically defined culture system. At the end of differentiation, the vast majority of cells (>90%) were positive for both TH and beta-tubulin isotype III (TuJ1). Other markers of dopaminergic cells, like dopamine transporter (DAT) and Nurr1 were also detected by immunofluorescence or RT-PCR. The functions of these cells were confirmed by measurements of DA release in vitro and by transplantation of derived cells into Parkinson's disease (PD) rats in vivo. We found these cells were able to release DA when depolarized by high K(+). Moreover, 4 weeks after transplantation, the hES-derived cells could survive and reduce the apomorphine-induced rotation behaviour of the rats. In conclusion, the experimental system presented here provided a reliable protocol to produce a large number of hES-derived TH(+) cells which may be used in cell therapy for PD in future. PMID:18922848

  7. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 ?g/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  8. Chemical and molecular aspects on interactions of galanthamine and its derivatives with cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Gulcan, Hayrettin O; Orhan, Ilkay E; Sener, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Dual action of galanthamine as potent cholinesterase inhibitor and nicotinic modulator has attracted a great attention to be used in the treatment of AD. Consequently, galanthamine, a natural alkaloid isolated from a Galanthus species (snowdrop, Amaryllidaceae), has become an attractive model compound for synthesis of its novel derivatives to discover new drug candidates. Numerous studies have been done to elucidate interactions between galanthamine and its different derivatives and the enzymes; acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) using in vitro and in silico experimental models. The in vitro studies revealed that galanthamine inhibits AChE in strong, competitive, long-acting, and reversible manner as well as BChE, although its selectivity towards AChE is much higher than BChE. The in silico studies carried out by employing molecular docking experiments as well as molecular dynamics simulations pointed out to existence of strong interactions of galanthamine with the active gorge of AChE, mostly of Torpedo californica (the Pasific electric ray) origin. In this review, we evaluate the mainstays of cholinesterase inhibitory action of galanthamine and its various derivatives from the point of view of chemical and molecular aspects. PMID:25483718

  9. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Dayton

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested. Task 3: Chemical Synthesis: Promising process routes will be identified for synthesis of selected chemicals from biomass-derived syngas. A project milestone was to select promising mixed alcohol catalysts and screen productivity and performance in a fixed bed micro-reactor using bottled syngas. This milestone was successfully completed in collaboration withour catalyst development partner. Task 4: Modeling, Engineering Evaluation, and Commercial Assessment: Mass and energy balances of conceptual commercial embodiment for FT and chemical synthesis were completed.

  10. Fatty Acid-Derived Biofuels and Chemicals Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A.; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Volatile energy costs and environmental concerns have spurred interest in the development of alternative, renewable, sustainable, and cost-effective energy resources. Environment-friendly processes involving microbes can be used to synthesize advanced biofuels. These fuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels in supporting high-power demanding machinery such as aircrafts and trucks. From an engineering perspective, the pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis is an attractive route for the production of advanced fuels such as fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and alkanes. The robustness and excellent accessibility to molecular genetics make the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a suitable host for the purpose of bio-manufacturing. Recent advances in metabolic engineering, as well as systems and synthetic biology, have now provided the opportunity to engineer yeast metabolism for the production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals. PMID:25225637

  11. Genetic and chemical characterization of white and red peony root derived from Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu; Yu, Xiaoli; Wu, Yuqiu; Shiraishi, Fumio; Kawahara, Nobuo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2015-01-01

    Two kinds of peony roots--white peony root (WPR) and red peony root (RPR)--are used for different remedies in traditional Chinese medicine; however, most of them are derived from the same botanical origin, Paeonia lactiflora. The difference between WPR and RPR has been debated for a long time. This study attempted to clarify the genetic and chemical characteristics of WPR and RPR in order to provide a scientific dataset for their identification and effective use. The nucleotide sequence of nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the contents of 8 main bioactive constituents were analyzed from specimens of P. lactiflora, P. veitchii and two related species as well as crude drug samples of WPR, RPR and peony root produced in Japan. Of the samples derived from P. lactiflora, the WPR produced in the southern parts of China and the RPR produced in the northern parts of China were clearly divided into two subgroups within the P. lactiflora group based on similarity of the ITS sequences. The nucleotides at positions 69, 458 and 523 upstream of the ITS sequence served as molecular markers to discriminate between WPR and RPR. Quantitative analysis indicated that the RPR samples obviously contained a higher content of paeoniflorin and paeonol, but a lower content of albiflorin than the WPR produced in the southern parts of China and peony root produced in Japan. The WPR available from Chinese markets was usually processed by sulfur fumigation, which resulted in an extremely low content of paeoniflorin. This study indicated that WPR and RPR were not only geographically isolated, but also genetically and chemically separated. The ITS sequence provided a genetic index for their identification. PMID:25151277

  12. Investigation of reports of sexual dysfunction among male chemical workers manufacturing stilbene derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.M.; Wegman, D.H.; Greaves, I.A.; Hammond, S.K.; Ellenbecker, M.J.; Spark, R.F.; Smith, E.R. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A Health Hazard Evaluation was conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in an area of a large chemical plant that manufactured the stilbene derivative 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, an intermediate used for the production of optical brightening agents. Men employed in the area reported problems with impotence. The study population consisted of 44 men aged 20-57 years (mean age 37) employed in the area at the time of the evaluation. An industrial hygiene investigation, health and work history questionnaire survey, physical examinations, and blood chemistry and serum hormone evaluation were conducted. Fourteen percent of the men reported symptoms of impotence over the preceding 6 or more months, 7% had potency problems of shorter duration, and 7% were not currently impotent but had experienced impotence for 6 or more months in the past; 36% experienced decreased libido, all since beginning work in the production area. Low levels of serum testosterone (less than 350 ng/dl) were observed in 37% of the men. The low serum testosterone concentrations were not accounted for fully by diurnal variation or an effect of rotating shift work. It is suggested that exposures to chemicals possessing estrogenic activity may be related to the observed health effects in these workers.

  13. Poromechanics Parameters of Fluid-Saturated Chemically Active Fibrous Media Derived from a Micromechanical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    The authors have derived macroscale poromechanics parameters for chemically active saturated fibrous media by combining microstructure-based homogenization with Hill's volume averaging. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill's Lemmas. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model assumes a form suited to study porous materials, while retaining the effect of discrete fiber deformation. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of microscale phenomena such as fiber buckling on the overall behavior, and in particular, on the poromechanics constants. The significance of the approach is demonstrated using the effect of drainage and fiber nonlinearity on monotonic compressive stress-strain behavior. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for articular cartilage. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams, and concrete. PMID:25419475

  14. Chemical synthesis, cytotoxicity, selectivity and bioavailability of 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ayan, Diana; Maltais, René; Hospital, Audrey; Poirier, Donald

    2014-11-01

    Aminosteroid derivatives represent a new family of compounds with promising antiproliferative activity over different cancer cell lines. Among all the aminosteroid derivatives synthesised in our laboratory, we have identified E-37P as one of the more potent when tested in vitro. Unfortunately, the pharmacokinetic properties of E-37P decrease its effectiveness when tested in vivo. To improve the bioavailability and increase the efficiency of aminosteroid E-37P, two series of analog compounds were synthesised by classic chemical synthesis, they were then characterized, and the concentration that inhibits 50% of cell proliferation (IC50) was determined on different cell lines. RM-133, a 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol derivative with a quinoline nucleus at the end of the piperazine-proline side-chain at position 2? and an ethinyl at position 17?, showed very good antiproliferative activity among the five cancer cell lines studied (IC50=0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 2.0 and 1.1 ?M for HL-60, MCF-7, T-47D, LNCaP and WEHI-3, respectively). Moreover, the plasmatic concentration of RM-133 at 3h, when injected subcutaneously in rats, was 2.3-fold higher than that of E-37P (151 vs 64.8 ng/mL). Furthermore, RM-133 weakly inhibited the two representative liver enzymes, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, indicating a very low risk of drug-drug interactions. The cytotoxicity of RM-133 against normal cells was tested on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) obtained from different donors and previously activated with phytohemagglutinin-L. PBL responded differently to treatment with RM-133, we observed a stimulation of cell proliferation and/or cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, additional studies are currently underway to evaluate the selectivity of our lead compound against normal cell lines in a more detailed fashion. PMID:25300820

  15. Electrocatalytic processing of renewable biomass-derived compounds for production of chemicals, fuels and electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Le

    The dual problems of sustaining the fast growth of human society and preserving the environment for future generations urge us to shift our focus from exploiting fossil oils to researching and developing more affordable, reliable and clean energy sources. Human beings had a long history that depended on meeting our energy demands with plant biomass, and the modern biorefinery technologies realize the effective conversion of biomass to production of transportation fuels, bulk and fine chemicals so to alleviate our reliance on fossil fuel resources of declining supply. With the aim of replacing as much non-renewable carbon from fossil oils with renewable carbon from biomass as possible, innovative R&D activities must strive to enhance the current biorefinery process and secure our energy future. Much of my Ph.D. research effort is centered on the study of electrocatalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to produce value-added chemicals, biofuels and electrical energy on model electrocatalysts in AEM/PEM-based continuous flow electrolysis cell and fuel cell reactors. High electricity generation performance was obtained when glycerol or crude glycerol was employed as fuels in AEMFCs. The study on selective electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol shows an electrode potential-regulated product distribution where tartronate and mesoxalate can be selectively produced with electrode potential switch. This finding then led to the development of AEMFCs with selective production of valuable tartronate or mesoxalate with high selectivity and yield and cogeneration of electricity. Reaction mechanisms of electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol were further elucidated by means of an on-line sample collection technique and DFT modeling. Besides electro-oxidation of biorenewable alcohols to chemicals and electricity, electrocatalytic reduction of keto acids (e.g. levulinic acid) was also studied for upgrading biomass-based feedstock to biofuels while achieving renewable electricity storage. Meanwhile, ORR that is often coupled in AEMFCs on the cathode was investigated on non-PGM electrocatalyst with comparable activity to commercial Pt/C. The electro-biorefinery process could be coupled with traditional biorefinery operation and will play a significant role in our energy and chemical landscape.

  16. Derivatives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bourne, Murray

    Murray Bourne developed the Interactive Mathematics site while working as a mathematics lecturer at Ngee Ann Polytechnic in Singapore. The site contains numerous mathematics tutorials and resources for students and teachers alike. This specific page is focused on differentiation, or finding derivatives. Bourne walks users through an introduction to differentiation and limits, and then moves on to more specific applications like rate of change, derivatives of polynomials, and differentiating powers of a function. Each topic includes graphs and interactive materials designed to aid users in understanding the presented concepts. The information here is presented in a clear, straightforward manner that is appropriate for introductory and advanced calculus students alike.

  17. Differential reconstructed gene interaction networks for deriving toxicity threshold in chemical risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathway alterations reflected as changes in gene expression regulation and gene interaction can result from cellular exposure to toxicants. Such information is often used to elucidate toxicological modes of action. From a risk assessment perspective, alterations in biological pathways are a rich resource for setting toxicant thresholds, which may be more sensitive and mechanism-informed than traditional toxicity endpoints. Here we developed a novel differential networks (DNs) approach to connect pathway perturbation with toxicity threshold setting. Methods Our DNs approach consists of 6 steps: time-series gene expression data collection, identification of altered genes, gene interaction network reconstruction, differential edge inference, mapping of genes with differential edges to pathways, and establishment of causal relationships between chemical concentration and perturbed pathways. A one-sample Gaussian process model and a linear regression model were used to identify genes that exhibited significant profile changes across an entire time course and between treatments, respectively. Interaction networks of differentially expressed (DE) genes were reconstructed for different treatments using a state space model and then compared to infer differential edges/interactions. DE genes possessing differential edges were mapped to biological pathways in databases such as KEGG pathways. Results Using the DNs approach, we analyzed a time-series Escherichia coli live cell gene expression dataset consisting of 4 treatments (control, 10, 100, 1000 mg/L naphthenic acids, NAs) and 18 time points. Through comparison of reconstructed networks and construction of differential networks, 80 genes were identified as DE genes with a significant number of differential edges, and 22 KEGG pathways were altered in a concentration-dependent manner. Some of these pathways were perturbed to a degree as high as 70% even at the lowest exposure concentration, implying a high sensitivity of our DNs approach. Conclusions Findings from this proof-of-concept study suggest that our approach has a great potential in providing a novel and sensitive tool for threshold setting in chemical risk assessment. In future work, we plan to analyze more time-series datasets with a full spectrum of concentrations and sufficient replications per treatment. The pathway alteration-derived thresholds will also be compared with those derived from apical endpoints such as cell growth rate. PMID:24268022

  18. Correlation of in Vitro Cytokine Responses with the Chemical Composition of Soil-Derived Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Veranth, John M.; Moss, Tyler A.; Chow, Judith C.; Labban, Raed; Nichols, William K.; Walton, John C.; Watson, John G.; Yost, Garold S.

    2006-01-01

    We treated human lung epithelial cells, type BEAS-2B, with 10–80 ?g/cm2 of dust from soils and road surfaces in the western United States that contained particulate matter (PM) < 2.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter. Cell viability and cytokine secretion responses were measured at 24 hr. Each dust sample is a complex mixture containing particles from different minerals mixed with biogenic and anthropogenic materials. We determined the particle chemical composition using methods based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Speciation Trends Network (STN) and the National Park Service Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. The functionally defined carbon fractions reported by the ambient monitoring networks have not been widely used for toxicology studies. The soil-derived PM2.5 from different sites showed a wide range of potency for inducing the release of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in vitro. Univariate regression and multivariate redundancy analysis were used to test for correlation of viability and cytokine release with the concentrations of 40 elements, 7 ions, and 8 carbon fractions. The particles showed positive correlation between IL-6 release and the elemental and pyrolyzable carbon fractions, and the strongest correlation involving crustal elements was between IL-6 release and the aluminum:silicon ratio. The observed correlations between low-volatility organic components of soil- and road-derived dusts and the cytokine release by BEAS-2B cells are relevant for investigation of mechanisms linking specific air pollution particle types with the initiating events leading to airway inflammation in sensitive populations. PMID:16507455

  19. Derivate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students input functions in order to calculate the derivative and tangent line of that function. This activity allows students to explore tangent lines of various functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  20. 13C chemical-shift anisotropy of alkyl-substituted aromatic carbon in anthracene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hoop, Cody L; Iuliucci, Robbie J

    2013-06-01

    The (13)C chemical-shift anisotropy in anthracene derivatives (9,10-dimethylanthracene, 9,10-dihydroanthracene, dianthracene, and triptycene) has been measured by the 2D FIREMAT timed pulse sequence and the corresponding set of principal values has been determined by the TIGER processing method. These molecules expand the data base of (13)C CSA measurements of fused aromatic rings some bridged by sp(3) carbon resulting in an unusual bonding configuration, which leads to distinctive aromatic (13)C CSA values. Crystal lattice distortions to the CSA were observed to change the isotropic shift by 2.5 to 3.3 ppm and changes as large as 8.3 ppm in principal components. Modeling of the CSA data by GIPAW DFT (GGA-PBE/ultrafine) shielding calculations resulted in an rms chemical-shift distance of 2.8 ppm after lattice including geometry optimization of the diffraction structures by the GIPAW method at GGA-PBE/ultrafine level. Attention is given to the substituted aromatic carbon in the phenyl groups (here forth referred to as the ?-carbon) with respect to CSA modeling with electronic methods. The (13)C CSA of this position is accurately determined due to its spectral isolation of the isotropic shift that limits overlap in the FIREMAT spectrum. In cases where the bridging ring is sp(3) carbon, the current density is reduced from extending beyond the peripheral phenyl groups; this plays a significant role in the magnetic shielding of the ?-position. Nuclear independent chemical-shift calculations based on GIAO DFT (B3LYP/6-31G(d)) shielding calculations were used to model the intramolecular ?-interactions in dianthracene and triptycene. These NICS results estimate the isotropic shift of the ?-position in dianthracene to be insignificantly affected by the presence of the neighboring aromatic rings. However, a notable change in isotropic shielding, ??(iso)=-2.1 ppm, is predicted for the ?- position of triptycene. Experimentally, the ?22 principal component at the ?-position for both dianthracene and triptycene increases by at least 12 ppm compared to 9,10-dihydroanthracene. To rationalize this change, shielding calculations in idealized structures are explored. The spatial position of the bicyclic scaffolding of the bridging ring plays a key role in the large increase in ?22 for the ?-carbon. PMID:23477865

  1. Amphiphilic lauryl ester derivatives from aromatic amino acids: significance of chemical architecture in aqueous aggregation properties.

    PubMed

    Vijay, R; Singh, Jasmeet; Baskar, Geetha; Ranganathan, Radha

    2009-10-22

    Lauryl esters of L-tyrosine (LET) and L-phenylalanine (LEP) were, in a previous interface adsorption study, found to adopt very different interfacial conformations. The present study is an investigation of their aqueous aggregation properties with the goal of elucidating the effects of the presence in LET and absence in LEP of the phenolic OH group on their aqueous aggregate structures and micellar conformations of the surfactant monomers. The measured properties included aggregation numbers from time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ), interface hydration index and microviscosity by electron spin resonance (ESR), chemical shifts of (1)H resonance lines by NMR, and Krafft temperatures and enthalpies of structural transitions by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The TRFQ, ESR, and NMR experiments were conducted at various temperatures from 23 to 70 degrees C for various surfactant concentrations from 0.050 to 0.200 M. Markedly different temperature dependences of aggregation number and (1)H NMR chemical shifts are exhibited by LET and LEP micelles. LET and LEP form ionic micelles. The aggregation number of LEP decreases as is characteristic of ionic micelles, but that of LET increases slightly with temperature. The changes with temperature in the NMR chemical shifts and width of the resonance lines are significantly greater for the various LEP protons than for those of LET. The differences in these properties and other fluorescence decay characteristics of fluorophores incorporated into the micelles could be attributed to the difference in the micellar conformations of LET and LEP which are postulated to be similar to that at oil-water interfaces. The phenolic group is hypothesized to be in the micelle-water interface as part of the headgroup in LET micelles, and its location does not change with temperature. On the other hand, in LEP micelles, the phenyl ring is folded into the core overlapping with the flexible hydrophobic chains. The resulting closer proximity between the phenyl ring and the flexible hydrocarbon chain causes interdependence of the phenyl ring and chain proton resonances, leading to the observed temperature dependence of the chemical shifts in LEP. The TRFQ and ESR data are combined together in a molecular space-filling model, referred to as the polar shell model, to derive the geometrical properties of the micelle. The DSC scans in the temperature range 10-55 degrees C showed the presence of distinctly different endotherms for LET and LEP. The Krafft temperatures, K(T), and the enthalpies were determined. The higher K(T) and broader peak of the DSC endotherm of LET as compared to LEP are attributed to the stabilization of fiberlike structures below the Krafft temperature due to its chirality and the hydrogen bonding capability of the phenolic OH and also to the ion-dipole interactions. Thus, all of the observed differences between LET and LEP could be attributed to the difference in their chemical architecture. PMID:19778004

  2. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  3. Two-Dimensional Carbon Compounds Derived from Graphyne with Chemical Properties Superior to Those of Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia-Jia; Zhao, Xiang; Zhao, Yuliang; Gao, Xingfa

    2013-01-01

    Computational studies considering both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects revealed that graphyne, a carbon material that has recently been of increasing interest, favours unprecedented homogeneous “in-plane” addition reactions. The addition of dichlorocarbene to the C(sp)-C(sp) bond, a site with outstanding regioselectivity in graphyne, proceeds via a stepwise mechanism. Due to their homogeneous nature, additions occurring at C(sp)-C(sp) bonds yield structurally ordered two-dimensional carbon compounds (2DCCs). 2DCCs have electronic band structures near the Fermi level that are similar to those of graphene and are either electrically semi-conductive or metallic depending on whether the reactions break the hexagonal symmetry. Notably, 2DCCs can be further functionalised through substitution reactions with little damage to the extended ?-electron conjugation system. These results suggest that 2DCCs derived from graphyne have physical properties comparable to those of graphene and chemical properties superior to those of graphene. Therefore, 2DCCs are expected to be better suited to practical applications. PMID:23429350

  4. A quantum chemical study of diethynyl derivatives of dodecahedrane and buckminsterfullerene in vacuum and in tetrahydrofuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, S. G.; Makarova, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Using the PBE0/cc-pVDZ quantum chemical method, we calculated structural parameters, dipole moments, polarizabilities and the first hyperpolarizabilities ? of derivatives of dodecahedrane and buckminsterfullerene including two neighboring ethynyl groups in vacuum and in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The hyperpolarizability along the direction of the dipole moment is positive for C20H18(CCH)2 and C20H18C(CCH)2, but negative and relatively large for C60(CCH)2, C60C(CCH)2, Kr@C60(CCH)2, and Kr@C60C(CCH)2. Calculations by the PCM method predict increasing of dipole moments for C20H18(CCH)2 and C20H18C(CCH)2 molecules in polarizable medium and decreasing of the dipole moments for C60(CCH)2, C60C(CCH)2, Kr@C60(CCH)2, and Kr@C60C(CCH)2 in THF. Wavenumbers that characterize C-H bond vibrations after molecule transfer from vacuum into THF decrease by 16-17 cm-1, while the corresponding intensities in the IR spectrum increase by factor 1.5.

  5. Comparison of models to analyze mortality data and derive concentration-time response relationship of inhaled chemicals

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    irreversible impairment (like asthma). The "reversible effects" correspond to a return to the level of health.02.005 #12;2 Abstract The derivation of thresholds for lethal effects for inhaled chemicals is a key issue of rodent lethality data analyzed by statistical models able to extrapolate effects for different times

  6. Chemical derivation to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Shaw, W.J.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.; Franz, J.A.; Hart, T.R.; Hogan, M.O.

    1996-09-01

    Tank wastes at Hanford and SRS contain highly alkaline supernate solutions of conc. Na, K nitrates with large amounts of {sup 137}Cs. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction for vitrification. One candidate ion exchange material for removing the radiocesium is R-F resin. This report summarizes studies into synthesis and characterization of 4-derivatized R-F resins prepared in pursuit of more chemically/oxidatively robust resin. 85% 4-fluororesorcinol/15% phenol formaldehyde resin appears to have good stability in alkaline solution, although there may be some nucleophilic displacement reaction during synthesis; further studies are needed.

  7. Chemical and morphological structures of modified novel cellulose with triazine derivatives containing cationic and anionic groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kongliang Xie; Aiqin Hou; Yan Sun

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose fabric was chemically modified with the compounds containing cationic and anionic groups. The molecular chains of modified cellulose had both cationic and anionic groups. The chemical and morphological structures of modified cellulose were investigated with X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen content analysis. The crystallinity and preferred orientation of novel cellulose

  8. A physico-chemical and biological study of novel chitosan-chloroquinoline derivative for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Dutta, P K; Koh, Joonseok

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes an elegant cross-linking technique for the preparation of chitosan-chloroquinoline derivative by using a greener technique. Chitosan solution in aqueous acetic acid was treated with 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde solution to form hydrogel; the resulting hydrogel was subjected to solvent exchange. Combining the results of FTIR and XRD confirmed that 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde have been reacted to chitosan. The morphology of the derivative was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal stability of the derivative was examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of chitosan-chloroquinoline derivative show red-shifted emission maximum. The microbiological screening has demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of the derivative against bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The obtained results showed that the chitosan-chloroquinoline derivative might be a promising candidate for novel antimicrobial agents for biomedical applications. PMID:21640132

  9. Paper derived biomorphic porous titanium carbide and titanium oxide ceramics produced by chemical vapor infiltration and reaction (CVI-R)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadja Popovska; Daniela Almeida Streitwieser; Chen Xu; Helmut Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is used for producing biomorphic porous TiC ceramics derived from paper. The paper samples are first carbonized in inert atmosphere to yield biocarbon template structures (Cb-template). Subsequently, three routes for converting the Cb-templates into TiC ceramics are studied. The first route includes CVI with TiCl4-H2. The effect of methane as additional carbon source is investigated on

  10. Nanochemistry-derived Bi2WO6 nanostructures: towards production of sustainable chemicals and fuels induced by visible light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Pagliaro, Mario; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Low cost and easily made bismuth tungstate (Bi2WO6) could be one of the key technologies to make chemicals and fuels from biomass, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water at low cost using solar radiation as an energy source. Its narrow band gap (2.8 eV) enables ideal visible light (? > 400 nm) absorption. Yet, it is the material's shape, namely the superstructure morphology wisely created via a nanochemistry approach, which leads to better electron-hole separation and much higher photoactivity. Recent results coupled to the versatile photochemistry of this readily available semiconductor suggest that the practical application of nanochemistry-derived Bi2WO6 nanostructures for the synthesis of value-added fine chemicals and fuel production is possible. We describe progress in this important field of chemical research from a nanochemistry viewpoint, and identify opportunities for further progress. PMID:24776966

  11. Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wu-Jun; Ding, Hong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable commodity chemicals from bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass has received considerable interests, but hindered by the presence of innumerable components in bio-oil. In present work, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative approach combining atmospheric distillation of bio-oil with co-pyrolysis for mass production of renewable chemicals from biomass, in which no waste was produced. It was estimated that 51.86?wt.% of distillate just containing dozens of separable organic components could be recovered using this approach. Ten protogenetic and three epigenetic compounds in distillate were qualitatively identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography. Among them, the recovery efficiencies of acetic acid, propanoic acid, and furfural were all higher than 80?wt.%. Formation pathways of the distillate components in this process were explored. This work opens up a fascinating prospect for mass production of chemical feedstock from waste biomass. PMID:23350028

  12. Facilitating Biomimetic Syntheses of Borrerine Derived Alkaloids by Means of Flow-Chemical Methods

    E-print Network

    Kamptmann, Sonja B.; Ley, Steven V.

    2014-01-01

    Flow chemistry, although now commonly used for general synthetic chemistry, has not been applied extensively in a biomimetic fashion. Here we show how the flow syntheses of borrerine derived alkaloids can use these principles to obtain complex...

  13. Developing a subject-derived terminology to describe perceptions of chemicals in foods.

    PubMed

    Raats, M M; Shepherd, R

    1996-04-01

    Risk perception may be influenced by a number of factors, such as unfamiliarity, lack of control, perceived consequences, and hazards being seen as catastrophic and having risk for future generations. Risk perception researchers have typically used such investigator-selected characteristics to assess hazards. In the first study reported here, the repertory grid method was used to elicit the terminology that subjects (n = 30) use to distinguish between 30 different chemicals. The data were submitted to generalized Procrustes analysis. The first principal axis of the resulting consensus plot separated the chemicals ranging from "poisonous or toxic," "harmful or dangerous," and "sounds negative" at one end, to "positive effect on health," "often present in food nowadays," and "sounds positive" at the other end. The second principal axis ranged from "familiar with or knowledge of" and "chemical" to "natural." A second study (n = 226) was carried out to look at the general validity of the results of the repertory grid interviews using a fixed questionnaire. The data were submitted to principal components analysis and internal preference mapping. The first principal component ranged from "safe" and "healthy" at one end, to "poisonous" and "harmful" at the other end. The chemicals also separated in terms of "familiar," "chemical," and "natural." All three methods of data collection and analysis yield essentially similar results. PMID:8638036

  14. Chemical investigation of commercial grape seed derived products to assess quality and detect adulteration.

    PubMed

    Villani, Tom S; Reichert, William; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental concerns in quality control arise due to increasing use of grape seed extract (GSE) and the complex chemical composition of GSE. Proanthocyanidin monomers and oligomers are the major bioactive compounds in GSE. Given no standardized criteria for quality, large variation exists in the composition of commercial GSE supplements. Using HPLC/UV/MS, 21 commercial GSE containing products were purchased and chemically profiled, major compounds quantitated, and compared against authenticated grape seed extract, peanut skin extract, and pine bark extract. The antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content for each sample was also determined and compared using standard techniques. Nine products were adulterated, found to contain peanut skin extract. A wide degree of variability in chemical composition was detected in commercial products, demonstrating the need for development of quality control standards for GSE. A TLC method was developed to allow for rapid and inexpensive detection of adulteration in GSE by peanut skin. PMID:25306345

  15. High content screening of defined chemical libraries using normal and glioma-derived neural stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Danovi, Davide; Folarin, Amos A; Baranowski, Bart; Pollard, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules with potent biological effects on the fate of normal and cancer-derived stem cells represent both useful research tools and new drug leads for regenerative medicine and oncology. Long-term expansion of mouse and human neural stem cells is possible using adherent monolayer culture. These cultures represent a useful cellular resource to carry out image-based high content screening of small chemical libraries. Improvements in automated microscopy, desktop computational power, and freely available image processing tools, now means that such chemical screens are realistic to undertake in individual academic laboratories. Here we outline a cost effective and versatile time lapse imaging strategy suitable for chemical screening. Protocols are described for the handling and screening of human fetal Neural Stem (NS) cell lines and their malignant counterparts, Glioblastoma-derived neural stem cells (GNS). We focus on identification of cytostatic and cytotoxic "hits" and discuss future possibilities and challenges for extending this approach to assay lineage commitment and differentiation. PMID:22341231

  16. Transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules: from high added-value chemicals to fuels via aqueous-phase processing.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Luque, Rafael; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Global warming issues and the medium-term depletion of fossil fuel reserves are stimulating researchers around the world to find alternative sources of energy and organic carbon. Biomass is considered by experts the only sustainable source of energy and organic carbon for our industrial society, and it has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. However, the transition from a petroleum-based economy to one based on biomass requires new strategies since the petrochemical technologies, well-developed over the last century, are not valid to process the biomass-derived compounds. Unlike petroleum feedstocks, biomass derived platform molecules possess a high oxygen content that gives them low volatility, high solubility in water, high reactivity and low thermal stability, properties that favour the processing of these resources by catalytic aqueous-phase technologies at moderate temperatures. This tutorial review is aimed at providing a general overview of processes, technologies and challenges that lie ahead for a range of different aqueous-phase transformations of some of the key biomass-derived platform molecules into liquid fuels for the transportation sector and related high added value chemicals. PMID:21713268

  17. Quantum Mechanics of Lowest Landau Level Derived from N=4 SYM with Chemical Potential

    E-print Network

    D. Yamada

    2005-11-05

    The low energy effective theory of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory on S^3 with an R-symmetry chemical potential is shown to be the lowest Landau level system. This theory is a holomorphic complex matrix quantum mechanics. When the value of the chemical potential is not far below the mass of the scalars, the states of the effective theory consist only of the half-BPS states. The theory is solved by the operator method and by utilizing the lowest Landau level projection prescription for the value of the chemical potential less than or equal to the mass of the scalars. When the chemical potential is below the mass, we find that the degeneracy of the lowest Landau level is lifted and the energies of the states are computed. The one-loop correction to the effective potential is computed for the commuting fields and treated as a perturbation to the tree level quantum mechanics. We find that the perturbation term has non-vanishing matrix elements that mix the states with the same R-charge.

  18. Production of levulinic acid and use as a platform chemical for derived products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J Bozell; L Moens; D. C Elliott; Y Wang; G. G Neuenscwander; S. W Fitzpatrick; R. J Bilski; J. L Jarnefeld; Gary G. Neuenschwander

    2000-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced cost effectively and in high yield from renewable feedstocks in a new industrial process. The technology is being demonstrated on a 1 ton\\/day scale at a facility in South Glens Falls, New York. Low cost LA can be used as a platform chemical for the production of a wide range of value-added products. This

  19. The Bailey criterion: Statistical derivation and applications to interpretations of durability tests and chemical kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Freeds; A. I. Leonov

    2002-01-01

    The Bailey durability criterion, well known in mechanics of materials, has also been used in other flelds of study such as the kinetics of chemical reactions. This paper rationalizes the wide applicability of this criterion in terms of Markovian statistical properties of systems. Two particular cases are discussed as examples of the general approach: durability of a wide class of

  20. Chemical changes due to acid precipitation in a loess-derived soil in central Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ulrich; R. Mayer; P. K. Khanna

    1980-01-01

    In a stand of Fagus silvatica in the Solling highlands, Federal Republic of Germany, we followed the effect of acid precipitation on chemical soil state and the ion fluxes in the ecosystem between 1966 and 1979. As indicated by increasing aluminum concentration in the soil solution and an increase in organic matter storage in the forest floor, for example, the

  1. Chemical Synthesis of beta-Homonojirimycin, of Its N-Butyl Derivative, and of "Methyl Homoazacellobioside"

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Oscar M.; Martin, Olivier R.

    1996-10-01

    beta-Homonojirimycin (2) was prepared by the highly stereoselective double reductive amination of a 2,6-heptodiulose derivative (6 or 13) using ammonium formate and NaBH(3)CN. The process was unsuccessful with primary amines. The synthesis of N-butyl-beta-homonojirimycin (19) was achieved by the N-butanoylation of a derivative of 2 followed by the reduction of the resulting tertiary amide. Compound 19 was found to be completely devoid of anti-HIV activity, in marked contrast with N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin. The coupling of the 1-O-p-toluenesulfonyl derivative of 2, compound 20, with methyl 2,3,6-tri-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, followed by a deprotection step, provided pseudodisaccharide 23, the "homoaza" analog of methyl alpha-cellobioside and a potential inhibitor of beta-glucan-processing enzymes. PMID:11667597

  2. Biogas upgrading by chemical absorption using ammonia rich absorbents derived from wastewater.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Andrew; Jefferson, Bruce; McAdam, Ewan J

    2014-12-15

    The use of ammonia (NH3) rich wastewaters as an ecological chemical absorption solvent for the selective extraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) during biogas upgrading to 'biomethane' has been studied. Aqueous ammonia absorbents of up to 10,000 gNH3 m(-3) demonstrated CO2 absorption rates higher than recorded in the literature for packed columns using 20,000-80,000 g NH3 m(-3) which can be ascribed to the process intensification provided by the hollow fibre membrane contactor used in this study to support absorption. Centrifuge return liquors (2325 g m(-3) ionised ammonium, NH4(+)) and a regenerant (477 gNH4(+) m(-3)) produced from a cationic ion exchanger used to harvest NH4(+) from crude wastewater were also tested. Carbon dioxide fluxes measured for both wastewaters compared reasonably with analogue ammonia absorption solvents of equivalent NH3 concentration. Importantly, this demonstrates that ammonia rich wastewaters can facilitate chemically enhanced CO2 separation which eliminates the need for costly exogenic chemicals or complex chemical handling which are critical barriers to implementation of chemical absorption. When testing NH3 analogues, the potential to recover the reaction product ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) in crystalline form was also illustrated. This is significant as it suggests a new pathway for ammonia separation which avoids biological nitrification and produces ammonia stabilised into a commercially viable fertiliser (NH4HCO3). However, in real ammonia rich wastewaters, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate were preferentially formed over NH4HCO3 although it is proposed that NH4HCO3 can be preferentially formed by manipulating both ion exchange and absorbent chemistry. PMID:25277752

  3. Chemical Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Pleuromutilin Derivatives with Substituted Amino Moiety

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ruofeng; Wang, Shengyu; Xu, Ximing; Yi, Yunpeng; Guo, Wenzhu; YuLiu; Liang, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Novel pleuromutilin derivatives designed based on the structure of valnemulin were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities. These pleuromutilin derivatives with substituted amino moiety exhibited excellent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae. Compound 5b showed the highest antibacterial activities and even exceeded tiamulin. Moreover, the docking experiments provided information about the binding model between the synthesized compounds and peptidyl transferase center (PTC) of 23S rRNA. PMID:24376551

  4. Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Bulge as Derived from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of K and M Red Giants

    E-print Network

    Katia Cunha; Verne V. Smith

    2006-07-17

    We present chemical abundances in K and M red-giant members of the Galactic bulge derived from high-resolution infrared spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini-South. The elements studied are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, titanium, and iron. The evolution of C and N abundances in the studied red-giants show that their oxygen abundances represent the original values with which the stars were born. Oxygen is a superior element for probing the timescale of bulge chemical enrichment via [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. The [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation in the bulge does not follow the disk relation, with [O/Fe] values falling above those of the disk. Titanium also behaves similarly to oxygen with respect to iron. Based on these elevated values of [O/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] extending to large Fe abundances, it is suggested that the bulge underwent a more rapid chemical enrichment than the halo. In addition, there are declines in both [O/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] in those bulge targets with the largest Fe abundances, signifying another source affecting chemical evolution: perhaps Supernovae of Type Ia. Sodium abundances increase dramatically in the bulge with increasing metallicity, possibly reflecting the metallicity dependant yields from supernovae of Type II, although Na contamination from H-burning in intermediate mass stars cannot be ruled out.

  5. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  6. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is widely recognized as an efficient tool for carbon sequestration and soil fertility. The understanding of its chemical and physical properties, which are strongly related to the type of the initial material used and pyrolysis conditions, is crucial to identify the most suitable application of biochar in soil. A selection of organic wastes with different characteristics (e.g., rice husk (RH), rice straw (RS), wood chips of apple tree (Malus pumila) (AB), and oak tree (Quercus serrata) (OB)) were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C) in order to optimize the physicochemical properties of biochar as a soil amendment. Low-temperature pyrolysis produced high biochar yields; in contrast, high-temperature pyrolysis led to biochars with a high C content, large surface area, and high adsorption characteristics. Biochar obtained at 600 °C leads to a high recalcitrant character, whereas that obtained at 400 °C retains volatile and easily labile compounds. The biochar obtained from rice materials (RH and RS) showed a high yield and unique chemical properties because of the incorporation of silica elements into its chemical structure. The biochar obtained from wood materials (AB and OB) showed high carbon content and a high absorption character.

  7. Protein Structural Information Derived from NMR Chemical Shift with the Neural Network Program TALOS-N

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yang; Bax, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chemical shifts are obtained at the first stage of any protein structural study by NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shifts are known to be impacted by a wide range of structural factors and the artificial neural network based TALOS-N program has been trained to extract backbone and sidechain torsion angles from 1H, 15N and 13C shifts. The program is quite robust, and typically yields backbone torsion angles for more than 90% of the residues, and sidechain ?1 rotamer information for about half of these, in addition to reliably predicting secondary structure. The use of TALOS-N is illustrated for the protein DinI, and torsion angles obtained by TALOS-N analysis from the measured chemical shifts of its backbone and 13C? nuclei are compared to those seen in a prior, experimentally determined structure. The program is also particularly useful for generating torsion angle restraints, which then can be used during standard NMR protein structure calculations. PMID:25502373

  8. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Dayton

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary;\\u000aThe growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns,;\\u000aand increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of;\\u000aalternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined;\\u000athermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves;\\u000agasification\\/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]),;

  9. Quantum Chemical Study of Raman Spectroscopy of Substituted Benzene Derivatives Adsorbed on Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, De-Yin; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2011-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can be applied to obtain the information of molecules at the noble metal surfaces. But there are a number of difficulties to clearly correlate Raman spectra with microscopic molecular structures on metal surfaces. The main reason is that it is difficult to characterize unambiguously the metal surface structures and the influence of the binding interaction on SERS signals of the probe molecules. According to the surface selection rule of SERS, the electromagnetic enhancement will not change relative Raman intensities of vibrational modes with the same irreducible representation. Therefore, the change of the relative Raman intensities of the total symmetric modes may only originate from the chemical enhancement. In order to understand how the chemical interaction modulates the Raman intensity of individual modes, it is necessary to systematically investigate the Raman spectra of probe molecules themselves and the dependence of SERS signals on the binding interaction, adsorption sites, excitation wavelengths and metal property. Some probe molecules, including aniline, 1,4-benzenediamine, p-aminothiophenol, benzyl chlorine, and 4,4^'-bipyridine are investigated based on quantum chemical calculations. Raman spectra of these molecules and their adsorbed species were predicted and compared with experimentally measured spectra. The metal surfaces were mimicked using the metallic cluster model, where the silver or gold surfaces were replaced by silver or gold clusters, respectively. The density functional theory approach was employed to obtain the optimized structures and vibrational spectra by combining all-electron basis sets of 6-311+G** for atoms in the molecules and the poseudopotential basis set of LANL2DZ for metal atoms. The vibrational frequency shift and the relative Raman intensity are related to the adsorption configuration of the probe molecules. For all these molecules, the ring breathing mode and the C-C stretching mode show the strongest SERS signals and are sensitive to the binding interaction. They play an important role in obtaining the adsorption structure of molecules on metal surfaces.

  10. Sorption of heavy metal ions on new metal-ligand complexes chemically derived from Lycopodium clavatum

    SciTech Connect

    Pehlivan, E.; Ersoz, M.; Yildiz, S. [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkey); Duncan, H.J. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1994-08-01

    Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and the possibilities to remove and to recover selectively heavy metal cations using these systems are discussed on the basis of their chemical natures and their complexing properties.

  11. Chemical modeling of Acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    PubMed

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  12. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    PubMed Central

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Tafur Marinos, Janeth Alicia; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  13. Chemical constituents of marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma EN-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2011-01-01

    Seven compounds (1-7) were identified from the cultivation of the endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma (EN-21) that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Laurencia similis. Their structures were identified with spectroscopic and chemical methods as 2-phenoxynaphthalene ( 1), (2 S, 3 R, 4 E, 8 E)-1- O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-2-[( R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadeca-diene ( 2), (22 E,24 R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3?,5?,6?-triol ( 3), (22 E, 24 R)-3?, 5?, 9?-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one ( 4), (22 E, 24 R)-5?, 6?-epoxy-ergosta-8, 22-dien-3?, 7?-diol ( 5), (22 E, 24 R)-ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one ( 6), and euphorbol ( 7). This paper reports for the first time the chemical constituents of fungus Exophiala oligosperma and the discovery of compound 1 as a natural product from the fungus.

  14. Toll-like receptor 2 dependent immunogenicity of glycoconjugate vaccines containing chemically derived zwitterionic polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gallorini, Simona; Berti, Francesco; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Cozzi, Roberta; Tortoli, Marco; Volpini, Gianfranco; Telford, John L.; Beninati, Concetta; Maione, Domenico; Wack, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes serious infection in neonates and is an important target of vaccine development. Zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPS), obtained through chemical introduction of positive charges into anionic polysaccharides (PS) from GBS, have the ability to activate human and mouse antigen presenting cells (APCs) through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). To generate a polysaccharide vaccine with antigen (Ag) and adjuvant properties in one molecule, we have conjugated ZPS with a carrier protein. ZPS-glycoconjugates induce higher T-cell and Ab responses to carrier and PS, respectively, compared to control PS-glycoconjugates made with the native polysaccharide form. The increased immunogenicity of ZPS-conjugates correlates with their ability to activate dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, protection of mothers or neonate offspring from lethal GBS challenge is better when mothers are immunized with ZPS-conjugates compared to immunization with PS-conjugates. In TLR2 knockout mice, ZPS-conjugates lose both their increased immunogenicity and protective effect after vaccination. When ZPS are coadministered as adjuvants with unconjugated tetanus toxoid (TT), they have the ability to increase the TT-specific antibody titer. In conclusion, glycoconjugates containing ZPS are potent vaccines. They target Ag to TLR2-expressing APCs and activate these APCs, leading to better T-cell priming and ultimately to higher protective Ab titers. Thus, rational chemical design can generate potent PS-adjuvants with wide application, including glycoconjugates and coadministration with unrelated protein Ags. PMID:19805031

  15. Chemical Derivatives of a Small Molecule Deubiquitinase Inhibitor Have Antiviral Activity against Several RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Pal, Anupama; Gyan, Kofi E.; Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; Showalter, Hollis D.; Donato, Nicholas J.; O'Riordan, Mary; Wobus, Christiane E.

    2014-01-01

    Most antiviral treatment options target the invading pathogen and unavoidably encounter loss of efficacy as the pathogen mutates to overcome replication restrictions. A good strategy for circumventing drug resistance, or for pathogens without treatment options, is to target host cell proteins that are utilized by viruses during infection. The small molecule WP1130 is a selective deubiquitinase inhibitor shown previously to successfully reduce replication of noroviruses and some other RNA viruses. In this study, we screened a library of 31 small molecule derivatives of WP1130 to identify compounds that retained the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of the parent compound in vitro but exhibited improved drug-like properties, particularly increased aqueous solubility. Seventeen compounds significantly reduced murine norovirus infection in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, with four causing decreases in viral titers that were similar or slightly better than WP1130 (1.9 to 2.6 log scale). Antiviral activity was observed following pre-treatment and up to 1 hour postinfection in RAW 264.7 cells as well as in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. Treatment of the human norovirus replicon system cell line with the same four compounds also decreased levels of Norwalk virus RNA. No significant cytotoxicity was observed at the working concentration of 5 µM for all compounds tested. In addition, the WP1130 derivatives maintained their broad-spectrum antiviral activity against other RNA viruses, Sindbis virus, LaCrosse virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, and Tulane virus. Thus, altering structural characteristics of WP1130 can maintain effective broad-spectrum antiviral activity while increasing aqueous solubility. PMID:24722666

  16. [Toxicological properties of benzanthrone and its derivatives in relation to their chemical structure].

    PubMed

    Volodchenko, V A; Sadokha, E R; Ostrovskaiai, I S; Timoshenko, L V

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a comparative study covering toxicological characteristics of benznthrone, brombenzanthrone, dibrombenzanthrone, methoxybenzanthrone, dibenzanronyl, dibenanthrone (violanthrone). The mentioned compounds were found to have a low acute and marked subchronic toxicity manifesting itself in the damaging action on the blood and liver. Here the reaction of the lympho-histiocytic elements along with the appearance of plasmatic and mast cells is typical. In the series of the study compounds most toxic are benzanthrone and its bromine-derivatives. Incorporation of a methoxy-group in the benzanthrone molecule and conjugation of two benzanthrone molecules help lessen the toxic action. PMID:902749

  17. Graphene fluoride: a stable stoichiometric graphene derivative and its chemical conversion to graphene.

    PubMed

    Zbo?il, Radek; Karlický, František; Bourlinos, Athanasios B; Steriotis, Theodore A; Stubos, Athanasios K; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Šafá?ová, Klára; Jan?ík, Dalibor; Trapalis, Christos; Otyepka, Michal

    2010-12-20

    Stoichoimetric graphene fluoride monolayers are obtained in a single step by the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite fluoride with sulfolane. Comparative quantum-mechanical calculations reveal that graphene fluoride is the most thermodynamically stable of five studied hypothetical graphene derivatives; graphane, graphene fluoride, bromide, chloride, and iodide. The graphene fluoride is transformed into graphene via graphene iodide, a spontaneously decomposing intermediate. The calculated bandgaps of graphene halides vary from zero for graphene bromide to 3.1 eV for graphene fluoride. It is possible to design the electronic properties of such two-dimensional crystals. PMID:21104801

  18. Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2008-09-15

    We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Physico-chemical studies of fused phenanthrimidazole derivative as sensitive NLO material.

    PubMed

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Thanikachalam, Venugopal; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Jayamoorthy, Karunamoorthy

    2013-01-15

    Heterocyclic phenanthrimidazole derivative, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-p-tolyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f] [1,10] phenanthroline (FPTIP) has been synthesized and characterised by NMR, mass and CHN analysis. The FPTIP was evaluated concerning their solvatochromic properties and molecular optical nonlinearities. Their electric dipole moment (?), polarizability (?) and hyperpolarizability (?) have been calculated theoretically and the results indicate that the extension of the ?-framework of the ligands has an effect on the NLO properties. The energies of the HOMO and LUMO levels and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) energy surface studies have exploited the existence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. PMID:23103466

  20. Identification of persisten anionic surfactant-derived chemicals in sewage effluent and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, J.A.; Leenheer, J.A.; Thorn, K.A.; Barber, L.B., II; Rostad, C.; Macalady, D.L.; Daniel, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Preparative isolation and fractionation procedures coupled with spectrometric analyses were used to identify surfactant-derived contaminants in sewage effluent and sewage-contaminated groundwater from a site located on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Anionic surfactants and their biodegradation intermediates were isolated from field samples by ion exchange and fractionated by solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography. Fractions were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Carboxylated residues of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants were detected in sewage effluent and contaminated groundwater. Linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS) were identified in sewage effluent and groundwater. Groundwater LAS composition suggested preferential removal of select isomers and homologs due to processes of biodegradation and partitioning. Tetralin and indane sulfonates (DATS), alicyclic analogs of LAS, were also identified in field samples. Although DATS are a minor portion of LAS formulations, equivalent concentrations of LAS and DATS in groundwater suggested persistence of alicyclic contaminant structures over those of linear structure. Sulfophenyl-carboxylated (SPC) LAS biodegradation intermediates were determined in sewage effluent and groundwater. Homolog distributions suggested that SPC containing 3-10 alkyl-chain carbons persist during infiltration and groundwater transport. Surfactant-derived residues detected in well F300-50 groundwater have a minimum residence time in the range of 2.7-4.6 yr. LAS detected in groundwater at 500 m from infiltration has been stable over an estimated 50-500 half lives.

  1. Fluid flow in the Rotorua geothermal field derived from isotopic and chemical data

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, M.K.; Lyon, G.L.; Robinson, B.W. (DSIR Physical Sciences, Nuclear Sciences Group, P.O. Box 31-132, Lower Hutt (NZ)); Glover, R.B. (DSIR Chemistry, Wairakei, Private Bag, Taupo (NZ))

    1992-04-01

    A wide variety of isotopic and chemical measurements on geothermal fluids from shallow wells at Rotorua have given the following interpretations: The Rotorua field comprises one geothermal system; a primary upflow of (outgassed) alkali chloride water extends from northeast Whakarewarewa to Ngapuna and under Lake Rotorua (east side of the system). At the southern end a secondary upflow discharges dilute alkali chloride water; a second major upflow at Kuirau-Ohinmutu discharges chloride-bicarbonate waters formed by dilution of the primary water and reaction with rock; boiling primary water flows from the eastern upflow zone under confining sediments into aquifers in Rotorua Rhyolite containing chloride-bicarbonate waters in the central region; tritium-bearing groundwater penetrates from overlying aquifers in the sediment into the saddle area between the rhyolite domes or along the crest of the southern rhyolite dome and flows northeast into the northern dome.

  2. Oxygen carrier development for chemical looping combustion of coal derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, R.V.; Chaudhari, K.; Zinn, A.N.; Simonyi, T.; Robinson, Clark; Poston, J.A.

    2006-09-01

    In the present work, NETL researchers have studied chemical looping combustion (CLC) with an oxygen carrier NiO/bentonite (60 wt.% NiO) for the IGCC systems utilizing simulated synthesis gas. Multi cycle CLC was conducted with NiO/Bentonite in TGA at atmospheric pressure and in a high pressure reactor in a temperature range between 700-900°C. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation as a function of conversion were calculated for all oxidation-reduction cycles utilizing the TGA data. The effect of particle size of the oxygen carrier on CLC was studied for the size between 20-200 mesh. The multi cycle CLC tests conducted in a high pressure packed bed flow reactor indicated constant total production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800°C and 900°C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction.

  3. Chemical Characteristics, Synthetic Methods, and Biological Potential of Quinazoline and Quinazolinone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The heterocyclic fused rings quinazoline and quinazolinone have drawn a huge consideration owing to their expanded applications in the field of pharmaceutical chemistry. Quinazoline and quinazolinone are reported for their diversified biological activities and compounds with different substitutions bring together to knowledge of a target with understanding of the molecule types that might interact with the target receptors. Quinazolines and quinazolinones are considered as an important chemical for the synthesis of various physiological significance and pharmacological utilized molecules. Quinazolines and quinazolinone are a large class of biologically active compounds that exhibited broad spectrum of biological activities such as anti-HIV, anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, antimutagenic, anticoccidial, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antimalarial, antioxidant, antileukemic, and antileishmanial activities and other activities. Being considered as advantaged scaffold, the alteration is made with different substituent. PMID:25692041

  4. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-08-01

    Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila) and oak tree (Quercus serrata)), in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400-800 °C). Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR) and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400-800 °C) in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  5. Chemical stability and plasma-catalyzed dealkylation of peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine derivatives--intermediates in peptide alpha-amidation.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, H; Kahns, A H

    1991-01-01

    The production of alpha-amidated peptides has recently been shown to occur via a two-step process with peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine being an intermediate. In this study the chemical stability and plasma-catalyzed conversion of various peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine derivatives to their parent amide product have been examined. This conversion was shown to be independent of pH in the range pH 1-5 and to be apparently specific base-catalyzed at pH 6-10. At pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C the half-lives of decomposition of the derivatives ranged from 5.8 to 13.3 h. In 80% human plasma solutions (pH 7.4) the half-lives decreased to 1.3-3.9 h, indicating the occurrence of an enzyme activity in plasma catalyzing the dealkylation of peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine derivatives. The best substrate for the plasma catalytic activity was found to be N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-alanyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine. PMID:1788137

  6. Electrochemical nanocomposite-derived sensor for the analysis of chemical oxygen demand in urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Baldi, Antoni; Gómez, Raquel; García, Virginia; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Fernández-Sánchez, César

    2015-02-17

    This work reports on the fabrication and comparative analytical assessment of electrochemical sensors applied to the rapid analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in urban waste waters. These devices incorporate a carbon nanotube-polystyrene composite, containing different inorganic electrocatalysts, namely, Ni, NiCu alloy, CoO, and CuO/AgO nanoparticles. The sensor responses were initially evaluated using glucose as standard analyte and then by analyzing a set of real samples from urban wastewater treatment plants. The estimated COD values in the samples were compared with those provided by an accredited laboratory using the standard dichromate method. The sensor prepared with the CuO/AgO-based nanocomposite showed the best analytical performance. The recorded COD values of both the sensor and the standard method were overlapped, considering the 95% confidence intervals. In order to show the feasible application of this approach for the detection of COD online and in continuous mode, the CuO/AgO-based nanocomposite sensor was integrated in a compact flow system and applied to the detection of wastewater samples, showing again a good agreement with the values provided by the dichromate method. PMID:25594378

  7. Multiple microRNAs derived from chemically synthesized precursors regulate thrombospondin 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Dogar, Afzal M; Semplicio, Giuseppe; Guennewig, Boris; Hall, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) is a secreted protein with a variety of biological functions, including a potent anti-angiogenic activity and activation of latent transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?). In many human cancers it is expressed at low levels, although mutations in the THBS1 gene have been rarely reported. Instead, the loss of THBS1 expression has been proposed to be due to transcriptional and post-transcriptional deregulations. In a systematic screen of predicted microRNA (miRNA) binding sites in the THBS1 3' untranslated region (UTR) we employed chemically synthesized pre-miRNAs-a new class of pre-miRNA mimics-to show that several miRNAs (let-7a, miR-18a, miR-29b, miR-194, and miR-221) can modulate THBS1 expression at the post-transcriptional level. Sequence-specific downregulation of THBS1 by let-7a, miR-18a or by a small interfering RNA induced TGF-?1 and SMAD4 transcript levels. Ectopic expression of latent TGF-?1 reduced THBS1 protein expression and was associated with increased expression of let-7a, let-7-b, and miR-18a in cells. These data suggest an inverse correlation of THBS1 and latent TGF-?1 expression levels possibly involving miRNAs. PMID:24444023

  8. Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, H.; Chaudhari, K.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Liu, T.; Sanders, T.; Veser, G.; Siriwardane, R.

    2008-01-01

    CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700 °C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900 °C.

  9. Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hanjing; Chaudhari, K.P.; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, J.A.; Liu, Tengfei; Sanders, Tom; Veser, Goetz; Siriwardane, R.V.

    2008-11-01

    CuO/bentonite and CuO?BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction?oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation?reduction cycles above 700 °C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO?BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700?900 °C.

  10. Chemically derived defects in zinc oxide nanocrystals and their enhanced photo-electrocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Anand; Bahadur, D

    2014-10-21

    This paper reports the influence of surface defects on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized in different organic solvents. A simple chemical approach has been adopted for the promotion of oxygen vacancies in pristine ZnO using solvents namely dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This alters the growth of NCs through the promotion of oxygen vacancies depending on the fact that the solvent with minimum viscosity supports faster nucleation and growth exhibiting maximum surface defects. DMF with minimum viscosity results in largest particle size and superior photocatalytic activity. Further, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirm that the DMF supports the faster growth of NCs as compared to NMP and DMSO. Electron paramagnetic resonance, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, and photoluminescence spectroscopies confirm different states of oxygen vacancies in the NCs and their dependence on the nature of solvents. The photocatalytic activities of these NCs were investigated against the degradation of MB as a model dye. The results show that the oxygen defects at the surface of NCs are more responsible for higher photocatalytic activity than the specific surface area of NCs. The electrochemical investigations of MB degradation suggest that these defects upon interaction with MB influence the storage capacity and charge-discharge profiles of NCs. During degradation, MB passivates these defects, which has been explained in terms of increased charge-discharge time and storage capacity. PMID:25183397

  11. Mini-TES Derived Chemical Abundances at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum: Implications for Global Surface Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, M. B.; Ghosh, A.; Christensen, P. R.; McSween, H. Y.

    2004-12-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) experiments provide remote measurements of mineral abundances and compositions at the Spirit and Opportunity landing sites of Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum. Olivine basaltic sands and rocks are identified at Gusev Crater, along with variable amounts of fine-grained dust and other possible coatings. Olivine basaltic sands and coarse crystalline hematite, a clinopyroxene-rich basaltic rock, fine-grained dust, and outcrops composed of sulfates, hematite, and sheet silicates/glass are identified at Meridiani Planum. The occurrence of olivine basalt was predicted at both landing sites by observations from the orbiting Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Mini-TES spectra of basaltic sands are very similar to a global average TES basalt spectrum in the overall spectral shape and positions of spectral features. Ground-truth observations of the mineralogy and chemistry of olivine basalt from the Mini-TES, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), and Mössbauer Spectrometer (MB) are significant because of the extensive distribution and high-abundance of olivine basalt on Mars and the inferred petrogenesis and evolution of a basaltic crust. In this study, we calculate bulk chemical oxide abundances of surface materials from Mini-TES derived mineral abundances and compositions and compare results to APXS and MB observations to examine the accuracy of thermal emission derived chemistry. We also examine methods to constrain APXS derived normative minerals using multivariate regression with Mini-TES and MB mineral abundances and compositions. We focus on comparisons of Mini-TES and TES derived chemistries of basalt to determine the limits to which we can constrain bulk compositions and the depth and degree of partial melting of their source regions. Local ground-truth observations of the bulk mineralogy and chemistry of a global basaltic unit provide insight to the degree of differentiation of the crust and mantle.

  12. Monitoring the chemical production of citrus-derived bioactive 5-demethylnobiletin using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jinkai; Fang, Xiang; Cao, Yong; Xiao, Hang; He, Lili

    2013-01-01

    To develop an accurate and convenient method for monitoring the production of citrus-derived bioactive 5-demethylnobiletin from demethylation reaction of nobiletin, we compared surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) methods with a conventional HPLC method. Our results show that both the substrate-based and solution-based SERS methods correlated with HPLC method very well. The solution method produced lower root mean square error of calibration and higher correlation coefficient than the substrate method. The solution method utilized an ‘affinity chromatography’-like procedure to separate the reactant nobiletin from the product 5-demthylnobiletin based on their different binding affinity to the silver dendrites. The substrate method was found simpler and faster to collect the SERS ‘fingerprint’ spectra of the samples as no incubation between samples and silver was needed and only trace amount of samples were required. Our results demonstrated that the SERS methods were superior to HPLC method in conveniently and rapidly characterizing and quantifying 5-demethylnobiletin production. PMID:23885986

  13. Microstructural, Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of Polymer-Derived Hi-Nicalon Fibers with Surface Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Chen, Yuan L.

    1998-01-01

    Room temperature tensile strengths of as-received Hi-Nicalon fibers and those having BN/SiC, p-BN/SiC, and p-B(Si)N/SiC surface coatings, deposited by chemical vapor deposition, were measured using an average fiber diameter of 13.5 microns. The Weibull statistical parameters were determined for each fiber. The average tensile strength of uncoated Hi-Nicalon on was 3.19 +/- 0.73 GPa with a Weibull modulus of 5.41. Strength of fibers coated with BN/SiC did not change. However, coat with p-BN/SiC and p-B(Si)N/SiC surface layers showed strength loss of approx. 10 and 35 percent, respectively, compared with as-received fibers. The elemental compositions of the fibers and the coatings were analyzed using scanning Auger microprobe and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The BN coating was contaminated with a large concentration of carbon and some oxygen. In contrast, p-BN, p-B(Si)N, and SiC coatings did not show any contamination. Microstructural analyses of the fibers and the coatings were done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction. Hi-Nicalon fiber consists of the P-SIC nanocrystals ranging in size from 1 to 30 nm embedded in an amorphous matrix. TEM analysis of the BN coating revealed four distinct layers with turbostatic structure. The p-BN layer was turbostratic and showed considerable preferred orientation. The p-B(Si)N was glassy and the silicon and boron were uniformly distributed. The silicon carbide coating was polycrystalline with a columnar structure along the growth direction. The p-B(Si)N/SiC coatings were more uniform, less defective and of better quality than the BN/SiC or the p-BN/SiC coatings.

  14. Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanjing Tian; Karuna Chaudhari; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston; Tengfei Liu; Tom Sanders; Goetz Veser; Ranjani Siriwardane [U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2008-11-15

    CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900{degree}C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO{sub 2} from fuel gas at 800 and 900{degree}C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700{degree}C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900{degree}C. 48 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Inhibition of chemically-induced neoplastic transformation by a novel tetrasodium diphosphate astaxanthin derivative.

    PubMed

    Hix, Laura M; Frey, Dean A; McLaws, Mark D; Østerlie, Marianne; Lockwood, Samuel F; Bertram, John S

    2005-09-01

    Carotenoids have been implicated in numerous epidemiological studies as being protective against cancer at many sites, and their chemopreventive properties have been confirmed in laboratory studies. Astaxanthin (AST), primarily a carotenoid of marine origin, responsible for the pink coloration of salmon, shrimp and lobster, has received relatively little attention. As with other carotenoids, its highly lipophilic properties complicate delivery to model systems. To overcome this issue we have synthesized a novel tetrasodium diphosphate astaxanthin (pAST) derivative with aqueous dispersibility of 25.21 mg/ml. pAST was delivered to C3H/10T1/2 cells in an aqueous/ethanol solution and compared with non-esterified AST dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. We show pAST to (i) upregulate connexin 43 (Cx43) protein expression; (ii) increase the formation of Cx43 immunoreactive plaques; (iii) upregulate gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC); and (iv) cause 100% inhibition of methylcholanthrene-induced neoplastic transformation at 10(-6) M. In all these assays, pAST was superior to non-esterified AST itself; in fact, pAST exceeded the potency of all other previously tested carotenoids in this model system. Cleavage of pAST to non-esterified (free) AST and uptake into cells was also verified by HPLC; however, levels of free AST were approximately 100-fold lower than in cells treated with AST itself, suggesting that pAST possesses intrinsic activity. The dual properties of water dispersibility (enabling parenteral administration in vivo) and increased potency should prove extremely useful in the future development of cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:15888493

  16. Chemical Evolution of Amphiphiles: Glycerol Monoacyl Derivatives Stabilize Plausible Prebiotic Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, S. E.; Deamer, D. W.; Boncella, J. M.; Monnard, P.-A.

    2009-12-01

    The self-assembly of simple amphiphiles like fatty acids into cell-like membranous structures suggests that such structures were available on prebiotic Earth to support the origin of cellular life. However, the composition of primitive membranes remains unclear because the physical properties of the aqueous environment in which they assembled are relatively unconstrained in terms of temperature, pH, and ionic concentrations. It seems likely that early membranes were composed of mixtures of various amphiphiles in an aqueous medium warmed by geothermal activity prevalent in the Archean era. To better understand the properties of mixed bilayers formed by binary mixtures of single-chain amphiphiles under these conditions, we conducted stability experiments, using membranes composed of various fatty acids having hydrocarbon chain length between 8 and 18 carbons, in mixtures with their glycerol monoacyl amphiphile derivatives (GMAs). The parameters investigated were critical vesicle concentration (CVC), encapsulation, and temperature-dependent stability. We found that hydrocarbon chain length and the presence of GMAs were major factors related to membrane stability. As chain length increased, GMA additions decreased the CVC of the mixtures 4- to 9-fold. Encapsulation ability also increased significantly as a function of chain length, which reduced permeation of small marker molecules. However, long exposures to temperatures in excess of 60°C resulted in a total release of encapsulated solutes and extensive mixing of the membrane components between vesicles. We conclude that GMAs can significantly increase the stability of mixed amphiphile membranes, but further studies are required to establish model membranes that are stable at elevated temperatures.

  17. Impact of climate and parent material on chemical weathering in Loess-derived soils of the Mississippi River valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Been, J.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Peoria Loess-derived soils on uplands east of the Mississippi River valley were studied from Louisiana to Iowa, along a south-to-north gradient of decreasing precipitation and temperature. Major element analyses of deep loess in Mississippi and Illinois show that the composition of the parent material is similar in the northern and southern parts of the valley. We hypothesized that in the warmer, wetter parts of the transect, mineral weathering should be greater than in the cooler, drier parts of the transect. Profile average values of CaO/TiO2, MgO/ TiO2, K2O/TiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, Sr/Zr, Ba/Zr, and Rb/Zr represent proxies for depletion of loess minerals such as calcite, dolomite, hornblende, mica, and plagioclase. All ratios show increases from south to north, supporting the hypothesis of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the valley. An unexpected result is that profile average values of Al2O3/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 (proxies for the relative abundance of clay minerals) show increases from south to north. This finding, while contrary to the evidence of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the transect, is consistent with an earlier study which showed higher clay contents in Bt horizons of loess-derived soils in the northern part of the transect. We hypothesize that soils in the northern part of the valley received fine-grained loess from sources to the west of the Mississippi River valley either late in the last glacial period, during the Holocene or both. In contrast, soils in the southern part of the valley were unaffected by such additions.

  18. Local Electronic and Chemical Structure of Oligo-acetylene Derivatives Formed Through Radical Cyclizations at a Surface

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Semiconducting ?-conjugated polymers have attracted significant interest for applications in light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, photovoltaics, and nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Central to the success of these functional organic materials is the facile tunability of their electrical, optical, and magnetic properties along with easy processability and the outstanding mechanical properties associated with polymeric structures. In this work we characterize the chemical and electronic structure of individual chains of oligo-(E)-1,1?-bi(indenylidene), a polyacetylene derivative that we have obtained through cooperative C1–C5 thermal enediyne cyclizations on Au(111) surfaces followed by a step-growth polymerization of the (E)-1,1?-bi(indenylidene) diradical intermediates. We have determined the combined structural and electronic properties of this class of oligomers by characterizing the atomically precise chemical structure of individual monomer building blocks and oligomer chains (via noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM)), as well as by imaging their localized and extended molecular orbitals (via scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS)). Our combined structural and electronic measurements reveal that the energy associated with extended ?-conjugated states in these oligomers is significantly lower than the energy of the corresponding localized monomer orbitals, consistent with theoretical predictions. PMID:24387223

  19. Lattice-matched bimetallic CuPd-graphene nanocatalysts for facile conversion of biomass-derived polyols to chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Dang, Lianna; Lohrman, Jessica; Subramaniam, Bala; Ren, Shenqiang; Chaudhari, Raghunath V

    2013-02-26

    A bimetallic nanocatalyst with unique surface configuration displays extraordinary performance for converting biomass-derived polyols to chemicals, with potentially much broader applications in the design of novel catalysts for several reactions of industrial relevance. The synthesis of nanostructured metal catalysts containing a large population of active surface facets is critical to achieve high activity and selectivity in catalytic reactions. Here, we describe a new strategy for synthesizing copper-based nanocatalysts on reduced graphene oxide support in which the catalytically active {111} facet is achieved as the dominant surface by lattice-match engineering. This method yields highly active Cu-graphene catalysts (turnover frequency = 33-114 mol/g atom Cu/h) for converting biopolyols (glycerol, xylitol, and sorbitol) to value-added chemicals, such as lactic acid and other useful co-products consisting of diols and linear alcohols. Palladium incorporation in the Cu-graphene system in trace amounts results in a tandem synergistic system in which the hydrogen generated in situ from polyols is used for sequential hydrogenolysis of the feedstock itself. Furthermore, the Pd addition remarkably enhances the overall stability of the nanocatalysts. The insights gained from this synthetic methodology open new vistas for exploiting graphene-based supports to develop novel and improved metal-based catalysts for a variety of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. PMID:23297693

  20. Design, synthesis, and physico-chemical interactions of bile acid derived dimeric phospholipid amphiphiles with model membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Bhargava, Priyanshu; Sreekanth, Vedagopuram; Bajaj, Avinash

    2015-06-15

    Understanding of amphiphile-membrane interactions is crucial in design and development of novel amphiphiles for drug delivery, gene therapy, and biomedical applications. Structure and physico-chemical properties of amphiphiles determine their interactions with biomembranes thereby influencing their drug delivery efficacies. Here, we unravel the interactions of bile acid derived dimeric phospholipid amphiphiles with model membranes using Laurdan-based hydration, DPH-based membrane fluidity, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. We synthesized three dimeric bile acid amphiphiles where lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cholic acid are conjugated to cholic acid phospholipid using click chemistry. Interactions of these dimeric amphiphiles with model membranes showed that these amphiphiles form different structural assemblies and molecular packing in model membranes depending on the number and position of free hydroxyl groups on bile acids. We discovered that cholic acid-cholic acid dimeric phospholipid form self-assembled aggregates in model membranes without changing membrane fluidity; whereas cholic acid-deoxycholic acid derived amphiphile induces membranes fluidity and hydration of model membranes. PMID:25746193

  1. Roles of Chemical Complexity and Evolutionary Theory in Some Hepatic and Intestinal Enzymatic Systems in Chemical Reproducibility and Clinical Efficiency of Herbal Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great marketing success, most physicians attribute poor efficacy to herbals. This perception is due to two situations that are an integral part of the herbal topic. The first is the poor phytochemical reproducibility obtained during the production process of herbal extracts, as herbal extracts are not always standardized in the whole manufacturing process, but only in their titer. The second problem is linked to the evolution of important enzymatic systems: cytochromes and ABC proteins. They are both enzyme classes with detoxifying properties and seem to have evolved from the molecular mould provided by active plant substances. During the evolution, as still happens today, polyphenols, saponins, terpenes, and alkaloids were ingested together with food. They do not possess any nutritional value but seem to be provided with a potential pharmacological activity. Cytochromes and ABC proteins, which evolved over time to detoxify food from vegetable chemical “actives,” now seem to limit the action of herbal derivatives. The comprehension of these 2 events may explain the origin of the widespread scepticism of physicians about herbal medicine and suggests that, after correct herbal standardization, use of antagonists of cytochromes and ABC systems will make it possible to recover their pharmacological potential. PMID:24977222

  2. Analysis of estrogens in river water and effluents using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography–negative chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of the pentafluorobenzoyl derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yao Xiao; David V McCalley; James McEvoy

    2001-01-01

    A procedure was developed for the analysis of estrogens in environmental water and effluents. Samples were extracted by passing through polymer-impregnated solid-phase extraction discs or C18 cartridges, followed by gas chromatography–negative chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of the pentafluorobenzoyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable and gave diagnostic negative molecular ions as the base peak for each of the major estrogens studied.

  3. Seasonal cycles in radium and barium within a subterranean estuary: Implications for groundwater derived chemical fluxes to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonneea, Meagan Eagle; Mulligan, Ann E.; Charette, Matthew A.

    2013-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is an important source of water and dissolved materials to the ocean. One of the primary tracers of this process is the quartet of radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra), whereby excess activities in surface waters can often be attributed to an input supplied via SGD. This approach requires the radium end member activity to be well constrained, however, natural variability in groundwater radium may span several orders of magnitude. Therefore, this variability is usually the main driver of uncertainties in volumetric SGD estimates. To investigate the physical and biogeochemical controls on groundwater radium activities, we conducted a three-year time series of radium and barium, a chemical analogue for radium, within the subterranean estuary of a coastal aquifer (Waquoit Bay, MA, USA). Gonneea et al. (2013) demonstrated that movement of the salinity interface within the subterranean estuary is driven by changes in the hydraulic gradient between groundwater level and sea level height. For Waquoit Bay, seasonal scale sea level change, not groundwater level, was the main driver in hydraulic gradient fluctuations. Seasonal changes in groundwater chemistry can be attributed to the resulting movement of the salinity transition zone between terrestrial and marine groundwater. Landward movement of the interface results in a large release of radium isotopes (226Ra = 1400 dpm 100 L-1) and barium (3000 nmol kg-1) associated with an increase in groundwater salinity. The magnitude of these releases cannot be explained by in situ production or weathering alone, but is likely due to salinity driven desorption from surface-bound sediment inventory. The timing of these peak concentrations is not always in phase with model-derived estimates of SGD; as a result, the groundwater concentration rather than the water flux is the main driver of Ra and Ba inputs to Waquoit Bay surface waters. The behavior of the subterranean estuary as an ion exchange reservoir has important implications for the timing and flux of various nutrients and pollutants that transit this region prior to discharge. In addition to modulating chemical fluxes via submarine groundwater discharge on seasonal time scales, transgression of the subterranean estuary may alter the input of chemicals to the ocean on decadal and longer time scales. During this study, the observed excess flux of 226Ra and Ba from the subterranean estuary can be accounted for with sorbed sediment pools and accelerating rates of sea level rise in this region.

  4. An investigation of the thermal degradation mechanisms of a waste tire through chemical analysis including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic

    E-print Network

    including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperature a GC/MS. Significant Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs) including benzene derivatives, PAHs, and Hetero

  5. Toxic inhibition of smooth muscle contractility by plant-derived sesquiterpenes caused by their chemically reactive alpha-methylenebutyrolactone functions.

    PubMed

    Hay, A J; Hamburger, M; Hostettmann, K; Hoult, J R

    1994-05-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that extracts of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) and parthenolide, a sesquiterpene alpha-methylenebutyrolactone obtained from it, inhibit smooth muscle contractility in a time-dependent, non-specific and irreversible manner. 2. The hypothesis that this toxic effect is due specifically to the presence in the sesquiterpene lactone of the potentially reactive alpha-methylene function was tested on rabbit isolated aortic ring preparations. This was done (a) by comparing the effects of two plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones purified from yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis): cynaropicrin (an alpha-methylenebutyrolactone) and solstitialin 13-acetate (lacking the alpha-methylene function), and (b) by chemically inactivating the alpha-methylene functions in cynaropicrin and parthenolide by reaction with cysteine. 3. The results show that the characteristic smooth muscle inhibitory profile is demonstrated by the two alpha-methylenebutyrolactones (parthenolide and cynaropicrin), but not by the compound lacking this functional group (solstitialin 13-acetate), or by those previously active compounds in which it has been inactivated with cysteine. 4. Thus the alpha-methylene function is critical for this aspect of the toxic pharmacological profile of the sesquiterpene butyrolactones, which are natural products widely distributed in the Compositae family of flowering plants. PMID:8032668

  6. Toxic inhibition of smooth muscle contractility by plant-derived sesquiterpenes caused by their chemically reactive alpha-methylenebutyrolactone functions.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, A. J.; Hamburger, M.; Hostettmann, K.; Hoult, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that extracts of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) and parthenolide, a sesquiterpene alpha-methylenebutyrolactone obtained from it, inhibit smooth muscle contractility in a time-dependent, non-specific and irreversible manner. 2. The hypothesis that this toxic effect is due specifically to the presence in the sesquiterpene lactone of the potentially reactive alpha-methylene function was tested on rabbit isolated aortic ring preparations. This was done (a) by comparing the effects of two plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones purified from yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis): cynaropicrin (an alpha-methylenebutyrolactone) and solstitialin 13-acetate (lacking the alpha-methylene function), and (b) by chemically inactivating the alpha-methylene functions in cynaropicrin and parthenolide by reaction with cysteine. 3. The results show that the characteristic smooth muscle inhibitory profile is demonstrated by the two alpha-methylenebutyrolactones (parthenolide and cynaropicrin), but not by the compound lacking this functional group (solstitialin 13-acetate), or by those previously active compounds in which it has been inactivated with cysteine. 4. Thus the alpha-methylene function is critical for this aspect of the toxic pharmacological profile of the sesquiterpene butyrolactones, which are natural products widely distributed in the Compositae family of flowering plants. PMID:8032668

  7. Influence of oxide impurities on the chemical tuning of the thermoelectric properties of substitution derivatives of RuIn3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Reetz, Maik; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Schmidt, Marcus; Grin, Yuri

    2014-07-01

    A systematic investigation on tuning the charge carrier concentration by substitution of the Ru position in RuIn3 is performed. Samples with nominal composition Ru0.95T0.05In3 (T=Re, Rh, Ir) were synthesized via liquid-solid-reaction and subsequent spark plasma sintering treatment. The chemical composition was characterized by X-ray, metallographic and microstructure analysis revealing solid solutions in the samples with Rh and Ir, whereas Re cannot be incorporated in RuIn3. Minor oxide impurities in the commercially available starting elements, the homogeneity range of RuIn3 and the redox potentials of the participating elements are the key for interpreting the observed lattice parameters and the corresponding composition. Both, substitutions with Rh or Ir and Re inclusions in RuIn3 lead independently to a significant decrease of the total thermal conductivity down to approximately one half of the value observed for binary RuIn3, prepared with commercially available starting materials. The electrical resistivity was reduced by substitution and the temperature dependence changes from semiconductor-like, for RuIn3, to metal-like in the substitution derivatives. At the same time the sign change in the thermopower at high temperatures, characteristic for binary RuIn3, is suppressed, attaining only electrons as majority carriers.

  8. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais of the essential oils derived from Artemisia giraldii and Artemisia subdigitata.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sha-Sha; Liu, Zhi-Long; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils derived from flowering aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii Pamp. and A. subdigitata Mattf. (Family: Asteraceae) against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.). Essential oils of aerial parts of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata were obtained from hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. A total of 48 and 33 components of the essential oils of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata were identified, respectively. The principal compounds in A. giraldii essential oil were ?-pinene (13.18%), iso-elemicin (10.08%), germacrene D (5.68%), 4-terpineol (5.43%) and (Z)-?-ocimene (5.06%). 1,8-Cineole (12.26%) and ?-curcumene (10.77%) were the two main components of the essential oil of A. subdigitata, followed by ?-pinene (7.38%), borneol (6.23%) and eugenol (5.87%). The essential oils of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata possessed fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 6.29 and 17.01 mg/L air, respectively. The two essential oils of A. giraldii and A. subdigitata also exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LD50 values of 40.51 and 76.34 ?g/adult, respectively. The results indicated that the two essential oils show potential in terms of fumigant and contact toxicity against grain storage insects. PMID:22695231

  9. EVALUATION OF DIPHENYLAMINE DERIVATIVES IN APPLE PEEL USING GRADIENT REVERSED-PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ULRAVIOLET-VISIBLE ABSORPTION AND ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE CHEMICAL IONIZATION MASS SELECTIVE DETECTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed for extracting, identifying, and quantifying diphenylamine (DPA) derivatives in the peel of DPA-treated apples using gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography with ultra-violet/visible absorption and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization detection (LC-UV/vis-APCIMS). C...

  10. O-Succinyl-L-homoserine-based C4-chemical production: succinic acid, homoserine lactone, ?-butyrolactone, ?-butyrolactone derivatives, and 1,4-butanediol.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Park, Hye-Min; Choi, Su Jin; Song, Gyu Hyeon; Lee, Jea Chun; Yang, Young-Lyeol; Shin, Hyun Kwan; Kim, Ju Nam; Cho, Kyung Ho; Lee, Jung Ho

    2014-10-01

    There has been a significant global interest to produce bulk chemicals from renewable resources using engineered microorganisms. Large research programs have been launched by academia and industry towards this goal. Particularly, C4 chemicals such as succinic acid (SA) and 1,4-butanediol have been leading the path towards the commercialization of biobased technology with the effort of replacing chemical production. Here we present O-Succinyl-L-homoserine (SH) as a new, potentially important platform biochemical and demonstrate its central role as an intermediate in the production of SA, homoserine lactone (HSL), ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and its derivatives, and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). This technology encompasses (1) the genetic manipulation of Escherichia coli to produce SH with high productivity, (2) hydrolysis into SA and homoserine (HS) or homoserine lactone hydrochloride, and (3) chemical conversion of either HS or homoserine lactone HCL (HSL·HCl) into drop-in chemicals in polymer industry. This production strategy with environmental benefits is discussed in the perspective of targeting of fermented product and a process direction compared to petroleum-based chemical conversion, which may reduce the overall manufacturing cost. PMID:25155257

  11. A newly synthesized glycine derivative to control uniform and pitting corrosion processes of Al induced by SCN ? anions – Chemical, electrochemical and morphological studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed A. Amin

    2010-01-01

    A newly synthesized glycine derivative (termed GlyD), 2-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylamino)acetic acid hydrochloride, was used to inhibit uniform and pitting corrosion processes of Al in 0.50M KSCN solutions (pH 6.8) at 25°C. For uniform corrosion inhibition study, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization resistance and impedance methods were used, complemented with SEM examinations. An independent method of chemical analysis, namely ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic

  12. Identification of nonprotein amino acids from cycad seeds as N-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives by positive chemical-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meide Pan; Tom J. Mabry; Ping Cao; Mehdi Moini

    1997-01-01

    Nonprotein amino acids from nine species of cycad seeds were analyzed as N-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester (ECEE) derivatives by positive chemical-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the retention times and mass spectrometry analyses, 12 nonprotein amino acids were identified in these seeds. In addition to the excitatory and putative neurotoxin ß-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), the known neurotoxin ß-N-oxalylamino-l-alanine (BOAA) was detected from the

  13. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lemasters, John J., E-mail: JJLemasters@musc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 ?M of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 ?M iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca{sup 2+} uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and suppressed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake. • Cytoprotective tetracyclines protect by inhibiting the MCU.

  14. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L; Smith, Charles D; Lemasters, John J

    2013-11-15

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50?M of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500?M iodoacetic acid plus 1mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-HEPES buffer at pH6.2 for 4h prior to reoxygenation at pH7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca(2+) uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and suppressed the Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. PMID:24012766

  15. Minocycline and Doxycycline, but not Other Tetracycline-Derived Compounds, Protect Liver Cells from Chemical Hypoxia and Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasters, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 ?M of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 ?M iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-Hepes buffer (KRH) at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca2+ uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometery was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and suppressed the Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. PMID:24012766

  16. Chemical profiles and identification of key compound caffeine in marine-derived traditional Chinese medicine Ostreae concha.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Zhou, Shi-Lu; Ma, Ai-Cui; Xu, Hai-Tao; Guan, Hua-Shi; Liu, Hong-Bing

    2012-05-01

    To compare the chemical differences between the medicinal and cultured oyster shells, their chemical profiles were investigated. Using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-electron spraying ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), the discrimination of the chemical characteristics among the medicinal and cultured oyster shells was established. Moreover, the chemometric analysis revealed some potential key compounds. After a large-scale extraction and isolation, one target key compound was unambiguously identified as caffeine based on extensive spectroscopic data analysis (1D and 2D NMR, MS, and UV) and comparison with literature data. PMID:22822365

  17. Identification of Volatile/Semi-Volatile Products Derived from Chemical Remediation of cis-1,3-Dichloropropene by Thiosulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalent use of soil fumigants has resulted in air pollution in some agricultural regions. Our previous research showed that amendment of thiosulfate fertilizers at the soil surface may offer an effective and economical approach to reduce the emission of halogenated fumigants via a chemical rem...

  18. Chemical analysis of flavonoid constituents of the seagrass Halophila stipulacea: First finding of malonylated derivatives in marine phanerogams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Bitam; Maria Letizia Ciavatta; Marianna Carbone; Emiliano Manzo; Ernesto Mollo; Margherita Gavagnin

    2010-01-01

    The flavonoid fraction from the butanol extract of a Mediterranean sample of the seagrass Halophila stipulacea was chemically analyzed. A new malonylated flavone glucoside, genkwanin-4?-O-(6“-malonyl-glucopyranoside) (3), was isolated together with known flavone glucosides 4-9, previously reported only from terrestrial sources. The structure of 3 was established by means of spectroscopic techniques, mainly NMR methods.

  19. Derivation of Tissue-specific Functional Gene Sets to Aid Transcriptomic Analysis of Chemical Impacts on the Teleost Reproductive Axis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are a powerful tool for unsupervised analysis of chemical impacts on biological systems. However, the lack of well annotated biological pathways for many aquatic organisms, including fish, and the poor power of microarray-based analyses to detect diffe...

  20. Identification of volatile/semivolatile products derived from chemical remediation of cis-1,3-dichloropropene by thiosulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalent use of soil fumigants resulted in air pollution in some agricultural regions. Our previous research showed that application of thiosulfate fertilizers at the soil surface may offer an effective and economical approach to reduce the emission of halogenated fumigants via a chemical remed...

  1. Reactivity and molecular structure of silicon-oxygen-carbon-containing films derived from organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence J. Clark

    1996-01-01

    The organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) of non-crystalline solids is an attractive method to provide surface protection. The drawback of large scale processing is the difficulty in depositing films reproducibly with long-term reliability. Hence, there is continuing research for the preparation of ceramic films, such as metal carbides, which are reliable with respect to composition and performance. The purpose of

  2. Contaminant and plant-derived changes in soil chemical and microbiological indicators during fuel oil rhizoremediation with Galega orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anu Mikkonen; Elina Kondo; Kaisa Lappi; Kaisa Wallenius; Kristina Lindström; Helinä Hartikainen; Leena Suominen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of vegetation and hydrocarbon (HC) contamination on the development of soil chemical and biological status during rhizoremediation of fuel oil contamination with the legume Galega orientalis. Uncontaminated and unvegetated references monitored in parallel with the rhizoremediation treatment enabled the identification of the partial effects. A 21-week greenhouse experiment simulated one

  3. INFLUENCE OF DECOMPOSITION ON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANT-AND MANURE-DERIVED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER AND SORPTION TO GOETHITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in maintaining the fertility and quality of soils in agricultural ecosystems. Few studies have examined the effects of decomposition on DOM sorption and chemical characteristics. This study investigated the sorption to goethite of ...

  4. Shornephine A: structure, chemical stability, and P-glycoprotein inhibitory properties of a rare diketomorpholine from an Australian marine-derived Aspergillus sp.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Zeinab G; Huang, Xiao-cong; Raju, Ritesh; Piggott, Andrew M; Capon, Robert J

    2014-09-19

    Chemical analysis of an Australian marine sediment-derived Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M081F) yielded the new diketomorpholine (DKM) shornephine A (1) together with two known and one new diketopiperazine (DKP), 15b-?-hydroxy-5-N-acetyladreemin (2), 5-N-acetyladreemin (3), and 15b-?-methoxy-5-N-acetyladreemin (4), respectively. Structure elucidation of 1-4 was achieved by detailed spectroscopic analysis, supported by chemical degradation and derivatization, and biosynthetic considerations. The DKM (1) underwent a facile (auto) acid-mediated methanolysis to yield seco-shornephine A methyl ester (1a). Our mechanistic explanation of this transformation prompted us to demonstrate that the acid-labile and solvolytically unstable DKM scaffold can be stabilized by N-alkylation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that at 20 ?M shornephine A (1) is a noncytotoxic inhibitor of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux in multidrug-resistant human colon cancer cells. PMID:25158286

  5. Coenzyme A derivatives of bile acids-chemical synthesis, purification, and utilization in enzymic preparation of taurine conjugates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Killenberg; Diane F. Dukes

    Synthesis of the coenzyme A derivatives of bile acids by the mixed anyhydride method results in a product that is contaminated by unreacted CoASH and bile acid. These compounds can he purified by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. In each case, the purified product is free of starting materials and exhibits an equimolar ratio of bile acid, coenzyme A, and thioester bond.

  6. Chemical insight from density functional modeling of molecular adsorption: Tracking the bonding and diffusion of anthracene derivatives on Cu(111) with molecular orbitals.

    PubMed

    Wyrick, Jonathan; Einstein, T L; Bartels, Ludwig

    2015-03-14

    We present a method of analyzing the results of density functional modeling of molecular adsorption in terms of an analogue of molecular orbitals. This approach permits intuitive chemical insight into the adsorption process. Applied to a set of anthracene derivates (anthracene, 9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-dithioanthracene, and 9,10-diselenonanthracene), we follow the electronic states of the molecules that are involved in the bonding process and correlate them to both the molecular adsorption geometry and the species' diffusive behavior. We additionally provide computational code to easily repeat this analysis on any system. PMID:25770496

  7. Chemical insight from density functional modeling of molecular adsorption: Tracking the bonding and diffusion of anthracene derivatives on Cu(111) with molecular orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrick, Jonathan; Einstein, T. L.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2015-03-01

    We present a method of analyzing the results of density functional modeling of molecular adsorption in terms of an analogue of molecular orbitals. This approach permits intuitive chemical insight into the adsorption process. Applied to a set of anthracene derivates (anthracene, 9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-dithioanthracene, and 9,10-diselenonanthracene), we follow the electronic states of the molecules that are involved in the bonding process and correlate them to both the molecular adsorption geometry and the species' diffusive behavior. We additionally provide computational code to easily repeat this analysis on any system.

  8. Design of a dynamic sensor-regulator system for production of chemicals and fuels derived from fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuzhong; Carothers, James M; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-04-01

    Microbial production of chemicals is now an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Current efforts focus mainly on constructing pathways to produce different types of molecules. However, there are few strategies for engineering regulatory components to improve product titers and conversion yields of heterologous pathways. Here we developed a dynamic sensor-regulator system (DSRS) to produce fatty acid-based products in Escherichia coli, and demonstrated its use for biodiesel production. The DSRS uses a transcription factor that senses a key intermediate and dynamically regulates the expression of genes involved in biodiesel production. This DSRS substantially improved the stability of biodiesel-producing strains and increased the titer to 1.5 g/l and the yield threefold to 28% of the theoretical maximum. Given the large number of natural sensors available, this DSRS strategy can be extended to many other biosynthetic pathways to balance metabolism, thereby increasing product titers and conversion yields and stabilizing production hosts. PMID:22446695

  9. Genomic and chemical insights into biosurfactant production by the mangrove-derived strain Bacillus safensis CCMA-560.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Daniela Ferreira; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; de Souza Galaverna, Renan; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Greenfield, Paul; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Melo, Itamar Soares; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2015-04-01

    Many Bacillus species can produce biosurfactant, although most of the studies on lipopeptide production by this genus have been focused on Bacillus subtilis. Surfactants are broadly used in pharmaceutical, food and petroleum industry, and biological surfactant shows some advantages over the chemical surfactants, such as less toxicity, production from renewable, cheaper feedstocks and development of novel recombinant hyperproducer strains. This study is aimed to unveil the biosurfactant metabolic pathway and chemical composition in Bacillus safensis strain CCMA-560. The whole genome of the CCMA-560 strain was previously sequenced, and with the aid of bioinformatics tools, its biosurfactant metabolic pathway was compared to other pathways of closely related species. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and high-resolution TOF mass spectrometry (MS) were used to characterize the biosurfactant molecule. B. safensis CCMA-560 metabolic pathway is similar to other Bacillus species; however, some differences in amino acid incorporation were observed, and chemical analyses corroborated the genetic results. The strain CCMA-560 harbours two genes flanked by srfAC and srfAD not present in other Bacillus spp., which can be involved in the production of the analogue gramicidin. FTIR and MS showed that B. safensis CCMA-560 produces a mixture of at least four lipopeptides with seven amino acids incorporated and a fatty acid chain with 14 carbons, which makes this molecule similar to the biosurfactant of Bacillus pumilus, namely, pumilacidin. This is the first report on the biosurfactant production by B. safensis, encompassing the investigation of the metabolic pathway and chemical characterization of the biosurfactant molecule. PMID:25586584

  10. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No....

  11. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No....

  12. Composite bound states and broken U(1) symmetry in the chemical-master-equation derivation of the Gray-Scott model.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Fred; Ghoshal, Gourab; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2013-10-01

    We give a first principles derivation of the stochastic partial differential equations that describe the chemical reactions of the Gray-Scott model (GS): U+2V ?[?]3V and V ? [?]P, U ? [?]Q, with a constant feed rate for U. We find that the conservation of probability ensured by the chemical master equation leads to a modification of the usual differential equations for the GS model, which now involves two composite fields and also intrinsic noise terms. One of the composites is ?(1) = ?(v)(2), where {?(v)}(?) =v is the concentration of the species V and the averaging is over the internal noise ?(u,v,?(1)). The second composite field is the product of three fields ? = ??(u)?(v)(2) and requires a noise source to ensure probability conservation. A third composite ?(2) = ?(u)?(v) can also be identified from the noise-induced reactions. The Hamiltonian that governs the time evolution of the many-body wave function, associated with the master equation, has a broken U(1) symmetry related to particle number conservation. By expanding around the (broken symmetry) zero-energy solution of the Hamiltonian (by performing a Doi shift) one obtains from our path integral formulation the usual reaction diffusion equation, at the classical level. The Langevin equations that are derived from the chemical master equation have multiplicative noise sources for the density fields ?(u), ?(v),? that induce higher-order processes such as n ? n scattering for n>3. The amplitude of the noise acting on ?(v) is itself stochastic in nature. PMID:24229268

  13. Chemical inhibitors suggest endophytic fungal paclitaxel is derived from both mevalonate and non-mevalonate-like pathways.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sameh S M; Tsao, Rong; Raizada, Manish N

    2011-12-27

    Taxus trees possess fungal endophytes reported to produce paclitaxel. Inhibitors that block early steps in plant paclitaxel biosynthesis were applied to a paclitaxel-producing fungus to determine whether these steps are shared. The plant paclitaxel backbone is reportedly derived from the non-mevalonate terpenoid pathway, while the side chain is phenylalanine-derived. Evidence that the shikimate pathway contributes to fungal paclitaxel was shown by decreased paclitaxel accumulation following inhibition of phenylalanine ammonia lyase. Expression of another shikimate pathway enzyme, 3-dehydroquinate synthase, coincided with paclitaxel production. The importance of the mevalonate pathway in fungal paclitaxel biosynthesis was shown by inhibition of fungal paclitaxel accumulation using compactin, a specific inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Expression of another mevalonate pathway enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase, coincided with fungal paclitaxel accumulation. Unexpectedly, results from using fosmidomycin suggested that fungal paclitaxel requires 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), an enzyme in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway normally found in bacteria/plants. Additional lines of evidence support this finding; first, a plant DXR antibody recognized a fungal peptide of the correct size; second, expression of an apparent fungal DXR ortholog correlated to changes in paclitaxel production; finally, BLAST searching identified a gene putatively encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, the first enzyme in the MEP pathway in Aspergillus. PMID:22103292

  14. Derived No-effect Levels (DNELs) under the European Chemicals Regulation REACH-An Analysis of Long-term Inhalation Worker-DNELs Presented by Industry.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Linda; Deng, Uriell; Johanson, Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    The European REACH regulation places responsibility for providing safety information, including derived no-effect levels (DNELs), on chemicals and chemical products on 'industry', i.e. manufacturers and importers. We compared long-term inhalation worker-DNELs (wDNELs) presented by industry with the corresponding Swedish occupational exposure limits (OELs), and for a subset, with wDNELs derived by us. Our wDNELs were derived using toxicological evaluations published by the Swedish Criteria Group and our interpretation of the REACH Guidance. On average, industry's wDNELs were the same as the Swedish OELs (median of wDNEL-OEL ratios: 0.98, n = 235). However, the variation was huge, the extremes being up to 450 times higher, and up to 230 times lower than the corresponding OEL. Nearly one-fifth of the wDNELs were ?2 times higher and one-third ?2 times lower than the OEL. No time trend was seen in the wDNEL/OEL ratios, suggesting that older OELs were not systematically higher than the more recent ones. Industry's wDNELs varied widely and were generally higher (median 4.2 times, up to 435 times higher, down to 13 times lower, n = 23) also compared to our wDNELs. Only five industry wDNELs were equal to or lower than ours. The choices of key studies, dose descriptors, and assessment factors all seemed to contribute to the discrepancies. We conclude that although the REACH guidance is detailed, many choices that will influence the wDNEL lack firm instructions. A major problem is that little advice is given on when and how to depart from default assessment factors. PMID:25471229

  15. Structure and physico-chemical properties of hexadentate Schiff base zinc complexes derived from salicylaldehydes and triethylenetetramine*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantarasiri, Nuanphun; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Detsen, Hussadee; Mananunsap, Thussanee; Batiya, Chureephon; Chaichit, Narongsak

    2004-09-01

    Two hexadentate Schiff base zinc complexes, ZnSal 2trien and ZnVan 2trien, where Sal=salicylaldehyde, Van= o-vanillin, and trien=triethylenetetramine, have been synthesized by the reaction between salicylaldehydes, triethylenetetramine and zinc acetate. The structure of ZnSal 2trien and ZnVan 2trien were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. It was found that both ZnSal 2trien and ZnVan 2trien have a bent-shaped structure. Properties of the complexes were examined using differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. Protonation constants of the ligands Sal 2trien and Van 2trien and stability constants of their zinc complexes were determined by potentiometric titration. Binding energies of ZnSal 2trien and ZnVan 2trien complexes were obtained by quantum chemical calculations.

  16. Fluoro-substitution effects in deoxyfluoro-D-glucose derivatives: random conformational search and quantum chemical calculation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin-Ming; Zhou, Jun-Hong; Zhang, Hua-Bei; Dong, Xi-Cheng; Chen, Min-Bo

    2006-09-25

    The effect of substitution by the fluorine atom at different positions of D-glucose was investigated by quantum chemical calculation of the low-energy conformers. These were obtained through the Random conformational search method. The geometries of conformers were optimized at the RHF/6-31(d) level, then reoptimization and vibrational analysis were performed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level. Single-point energies were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level. The free energies of solvation in water were calculated utilizing the AM1-SM5.4 solvation model. For all substitution positions, the ring conformation does not change much, and the pyranoid 4C1 conformers are dominant, while variations in the substitution site result in different effects in the network of hydrogen bonds, anomeric effect, the solvation free energy, and the ratio of alpha- and beta-anomers. PMID:16839523

  17. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of fiber optic sensors uses sol-gel derived porous silica materials doped with nanometer particles of noble metals in the form of fiber or coating for sensing trace H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCl in gas samples at for applications ambient temperature. The third classes of fiber optic sensors use sol-gel derived semiconductor metal oxide coating on the surface of silica optical fiber as transducers for selectively sensing H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO at high temperature. In addition, optical fiber temperature sensors use the fluorescence signal of rare-earth metal ions doped porous silica optical fiber or the optical absorption signal of thermochromic metal oxide materials coated on the surface of silica optical fibers have also been developed for monitoring gas temperature of corrosive gas. Based on the results obtained from this project, the principle of fiber optic sensor techniques for monitoring matrix gas components as well as trace components of coal gasification derived syngas has been established. Prototype sensors for sensing trace ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in gasification derived syngas have been built up in our laboratory and have been tested using gas samples with matrix gas composition similar to that of gasification derived fuel gas. Test results illustrated the feasibility of these sensors for applications in IGCC processes.

  18. STM investigation of the dependence of alkane and alkane (C 18H 38, C 19H 40) derivatives self-assembly on molecular chemical structure on HOPG surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qing; Yan, Hui-Juan; Yan, Cun-Ji; Pan, Ge-Bo; Wan, Li-Jun; Wen, Guo-Yong; Zhang, De-Qing

    2008-03-01

    Alkane molecules and their derivatives are composed of alkyl chain and functional groups that dominate the interactions of intermolecule and molecule/substrate and result in different self-assemblies on solid surface. In the present paper, the self-assemblies of alkanes and alkane (C 18H 38, C 19H 40) derivatives are studied on HOPG surface at room temperature in ambient conditions by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to understand the structure and stability of these self-assemblies and to reveal the dependence of their self-assemblies on their chemical structures. It is found that the alkane molecules with short alkyl chains such as tridecane (C 13H 28), tetradecane (C 14H 30) and pentadecane (C 15H 32) can form lamellar structures on HOPG and be steadily imaged by STM. On the other hand, linear or herringbone structures can be observed in the self-assemblies formed by a series of derivatives of C 18H 38 and C 19H 40. The results are discussed based on STM results to understand the structures and structural stability of alkane molecular self-assemblies.

  19. Modeling and experimental verification of physical and chemical processes during pyrolysis of a refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy)] [Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Nicolella, C.; Rovatti, M. [Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Ist. di Scienze e Tecnologie dell`Ingegneria Chimica] [Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Ist. di Scienze e Tecnologie dell`Ingegneria Chimica

    1996-01-01

    A model for refuse-derived fuel (RDF) conventional pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor is presented. The model investigates the influence of the heat- and mass-transfer processes on the pyrolysis product yields. Solid degradation reactions have been modeled by assuming that the interactions between the main RDF components during pyrolysis are negligible and that the RDF pyrolysis behavior may be considered as the sum of the separate behaviors of primary reacting species. The model accounts for conductive and convective heat transfer within the solid matrix and secondary tar-cracking reactions, as well as for variability in physical properties and in the void fraction of the pyrolyzing material. Quite good agreement was found between model results and experimental data obtained for conventional pyrolysis of a RDF in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The model is able to predict the temperature transients, the rate of gas generation, and the product final yields during conventional pyrolysis of RDF.

  20. Influence of stoichiometry on the optical and electrical properties of chemical vapor deposition derived MoS2.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Soo; Sangwan, Vinod K; Jariwala, Deep; Wood, Joshua D; Park, Spencer; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Shi, Fengyuan; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Ponce, Arturo; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Dravid, Vinayak P; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C; Lauhon, Lincoln J

    2014-10-28

    Ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) of Mo and W show great potential for digital electronics and optoelectronic applications. Whereas early studies were limited to mechanically exfoliated flakes, the large-area synthesis of 2D TMDCs has now been realized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) based on a sulfurization reaction. The optoelectronic properties of CVD grown monolayer MoS2 have been intensively investigated, but the influence of stoichiometry on the electrical and optical properties has been largely overlooked. Here we systematically vary the stoichiometry of monolayer MoS2 during CVD via controlled sulfurization and investigate the associated changes in photoluminescence and electrical properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to measure relative variations in stoichiometry and the persistence of MoOx species. As MoS2-? is reduced (increasing ?), the field-effect mobility of monolayer transistors increases while the photoluminescence yield becomes nonuniform. Devices fabricated from monolayers with the lowest sulfur content have negligible hysteresis and a threshold voltage of ? 0 V. We conclude that the electrical and optical properties of monolayer MoS2 crystals can be tuned via stoichiometry engineering to meet the requirements of various applications. PMID:25223821

  1. An ionic liquid tolerant cellulase derived from chemically polluted microhabitats and its application in in situ saccharification of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaxing; He, Bingfang; Wu, Bin; Wang, Bin; Wang, Chenghua; Hu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    A cellulase-producing fungus was isolated from chemically polluted microhabitats by [Amim][Cl] enrichment and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The maximum activity of the cellulase in 30% (v/v) ionic liquids (ILs) was detected in [Emim][DMP], [Amim][Cl] and [Emim][MA] as 127%, 111% and 109%, respectively, of its activity in buffer, suggesting its superior performance in high concentration ILs. Strikingly, although its initial activity varied in each IL, its half-life was longer in most ILs than in buffer, evidence of a high conformational stability of the enzyme that is essential for maintaining the remaining activity in relevant media. It noteworthy that 1-3M NaCl can activate the cellulase somewhat. More gratifyingly, a compatible IL-cellulase system based on the cellulase was developed, and its use significantly improved the saccharification rate of rice straw from 53% to 88% versus the control, demonstrating its potential for efficient transformation of lignocellulose to glucose in a single-step process. PMID:24549238

  2. Effects of lithium doping on microstructure, electrical properties, and chemical bonds of sol-gel derived NKN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Chan-Ching; Weng, Chung-Ming; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Tsai, Cheng-Che

    2015-02-01

    Highly (100/110) oriented lead-free Lix(Na0.5K0.5)1-xNbO3 (LNKN, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) thin films are fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates via a sol-gel processing method. The lithium (Li) dopants modify the microstructure and chemical bonds of the LNKN films, and therefore improve their electrical properties. The optimal values of the remnant polarization (Pr = 14.3 ?C/cm2), piezoelectric coefficient (d33 = 48.1 pm/V), and leakage current (<10-5 A/cm2) are obtained for a lithium addition of x = 0.04 (i.e., 4 at. %). The observation results suggest that the superior electrical properties are the result of an improved crystallization, a larger grain size, and a smoother surface morphology. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by an Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect under high electric fields.

  3. Dislocation substructure of mantle-derived olivine as revealed by selective chemical etching and transmission electron microscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Wegner, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    Cleaved and mechanically polished surfaces of olivine from peridotite xenoliths from San Carlos, Arizona, were chemically etched using the techniques of Wegner and Christie (1974). Dislocation etch pits are produced on all surface orientations and they tend to be preferentially aligned along the traces of subgrain boundaries, which are approximately parallel to (100), (010), and (001). Shallow channels were also produced on (010) surfaces and represent dislocations near the surface that are etched out along their lengths. The dislocation etch channel loops are often concentric, and emanate from (100) subgrain boundaries, which suggests that dislocation sources are in the boundaries. Data on subgrain misorientation and dislocation line orientation and arguments based on subgrain boundary energy minimization are used to characterize the dislocation structures of the subgrain boundaries. (010) subgrain boundaries are of the twist type, composed of networks of [100] and [001] screw dislocations. Both (100) and (001) subgrain boundaries are tilt walls composed of arrays of edge dislocation with Burgers vectors b=[100] and [001], respectively. The inferred slip systems are {001} ???100???, {100} ???001???, and {010} ???100??? in order of diminishing importance. Exploratory transmission electron microscopy is in accord with these identifications. The flow stresses associated with the development of the subgrain structure are estimated from the densities of free dislocations and from the subgrain dimensions. Inferred stresses range from 35 to 75 bars using the free dislocation densities and 20 to 100 bars using the subgrain sizes. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Isolation and chemical identification of lipid derivatives from avocado (Persea americana) pulp with antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Dariana Graciela; Flores-García, Mirthala; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rizzo, Sheryl; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; De la Peña-Diaz, Aurora; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in physiological hemostasis. However, in coronary arteries damaged by atherosclerosis, enhanced platelet aggregation, with subsequent thrombus formation, is a precipitating factor in acute ischemic events. Avocado pulp (Persea americana) is a good source of bioactive compounds, and its inclusion in the diet as a source of fatty acid has been related to reduced platelet aggregability. Nevertheless, constituents of avocado pulp with antiplatelet activity remain unknown. The present study aims to characterize the chemical nature of avocado constituents with inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was used as a fractionation and purification tool, guided by an in vitro adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid or collagen-platelet aggregation assay. Antiplatelet activity was initially linked to seven acetogenins that were further purified, and their dose-dependent effects in the presence of various agonists were contrasted. This process led to the identification of Persenone-C (3) as the most potent antiplatelet acetogenin (IC50=3.4 mM) among the evaluated compounds. In vivo evaluations with Persenone A (4) demonstrated potential protective effects against arterial thrombosis (25 mg kg(-1) of body weight), as coagulation times increased (2-fold with respect to the vehicle) and thrombus formation was attenuated (71% versus vehicle). From these results, avocado may be referred to as a functional food containing acetogenin compounds that inhibit platelet aggregation with a potential preventive effect on thrombus formation, such as those that occur in ischaemic diseases. PMID:25319210

  5. Quantum chemical study of benzimidazole derivatives to tune the second-order nonlinear optical molecular switching by proton abstraction.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Shabbir; Xu, Hongliang; Janjua, Muhammad Ramzan Saeed Ashraf; Su, Zhongmin; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2010-05-14

    A novel sequence for reversible second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) molecular switching with protonation/deprotonation has been achieved and tuned as well. The NLO switching with first hyperpolarizabilities (beta(0)) as low as 14 x 10(-30) esu (Off-phase) and as large as 1189 x 10(-30) esu (On-phase) have been computed by using density functional theory (DFT). Remarkably large differences between the beta(0) values of benzimidazole containing chromophores and their deprotonated anions have shown their significant potential for a new type of NLO molecular switching, as (1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-thienyl)pyrrolyl)-1,3-benzimidazole anion (1(-)) has a beta(0) value computed to be 61 x 10(-30) esu, which is 4 times larger than its neutral molecule 1. This beta(0) value has been tuned up to 2028 x 10(-30) esu by effective substitutions in the derivatives of 1(-) (1a(-), 1b(-), 1c(-), and 1d(-)). Interestingly, the substituted compounds have illustrated robustly large off-on NLO switching with a difference in beta(0) values of 7, 63, 85 and 75 times larger than their neutral counterparts, respectively. TD-DFT calculations along with natural bond orbital (NBO), frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analyses show that the abstraction of an imido proton brings about a change in push-pull configurations resulting in a red shift for both absorption and emission spectra which subsequently leads to a high performance second-order NLO molecular switching. A similar trend of NLO switching in F(-) compounds of these chromophores has also been observed with significantly large beta(0) values having analogous electro-optical properties like deprotonated anions. Furthermore, gas-phase acidity (GPA) calculations for the neutral molecule 1 and its derivatives (1a, 1b, 1c, and 1d) have also revealed that these are rationally potent nitrogen acids and can easily be dissociated to produce stable deprotonated anions. PMID:20428560

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of polymeric micelles loaded with platinum derivatives by capillary electrophoresis and related methods.

    PubMed

    Oukacine, Farid; Bernard, Stephane; Bobe, Iulian; Cottet, Hervé

    2014-12-28

    (1,2-diamino-cyclohexane)Platinum(II) ((DACH)Pt) loaded polymeric micelles of poly(ethylene glycol-b-sodium glutamate) (PEG-b-PGlu) are currently studied as a potential candidate to replace oxaliplatin in the treatment of cancers with the aim to reduce side effects like cumulative peripheral distal neurotoxicity and acute dysesthesias. As for all synthetic polymeric drug delivery systems, the characterization of the (co)polymer precursors and of the final drug delivery system (polymeric micelles) is crucial to control the repeatability of the different batches and to get correlation between physico-chemical structure and biological activity. In this work, the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and related methods for the characterization of (DACH)Pt-loaded polymeric micelles and their precursor (PEG-b-PGlu copolymer) has been investigated in detail. The separation and quantification of residual PGlu homopolymer in the PEG-b-PGlu sample were performed by free solution capillary zone electrophoresis mode. This mode brought also information on the PEG-b-PGlu copolymer composition and polydispersity. It also permitted to monitor the decomposition of polymeric micelles in the presence of NaCl at room temperature. Interactions between PEG-b-PGlu unimers, on one hand, and polymeric micelles or surfactants, on the other hand, were studied by using the Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography and Frontal Analysis Capillary Electrophoresis modes. Finally, weight-average hydrodynamic radii of the loaded polymeric micelles and of the PEG-b-PGlu unimers were determined by Taylor Dispersion Analysis (an absolute size determination method that can be easily implemented on CE apparatus). PMID:25270114

  7. Identification of nonprotein amino acids from cycad seeds as N-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives by positive chemical-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, M; Mabry, T J; Cao, P; Moini, M

    1997-11-01

    Nonprotein amino acids from nine species of cycad seeds were analyzed as N-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester (ECEE) derivatives by positive chemical-ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the retention times and mass spectrometry analyses, 12 nonprotein amino acids were identified in these seeds. In addition to the excitatory and putative neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), the known neurotoxin beta-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA) was detected from the seeds of Macrozamia moorei and M. communis, and delta-N-oxalyl-ornithine was obtained from the Cycas revoluta seeds. A novel nonprotein amino acid named cycasindene, previously reported from C. revoluta, was also found in the seeds of members of the C. angulata and C. rumphii complex. Eight additional known nonprotein amino acids were also identified. This is the first report of the neurotoxin BOAA from cycad seeds. PMID:9409004

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of sphaeropsidins and chemical derivatives toward Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of rice bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Venturi, Vittorio; Masi, Marco; Degrassi, Giuliano; Cimmino, Alessio; Maddau, Lucia; Andolfi, Anna

    2011-12-27

    Sphaeropsidin A, the main phytotoxin produced by Diplodia cupressi, as well as the two natural analogues sphaeropsidins B and C and 14 derivatives obtained by chemical modifications were assayed for antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and Burkholderia glumae, the causal agents of severe bacterial rice diseases. The results showed a strong and specific activity of sphaeropsidin A against X. oryzae pv. oryzae, while no activity was observed against the other two pathogens. The results of structure-activity relationship studies showed that structural features important to impart this antibacterial activity are the presence of the C-7 carbonyl group and the hemiketalic lactone functionality. The C-13 vinyl group, the double bond of ring C, and/or the tertiary C-9 hydroxy group, as well as the pimarane arrangement of the tricylic carbon skeleton, were also important for the antibacterial activity. These findings may be useful in designing novel compounds for practical applications in agriculture. PMID:22124378

  9. Ab initio quantum chemical investigation of intramolecular magnetic interaction in some diradical derivatives of imino nitroxide and nitronyl nitroxide.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Ehesan; Vyas, Shubham; Datta, Sambhu N

    2005-07-21

    The magnetic properties of the monoradicals 2-(4-phenyl acetylene)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidozolyl-oxyl (1) and 2-(4-phenyl acetylene)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-oxyl-3-oxide (2) and the diradicals 2,2'-(1,2-ethynediyldi-4,1-phenylene)bis[4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidozolyl-oxyl] (3), 2,2'-(1,2-ethynediyldi-4,1 3,1-phenylene)bis[4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidozolyl-oxyl] (4), and 2,2'-(1,2-ethynediyldi-4,1 3,1-phenylene)bis[4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-1-oxyl-3-oxide] (5) are investigated by ab initio quantum chemical methods. The rule of spin alternation in the unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) method clearly shows that the radical sites are antiferromagnetically coupled in 3 and ferromagnetically coupled in 4 and 5, which is consistent with a previous experiment. The molecular geometries are optimized at Hartree-Fock levels. This is followed by single-point calculations using the density functional (UB3LYP) treatment and the multiconfigurational complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) methodology. Magnetic exchange coupling constants are determined from the broken-symmetry approach. The calculated J values, -3.60 cm(-1) for 3, 0.16 cm(-1) for 4, and 0.67 cm(-1) for 5, are in excellent agreement with the observed values. Because of the very large size of the diradicals 3-5, the CASSCF (10,10) calculations cannot yield realistic J values. Nevertheless, the CASSCF calculations support the antiferromagnetic nature of the magnetic coupling in 3 and the ferromagnetic nature of the coupling in 4 and 5. The existence of an intramolecular magnetic coupling in 3-5 is also confirmed through computations of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constants for monoradicals 1 and 2 as well as diradicals 3-5. PMID:16833968

  10. New modified ?-cyclodextrin derivatives as detoxifying agents of chemical warfare agents (I). Synthesis and preliminary screening: evaluation of the detoxification using a half-quantitative enzymatic assay.

    PubMed

    Kalakuntla, Raman Kumar; Wille, Timo; Le Provost, Romain; Letort, Sophie; Reiter, Georg; Müller, Susanne; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Gouhier, Géraldine; Lafont, Olivier; Estour, François

    2013-02-01

    Current treatments of organophosphorus nerve agents poisoning are imperfect, and more efficient medical countermeasures need to be developed. Chemical scavengers based on ?-cyclodextrin displayed promising results, but further investigations have to be performed to evaluate the possibility of application of substituted cyclodextrins as potential detoxification agents. Herein, five new cyclodextrins scavengers were synthesized. New optimal conditions for regioselectively monosubstitution of ?-cyclodextrin at O-2 position were then studied to access to key intermediates. After these optimizations, a new series of three permethylated derivatives was developed, and two compounds bearing an ?-nucleophilic group via a three carbon atoms linker were prepared. The ability of these five scavengers to detoxify nerve agents (cyclosarin, soman, tabun and VX) was evaluated by a semi-quantitative biological assay. All the modified cyclodextrins significantly decreased the inhibitory effect of chemical warfare G agents on acetylcholinesterase activity. For this purpose, we showed that the specific interactions between the organophosphorus compound and the oligosaccharidic moiety of the scavenger played a pivotal role in the detoxification process. PMID:23201439

  11. Identification of human-derived volatile chemicals that interfere with attraction of the Scottish biting midge and their potential use as repellents.

    PubMed

    Logan, James G; Seal, Nicola J; Cook, James I; Stanczyk, Nina M; Birkett, Michael A; Clark, Suzanne J; Gezan, Salvador A; Wadhams, Lester J; Pickett, John A; Mordue, A Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), is a major pest in Scotland, causing a significant impact to the Scottish tourist and forestry industries. C. impunctatus is a generalist feeder, preferring to feed on large mammals, and is notorious for its attacks on humans. Until now, there was anecdotal evidence for differential attraction of female host-seeking C. impunctatus to individual human hosts, and the mechanism for this phenomenon was unknown. Using extracts of human odor collected by air entrainment, electroantennogram recordings to identify the physiologically active components, followed by behavioral assays, we show, for the first time, the differential attraction of female C. impunctatus to human odors and the chemical basis for this phenomenon. Certain chemicals, found in greater amounts in extracts that cause low attractiveness to midges, elicit a repellent effect in laboratory assays and repellency trials in the field. Differences in the production of these natural human-derived compounds could help to explain differential "attractiveness" between different human hosts. A mixture of two compounds in particular, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranylacetone [(E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-one], showed significant repellency (87, 77.4, 74.2, and 31.6% at hours 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively) in the field and have the potential to be developed as novel repellents. PMID:19351071

  12. Chemical solution deposition derived (001)-oriented epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} thin films with robust ferroelectric properties using stoichiometric precursors (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi; Valanoor, Nagarajan; Standard, Owen, E-mail: o.standard@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)

    2014-08-14

    Phase pure bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) thin films with (001)-oriented epitaxial structure are realized on lanthanum strontium manganite (La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}) buffered (001)-SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by chemical solution deposition. The annealing process is optimized such that a stoichiometric precursor can be used to accurately control the Bi:Fe ratio. Ferroelectric, dielectric, and resistive switching behaviours are investigated for 40?nm, 70?nm, and 150?nm BFO thin films. While the thinnest film (40?nm) shows very leaky loops, square and fully saturated polarization hysteresis loops are shown for the thicker films. The highest remanent polarization (2P{sub r}?=?100??C/cm{sup 2}) and relative dielectric constant (?{sub r}?=?613) are obtained in the 150?nm BFO thin film. High cycle fatigue tests show that the thick films are resistant to polarization fatigue. Piezoresponse force microscopy results show that the domain structure varies with thickness. Resistive switching and polarization mediated diode effects are also observed. These robust properties suggest that chemical solution deposition derived BiFeO{sub 3} thin films can offer a viable low cost alternative.

  13. Sequential identification of model parameters by derivative double two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and calibration-free approach for chemical reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Spegazzini, Nicolas; Siesler, Heinz W; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2012-10-01

    A sequential identification approach by two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis for the identification of a chemical reaction model, activation, and thermodynamic parameters is presented in this paper. The identification task is decomposed into a sequence of subproblems. The first step is the construction of a reaction model with the suggested information by model-free 2D correlation analysis using a novel technique called derivative double 2D correlation spectroscopy (DD2DCOS), which enables one to analyze intensities with nonlinear behavior and overlapped bands. The second step is a model-based 2D correlation analysis where the activation and thermodynamic parameters are estimated by an indirect implicit calibration or a calibration-free approach. In this way, a minimization process for the spectral information by sample-sample 2D correlation spectroscopy and kinetic hard modeling (using ordinary differential equations) of the chemical reaction model is carried out. The sequential identification by 2D correlation analysis is illustrated with reference to the isomeric structure of diphenylurethane synthesized from phenylisocyanate and phenol. The reaction was investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of the isomeric structures of diphenylurethane linked through a hydrogen bonding equilibrium were studied by means of an integration of model-free and model-based 2D correlation analysis called a sequential identification approach. The study determined the enthalpy (?H = 15.25 kJ/mol) and entropy (T?S = 13.20 kJ/mol) of C?O···H hydrogen bonding of diphenylurethane through direct calculation from the differences in the kinetic parameters (??(‡)H, -T??(‡)S) at equilibrium in the chemical reaction system. PMID:22924791

  14. Flavonols and derivatives of gallic acid from young leaves of Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roemer and evaluation of their anti-oxidant capacity by chemical methods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Gu, Qinying; Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xubo; Chue, Phenwei; Wu, Qinan; Jia, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roemer is an endemic species of Toona genus native to Asia. Its crude extract exhibits an effective anti-oxidant capacity against oxidative models, but the intrinsic substances responsible for this capacity in the extract remains unclear and is yet to be studied comprehensively. Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents of the young leaves of Toona sinensis and its anti-oxidant capacity. Materials and Methods: Silica gel column chromatography, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to isolate and characterize the chemical constituents. Four chemical-induced oxidative models including DPPH free-radical scavenging assay, phenazine methosulphate (PMS) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) PMS-NADH-NBT superoxide anion scavenging assay, FeCl3-K3Fe (CN)6 reducing power assay, and FeCl2-FerroZine metal chelation assay were applied in the present study for evaluating anti-oxidant capacity. Results: Five flavonols and three derivatives of gallic acid, including quercetrin, kaempferol-3-O-?-L-rhamopyranoside, astragalin, quercetin, kaempferol, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose were isolated from the leaves. Results showed that these compounds exhibited various antioxidant properties, markedly either as the strong scavengers for superoxide and free radicals or as molecules that were reducing or metal chelating in nature. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the 8 compounds in the young leaves of T. sinensis that were isolated in our study were the active compounds responsible for its antioxidant activity. These compounds can be utilized as a potential health supplement, as an available source of natural antioxidants, and as an effective material in pharmaceutical applications. PMID:24914286

  15. Adding liraglutide to the backbone therapy of biguanide in patients with coronary artery disease and newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes (the AddHope2 study): a randomised controlled study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Anholm, Christian; Kumarathurai, Preman; Klit, Malene S; Kristiansen, Ole P; Nielsen, Olav W; Ladelund, Steen; Madsbad, Sten; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Haugaard, Steen B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) more than doubles the risk of death compared with otherwise matched glucose tolerant patients. The biguanide metformin is the drug of choice in treatment of T2DM and has shown to ameliorate cardiovascular morbidity in patients with T2DM and myocardial infarction (MI). The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) improves ?-cell function, insulin sensitivity and causes weight loss and has been suggested to have beneficial effects on cardiac function. The GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), liraglutide, is currently used for treatment of T2DM but its potential effect on cardiac function has not been investigated in detail. We hypothesised that liraglutide added to metformin backbone therapy in patients with CAD and newly diagnosed T2DM will improve ?-cell function and left ventricular systolic function during dobutamine stress. Methods and analyses 40 patients with CAD and newly diagnosed T2DM will receive the intervention liraglutide+metformin and placebo+metformin in this investigator-initiated, double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over 12 plus 12?weeks intervention study with a 2-week washout period. The primary cardiovascular end point is changes in left ventricular ejection fraction during stress echocardiography. The primary endocrine end point is ?-cell function evaluated during a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Secondary end points include heart rate variability, diurnal blood pressure, glucagon suppression and inflammatory response (urine, blood and adipose tissue). Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the Danish Medicines Agency, the Danish Dataprotection Agency and the Regional Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics of the Capital Region of Denmark. The trial will be carried out under the guidance from the GCP unit at Copenhagen University Hospital of Bispebjerg and in accordance with the ICH-GCP guidelines and the Helsinki Declaration. Trial registrations number Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01595789, EudraCT: 2011-005405-78. PMID:25031198

  16. The Chemically Synthesized Ageladine A-Derivative LysoGlow84 Stains Lysosomes in Viable Mammalian Brain Cells and Specific Structures in the Marine Flatworm Macrostomum lignano.

    PubMed

    Mordhorst, Thorsten; Awal, Sushil; Jordan, Sebastian; Petters, Charlotte; Sartoris, Linda; Dringen, Ralf; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Based on the chemical structure and the known chemical synthesis of the marine sponge alkaloid ageladine A, we synthesized the ageladine A-derivative 4-(naphthalene-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine trifluoroacetate (LysoGlow84). The two-step synthesis started with the Pictet-Spengler reaction of histamine and naphthalene-2-carbaldehyde to a tetrahydropyridine intermediate, which was dehydrogenated with activated manganese (IV) oxide to LysoGlow84. Structure and purity of the synthesized LysoGlow84 were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The fluorescence intensity emitted by LysoGlow84 depended strongly on the pH of the solvent with highest fluorescence intensity recorded at pH 4. The fluorescence maximum (at 315 nm excitation) was observed at 440 nm. Biocompatibility of LysoGlow84 was investigated using cultured rat brain astrocytes and the marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. Exposure of the astrocytes for up to 6 h to micromolar concentrations of LysoGlow84 did not compromise cell viability, as demonstrated by several viability assays, but revealed a promising property of this compound for staining of cellular vesicles. Conventional fluorescence microscopy as well as confocal scanning microscopy of LysoGlow84-treated astrocytes revealed co-localization of LysoGlow84 fluorescence with that of LysoTracker® Red DND-99. LysoGlow84 stained unclear structures in Macrostomum lignano, which were identified as lysosomes by co-staining with LysoTracker. Strong fluorescence staining by LysoGlow84 was further observed around the worms' anterior gut and the female genital pore which were not counterstained by LysoTracker Red. Thus, LysoGlow84 is a new promising dye that stains lysosomes and other acidic compartments in cultured cells and in worms. PMID:25679913

  17. Chemical activation in Rhinella arenarum oocytes: effect of dehydroleucodine (DhL) and its hydrogenated derivative (2H-DhL).

    PubMed

    Medina, M F; Bühler, M I; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2014-11-26

    Summary Mature oocytes are arrested in metaphase II due to the presence of high levels of active maturation promoting factor (MPF). After fertilization, active MPF levels decline abruptly, enabling oocytes to complete meiosis II. One of the first and universal events of oocyte activation is an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that would be responsible for MPF inactivation. Mature oocytes can also be activated by parthenogenetic activation. The aims of this work are to test the ability of dehydroleucodine (DhL) and its hydrogenated derivative 11,13-dihydro-dehydroleucodine (2H-DhL) to induce chemical activation in amphibian oocytes and to study the participation of calcium in the process. Results indicated that DhL and 2H-DhL induced oocyte activation in a dose-dependent manner. After 90 min of treatment, DhL 36 ?M was able to induce 95% activation, while 2H-DhL 36 ?M was less active, with only 40% activation. Our results suggest that DhL induced the inhibition of MPF activity, probably by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Extracellular Ca2+ would not be significant, although Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is critical. In this sense, IP3Rs and RyRs were involved in the Ca2+ transient induced by lactones. In this species, RyRs appears to be the largest contributor to Ca2+ release in DhL-induced activation. Although more studies are needed on the mechanism of action through which these lactones induce oocyte activation in Rhinella arenarum, the results of this research provide interesting perspectives for the use of these lactones as chemical activators in in vitro fertilization and cloning. PMID:25424172

  18. The Chemically Synthesized Ageladine A-Derivative LysoGlow84 Stains Lysosomes in Viable Mammalian Brain Cells and Specific Structures in the Marine Flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    PubMed Central

    Mordhorst, Thorsten; Awal, Sushil; Jordan, Sebastian; Petters, Charlotte; Sartoris, Linda; Dringen, Ralf; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Based on the chemical structure and the known chemical synthesis of the marine sponge alkaloid ageladine A, we synthesized the ageladine A-derivative 4-(naphthalene-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine trifluoroacetate (LysoGlow84). The two-step synthesis started with the Pictet-Spengler reaction of histamine and naphthalene-2-carbaldehyde to a tetrahydropyridine intermediate, which was dehydrogenated with activated manganese (IV) oxide to LysoGlow84. Structure and purity of the synthesized LysoGlow84 were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The fluorescence intensity emitted by LysoGlow84 depended strongly on the pH of the solvent with highest fluorescence intensity recorded at pH 4. The fluorescence maximum (at 315 nm excitation) was observed at 440 nm. Biocompatibility of LysoGlow84 was investigated using cultured rat brain astrocytes and the marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. Exposure of the astrocytes for up to 6 h to micromolar concentrations of LysoGlow84 did not compromise cell viability, as demonstrated by several viability assays, but revealed a promising property of this compound for staining of cellular vesicles. Conventional fluorescence microscopy as well as confocal scanning microscopy of LysoGlow84-treated astrocytes revealed co-localization of LysoGlow84 fluorescence with that of LysoTracker® Red DND-99. LysoGlow84 stained unclear structures in Macrostomum lignano, which were identified as lysosomes by co-staining with LysoTracker. Strong fluorescence staining by LysoGlow84 was further observed around the worms’ anterior gut and the female genital pore which were not counterstained by LysoTracker Red. Thus, LysoGlow84 is a new promising dye that stains lysosomes and other acidic compartments in cultured cells and in worms. PMID:25679913

  19. Chemical microsensors

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

  20. Comparative investigation on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas containing H2S over supported NiO oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Ksepko, E.; Siriwardane, R.; Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Sciazko, M.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of simulated coal-derived synthesis gas was conducted with NiO oxygen carriers supported on SiO2, ZrO2, TiO2, and sepiolite. The effect of H2S on the performance of these samples for the CLC process was also evaluated. Five-cycle thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests at 800 #1;C indicated that all oxygen carriers had a stable performance at 800 #1;C, except NiO/SiO2. Full reduction/oxidation reactions of the oxygen carrier were obtained during the five-cycle test. It was found that support had a significant effect on reaction performance of NiO both in reduction and oxidation rates. The reduction reaction was significantly faster than the oxidation reaction for all oxygen carriers, while the oxidation reaction is fairly slow due to oxygen diffusion on NiO layers. The reaction profile was greatly affected by the presence of H2S, but there was no effect on the capacity due to the presence of H2S in synthesis gas. The presence of H2S decreased reduction reaction rates significantly, but oxidation rates of reduced samples increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of the oxidized samples after a five-cycle test showed stable crystalline phases without any formation of sulfides or sulfites/sulfates. Increase in reaction temperature to 900 #1;C had a positive effect on the performance.

  1. VITAL NMR: Using Chemical Shift Derived Secondary Structure Information for a Limited Set of Amino Acids to Assess Homology Model Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, Michael C [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Nesbitt, Anna E [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hallock, Michael J [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Tang, Ming [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Harris, Jason B [ORNL; Baudry, Jerome Y [ORNL; Schuler, Mary A [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Rienstra, Chad M [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2011-01-01

    Homology modeling is a powerful tool for predicting protein structures, whose success depends on obtaining a reasonable alignment between a given structural template and the protein sequence being analyzed. In order to leverage greater predictive power for proteins with few structural templates, we have developed a method to rank homology models based upon their compliance to secondary structure derived from experimental solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data. Such data is obtainable in a rapid manner by simple SSNMR experiments (e.g., (13)C-(13)C 2D correlation spectra). To test our homology model scoring procedure for various amino acid labeling schemes, we generated a library of 7,474 homology models for 22 protein targets culled from the TALOS+/SPARTA+ training set of protein structures. Using subsets of amino acids that are plausibly assigned by SSNMR, we discovered that pairs of the residues Val, Ile, Thr, Ala and Leu (VITAL) emulate an ideal dataset where all residues are site specifically assigned. Scoring the models with a predicted VITAL site-specific dataset and calculating secondary structure with the Chemical Shift Index resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.75) commensurate to the control (-0.77), where secondary structure was scored site specifically for all amino acids (ALL 20) using STRIDE. This method promises to accelerate structure procurement by SSNMR for proteins with unknown folds through guiding the selection of remotely homologous protein templates and assessing model quality.

  2. Three New and Eleven Known Unusual C25 Steroids: Activated Production of Silent Metabolites in a Marine-Derived Fungus by Chemical Mutagenesis Strategy using Diethyl Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ming-Wen; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Three new (1–3) and 11 known (4–14) C25 steroids with an unusual bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring system were isolated by tracing newly produced metabolites in the EtOAc extract of an antitumor mutant AD-1-2 obtained by the diethyl sulphate (DES) mutagenesis of a marine-derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59. HPLC-PDAD-UV and HPLC-ESI-MS analyses indicated that the G59 strain did not produce these metabolites and the production of 1–14 in the mutant AD-1-2 extract was caused by the activation of silent metabolites in the original G59 strain by DES mutagenesis. The structures of the new compounds, named antineocyclocitrinols A (1) and B (2) and 23-O-methylantineocyclocitrinol (3), including their absolute configurations were determined by various spectroscopic methods, especially the NMR and Mo2-induced CD analyses. Compounds 1–3 provide the first examples of the C25 bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring steroids with the Z-configuration of 20,22-double bond. All of 1–14 weakly inhibited several human cancer cell lines to varying extents. These results provided additional examples for the successful application of the chemical mutagenesis strategy using DES to discover new compounds by activating silent metabolites in fungal isolates and supported also the effectiveness and usefulness of this new strategy. PMID:24633254

  3. Chemical constituents from Kandelia candel with their inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs).

    PubMed

    Dat, Le Duc; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tai, Bui Huu; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Kim, Sohyun; Koo, Jung Eun; Koh, Young Sang; Cuong, Nguyen The; Thanh, Nguyen Van; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-04-01

    Chemical investigation of Kandelia candel resulted in the isolation of 19 compounds (1-19), including one new sesquiterpene glycoside, kandelside (1), three megastigman glycoside compounds (7-9), 16 known phenolic compounds (2-6 and 10-19). Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on spectral data comparison with reported values. Isolated compounds were also evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Among these compounds, compound 9 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against IL-6 production (IC50=0.07±0.05?M) and moderate inhibitory activity against TNF-? production (IC50=49.86±1.02?M), but exhibited no activity on IL-12 p40 production. Compounds 5 and 6 significantly inhibited IL-12 p40, IL-6, and TNF-? production with IC50 values of 11.68±0.38, 44.52±1.08, and 28.73±0.96?M, respectively. PMID:25769817

  4. Stabilization of asphaltenes in aliphatic solvents using alkylbenzene-derived amphiphiles. 1. Effect of the chemical structure of amphiphiles on asphaltene stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.L.; Fogler, H.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Stabilization of crude oil asphaltenes in apolar alkane solvents was investigated using a series of alkylbenzene-derived amphiphiles as the asphaltene stabilizers. In this paper (i.e., part I), we present the study on the influences of the chemical structure of these amphiphiles on the effectiveness of asphaltene solubilization and on the strength of asphaltene-amphiphile interaction using both UV/vis and FTIR spectroscopies. The results showed that the amphiphile's effectiveness of asphaltene stabilization was primarily controlled by the polarity of the amphiphile's head group and the length of the amphiphile's alkyl tail. Increasing the acidity of the amphiphile's head group could promote the amphiphile's ability to stabilize asphaltenes by increasing the acid-base attraction between asphaltenes and amphiphiles. On the other hand, although decreasing the amphiphile's tail length increased the asphaltene-amphiphile attraction slightly, it still required a minimum tail length (six carbons for p-alkylphenol amphiphiles) for amphiphiles to form stable steric layers around asphaltenes. We also found additional acidic side groups of amphiphiles could further improve the amphiphile's ability to stabilize asphaltenes. The effect of the molecular weight of alkane solvents on the amphiphile's ability to stabilize asphaltenes was also studied. 18 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Recognizing subtle evidence for silicic magma derivation from petrochemically-similar arc crust: Isotopic and chemical evidence for the bimodal volcanic series of Gorely Volcanic Center, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Ponomareva, V.; Leonov, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula is home to some of the most prolific subduction related volcanic activity in the world. Gorely caldera and its central volcano are located in the rear of its currently active Eastern Volcanic Front. Recent work determined the presence of explosive ignimbrite eruptions sourced from Gorely volcano during the Pleistocene. We studied 32 eruptive units, including tephrochronologically-dated Holocene tephra, stratigraphically-arranged ignimbrites, as well as pre- and post-caldera lavas. We analyzed oxygen isotope ratios of pyroxene and plagioclase grains by laser fluorination, and major and trace element compositions of whole rocks. In addition, we determined 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions. Chemical compositions show that Gorely eruptive units range from basalt to basaltic andesite in the "Pra-Gorely" stages prior to caldera formation and the modern Gorely stages forming its current edifice. In contrast, eruptive material from earlier ignimbrites exposed at Opasny Ravine consists primarily of dacite. Whole rock analyses for Gorely indicate that silicic rocks and ignimbrites volumetrically dominate all other products, forming separate bimodal peaks in our SiO2-frequency diagram. In addition, trace element concentrations and ratios define two trends, one for more silicic and another for more mafic material. ?18Omelt values range from a low of 4.85 up to 6.22‰, where the lowest value was found in the last caldera forming eruption, suggesting incorporation of hydrothermally-altered material from earlier eruptions. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.70328 to 0.70351 and from 0.51303 to 0.51309 respectively, with higher and more diverse values being characteristic of earlier ignimbrite units; again suggesting incorporation of surrounding crustal material. In contrast to these results, MELTS modeling using a variety of likely primitive basalts from Gorely shows it is possible to obtain silicic chemical compositions near the evolved ignimbrite compositions, strictly through 70-80% fractional crystallization at 1-2 kbars and NNO oxygen fugacity. The combination of light ?18O values as well as elevated 87Sr/86Sr and low 143Nd/144Nd values, in addition to the volumetric excess of silicic rocks suggest assimilation of the older and petrochemically-similar country-rocks (Karymshina volcano and/or the underlying Akhomten Massif). This research can be utilized for studies of other volcanoes at "long-term centers", underscoring the importance of using both isotopes and modeling of fractional crystallization to determine silicic magma derivation through coupled shallow crustal assimilation of similar older material and fractional crystallization.

  6. Chemical and genetic blockade of HDACs enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells by oppositely affecting osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, Paola [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Brini, Anna Teresa [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy) [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Arrigoni, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Girolamo, Laura de [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Niada, Stefania [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy) [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina, E-mail: a.desiderio@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation affected hASCs osteodifferentiation through Runx2-PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs silencing early activated Runx2 and ALP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} reduction and calcium/collagen deposition occurred later. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Runx2/PPAR{gamma} target genes were modulated in line with HDACs role in osteo-commitment. -- Abstract: The human adipose-tissue derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are an interesting source for bone-tissue engineering applications. Our aim was to clarify in hASCs the role of acetylation in the control of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma}. These key osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors are oppositely involved in osteo-differentiation. The hASCs, committed or not towards bone lineage with osteoinductive medium, were exposed to HDACs chemical blockade with Trichostatin A (TSA) or were genetically silenced for HDACs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen/calcium deposition, considered as early and late osteogenic markers, were evaluated concomitantly as index of osteo-differentiation. TSA pretreatment, useful experimental protocol to analyse pan-HDAC-chemical inhibition, and switch to osteogenic medium induced early-osteoblast maturation gene Runx2, while transiently decreased PPAR{gamma} and scarcely affected late-differentiation markers. Time-dependent effects were observed after knocking-down of HDAC1 and 3: Runx2 and ALP underwent early activation, followed by late-osteogenic markers increase and by PPAR{gamma}/ALP activity diminutions mostly after HDAC3 silencing. HDAC1 and 3 genetic blockade increased and decreased Runx2 and PPAR{gamma} target genes, respectively. Noteworthy, HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Our results reveal a role for HDACs in orchestrating osteo-differentiation of hASCs at transcriptional level, and might provide new insights into the modulation of hASCs-based regenerative therapy.

  7. Constraints on the Origins of Along-Arc and Cross-Arc Chemical Variations in Arc Volcanic systems Derived from Global Systematics of Fluid-Mobile Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    The fluid-mobile element (FME) "clan" (B, Cs, As, Sb; conditionally Pb, Rb, Ba, Li, N, I: Leeman 1996; Noll et al 1996; Bebout et al 1999; Savov et al 2005) comprises a chemically disparate suite of trace elements that have in common evidence for low T°/low P mobility from subducting materials in H2O-dominated fluid species. The FME are highly variable in volcanic arc lavas, showing marked along-arc and across arc changes in nearly all of the arc volcanic systems that have been examined. Globally, along-arc variability of the FME can be explained as source mixing, with most arcs defining arrays between two predominant sources: the first a strongly FME-enriched endmember, showing enrichment patterns consistent with those observed in subduction-related serpentinites (Savov et al 2005; Hattori and Guillot 2007), and the second an FME-poor source with signatures for other large-ion lithophile elements (LIL) consistent with subducted slab (predominantly subducted sediment) derivation. The mantle is a negligible contributor to FME systematics in those arcs where the inferred thermal structures are cool at relatively shallow (30-40 km) depths (e.g., Syracuse, et al 2011). However, in the relatively few arcs that show hotter thermal structures at shallow depths, the FME-enriched component is absent, and the mixing components are the mantle and the FME-poor, LIL enriched component observed in all arcs. Regular across-arc declines in enrichments of boron and other FME are a diagnostic feature in volcanic arcs globally. B abundance and isotope systematics for across-arc transects point to a) anomalously high B and B isotope signals near the volcanic front, often some of the highest signatures in the arc, suggesting locally higher inputs of the FME-enriched endmember to mantle sources at that point along the volcanic front. These enrichments, as well as the positioning of the widest volcanic cross-chains, are often linked to physical phenomena (seamount or fracture zone subduction, or faults or grabens perpendicular to the strike of the arc). b) Along cross-arc arrays, there is FME evidence for three-component mixing, involving the two slab-derived FME components and the mantle, in which the FME-depleted slab endmember plays a greater role as subduction depths increase. In general, the overriding arc crust plays a minor role in the FME systematics of arcs, though in those cases where the crustal section is thick and slab-derived signatures are modest, the crustal contribution helps define a baseline level for FME abundance and isotopic signatures throughout the arc. References: Bebout, et al 1999, EPSL 177, 69; Hattori and Guillot, 2007, GCubed, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GC001594; Leeman. 1996, AGU Monograph 96, 269; Noll et al, 1996, GCA 60, 587; Savov et al, 2005; GCubed, Q04J15 DOI10.1029/2004GC000777; Syracuse et al. 2011, GCubed, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GC001045.

  8. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  9. Corrosion monitoring of mild steel in sulphuric acid solutions in presence of some thiazole derivatives – Molecular dynamics, chemical and electrochemical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Khaled; Mohammed A. Amin

    2009-01-01

    The physical behavior of three selected thiazole derivatives, namely 2-Amino-4-(p-tolyl)thiazole (APT), 2-Methoxy-1,3-thiazole (MTT) and Thiazole-4-carboxaldehyde (TCA) at iron (110) surface dissolved in aqueous solution were studied via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From the calculated binding energies, APT showed preferred adsorption on the steel surface among the three tested thiazole derivatives. The inhibition performance of the three thiazoles on the corrosion

  10. Assessment of the Ecological Risks of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs): Derivation of WQC and Consideration of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations as a Source

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment has been associated with impacts on fish. Hence, there is a need for numerical water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of aquatic life from adverse effects of EDCs. However, EDCs have some unique...

  11. GC\\/MS analysis of trimethylsilyl derivatives of treaty-related chemical warfare agent degradation products. Final report, May-August 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohrbaugh

    1995-01-01

    The entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention requires specific detection methods for identification of CW agent degradation products to verify treaty compliance or noncompliance. Many of these products are polar and not detected in the original state by gas chromatography based instrumentation. In this study, 22 compounds, including 4 alkylphosphonic acids (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and t-butyl) and 18

  12. Derivation of multipotent nestin + \\/CD271 ? \\/STRO-1 ? mesenchymal-like precursors from human embryonic stem cells in chemically defined conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongrong Wu; Bin Gu; Xiaoli Zhao; Zhou Tan; Liangbiao Chen; Jiang Zhu; Ming Zhang

    The successful establishment of stem cell-based therapies requires multipotent, immunocompatible stem cells, highly efficient\\u000a strategies for direct differentiation, and most importantly, optimal culture conditions for large-scale expansion of such\\u000a cell populations. Other than adult tissues, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent another infinitely expansible source\\u000a for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) derivation. Here, we reproducibly derived a population of Nestin+\\/CD271?\\/STRO-1? mesenchymal-like

  13. Plakilactones G and H from a marine sponge. Stereochemical determination of highly flexible systems by quantitative NMR-derived interproton distances combined with quantum mechanical calculations of 13C chemical shifts

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Simone; Zampella, Angela; D’Auria, Maria Valeria; Festa, Carmen; De Marino, Simona; Riccio, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Summary In this paper the stereostructural investigation of two new oxygenated polyketides, plakilactones G and H, isolated from the marine sponge Plakinastrella mamillaris collected at Fiji Islands, is reported. The stereostructural studies began on plakilactone H by applying an integrated approach of the NOE-based protocol and quantum mechanical calculations of 13C chemical shifts. In particular, plakilactone H was used as a template to extend the application of NMR-derived interproton distances to a highly flexible molecular system with simultaneous assignment of four non-contiguous stereocenters. Chemical derivatization and quantum mechanical calculations of 13C on plakilactone G along with a plausible biogenetic interconversion between plakilactone G and plakilactone H allowed us to determine the absolute configuration in this two new oxygenated polyketides. PMID:24454574

  14. Studies on cardiac ingredients of plants. VII: Chemical transformation of proscillaridin by means of the Diels-Alder reaction and biological activities of its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Murakami, N; Tanase, T; Nagai, S; Sato, Y; Ueda, T; Sakakibara, J; Ando, H; Hotta, Y; Takeya, K

    1991-08-01

    The Diels-Alder reactions of a cardiac glycoside, proscillaridin (1), with some dienophiles were investigated. The reaction of 1 with alkenes such as methyl vinyl ketone and methyl acrylate afforded 3-oxo-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-enes (2-5) and para-substituted benzene derivatives (6 and 7), while 1 reacted with alkynes (3-butyn-2-one, methyl propiolate) to yield para- or meta-substituted benzene derivatives (6-9). The biological activities of the resulting derivatives were evaluated by the use of isolated guinea-pig papillary muscle preparations and Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) preparation from dog kidney. Among the proscillaridin derivatives, compounds 4 and 7 moderately inhibited Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Furthermore, the concentration range of 7 over which its positive inotropic effect on guinea-pig papillary muscle preparations, increased from 5% to 95% of maximum was broader than that of 1, i.e., concentration dependency was maintained over a greater range of concentration. PMID:1839142

  15. New modified ?-cyclodextrin derivatives as detoxifying agents of chemical warfare agents (II). In vitro detoxification of cyclosarin (GF): general screening and toxicokinetic aspects of OP scavengers.

    PubMed

    Müller, Susanne; Estour, François; Kalakuntla, Raman Kumar; Le Provost, Romain; Lafont, Olivier; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Reiter, Georg

    2013-02-01

    As standard therapy of intoxication with organophosphorus (OP) compounds is still insufficient, developing new treatment strategies is urgently required. For evaluating potential of OP detoxification of several compounds correctly, different toxicodynamic impact of OP enantiomers has to be considered thoroughly. It has already been demonstrated that ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) derivatives with attached nucleophilic substituent iodosobenzoic acid (IBA) can be regarded as potent OP scavengers due to an accelerating effect on decay of different OP. Herein, six CD derivatives permethylated or not on CD torus as well as differently attached nucleophilic substituent IBA derivative were investigated regarding detoxification of GF as an OP model substance. Acceleration of GF detoxification could be detected for all compounds with highest rate constants for propylene chain linked nucleophilic substituents on CD derivative. In addition, fast initial binding of GF on CD could be observed and is ascribed to formation of CD complexes. Furthermore, terminal plateau phase was detected of about 1% of each enantiomer reflecting the necessity of a quantitative determination at low concentrations. Moreover, this molecular depot formation may represent an additional detoxification pathway for OP. PMID:23201438

  16. Determination of binding strength for the supramolecular complexation of a designed bisporphyrin with C 60, C 70 and their derivatives employing absorption spectrophotometric, fluorescence and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sibayan; Bauri, Ajay K.; Bhattacharya, Sumanta

    2011-09-01

    The present paper reports the synthesis of a designed bisporphyrin ( 1), and its supramolecular complexes with C 60, C 70 and their derivatives, namely, tert-butyl-(1,2-methanofullerene)-61-carboxylate ( 2) and [6,6]-phenyl C 70 butyric acid methyl ester ( 3) in toluene medium. C 60, C 70 and their derivatives undergo ground state non-covalent interaction with 1 is evidenced from absorption spectrophotometric study in which it is observed that the intensity of the Soret absorption band of 1 decreases considerably in presence of C 60, C 70 and their derivatives. Steady state fluorescence studies reveal efficient quenching of fluorescence of 1 in presence of fullerenes. The binding constant ( K) values of the fullerene/ 1 complexes follows the trend: 2/ 1 < C 60/ 1 < 3/ 1 < C 70/ 1. However, selectivity in K values of the bisporphyrin complexes is found to be higher for fullerene derivatives in comparison to C 60 and C 70. Time resolved emission studies establish relatively long-lived charge separated state for the C 70/ 1 complex. Molecular mechanics calculations at force field model in vacuo evoke the single projection geometric structures of various fullerene/ 1 complexes and interpret their stability differences in terms of heat of formation values.

  17. 40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section 721.1820...Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section 721.1820...Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509) is...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913 Section 721.5913...Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913 Section 721.5913...Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658 Section 721.9658...Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section 721.1820...Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509) is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913 Section 721.5913...Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). 721.10317...Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical...substance identified generically as alkyl phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). 721.10317...Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical...substance identified generically as alkyl phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040)...

  9. Application of the chemical vapor infiltration and reaction (CVI-R) technique for the preparation of highly porous biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Almeida Streitwieser; Nadja Popovska; Helmut Gerhard; Gerhard Emig

    2005-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration and reaction (CVI-R) is used to produce biomorphic high porous SiC ceramics based on biological structures such as paper. The paper fibers are first converted into a biocarbon (Cb) template by a carbonization step. In a second step methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) in excess of hydrogen is infiltrated into the Cb-template by CVI technique, depositing a Si\\/SiC layer around

  10. Chemical synthesis of a polypeptide backbone derived from the primary sequence of the cancer protein NY-ESO-1 enabled by kinetically controlled ligation and pseudoprolines.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul W R; Brimble, Margaret A

    2015-03-01

    The cancer protein NY-ESO-1 has been shown to be one of the most promising vaccine candidates although little is known about its cellular function. Using a chemical protein strategy, the 180 amino acid polypeptide, tagged with an arginine solubilizing tail, was assembled in a convergent manner from four unprotected peptide ?-thioester peptide building blocks and one cysteinyl polypeptide, which were in turn prepared by Boc and Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) respectively. To facilitate the assembly by ligation chemistries, non-native cysteines were introduced as chemical handles into the polypeptide fragments; pseudoproline dipeptides and microwave assisted Fmoc SPPS were crucial techniques to prepare the challenging hydrophobic C-terminal fragment. Three sequential kinetically controlled ligations, which exploited the reactivity between peptide arylthioesters and peptide alkylthioesters, were then used in order to assemble the more tractable N-terminal region of NY-ESO-1. The ensuing 147 residue polypeptide thioester then underwent successful final native chemical ligation with the very hydrophobic C-terminal polypeptide bearing an N-terminal cysteine affording the 186 residue polypeptide as an advanced intermediate en route to the native NY-ESO-1 protein. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 104: 116-127, 2015. PMID:25656702

  11. Chemical reactions of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4,5,7-trimethylpyrrolo[3,2- c ]pyridine and its 2-formyl derivative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Varlamov; T. N. Borisova; A. É. Aliev; I. A. Stazharova; A. A. Sinitsyna; E. A. Sakhnova

    1993-01-01

    N-Alkyl substituted tetrahydropyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridines have been obtained by alkylation of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-4,-5, 7-trimethylpyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine and its 2-formyl derivative chloroalkyldimethylamines, acrylonitrile, methyl acetylenedicarboxylate and dichloroethane. 2-Formyl substituted tetrahydropyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine has been reduced with sodium borohydride and condensed with monoethanolamine and hydroxylamine. The stereochemistry of the products has been studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives?

    PubMed Central

    Orden, Alejandro A.; Schrittwieser, Joerg H.; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ?-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler–Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer. PMID:24503964

  13. Relationship between Chemical Structure and Helical Twisting Power in Optically Active Imine Dopants Derived from (R)-(+)-1-(1-Naphthyl)ethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Ni, Jin; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji

    2007-08-01

    In this study, we prepared a series of imine-based chiral dopants derived from (R)-(+)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine, which are soluble in liquid crystal solvent, and examined their helical twisting power (HTP) for a typical nematic host, 4'-hexyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (6-OCB). The chiral dopants basically consist of the mesogenic aromatic part, which is directly bound to the chiral naphthylethyl part by imine linkage, and the alkyl tail part. These mono-imine derivatives have the following features. (1) The extension of the aromatic part drastically increases the HTP and (2) the attachment of the alkoxy tail part is also effective as HTP inducers, indicating the importance of structural similarity between the liquid crystal host molecule and the chiral dopant. HTPs were also examined for di-imine derivatives with two chiral parts at both edges of the mesogenic part. In this case, HTPs are variable from 65 to 140 ?m-1, depending on the conformation of the central mesogenic group that produces the delicate coordination of the two chiral parts. The maximum value of 140 ?m-1 may be one of the largest values among the chiral dopants that have thus far been prepared on a basis of the asymmetric carbon. By mixing a low percentage of this dopant, the resulting chiral nematic liquid crystals can possess pitches comparable to the wavelength of visible light.

  14. Physico-chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol derived from catechol and guaiacol as a model substance for atmospheric humic-like substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofner, J.; Krüger, H.-U.; Grothe, H.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Whitmore, K.; Zetzsch, C.

    2010-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol was produced from the aromatic precursors catechol and guaiacol by reaction with ozone in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight and humidity and investigated for its properties as a proxy for humic-like substances (HULIS). Beside a small particle size, a relatively low molecular weight and typical optical features in the UV/VIS spectral range, HULIS contain a typical aromatic and/or olefinic chemical structure and highly oxidized functional groups within a high chemical diversity. Various methods were used to characterize the secondary organic aerosols obtained: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated the formation of different carbonyl containing functional groups as well as structural and functional differences between aerosols formed at different environmental conditions. UV/VIS spectroscopy of filter samples showed that the particulate matter absorbs far into the visible range up to more than 500 nm. Ultrahigh resolved mass spectroscopy (ICR-FT/MS) determined O/C-ratios between 0.3 and 1 and main molecular weights between 200 and 500 Da. Temperature-programmed-pyrolysis mass spectroscopy identified carboxylic acids and lactones as major functional groups. Particle sizing using CNC-DMPS demonstrated the formation of small particles during a secondary organic aerosol formation process. Particle imaging using field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) showed spherical particles, forming clusters and chains. Hence, secondary organic aerosols from catechol and guaiacol are appropriate model substances for studies of the processing of aromatic secondary organic aerosols and atmospheric HULIS on the laboratory scale.

  15. Substituent-modulated affinities of halobenzene derivatives to the HIV-1 integrase recognition site. Analyses of the interaction energies by parallel quantum chemical and polarizable molecular mechanics.

    PubMed

    El Hage, Krystel; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Hobaika, Zeina; Maroun, Richard G; Gresh, Nohad

    2014-10-16

    The C-X bond of halobenzenes (X = Cl, Br) has a dual character, its electron density being depleted in its prolongation and built-up on its sides. We have recently considered three protein or nucleic acid recognition sites of halobenzenes and quantified the energy gains that either electron-attracting substituents or electron-donating ones contribute due to such a character (El Hage et al., paper in revision). Nonadditivity was found to impact the total interaction energies. We focus here on one recognition site, that of the HIV-1 integrase, in which the halobenzene ring of the drug elvitegravir is sandwiched between a guanine and a cytosine base. We perform energy-decomposition analyses of the ab initio quantum-chemistry (QC) binding energies of the parent halobenzene ring and its derivatives with this G-C base pair. In these complexes, the nonadditivity of ?E could be traced back mostly to the polarization contribution Epol. In view of large-scale applications to the entirety of the complex formed between the integrase, the viral DNA, and the whole drug, the analyses were performed in parallel with a polarizable molecular mechanics method, SIBFA. This method could faithfully reproduce most features of the QC energies. This is due to its use of QC-derived distributed multipoles and polarizabilities, which enable us to account for both nonisotropy and nonadditivity. PMID:25230384

  16. Derivatives Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Derivatives are financial securities whose value is derived from another "underlying" financial security. Options, futures, swaps, swaptions, and structured notes are all examples of derivative securities. Derivatives can be used in hedging, protecting against financial risk, or can be used to speculate on the movement of commodity or security prices, interest rates, or the levels of financial indices. The valuation of derivatives makes use of the statistical mathematics of uncertainty. With links to related articles. See also Derivatives Concepts A-Z, glossary of derivatives-related terminology designed to make the other articles in the Financial Pipeline's Derivatives section easier to understand.

  17. Effect of interface structure on the chemical composition and electrical properties of sol-gel-derived LaNiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M. W.; Wang, H. L.; Han, H. J.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) thin films are prepared with the sol-gel multilayer coating method. Lattice-matched SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layer is introduced to tailor the film-substrate interface. The effect of interface structure on the electrical properties, microstructure and chemical composition of LNO films is investigated. The results show that the improvement in the interface structure minimizes the effect of interface on the electrical properties of LNO films and leads to a sharp decrease in room-temperature resistivity of LNO films to 570 ?? cm, comparable to that of the LNO films on single-crystal STO substrate. This is ascribed to the decrease in structural disorder and the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the LNO films.

  18. Lead-free piezoelectric (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 thin films derived from chemical solution modified with stabilizing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Phoi Chin; Yao, Kui; Chen, Zhong

    2010-09-01

    (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN)-based ferroelectric thin films were prepared by a chemical solution approach modified with both diethanolamine (DEA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the stabilizing agents. The obtained KNN thin films exhibited a remarkably low leakage current and well-saturated polarization hysteresis loop. The effective piezoelectric strain coefficient d33 and voltage coefficient g33 under the clamping of the substrate were improved to 74.0 pm/V and 28.3 mm V/N, respectively. The reason for the superior properties was found that the addition of EDTA and DEA was effective in suppressing the volatilization of K and Na at moderate temperature before the crystallization.

  19. Analysis of Phenacylester Derivatives of Fatty Acids from Human Skin Surface Sebum by Reversed-Phase HPLC: Chromatographic Mobility as a Function of Physico-Chemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Bodoprost, Juliana; Rosemeyer, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    A set of 13 fatty acids was transformed into their phenacyl esters by reaction with phenacyl bromide in acetonitrile using 18-crown-6 as phase-transfer catalyst. Conditions for the RP-18 HPL chromatographic separation of most of the esters has been worked out. Using this standard the fatty acid spectra from skin surface sebum lipids of 17 test persons was taken after microwave-assisted hydrolysis, neutralization and extraction with n-hexane. Quantitative evaluation of the chromatograms exhibits that oleic acid predominates in the sebum of all test persons. In the second part of the work the chromatographic mobility (RE values) of fatty acid phenacyl esters is correlated with calculated physico-chemical parameters of the corresponding acids. The best linear correlation was found between the RE and the logP values. This is helpful for the structural elucidation of un-identified fatty acids in a chromatogram.

  20. Physico-chemical characterization of SOA derived from catechol and guaiacol - a model substance for the aromatic fraction of atmospheric HULIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofner, J.; Krüger, H.-U.; Grothe, H.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Whitmore, K.; Zetzsch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from the aromatic precursors catechol and guaiacol by reaction with ozone in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight and humidity and investigated for its properties as a proxy for HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS). Beside a small particle size, a relatively low molecular weight and typical optical features in the UV/VIS spectral range, HULIS contain a typical aromatic and/or olefinic chemical structure and highly oxidized functional groups within a high chemical diversity. Various methods were used to characterize the secondary organic aerosols obtained: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated the formation of several carbonyl containing functional groups as well as structural and functional differences between aerosols formed at different environmental conditions. UV/VIS spectroscopy of filter samples showed that the particulate matter absorbs far into the visible range up to more than 500 nm. Ultrahigh resolved mass spectroscopy (ICR-FT/MS) determined O/C-ratios between 0.3 and 1 and observed m/z ratios between 200 and 450 to be most abundant. Temperature-programmed-pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (TPP-MS) identified carboxylic acids and lactones/esters as major functional groups. Particle sizing using a condensation-nucleus-counter and differential-mobility-particle-sizer (CNC/DMPS) monitored the formation of small particles during the SOA formation process. Particle imaging, using field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), showed spherical particles, forming clusters and chains. We conclude that catechol and guaiacol are appropriate precursors for studies of the processing of aromatic SOA with atmospheric HULIS properties on the laboratory scale.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section 721...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (PMN P-02-514) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section 721...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (PMN P-02-514) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section 721...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (PMN P-02-514) is subject to...

  4. Chemical composition and severe ozone loss derived from SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 observations during Arctic winter 2010/2011 in comparisons to Arctic winters in the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, R.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Aschmann, J.; Bramstedt, K.; Weber, M.; von Savigny, C.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, A.; Wittrock, F.; Bauer, R.; Khosrawi, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2013-06-01

    Record breaking losses of ozone (O3) in the Arctic stratosphere have been reported in winter and spring 2011. Trace gas amounts and polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) distributions retrieved using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and scattering theory applied to the measurements of radiance and irradiance by satellite-born and ground-based instrumentation, document the unusual behaviour. A chemical transport model has been used to relate and compare Arctic winter-spring conditions in 2011 with those in previous years. We examine in detail the composition and transformations occurring in the Arctic polar vortex using total column and vertical profile data products for O3, bromine oxide (BrO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), chlorine dioxide (OClO), and PSCs retrieved from measurements made by the instrument SCIAMACHY onboard the ESA satellite Envisat, as well as the total column ozone amount, retrieved from the measurements of GOME-2 on the EUMETSAT operational meteorological polar orbiter Metop-A. In the late winter and spring 2010/2011 the chemical loss of O3 in the polar vortex is consistent with and confirms findings reported elsewhere. More than 70% of O3 was depleted between the 425 K and 525 K isentropic surfaces, i.e. in the altitude range ~16-20 km. In contrast, during the same period in the previous winter only slightly more than 20% depletion occurred below 20 km, whereas 40% of the O3 was removed above the 575 K isentrope (~23 km). This loss above the 575 K isentrope is explained by the catalytic destruction by the NOx descending from the mesosphere. At lower altitudes O3 loss results from processing by halogen driven O3 catalytic removal cycles, activated by the large volume of PSC generated throughout this winter and spring. The mid-winter 2011 conditions, prior to the catalytic cycles being fully effective, are also investigated. Surprisingly, a significant loss of O3 with 60% is observed in mid-January 2011 below 500 K (~19 km), which was then sustained for approximately a week. This "mini-hole" event had an exceptionally large spatial extent. Such meteorologically driven changes in polar stratospheric O3 are expected to increase in frequency as anthropogenically induced climate change evolves.

  5. An Intercomparison and Evaluation of Aircraft-Derived and Simulated CO from Seven Chemical Transport Models During the TRACE-P Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiley, C. M.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Palmer, P. I.; Allen, D. J.; Carmichael, G. R.; Jacob, D. J.; Mari, C.; Pierce, R. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Tang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Four global scale and three regional scale chemical transport models are intercompared and evaluated during NASA's TRACE-P experiment. Model simulated and measured CO are statistically analyzed along aircraft flight tracks. Results for the combination of eleven flights show an overall negative bias in simulated CO. Biases are most pronounced during large CO events. Statistical agreements vary greatly among the individual flights. Those flights with the greatest range of CO values tend to be the worst simulated. However, for each given flight, the models generally provide similar relative results. The models exhibit difficulties simulating intense CO plumes. CO error is found to be greatest in the lower troposphere. Convective mass flux is shown to be very important, particularly near emissions source regions. Occasionally meteorological lift associated with excessive model-calculated mass fluxes leads to an overestimation of mid- and upper- tropospheric mixing ratios. Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth is found to play an important role in simulating intense CO plumes. PBL depth is shown to cap plumes, confining heavy pollution to the very lowest levels.

  6. Fabrication and energy-storage performance of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 antiferroelectric thick films derived from polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified chemical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Hao, Xihong; Yang, Jichun; Xu, Jinbao; Zhao, Diyi

    2012-08-01

    In this work, Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.98Ti0.02)O3 (PLZT 2/98/2) antiferroelectric (AFE) thick films were successfully deposited on LaNiO3/Si(100) substrates by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-modified chemical solution. Each wet layer was first dried at 300 °C and then pyrolyzed at higher temperature B of 600, 650, or 700 °C, respectively. The effects of the pyrolyzed temperature B on the microstructure and the energy-storage performance of the AFE films were investigated in detail. As the increasing of the pyrolyzed temperature, the crystallized PLZT 2/98/2 films displayed a more uniform and dense surface microstructure. As a result, the dielectric properties, AFE characterization, and energy-storage performance were remarkably improved for the AFE thick films pyrolyzed at higher temperature. The maximum energy-storage density of 58.1 J/cm3 and the corresponding energy-storage efficiency of 37.3% were obtained in the PLZT 2/98/2 films pyrolyzed at 700 °C for every layer.

  7. Assessment and applications of NASA ozone data products derived from Aura OMI/MLS satellite measurements in context of the GMI chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Wargan, K.; Liu, X.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Yang, K.; Kaplan, T. B.; Pawson, S.; Duncan, B. N.; Newman, P. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Heney, M. K.

    2014-05-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), both on board the Aura spacecraft, have been used to produce daily global maps of column and profile ozone since August 2004. Here we compare and evaluate three strategies to obtain daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from OMI and MLS measurements: trajectory mapping, direct profile retrieval, and data assimilation. Evaluation is based on an assessment that includes validation using ozonesondes and comparisons with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model. We investigate applications of the three ozone data products from near-decadal and interannual time scales to day-to-day case studies. Interannual changes in zonal mean tropospheric ozone from all of the products in any latitude range are of the order 1-2 Dobson units while changes (increases) over the 8 year Aura record investigated vary by 2-4 Dobson units. It is demonstrated that all of the ozone products can measure and monitor exceptional tropospheric ozone events including major forest fire and pollution transport events. Stratospheric ozone during the Aura record has several anomalous interannual events including split stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics that are well captured using the data assimilation ozone profile product. Data assimilation with continuous daily global coverage and vertical ozone profile information is the best of the three strategies at generating a global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone product for science applications.

  8. Assessment and Applications of NASA Ozone Data Products Derived from Aura OMI-MLS Satellite Measurements in Context of the GMI Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Wargan, K.; Liu, X.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Yang, K.; Kaplan, T. B.; Pawson, S.; Duncan, B. N.; Newman, P. A.; Bhartia, K.; Heney, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), both onboard the Aura spacecraft, have been used to produce daily global maps of column and profile ozone since August 2004. Here we compare and evaluate three strategies to obtain daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from OMI and MLS measurements: trajectory mapping, direct profile retrieval, and data assimilation. Evaluation is based upon an assessment that includes validation using ozonesondes and comparisons with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM). We investigate applications of the three ozone data products from near-decadal and inter-annual timescales to day-to-day case studies. Zonally averaged inter-annual changes in tropospheric ozone from all of the products in any latitude range are of the order 1-2 Dobson Units while changes (increases) over the 8-year Aura record investigated http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd-category/49 vary approximately 2-4 Dobson Units. It is demonstrated that all of the ozone products can measure and monitor exceptional tropospheric ozone events including major forest fire and pollution transport events. Stratospheric ozone during the Aura record has several anomalous inter-annual events including stratospheric warming split events in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics that are well captured using the data assimilation ozone profile product. Data assimilation with continuous daily global coverage and vertical ozone profile information is the best of the three strategies at generating a global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone product for science applications.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of methyl ursolate obtained from a chemically derived crude extract of apple peels: potential use in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pádua, Tatiana A; de Abreu, Bianca S S C; Costa, Thadeu E M M; Nakamura, Marcos J; Valente, Lígia M M; Henriques, Maria das Graças; Siani, Antonio C; Rosas, Elaine C

    2014-11-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid found in apple peels (Malus domestica, Borkh, Rosaceae), has a large spectrum of pharmacological effects. However, the vegetal matrix usually produces highly viscous and poorly soluble extracts that hamper the isolation of this compound. To overcome this problem, the crude EtOH-AcOEt extract of commercial apple peels was exhaustively treated with diazomethane, after which methyl ursolate (MU) was purified by column chromatography and characterized spectrometrically. The anti-inflammatory effects of UA and MU (50 mg/kg) were analyzed by zymosan-induced paw edema, pleurisy and in an experimental arthritis model. After 4 h of treatment with UA and MU, paw edema was reduced by 46 and 44 %, respectively. Both UA and MU inhibited protein extravasation into the thoracic cavity; tibio-femoral edema by 40 and 48 %, respectively; and leukocyte influx into the synovial cavity after 6 h by 52 and 73 %, respectively. Additionally, both UA and MU decreased the levels of mediators related to synovial inflammation, such as KC/CXCL-1 levels by 95 and 90 %, TNF-? levels by 76 and 71 %, and IL-1? levels by 57 and 53 %, respectively. Both the compounds were equally effective when assayed in different inflammatory models, including experimental arthritis. Hence, MU may be considered to be a useful anti-inflammatory derivative to overcome the inherent poor solubility of UA for formulating pharmaceutical products. PMID:24733672

  10. Part I. Naltrexone-derived conjugate addition ligands for opioid receptors. Part II. Chemical and enantioselective aspects of the metabolism of verapamil

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Selective chemoaffinity ligands to aid in identification and purification of opioid receptor subtypes were prepared from 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-naltrexol, obtained stereoselectively from the ..mu..-receptor antagonist naltrexone. The targets were the 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-methacrylate ethers and 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-methacrylate esters prepared from reaction of 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-naltrexol with methyl ..cap alpha..-(bromomethyl)acrylate or methacryloyl chloride. Of three methacrylate derivatives, the 6..cap alpha..-ether was the most potent in an opioid receptor binding assay with (/sup 3/H)-naltrexone. In the presence of sodium ion, preincubation of the 6..cap alpha..-ether resulted in recovery of about 60% of original (/sup 3/H)-naltrexone binding suggesting some irreversible effects. The methacrylate esters precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent monkeys. The enantiomers of verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, have different pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. The oxidative metabolism of verapamil was studied in rat and human liver microsomes and in man after a single oral dose.

  11. Explicit spectral response of the geometrical isomers of a bio-active pyrazoline derivative encapsulated in ?-cyclodextrin nanocavity: a photophysical and quantum chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Mati, Soumya Sundar; Sarkar, Sunandan; Sarkar, Pranab; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2012-10-25

    The existence of two geometrical isomers (cis- and trans-) of a biologically significant pyrazoline derivative [5-(-1'-(4-bromo-phenyl)-3a',7a'-hexahydro-1'H-indazol-3'-yl)-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile] (PZ) has been established using a combined theoretical and experimental investigation. Solvatochromic analysis of PZ revealed the existence of said cis- and trans- isomers. The unique solvatochromic response of the PZ isomers and their preferential encapsulation within ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) nanocavity clearly shows the difference in the behavioral nature of the isomers of PZ in homogeneous and heterogeneous medium. Solvent polarity, time-resolved study, and anisotropy results also reinforce in favor of the existence of the isomers. To evaluate the actual orientation of cis and trans-PZ, the ground and excited state geometry of these isomers were optimized by the DFT/LanL2DZ and CIS/LanL2DZ methods, respectively. The experimentally observed results and the theoretically calculated results are found to be in close agreement. PMID:23004562

  12. Chemical Genomic Screening of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genomewide Mutant Collection Reveals Genes Required for Defense against Four Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Proteins Found in Human Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Sanjay; Schoenly, Nathan E.; Lee, Anna Y.; Nislow, Corey; Bobek, Libuse A.

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of four antimicrobial peptides (MUC7 12-mer, histatin 12-mer, cathelicidin KR20, and a peptide containing lactoferricin amino acids 1 to 11) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we employed a genomewide fitness screen of combined collections of mutants with homozygous deletions of nonessential genes and heterozygous deletions of essential genes. When an arbitrary fitness score cutoffs of 1 (indicating a fitness defect, or hypersensitivity) and ?1 (indicating a fitness gain, or resistance) was used, 425 of the 5,902 mutants tested exhibited altered fitness when treated with at least one peptide. Functional analysis of the 425 strains revealed enrichment among the identified deletions in gene groups associated with the Gene Ontology (GO) terms “ribosomal subunit,” “ribosome biogenesis,” “protein glycosylation,” “vacuolar transport,” “Golgi vesicle transport,” “negative regulation of transcription,” and others. Fitness profiles of all four tested peptides were highly similar, particularly among mutant strains exhibiting the greatest fitness defects. The latter group included deletions in several genes involved in induction of the RIM101 signaling pathway, including several components of the ESCRT sorting machinery. The RIM101 signaling regulates response of yeasts to alkaline and neutral pH and high salts, and our data indicate that this pathway also plays a prominent role in regulating protective measures against all four tested peptides. In summary, the results of the chemical genomic screens of S. cerevisiae mutant collection suggest that the four antimicrobial peptides, despite their differences in structure and physical properties, share many interactions with S. cerevisiae cells and consequently a high degree of similarity between their modes of action. PMID:23208710

  13. Biotechnology and derived products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  14. Systemic Approaches Identify a Garlic-Derived Chemical, Z-ajoene, as a Glioblastoma Multiforme Cancer Stem Cell-Specific Targeting Agent

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchae; Park, Heejoo; Zhao, Hui-Yuan; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Kim, Woo-Young

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common brain malignancies and has a very poor prognosis. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC) in GBM and the rare CSC subpopulation that is resistant to chemotherapy may be responsible for the treatment failure and unfavorable prognosis of GBM. A garlic-derived compound, Z-ajoene, has shown a range of biological activities, including anti-proliferative effects on several cancers. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that Z-ajoene specifically inhibits the growth of the GBM CSC population. CSC sphere-forming inhibition was achieved at a concentration that did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect in regular cell culture conditions. The specificity of this inhibitory effect on the CSC population was confirmed by detecting CSC cell surface marker CD133 expression and biochemical marker ALDH activity. In addition, stem cell-related mRNA profiling and real-time PCR revealed the differential expression of CSC-specific genes, including Notch, Wnt, and Hedgehog, upon treatment with Z-ajoene. A proteomic approach, i.e., reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) and Western blot analysis, showed decreased SMAD4, p-AKT, 14.3.3 and FOXO3A expression. The protein interaction map (http://string-db.org/) of the identified molecules suggested that the AKT, ERK/p38 and TGF? signaling pathways are key mediators of Z–ajoene’s action, which affects the transcriptional network that includes FOXO3A. These biological and bioinformatic analyses collectively demonstrate that Z-ajoene is a potential candidate for the treatment of GBM by specifically targeting GBM CSCs. We also show how this systemic approach strengthens the identification of new therapeutic agents that target CSCs. PMID:25078449

  15. Os, Nd, and Sr isotopic and chemical compositions of ultramafic xenoliths from Kurose, SW Japan: Implications for contribution of slab-derived material to wedge mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Ryoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2007-05-01

    We examined seven ultramafic xenoliths from 1~3 Ma alkali olivine basalt reefs near the Eurasian continent and one sample of the host alkali basalt to identify the mantle wedge material and to constrain the origin and evolution of mantle beneath SW Japan. Six xenoliths are from Kurose and one xenolith is from Takashima, northern part of the Kyushu islands, SW Japan. The Sr and Nd isotopic ratios vary from 0.70416 to 0.70773 and from 0.51228 to 0.51283, respectively. The Kurose and Takashima xenoliths have higher Sr isotopic ratios and lower Nd isotopic ratios than those of the peridotite xenoliths from the other arc settings such as Simcoe and NE Japan. The Kurose xenoliths have less radiogenic Os isotopic ratios ( 187Os/ 188Os = 0.123-0.129) than the primitive upper mantle (PUM) estimate and limited variation compared to the other arc xenoliths. Their Os isotope compositions are rather similar to the ultramafic xenoliths from NE and east China. In addition, the samples of the Kurose and Takashima xenoliths plot along a mixing line between ultramafic xenoliths from SE and NE China and a slab component in Sr-Nd-Os isotopic space. Our results suggest that fragments of continental lithospheric mantle from the China craton may exist beneath Kurose and Takashima after the Sea of Japan expansion when the Japanese islands were rifted away from the Eurasian continent during Miocene. Later magmatism due to subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the SW Japan arc around 15 Ma ago may have introduced fluids or melts derived from slab component, interpreted to be oceanic sediments rather than altered oceanic crust, that possibly modified the original composition of the lithospheric mantle sampled by the peridotite xenoliths from Kurose and Takashima.

  16. Systemic approaches identify a garlic-derived chemical, Z-ajoene, as a glioblastoma multiforme cancer stem cell-specific targeting agent.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yuchae; Park, Heejoo; Zhao, Hui-Yuan; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Kim, Woo-Young

    2014-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common brain malignancies and has a very poor prognosis. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC) in GBM and the rare CSC subpopulation that is resistant to chemotherapy may be responsible for the treatment failure and unfavorable prognosis of GBM. A garlic-derived compound, Z-ajoene, has shown a range of biological activities, including anti-proliferative effects on several cancers. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that Z-ajoene specifically inhibits the growth of the GBM CSC population. CSC sphere-forming inhibition was achieved at a concentration that did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect in regular cell culture conditions. The specificity of this inhibitory effect on the CSC population was confirmed by detecting CSC cell surface marker CD133 expression and biochemical marker ALDH activity. In addition, stem cell-related mRNA profiling and real-time PCR revealed the differential expression of CSC-specific genes, including Notch, Wnt, and Hedgehog, upon treatment with Z-ajoene. A proteomic approach, i.e., reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) and Western blot analysis, showed decreased SMAD4, p-AKT, 14.3.3 and FOXO3A expression. The protein interaction map (http://string-db.org/) of the identified molecules suggested that the AKT, ERK/p38 and TGF? signaling pathways are key mediators of Z-ajoene's action, which affects the transcriptional network that includes FOXO3A. These biological and bioinformatic analyses collectively demonstrate that Z-ajoene is a potential candidate for the treatment of GBM by specifically targeting GBM CSCs. We also show how this systemic approach strengthens the identification of new therapeutic agents that target CSCs. PMID:25078449

  17. The cyclic diguanylic acid regulatory system of cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum. Chemical synthesis and biological activity of cyclic nucleotide dimer, trimer, and phosphothioate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ross, P; Mayer, R; Weinhouse, H; Amikam, D; Huggirat, Y; Benziman, M; de Vroom, E; Fidder, A; de Paus, P; Sliedregt, L A

    1990-11-01

    An unusual compound, cyclic-bis(3'----5') diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP or cGpGp), is involved in the regulation of cellulose synthesis in the bacterium Acetobacter xylinum. This cyclic dinucleotide acts as an allosteric, positive effector of cellulose synthase activity in vitro (Ka = 0.31 microM) and is inactivated via degradation by a Ca2(+)-sensitive phosphodiesterase, PDE-A (Km = 0.25 microM). A series of 13 analogs cyclic dimer and trimer nucleotides were synthesized, employing a phosphotriester approach, and tested for the ability to mimick c-di-GMP as activators of cellulose synthase and as substrates for PDE-A. Seven of the synthetic compounds stimulate cellulose synthase activity and all of these activators undergo the Ca2(+)-inhibited degradation reaction. The order of affinities for synthase activators is cGpGp approximately cdGpGp approximately cGp(S)Gp (S-diastereomer) greater than cIpGp greater than cdGpdGp greater than cXpGp greater than cIpIp greater than cGp(S)Gp (R-diastereomer). Three cyclic dinucleotides of negligible affinity for either enzyme are cApAp, cUpUp, and cCpCp. This same order of affinities essentially pertains to the analogs as inhibitors of PDE-A activity, but at least one cyclic dinucleotide, cXpXp, which does not bind to cellulose synthase, is also a substrate for the degradation reaction, demonstrating that although the two enzymes share a similar, high degree of specificity for c-di-GMP, their cyclic dinucleotide binding sites are not identical. Phosphodiester bonds of activators in which an exocyclic oxygen is replaced with an atom of sulfur (cGp(S)Gp isomers) resist the action of PDE-A, and such derivatives may be prototypes for synthetic non-hydrolyzable c-di-GMP analogs. PMID:2172238

  18. Optimization of water treatment methods for the purification of peat extraction derived runoff: Evaluation of chemical treatment response to variations in incoming water quality using a 2k factorial test design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable use of peatland areas requires measures to minimize and when possible eradicate the identified environmental impacts. The drainage of peatlands and other peat extraction, agriculture and forestry activities are known to increase the leaching of pollutant substances resulting in the eutrophication and siltation of receiving water bodies, causing water quality deterioration. Due to the geochemistry characteristics of peat soils the quality of peatland derived runoff water is known to oscillate with location and also with variations in runoff and peak discharge occurrences. Affordable, simple and reliable purification methods that can purify waters rich in particulates, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon while capable of coping with incoming water quality variations are therefore required. Chemical treatment is considered one of the best available technologies for the purification of peat extraction runoff water in Finland; however, until recently little research had been applied on the development of this treatment method for the purification of non-point source pollution. Chemical purification, using metal salts as coagulant agents, is currently applied in several treatment facilities in Finnish peat extraction sites. Nevertheless, variations in runoff water quality and the lack of development of field process parameters has led to the application of high chemical dosages, significant and undesirable fluctuations in purification efficiency and high metal concentration in the discharging waters. This work aims to develop and optimize the chemical purification method by using high level scientific methods to evaluate the response of the purification process to variations in water quality which are typical of peatland derived runoff. The evaluation of how the purification process responds to these variations is a critical step which will enable the development of preventive measures and optimization of relevant process parameters and thus reduce the environmental impacts related to this treatment method. The influence of variations in water quality parameters was accessed using a 2k factorial test design and a well-known chemical purification pilot test procedure (jar test). The k factors or parameters evaluated were: organic matter as chemical oxygen demand (COD 20mg/l and 80mg/l), suspended solids (SS 10mg/l and 60 mg/l), applied coagulant dosage (ferric sulphate 35mg/l and 100mg/l) as well as pH (4.5 and 7.0). Water samples were collected from different peat extraction sites and suitable samples were manipulated using techniques such as centrifugation, dilution and acid or base addition to produce samples with the combinations of high and low concentrations presented. The complete statistical analysis of obtained results will include evaluation of variability using the univariate repeated measures ANOVA as well as the multivariate repeated measures ANOVA methods. Preliminary results of the univariate analyses shows that the interaction between the concentration of a particular substance (COD, SS and pH) and the dosage applied impose significant higher influence on the overall purification efficiency than the substance concentration and applied dosage as individual factors.

  19. Age and flow pattern of groundwater in a Jurassic limestone aquifer and related Tertiary sands derived from combined isotope, noble gas and chemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, A.; Weise, S. M.; Motyka, J.; Osenbrück, K.; Ró?a?ski, K.

    2004-01-01

    Multi-tracer study of the Malm (Upper Jurassic) limestone aquifer in north-western part of Cracow, Poland, revealed the existence of much older waters than those estimated from Darcy's law. The following environmental tracers were used: 3H, 14C, ?13C, ?18O, ?2H, 4He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, 3He/ 4He and 40Ar/ 36Ar in combination with water chemistry. The natural drainage of unconfined parts of the aquifer is by springs and streams, with a dominant presence of modern and pre-bomb era Holocene waters, whereas the confined part is drained only by upward leakage through thick Miocene clays in river valleys, mainly in the Vistula (Wis?a) river valley. As a consequence, the confined part contains much older waters. Their glacial ages are indicated by ?18O and ?2H values significantly more negative than those found for modern recharge and by noble gas temperatures reduced by ca. 4.5 °C when compared to the present-day mean annual air temperatures. Quantitative age interpretation of 14C is regarded unreliable due to isotope exchange between dissolved and solid carbonates as suggested by ?13C values of DIC in the range of -0.6 to -6.1‰ for the confined part of the aquifer. Similarly, quantitative 4He dating turned out to be unreliable, though 4He excess values (0.93-5.45×10 -6 cm 3 STP/g) and very low 14C contents (0.0-5.5 pmc) suggest glacial ages. Changes in hydrochemistry also indicate a long-lasting water-rock interaction probably dominated by diffusion-controlled exchange with overlying and underlying formations. Admixture of older water ascending from underlying formations is observed at two sites. That older water is also supposed to be of Quaternary age as the 40Ar/ 36Ar of the mixture remains equal to the atmospheric ratio. Great tracer ages are shown to result mainly from the delay of solute velocity with respect to the velocity of mobile water, caused by diffusive exchange between mobile water in the fissures (porosity of 0.0001-0.001) and stagnant water in the matrix (porosity of ˜0.06). This stagnant water in the porous matrix is the main water reservoir in the Malm aquifer. In the erosion structures of the Malm limestones, close to the Cracow centre on the southern side of the Vistula river, Tertiary sands are deposited under clay cover. Prior to this study, the origin and age of mineral water exploited from these sands was controversial. However, tracer data indicated meteoric water recharged at the end of the last glacial, and excluded an admixture of connate marine water from adjacent formations. In one well a 10% admixture of modern water was observed with the mean age of about 30 years as determined from the lumped-parameter modelling of the tritium data. The recharge is supposed to take place indirectly through nearby Malm horsts and/or by seepage through Miocene clays in unidentified areas, with dissolution of evaporites as the main source of chemical components. The glacial ages of waters in the confined parts of the Malm aquifer and in Tertiary sands indicate their low vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution.

  20. An improved high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in freeze-dried and hot-air-dried Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Chen, Bing Huei

    2011-10-30

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antioxidant and anti-cancer activities, has been reported to contain functional components like carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and amount of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in hot-air-dried and freeze-dried R. nasutus. An Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column and a gradient mobile phase composed of methanol/N,N-dimethylformamide (97:3, v/v), acetonitrile and acetone were employed to separate internal standard zinc-phthalocyanine plus 12 cholorophylls and their derivatives within 21 min, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', hydroxychlorophyll a, 15-OH-lactone chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b', hydroxychlorophyll b, pheophytin a, pheophytin a', hydroxypheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a' and pheophytin b in hot-air-dried R. nasutus with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. But, in freeze-dried R. nasutus, only 4 chlorophylls and their derivatives, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', chlorophyll b and pheophytin a were detected. Zinc-phthalocyanine was found to be an appropriate internal standard to quantify all the chlorophyll compounds. After quantification by HPLC-DAD, both chlorophyll a and pheophytin a were the most abundant in hot-air-dried R. nasutus, while in freeze-dried R. nasutus, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b dominated. PMID:22063550

  1. 40 CFR 721.10328 - Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10328 Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic...chemical substance identified generically as salt of polyalkylenepolyamine...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10328 - Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10328 Salt of polyalkylenepolyamine derivative (generic...chemical substance identified generically as salt of polyalkylenepolyamine...

  3. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more about specific conditions where chemical ... damaged skin Sagging skin Wrinkles What is a chemical peel? A chemical peel is a technique used ...

  4. Chemical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Jolley

    2005-10-25

    In this activity you will learn what a chemical change is. The first step to understanding chemical changes is to recognize the difference between chemical properties and physical properties. Click here for an example: Chemical and Physical Changes What are the signs of a chemical reaction occuring? Signs of Chemical Change What variables affect a chemical reaction? Variables ...

  5. PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 and Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 reflectors derived from chemical solutions containing polymers.

    PubMed

    Hu, G J; Shang, J L; Sun, Y; Zhang, T; Wu, J; Xie, J

    2008-09-15

    Ba(0.9)Sr(0.1)TiO3 (BST)-based and PbZr(0.4)Ti(0.6)O(3)-based quasi-periodic multilayers consisting of dense and porous ferroelectric layers have been fabricated by solgel technique using chemical solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinylpyrrolidone k30 (PVP). All multilayers exhibit good performance as dielectric mirrors. For each multilayer, the maximum peak reflectivity is over 90% and the photonic stopband width is no less than 30 nm at room temperature. The reflection-band position can be easily tuned by varying the thickness of the bilayer. With the same processing conditions and number of periods, the Bragg reflection performance is almost the same for quasi-periodic PZT multilayers derived from two precursors containing different polymers. The BST multilayers deposited by using a PVP-containing precursor are superior in optical properties, including peak reflectivities and stop-band width, to those deposited by using the PEG-containing solution. PMID:18794931

  6. 40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10324 - Thionocarbamate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Thionocarbamate derivative (generic). 721.10324 Section...Substances § 721.10324 Thionocarbamate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as thionocarbamate derivative (PMN P-03-362) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). 721.5925 Section...5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9740 - Brominated triazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Brominated triazine derivative. 721.9740 Section 721.9740... § 721.9740 Brominated triazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a brominated triazine derivative (PMN P-91-403) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10330 - Pyrazolone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Pyrazolone derivative (generic). 721.10330 Section...Substances § 721.10330 Pyrazolone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as pyrazolone derivative (PMN P-03-722) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). 721.10317 Section...Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkyl phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10368 - Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). 721.10368 Section... § 721.10368 Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as triphenodioxazine derivatives (PMN P-10-84) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). 721.5925 Section...5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). 721.5925 Section...5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10368 - Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). 721.10368 Section... § 721.10368 Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as triphenodioxazine derivatives (PMN P-10-84) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5925 - Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). 721.5925 Section...5925 Bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as bis heterocyclic phenylene derivative (PMN P-01-0432) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1760 - Substituted benzotriazole derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. 721.1760 Section 721.1760...721.1760 Substituted benzotriazole derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as substituted benzotriazole derivatives (PMNs P-93-374 and...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10672 - Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic). 721.10672 Section...721.10672 Sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substances...generically as sodium olefin sulfonate derivative (PMNs P-09-447 and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9079 - Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). 721.9079 Section... § 721.9079 Dihydro quinacridone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as dihydro quinacridone derivative (PMN P-01-397) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9740 - Brominated triazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Brominated triazine derivative. 721.9740 Section 721.9740... § 721.9740 Brominated triazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a brominated triazine derivative (PMN P-91-403) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10172 - Alkylamide derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Alkylamide derivative (generic). 721.10172 Section...Substances § 721.10172 Alkylamide derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as alkylamide derivative (PMN P-03-633) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). 721.646 Section...Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P-95-512) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10368 - Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). 721.10368 Section... § 721.10368 Triphenodioxazine derivatives (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as triphenodioxazine derivatives (PMN P-10-84) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9740 - Brominated triazine derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Brominated triazine derivative. 721.9740 Section 721.9740... § 721.9740 Brominated triazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a brominated triazine derivative (PMN P-91-403) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025... Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10330 - Pyrazolone derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Pyrazolone derivative (generic). 721.10330 Section...Substances § 721.10330 Pyrazolone derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as pyrazolone derivative (PMN P-03-722) is subject...

  2. Chemical Mechanical Planarization- Chemical

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation which illustrates the chemical action of slurry in the chemical-mechanical planarization process. Objective: Explain the mechanical and chemical steps in the CMP process. This simulation is from Module 068 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). Find this animation under the section "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey Phrase: MATEC Animation

  3. Chemical Threats

    MedlinePLUS

    ... indicate a chemical agent release. Before Before a Chemical Threat What you should do to prepare for ... and on the highest level. During During a Chemical Threat What you should do in a chemical ...

  4. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  5. Derivative chameleons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field ?, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ?{sub ?}??{sup ?}?,??,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(?,?{sub ?}??{sup ?}?). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for ? ? ?+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  6. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  7. Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    Semisynthetic derivatives of natural products traditionally occupy a prominent space in natural-product-based drug discovery (1, 2). As many biologically active natural products exhibit a high degree of structural complexity (3), the chemical derivatization of material isolated from natural sources often represents the only feasible means (or at least the only economically viable approach) to explore structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and to produce analogs with more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties than the natural product lead. Examples of clinically important drugs that are semisynthetic derivatives of natural products exist in virtually all disease areas (1, 2); in the treatment of cancer this includes compounds such as etoposide or teniposide (derived from podophyllotoxin) (4-6), irinotecan and topotecan (derived from camptothecin) (7-9), or docetaxel (derived from 10-deacetylbaccatin III) (10, 11). Even for taxol (11), which is a natural product (12), the sustained supply of sufficient quantities of material for widespread clinical use could only be secured through the development of a semisynthetic production process from another natural product, namely, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (13). In light of these facts, it is not surprising that semisynthesis approaches have also featured prominently in the elucidation of the SAR for epothilones and in the discovery of a number of clinical development candidates.

  8. Chemical milling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Dini

    1974-01-01

    Chemical milling was used in removing excess material and reducing overall weight of metal parts. Chemical milling is discussed generally, describing the process, its applications, advantages and limitations, chemical milling solutions, maskants, and various other aspects of the chemical milling process. The effectiveness of chemical milling of specific materials such as aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, steel, and stainless steel alloys

  9. Reduction behavior induced by HL010183, a metformin derivative against the growth of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Guoying; Liu, Baoguo; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xike; Liu, Gui-jing

    2015-01-01

    Metformin is a biguanide widely prescribed as a first-line antidiabetic drug in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Animal and cellular studies support that metformin has a strong anti-proliferative effect on various cancers. Herein, we report that metformin derivative, HL010183 significantly inhibited human epidermoid A431 tumor xenograft growth in nu/nu mice, which in turn is associated with a significant reduction in proliferative biomarkers PCNA and cyclins D1/B1. Enhanced apoptotic cell death and an increase in Bax: Bcl2 ratio supported the tumor growth reduction. The mechanism of the drug effects appears to be dependent on the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) and mTOR signaling pathways. Reduced enhancement of NFkB transcriptional target proteins, iNOS/COX-2 together with decreased phosphorylation of NFkB inhibitory protein IKBa were also observed. Further, AKT signaling activation was evaluated by the reduced phosphorylation at Ser473. In addition, a concomitant decrease in mTOR signaling pathway was also estimated from the reduced phosphorylation at mTOR regulatory proteins p70S6K and 4E-BP-1. Along with this, decreased phosphorylation of GSK3b, which is carried out by AKT kinases was also observed. Overall results suggested that HL010183 interrupt SCC growth via NFkB and mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:25755715

  10. New poly(ester urea) derived from L-leucine: electrospun scaffolds loaded with antibacterial drugs and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Angélica; del Valle, Luis J; Tugushi, David; Katsarava, Ramaz; Puiggalí, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun scaffolds from an amino acid containing poly(ester urea) (PEU) were developed as promising materials in the biomedical field and specifically in tissue engineering applications. The selected poly(ester urea) was obtained with a high yield and molecular weight by reaction of phosgene with a bis(?-aminoacyl)-?,?-diol-diester monomer. The polymer having L-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and carbonic acid units had a semicrystalline character and relatively high glass transition and melting temperatures. Furthermore it was highly soluble in most organic solvents, an interesting feature that facilitated the electrospinning process and the effective incorporation of drugs with bactericidal activity (e.g. biguanide derivatives such as clorhexidine and polyhexamethylenebiguanide) and enzymes (e.g. ?-chymotrypsin) that accelerated the degradation process. Continuous micro/nanofibers were obtained under a wide range of processing conditions, being diameters of electrospun fibers dependent on the drug and solvent used. Poly(ester urea) samples were degradable in media containing lipases and proteinases but the degradation rate was highly dependent on the surface area, being specifically greater for scaffolds with respect to films. The high hydrophobicity of new scaffolds had repercussions on enzymatic degradability since different weight loss rates were found depending on how samples were exposed to the medium (e.g. forced or non-forced immersion). New scaffolds were biocompatible, as demonstrated by adhesion and proliferation assays performed with fibroblast and epithelial cells. PMID:25492010

  11. Chemical Equations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anthony Carpi

    2003-03-27

    It discusses the process of equation writing and balancing chemical equations in perspective of the chemical changes that take place during a reaction. This module is the third in a series on chemical reactions.

  12. An Elementary Discussion of Chemical Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Carl W.

    1988-01-01

    This discussion uses a more difficult reaction as the prototype to derive the standard equation for chemical equilibrium. It can be used by students who can understand and use partial derivatives. (CW)

  13. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Xiaoguang (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  14. Chemical Specific Adjustment factors Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Health Organization, through the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), has established guidance on the use of mechanistic data to replace default uncertainty factors for interspecies extrapolation and intraspecies variability in deriving risk values such as...

  15. Phenanthropyran derivatives from Phalaenopsis equestris.

    PubMed

    Manako, Y; Wake, H; Tanaka, T; Shimomura, K; Ishimaru, K

    2001-10-01

    Two phenanthropyran derivatives, 3-methoxy-2,7-dihydroxy-5H-phenanthro[4,5-bcd]pyran and 2,3,7-trihydroxy-5H-phenanthro[4,5-bcd]pyran were isolated from the orchid Phalaenopsis equestri. Their chemical structures were elucidated from spectroscopic (NMR, MS etc.) analyses. PMID:11576607

  16. Fractional Derivative as Fractional Power of Derivative

    E-print Network

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2007-11-16

    Definitions of fractional derivatives as fractional powers of derivative operators are suggested. The Taylor series and Fourier series are used to define fractional power of self-adjoint derivative operator. The Fourier integrals and Weyl quantization procedure are applied to derive the definition of fractional derivative operator. Fractional generalization of concept of stability is considered.

  17. Chemical Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A concise lesson about chemical communication in insects covering both semio and info chemicals. The site includes a short video of grape root borer moths using sex pheromone. Further links on the take the user to visual and auditory communication.

  18. 40 CFR 721.1230 - Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1230 Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1240 - Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1240 Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1230 - Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1230 Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1230 - Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1230 Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1230 - Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1230 Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1240 - Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1240 Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1240 - Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1240 Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1240 - Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1240 Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1230 - Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1230 Benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, ethenyl-, ar-bromo...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1240 - Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1240 Benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-, ar-bromo derivatives...The chemical substance identified as benzene, (2-bromoethyl)-,...

  8. Chemical Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazih K. Shammas; John Y. Yang; Pao-Chiang Yuan; Yung-Tse Hung

    Chemical oxidation is a process involving the transfer of electrons from an oxidizing reagent to the chemical species being\\u000a oxidized. In water and wastewater engineering, chemical oxidation serves the purpose of converting putrescible pollutant substances\\u000a to innocuous or stabilized products. Chemical oxidation processes take place in natural waters and serve as an important mechanism\\u000a in the natural self-purification of surface

  9. Home Chemicals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chris Fox

    This lesson provides an introduction to the occurrence and possible risks of household chemical products. Topics include some basic chemistry (how elements combine to form compounds), how chemicals are classified, and the idea of natural, as opposed to synthetic, chemicals. The lesson includes an activity in which students take an inventory of chemical products in their homes and research the possible hazards of some of them using an online resource developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

  10. Chemical Innovation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Free online through December 2000, Chemical Innovation is a monthly journal that explores topics in research and development in chemical industries, and features such departments as Patent Watch, Chemist at Large, Book Alert, and The Industrial Chemist. The journal also shows a lighter side by including chemistry-related cartoons and jokes. The online version is provided by the American Chemical Society.

  11. Prioritizing industrial chemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Bratt, Gary M

    This article describes the approach used to develop a prioritized list of toxic and hazardous industrial chemical hazards considered to pose substantial risk to deployed troops and military operations. The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine published the prioritized list in November 2003. The work was performed as part of a multinational military effort supported by Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Previous chemical priority lists had been developed to support military as well as homeland defense research, development, and acquisition communities to determine enhanced detection and protection needs. However, there were questions as to the adequacy of the methodologies and focus of the previous efforts. This most recent effort is a more extensive evaluation of over 1700 industrial chemicals, with a modified methodology that includes not only the assessment of acute inhalation toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), but also chemicals/compounds that pose substantial physical risk (from fire/explosion) and those that may pose acute ingestion risks (such as in water supplies). The methodology was designed to rank such hazards from a strategic (global) military perspective, but it may be adapted to address more site/user specific needs. Users of this or any other chemical priority list are cautioned that the derivation of such lists is largely influenced by subjective decisions and significant variability in chemical-specific data availability and quality. PMID:16020181

  12. Synthesis and characterization of lithium molybdenum selenide nanowires for chemical sensing applications and of nanosheets derived from potassium tetratitanate, potassium calcium niobate, and potassium niobate for photocatalytic water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Mark Ryan

    This work describes both the fabrication of LiMo3Se3 nanowire films and assessment their ability to detect analytes in aqueous solution, and the construction of layered photocatalysts, including heterojunction multicomponent materials, from K2Ti4O9, KCa 2Nb3O10, and K4Nb6O 17 nanosheets, and the characterization of these for their photocatalytic water splitting properties. The LiMo3Se3 nanowire film sensors were conceived by drop-coating a 0.05% (mass) aqueous nanowire solution onto microfabricated indium tin oxide electrode pairs. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), the films are made of a dense network of 3-7 nm thick nanowire bundles. Immersion of the films in 1.0 M aqueous solutions of group 1 or 2 metal halides or of Zn(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), or Co(II) chlorides results in an increase of the electrical resistance of the films. The resistance change is always positive and reaches up to 9% of the base resistance of the films. It occurs over the course of 30-240 s, and it is reversible for monovalent ions and partially reversible for divalent ions. The signal depends on the concentration of the electrolyte and on the size and charge of the metal cation. Anions do not play a significant role, presumably because they are repelled by the negatively charged nanowire strands. The magnitude of the electrical response and its sign suggest that it is due to analyte-induced scattering of conduction electrons in the nanowires. An ion-induced field effect can be excluded based on gated conductance measurements of the nanowire films. The tetratitanate K2Ti4O9 has been known as a photocatalyst for the oxidation of methanol under UV irradiation. Here we study the evolution of the morphological, optical, and photocatalytic properties of this titanate as it is converted into H2Ti4O 9 and subsequently exfoliated into individual tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-supported [Ti4O9]-2 nanosheets. We find that proton exchange and exfoliation are accompanied by a red shift of the optical absorption edge and fluorescence maximum, suggesting a reduction of the bandgap in the series K2Ti4O9 (3.54 eV), H2Ti 4O9 (3.25 eV), (TBA)2[Ti4O9] (3.00 eV). Neither compound is active for photochemical water splitting, even after photochemical deposition of platinum nanoparticles. However, in aqueous methanol, all platinated compounds are moderately active for H2 evolution upon bandgap irradiation, and in 0.01 M AgNO3, they all produce moderate quantities of O2. From the onset potentials for photoelectrochemical methanol oxidation, the values for the valence band edges at pH 7 are deduced to be lie between -0.23 and -0.53 V (NHE) for the non-platinated compounds, and at +0.08 V and -0.30 V for the platinated compounds. This Pt-induced decrease of negative charge on the titanates is likely due to Fermi level equilibration of metal and semiconductor. Its effect can also be seen in a shift of the onset potentials for electrochemical water oxidation, as measured by cyclic voltammetry. Transient absorption data reveal that photogenerated electrons are trapped in mid band gap states, from which they decay exponentially with a time-constant of 43.67 +/- 0.28 ms, much slower than observed for 68 +/- 1 ns for TiO2 nanocrystals (Degussa, P25). Heterojunction multicomponent photocatalysts have been shown to possess enhanced charge separation upon photoexcitation. Nanostructured heterojunctions were prepared through soft chemical routes from nanosheets derived from the parent vi compounds K2Ti4O9, KCa2Nb 3O10, and K4Nb6O17. Five composites in total, consisting of either one or two types of nanosheets, were synthesized by precipitation of the precursor nanosheets with KOH. Resultant stacked materials were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy and characterized via powder x-ray diffraction. The layered catalysts were found to be inactive for photocatalytic water splitting under illumination of ultraviolet light. However, when irradiated in aqueous methanol, all five materials did yield substantial amounts of H2 gas. Photochem

  13. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  14. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary. PMID:16296384

  15. Chemical Bonds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Electrons are key to forming the two broad categories of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic. Atoms, which have a nucleus surrounded by electrons, are represented in several different ways. In the Chemical Bonds activity, students explore the different kinds of chemical bonds that can form, ranging from non-polar covalent to ionic. In the model depicted above students adjust the electronegativity of two atoms and see the effect it has on electron distribution and bond type.

  16. Analysis of stereoelectronic properties, mechanism of action and pharmacophore of synthetic indolo[2,1- b]quinazoline-6,12-dione derivatives in relation to antileishmanial activity using quantum chemical, cyclic voltammetry and 3-D-QSAR CATALYST procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apurba K Bhattacharjee; David J Skanchy; Barton Jennings; Thomas H Hudson; James J Brendle; Karl A Werbovetz

    2002-01-01

    Several indolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-dione (tryptanthrin) derivatives exhibited remarkable activity at concentrations below 100ng\\/mL when tested against in vitro Leishmania donovani amastigotes. The in vitro toxicity studies indicate that the compounds are fairly well tolerated in both macrophage and neuronal lines. An analysis based on qualitative and quantitative structure–activity relationship studies between in vitro antileishmanial activity and molecular electronic structure of 27 analogues

  17. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045 Section 721...acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

  19. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

  20. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

  1. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

  2. 40 CFR 721.430 - Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. 721.430...430 Oxo-substituted amino-al-kanoic acid derivative. (a) Chemical...generically as oxo-substituted amino al-kan-oic acid derivative (PMN No....

  3. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...Chemical Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...Chemical Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...Chemical Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...Chemical Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. ...paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene,...

  7. Drug laws and the 'derivative' problem.

    PubMed

    King, Leslie A; Ujváry, István; Brandt, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a 'derivative' is used widely in chemistry, where its precise meaning depends on the circumstances. However, numerous examples of derivative also occur in domestic drugs legislation, some of which stem from the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. There is a commonly held view that only 'first-order' derivatives should be considered: substances that can be created from a parent structure in a single chemical reaction. In other words, 'derivatives of derivatives' are excluded. However, some substances related to ecgonine (e.g. 2-carbomethoxytropinone) are clearly convertible to cocaine, even though this may require more than one reaction step. It follows that 2-carbomethoxytropinone is a controlled drug, a situation that most chemists would regard as perverse. A more extreme example of the complexity of 'derivative' is shown by the conversion of thebaine to buprenorphine. Even though this requires six or more stages, the US Drug Enforcement Administration successfully argued in a 1986 case that for the purposes of the Controlled Substances Act, the number of steps required was irrelevant; buprenorphine was a derivative of thebaine. Because the term derivative is rarely defined in statutes, the legal status of some substances, such as 2-bromo-LSD, is uncertain. Although a number of definitions of derivative can be found in the chemical literature, no single definition is adequate to describe all situations where it occurs in legislation. Unless qualified, it is suggested that the term derivative should be avoided in any future legislation. PMID:23949903

  8. Chemical Name

    Cancer.gov

    Attachment III Chemical Quick Reference Chart for Minors Chemical Name Select Carcinogen Reproductive Toxin LD50 < 50 mg/kg (oral rat) LD50 < 200 mg/kg for 24 hours or less (dermal rabbit) LC50 < 200 ppm or 2 mg/L for one hour (inhalation rat)

  9. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2009-05-01

    We don't often stop to think about it, but underlying many of our everyday activities are chemical reactions. From the cooking of an egg to the growth of a child, chemical reactions make things happen. Although many of the reactions that support our lives

  10. Chemical Linkage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Hunter; R. Samuel

    1934-01-01

    IN the Research Items in NATURE of October 20, certain arguments are advanced in opposition to the views which we expressed in a recent paper published in the Journal of the Chemical Society, and without going into detail we wish to take the opportunity of pointing out that : (1) We cannot call to mind any evidence, chemical or physical,

  11. Theoretical investigation of the stability and nonempirical quantum chemical calculation for the B/sub 6/H/sub 6//sup 2 -/ anion and its protonated and lithium derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, I.Yu.; Solntsev, K.A.; Kuznetsov, N.T.

    1988-01-01

    Calculations were performed using the GAUSSIAN-80 and MONSTER-GAUSS-81 programs with complete optimization of geometry and imposing symmetry restrictions in the average basis 4-31G for the B/sub 6/H/sub 6//sup 2 -/ and B/sub 6/H/sub 7//sup -/ anions. Geometric results of the calculations are compared with data obtained by x-ray diffraction. The possibility of forming substituted derivatives of B/sub 6/H/sub 8/ with lithium as the hydrogen-like atoms was investigated. It was established that both B/sub 6/H/sub 6/Li and B/sub 6/H/sub 6/Li/sub 2/ have an energy minimum with Li-B distances of 2.17 A, which corresponds to the sum of the covalent radii of lithium and boron.

  12. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  13. Chemical Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kira Lawrence

    This tombstone weathering lab is designed to provide students with tangible understanding of chemical weathering and weathering rates. To prepare for this lab, students will have learned in previous labs to identify common minerals and rocks and will have attended lectures about the process of chemical weathering. During the first part of the lab we travel to the city cemetery to collect data on the age and extent of chemical weathering of tombstones that are made of limestone and igneous rocks. After collecting data for ~1 hour, we return to the computer lab where students use Microsoft Excel to analyze and interpret their data. Their task is to calculate a chemical weathering rate for limestone for our region and compare that rate to those from other regions. This activity gives students experience in the process of scientific inquiry: data collection, data analysis and data interpretation. Students develop Microsoft Excel skills: writing formulas, producing charts, understanding trendlines and R2 values.

  14. Chemical Emergency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Landslide Pet Safety Poisoning Power Outage Terrorism Thunderstorm Tornado Tsunami Volcano Water Safety Wildfire Winter Storm Tools ... and your family is to be prepared. In Case of Poisoning The most common home chemical emergencies ...

  15. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  16. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Equilibrium Distribution Functions of Statistical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckly, Beth

    1979-01-01

    Presents a simplified derivation of the equilibrium distribution functions. The derivation proceeds from the change in the Helmholtz free energy when a particle is added to a system of fixed temperature, volume, and chemical potential. The derivations show the relationship between statistical mechanics and macroscopic thermodynamics. (Author/GA)

  17. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). 721.6097 Section...Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject...

  1. Synthesis, vapor growth, polymerization, and characterization of thin films of novel diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole. The use of computer modeling to predict chemical and optical properties of these diacetylenes and poly(diacetylenes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Frazier, D. O.; Abeledeyem, H.; Mcmanus, S. P.; Zutaut, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work two diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole which are predicted by semiempirical AM1 calculations to have very different properties, are synthesized; the polymerizability of these diacetylenes in the solid state is determined, and the results are compared to the computer predictions. Diacetylene 1 is novel in that the monomer is a liquid at room temperature; this may allow for the possibility of polymerization in the liquid state as well as the solid state. Thin poly(diacetylene) films are obtained from compound 1 by growing films of the monomer using vapor deposition and polymerizing with UV light; these films are then characterized. Interestingly, while the poly(diacetylene) from 1 does not possess good nonlinear optical properties, the monomer exhibits very good third-order effects (phase conjugation) in solution. Dilute acetone solutions of the monomer 1 give intensity-dependent refractive indices on the order of 10 exp -6 esu; these are 10 exp 6 times better than for CS2.

  2. Chemical synthesis and 1H-NMR 3D structure determination of AgTx2-MTX chimera, a new potential blocker for Kv1.2 channel, derived from MTX and AgTx2 scorpion toxins

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Cyril; M'Barek, Sarrah; Visan, Violetta; Grissmer, Stephan; Sampieri, François; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Darbon, Hervé; Fajloun, Ziad

    2008-01-01

    Agitoxin 2 (AgTx2) is a 38-residue scorpion toxin, cross-linked by three disulfide bridges, which acts on voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels. Maurotoxin (MTX) is a 34-residue scorpion toxin with an uncommon four-disulfide bridge reticulation, acting on both Ca2+-activated and Kv channels. A 39-mer chimeric peptide, named AgTx2-MTX, was designed from the sequence of the two toxins and chemically synthesized. It encompasses residues 1–5 of AgTx2, followed by the complete sequence of MTX. As established by enzyme cleavage, the new AgTx2-MTX molecule displays half-cystine pairings of the type C1–C5, C2–C6, C3–C7, and C4–C8, which is different from that of MTX. The 3D structure of AgTx2-MTX solved by 1H-NMR, revealed both ?-helical and ?-sheet structures, consistent with a common ?/? scaffold of scorpion toxins. Pharmacological assays of AgTx2-MTX revealed that this new molecule is more potent than both original toxins in blocking rat Kv1.2 channel. Docking simulations, performed with the 3D structure of AgTx2-MTX, confirmed this result and demonstrated the participation of the N-terminal domain of AgTx2 in its increased affinity for Kv1.2 through additional molecular contacts. Altogether, the data indicated that replacement of the N-terminal domain of MTX by the one of AgTx2 in the AgTx2-MTX chimera results in a reorganization of the disulfide bridge arrangement and an increase of affinity to the Kv1.2 channel. PMID:18042681

  3. Chemical Modification of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Cumpstey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This review covers methods for modifying the structures of polysaccharides. The introduction of hydrophobic, acidic, basic, or other functionality into polysaccharide structures can alter the properties of materials based on these substances. The development of chemical methods to achieve this aim is an ongoing area of research that is expected to become more important as the emphasis on using renewable starting materials and sustainable processes increases in the future. The methods covered in this review include ester and ether formation using saccharide oxygen nucleophiles, including enzymatic reactions and aspects of regioselectivity; the introduction of heteroatomic nucleophiles into polysaccharide chains; the oxidation of polysaccharides, including oxidative glycol cleavage, chemical oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, and enzymatic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes; reactions of uronic-acid-based polysaccharides; nucleophilic reactions of the amines of chitosan; and the formation of unsaturated polysaccharide derivatives. PMID:24151557

  4. 2, 21672208, 2002 Chemical mass

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    by means of a previously developed methodology, based on HPLC separation of organic com- pounds according to their acid character and functional group analysis by Proton Nu- clear Magnetic Resonance. Chemical mass-derived species not analysed in this experiment. Comparison of the functional group analysis results with model

  5. Chemical defense by termite soldiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn D. Prestwich

    1979-01-01

    The chemistry of the defensive secretions of termite soldiers is reviewed. The structural variety of the chemical weapons, the uses of these substances in defense, and some potential biosynthetic interrelationships are discussed. Classification of the monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and various acetate-derived compounds according to termite subfamilies places the known defense substances in a phylogenetic perspective.

  6. Chemical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    can& #39; t tell- a science educator- not affiliated with any specific organization

    2011-10-10

    This is an excellent resource for teachers and students. It offers countless lab ideas for teaching chemical and physical changes and is geared for fifth through eighth grade. It also gives interactive web addresses for students and includes PowerPoint presentations on this topic.

  7. Chemical separations

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    This volume collects papers presented at a conference on chemical separation. Topics include: field-flow fractionation, chromatography, electrophoresis, solvent extraction in metals recovery, extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid, modeling of flow fields in oscillating droplets, inclusion, and membrane processes.

  8. Chemical Wonders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students are introduced to chemical engineering and learn about its many different applications. They are provided with a basic introduction to matter and its different properties and states. An associated hands-on activity gives students a chance to test their knowledge of the states of matter and how to make observations using their five senses: touch, smell, sound, sight and taste.

  9. Chemical Mahjong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  10. Delicious Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    This paper presents an approach to chemistry and nutrition that focuses on food items that people consider delicious. Information is organized according to three categories of food chemicals that provide energy to the human body: (1) fats and oils; (2) carbohydrates; and (3) proteins. Minerals, vitamins, and additives are also discussed along with…

  11. 40 CFR 721.558 - Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.558 Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic...chemical substance identified generically as a salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative...

  12. 40 CFR 721.558 - Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.558 Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic...chemical substance identified generically as a salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative...

  13. Further characterization, by use of tryptamine and benzamide derivatives, of the putative 5-HT4 receptor mediating tachycardia in the pig.

    PubMed

    Villalón, C M; den Boer, M O; Heiligers, J P; Saxena, P R

    1991-01-01

    1. It has recently been shown that the tachycardic response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the anaesthetized pig, being mimicked by 5-methoxytryptamine and renzapride and blocked by high doses of ICS 205-930, is mediated by the putative 5-HT4 receptor. In the present investigation we have further characterized this receptor. 2. Intravenous bolus injections of the tryptamine derivatives, 5-HT (3, 10 and 30 micrograms kg-1), 5-methoxytryptamine (3, 10 and 30 micrograms kg-1) and alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-methyl-5-HT; 3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms kg-1), resulted in dose-dependent increases in heart rate of, respectively, 25 +/- 2, 48 +/- 3 and 68 +/- 3 beats min-1 (5-HT; n = 35); 15 +/- 1, 32 +/- 2 and 57 +/- 3 beats min-1 (5-methoxytryptamine; n = 30); 6 +/- 4, 18 +/- 6, 34 +/- 6 and 64 +/- 11 beats min-1 (alpha-methyl-5-HT; n = 3). 3. The increases in heart rate following i.v. administration of certain substituted benzamide derivatives were genereally less marked and not dose-dependent: 1 + 5, 11 + 3 and 10 + 5 beats min1- after 300, 1000 and 3000,jgkg' of metoclopramide, respectively, (n = 8); 21 + 4, 19 + 2 and 2 + 2 beats min'- after 100, 300 and lOOOIpgkg1- of cisapride, respectively, (n = 5); 6 + 2, 14 + 2, 37 + 6, 43 + 8 and 34 + 10 beats min- after 10, 30, 100, 300 and lOOOjigkg' of zacopride, respectively, (n = 6); and 1 + 1, 2 + 1 and 5 + 2 beats min- 1 after 300, 1000 and 3000 pg kg' of dazopride, respectively, (n = 4). These drugs behaved as partial agonists, antagonizing the responses to 5-HT and 5-methoxytryptamine dosedependently. 4. The 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-phenyl-biguanide (100, 300 and lOOOpgkg-1) induced only slight increases in heart rate of 1 + 1, 6 + 2 and 11 + 1 beats min 1, respectively, (n = 3). These effects were not antagonized by the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron (3mgkg-1). In addition, 1-phenylbiguanide (1000,pg kg- 1) did not modify the tachycardia induced by either 5-HT- or 5- methoxytryptamine. 5. High doses (3mg kg- 1) of ICS 205-930, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with an indole group and devoid of effects on porcine heart rate per se, antagonized the stimulatory effects of 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine, alpha-Me-5-HT, metoclopramide, cisapride, zacopride, dazopride and 1-phenyl-biguanide. However, the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin (0.5 mg kg- 1), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists granisetron (3mg kg- 1) and MDL 72222 (3mg kg- ') and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist domperidone (3 mg kg- 1) had no antagonist activity. 6. The above results support our contention that 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine, alpha-Me-5-HT and the substituted benzamide derivatives increase porcine heart rate by a direct action on the cardiac pacemaker, via the activation of a putative 5-HT4 receptor. The pharmacological profile of this novel 5-HT receptor is similar (neurones from mouse brain colliculi and human heart) or, perhaps, even identical (guinea-pig cholinergic neurones) to other putative 5-HT4 receptors. PMID:2043916

  14. Chemical methods for the production of graphenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungjin Park; Rodney S. Ruoff

    2009-01-01

    Interest in graphene centres on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, its very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from graphite and derivatives of graphite, each with different advantages and disadvantages. Here we review the use of

  15. Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion

    E-print Network

    Jumars, Pete

    of reactants into and products out of the reaction vessel. Composition at any point within the reactorJ 310 Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion An optimal digestion theory can be readily derived from basic principles o f chemical reactor analysis and design Deborah L. Penry and Peter

  16. Biofuels and bio-products derived from

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    NEED Biofuels and bio- products derived from lignocellulosic biomass (plant materials) are part improve the energy and carbon efficiencies of biofuels production from a barrel of biomass using chemical and thermal catalytic mechanisms. The Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels IMPACT

  17. Steady state thermodynamics for homogeneous chemical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas D. Koutselos

    1994-01-01

    We contribute to the development of steady state thermodynamics for isothermal and homogeneous chemical systems, through a generalized Einstein fluctuation relation, by utilizing a local steady state interpretation of static concentration fluctuations of reaction intermediates. For systems of constrained total chemical affinity the ‘‘next-particle ratio’’ of the probability density, q=P(N+1)\\/P(N), derived from a usual chemical master equation is employed for

  18. 40 CFR 721.7620 - Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-nyl-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative (generic name). 721.7620 Section...polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...al-kyli-mi-da-zolyl) methyl) derivative (PMN P-86-136) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7620 - Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-nyl-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative (generic name). 721.7620 Section...polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...al-kyli-mi-da-zolyl) methyl) derivative (PMN P-86-136) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1300 - [(Dinitrophenyl)azo]-[2,4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. 721.1300 Section 721.1300...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...4-di-a-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives (P-83-817 and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1300 - [(Dinitrophenyl)azo]-[2,4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. 721.1300 Section 721.1300...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...4-di-a-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives (P-83-817 and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1300 - [(Dinitrophenyl)azo]-[2,4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. 721.1300 Section 721.1300...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...4-di-a-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives (P-83-817 and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7620 - Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-nyl-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative (generic name). 721.7620 Section...polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...al-kyli-mi-da-zolyl) methyl) derivative (PMN P-86-136) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1300 - [(Dinitrophenyl)azo]-[2,4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. 721.1300 Section 721.1300...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...4-di-a-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives (P-83-817 and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1300 - [(Dinitrophenyl)azo]-[2,4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. 721.1300 Section 721.1300...4-dia-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives. (a) Chemical substances and significant...4-di-a-mino-5-methoxybenzene] derivatives (P-83-817 and...

  6. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hicken

    2009-05-04

    We are going go over a general view of reactions to prepare us for our unit on Chemical Reactions! Have fun learning! WARNING: If you are caught looking at ANY other site, without permission, you will be sent to the ALC, and you will not participate in any other computer activities for the rest of the year. Get your worksheet and begin! Overview Take this quiz and have me come over and sign off on your worksheet when you have completed the quiz! Overview Quiz Next let's take a look at what effect the rate of a chemical reaction. Rates of Reactions Another quiz, another check off by me! Rates of Reactions Quiz Now how do we measure how fast a ...

  7. Chemical warfare

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants’ fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves. PMID:23795235

  8. ARIANE 5 light derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astorg, Jean-Marc

    1993-01-01

    The Ariane 5 light derivatives are studied in order to complete Ariane 5 launch services with regard to medium size Sun synchronous spacecrafts (S derivative) and small satellites (P derivative). The P derivative is a three stage launcher with two solid propellant motors and a bipropellant upper stage. It is capable of placing 1 ton in a 1000 km circular polar orbit or two 450 kg payloads in the same orbit. The light derivatives are mainly derived from the Ariane 5 solid propellant booster and upper stage. The payload volume is particulary large (2.8 m internal maximal diameter, 6 m height). The light derivatives will be launched from the Ariane spaceport in Guyana. They will use Ariane 5 facilities for payload preparation and launch operation with a specific building for launcher integration. The first flight of the P derivative is scheduled for 1998.

  9. ASSESSING BIOACCUMULATION FOR DERIVING NATIONAL HUMAN HEALTH WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is revising its methodology for deriving national ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) to protect human health. A component of this guidance involves assessing the potential for chemical bioaccumulation in commonly consumed fish ...

  10. Serinol-derived malyngamides from an Australian cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Wan, F; Erickson, K L

    1999-12-01

    Serinol derivatives 4a and 4b were isolated from an Australian blue-green alga and characterized by spectroscopic means. Their absolute stereochemistry was established by chemical methods. PMID:10654419

  11. Thermodynamic Derivatives without Tables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Thomsen

    1964-01-01

    A simple, concise method is presented for deriving any desired thermodynamic first derivative in terms of a minimal basic set. The method is given in detail for a two-degree-of-freedom system, specifically a homogeneous fluid. The variables involved, including thermodynamic potentials, are briefly reviewed and the Maxwell relations derived. Differentials of all variables are expressed in terms of those of p

  12. Biologically Active Cellulose Derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A D Virnik

    1973-01-01

    The review deals with the synthesis and applications of biologically active cellulose derivatives. The synthesis of cellulose derivatives with antimicrobial and haemostatic (arresting blood flow) properties, the possible fields of application of antimicrobial and haemostatic cellulose materials, the synthesis of graft copolymers of cellulose and biologically active proteins (enzymes and antigens), and medical applications of cellulose derivatives containing ionogenic or

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Xylenols (Mixed) 1300716 V Xylidene 1300738 III a Isomer means all structural arrangements for the same number of atoms of each element and does not mean salts, esters, or derivatives. b CAS Number = Chemical Abstract Service number....

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Xylenols (Mixed) 1300716 V Xylidene 1300738 III a Isomer means all structural arrangements for the same number of atoms of each element and does not mean salts, esters, or derivatives. b CAS Number = Chemical Abstract Service number....

  15. Chemical Separations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains complete notes in a PowerPoint-like presentation for a chemical separations course. It covers a wide variety of topics, including distillation, extraction, gas chromatography, liquid chromatograpy, chromatography theory, instrumentation, electrophoresis, field flow fractionation, and affinity chromatography. It covers these topics thoroughly using a clear, consistent, and simple presentation style. Links to major topics like GC, LC, and electrophoresis provide specific information about the theory, instrumentation, and practice related to these techniques. The site also contains many annimations illustrating important separation processes.

  16. Synthesis of pyroglutamic acid derivatives via double Michael addition reactions of alkynones. 

    E-print Network

    Scansetti, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    I. Synthesis of pyroglutamic acid derivatives via double Michael reactions of alkynones Pyroglutamic acids and their derivatives are common structural units of widespread chemical significance and they have been heavily ...

  17. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence (or near-absence) of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties, such as its high surface area and...

  18. Quantum chemical assessment of benzimidazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of well-known inhibitors are organic compounds containing multiple bonds and heteroatoms, such as O, N or S, which allow adsorption onto the metal surface. These compounds can adsorb onto the metal surface and block active surface sites, reducing the rate of corrosion. Results A comparative theoretical study of three benzimidazole isomers, benzimidazole (BI), 2-methylbenzimidazole (2-CH3-BI), and 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2-SH-BI), as corrosion inhibitors was performed using density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP functional basis set. Conclusions Nitro and amino groups were selected for investigation as substituents of the three corrosion inhibitors. Nitration of the corrosion inhibitor molecules led to a decrease in inhibition efficiency, while reduction of the nitro group led to an increase in inhibition efficiency. These aminobenzimidazole isomers represent a significant improvement in the inhibition efficiency of corrosion inhibitor molecules. PMID:24674343

  19. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  20. Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy of chemically derived graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew J.; Fowler, Jesse D.; Tung, Vincent C.; Yang, Yang; Weiller, Bruce H.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2008-11-01

    Reduced graphite oxide (GO) has shown promise as a scalable alternative to mechanically exfoliated specimens. Although many measurements show that reduced GO has properties approaching those of pristine graphene, it has been difficult to quantify the extent to which the graphitic network is restored upon reduction. Raman spectroscopy is widely used for the characterization of mechanically exfoliated graphene, but has not been fully explored for reduced GO. In this work, hydrazine suspensions of reduced GO are deposited on micro-hot-plates and examined over a range of temperatures by Raman spectroscopy. The work highlights the benefits of solution processing.

  1. Carbon Nano Tube Composites with Chemically Functionalized Plant Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim Thielemans; Richard P. Wool; Werner Blau; Valerie Barron

    2003-01-01

    Carbon Nano Tube Composites with Chemically Functionalized Plant Oil Wim Thielemans, R., P. Wool, V. Barron and W. Blau Multi-Wall Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT) made by the Kratchmer-Huffman CCVD process were found to interact and solubilize by slow mechanical stirring, with chemically functionalized plant oils, such as acrylated, epoxidized and maleinated triglycerides (TG) derived from plant oils. The chemical functionality

  2. Curcumin derivatives as new ligands of A? peptides.

    PubMed

    Airoldi, Cristina; Zona, Cristiano; Sironi, Erika; Colombo, Laura; Messa, Massimo; Aurilia, Dario; Gregori, Maria; Masserini, Massimo; Salmona, Mario; Nicotra, Francesco; La Ferla, Barbara

    2010-12-20

    Curcumin derivatives with high chemical stability, improved solubility and carrying a functionalized appendage for the linkage to other entities, have been synthesized in a straightforward manner. All compounds retained Curcumin ability to bind A? peptide oligomers without inducing their aggregation. Moreover all Curcumin derivatives were able to stain very efficiently A? deposits. PMID:21807037

  3. Isocyanide insertion: de novo synthesis of trifluoromethylated phenanthridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanzheng; Jiang, Heng; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Shouyun

    2013-11-01

    A mechanistically new strategy has been described for the simple, practical, and environmentally friendly preparation of 6-(trifluoromethyl)phenanthridine derivatives using ionic isocyanide insertion from biphenyl isocyanide derivatives and Umemoto's reagent. These reactions were promoted only by inorganic base in good-to-excellent chemical yields without any external stoichiometric oxidants and radical initiators. PMID:24180686

  4. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120 Section...Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4 H6 O4 ,...

  5. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120 Section...Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4 H6 O4 ,...

  6. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120 Section...Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4 H6 O4 ,...

  7. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120 Section...Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4 H6 O4 ,...

  8. 21 CFR 189.120 - Cobaltous salts and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. 189.120 Section...Use as Human Food § 189.120 Cobaltous salts and its derivatives. (a) Cobaltous salts are the chemicals, CoC4 H6 O4 ,...

  9. Chemical constituents of the lichen, Candelaria concolor: A complete NMR and chemical degradative investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Dias; Sylvia Urban

    2009-01-01

    A detailed chemical and spectroscopic investigation of the terrestrial lichen Candelaria concolor has yielded several lichenic metabolites belonging to the pulvinic acid series, as well as several depside derivatives including pulvinic dilactone (1), vulpinic acid (4) and calycin (5). The chemical transformation of 1 to pulvinic acid (3) is reported for the first time, as is the conversion of atranorin

  10. Partial Derivatives: Geometric Visualization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Rutledge

    This write-pair-share activity presents Calculus III students with a worksheet containing several exercises that require them to find partial derivatives of functions of two variables. Afterwards, a series of Web-based animations are used to illustrate the surface of each function, the path of the indicated partial derivative for a specified value of the variable and the value of the derivative at each point along the path.

  11. Endohedral Metallofullerene Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Harry C. (Inventor); Iezzi, Erick B. (Inventor); Duchamp, James (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives and their preparation are described. The trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives have the general formula A(sub 3-n)X(sub n)@C(sub m)(R) where n ranges from 0 to 3, A and X may be trivalent metals and may be either rare earth metal or group IIIB metals, m is between about 60 and about 200, and R is preferably an organic group. Derivatives where the R group forms cyclized derivatives with the fullerene cage are also described.

  12. Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    that there is a wealth of important chemistry occurring only at higher energies (of the order of the strength of chemicalMeetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested

  13. Potential antimalarial derivatives from astraodorol.

    PubMed

    Nasomjai, Pitak; Arpha, Kittibhorn; Sodngam, Sirirath; Brandt, Simon D

    2014-12-01

    Astraodorol, a major lanostane-type triterpene isolated from the edible mushroom Astraeus odoratus, was subjected to chemical modifications. Ten derivatives have been synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated. Compounds 5, 6, 7a, 7c, 7e, 7f, and 7 g exhibited strong antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 4.85, 4.48, 4.16, 4.46, 3.45, 3.23, and 3.41 µg/mL, respectively. Compounds 7a, 7c, and 7e showed moderate cytotoxicity against NCI-H187 with IC50 values of 23.36, 34.28, and 9.84 µg/mL. Compound 7e demonstrated moderate cytotoxicity against KB, MCF-7, and Vero cell lines with IC50 values of 16.94, 49.60, and 26.48 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:24748514

  14. Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ebel, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Terpenes from marine-derived fungi show a pronounced degree of structural diversity, and due to their interesting biological and pharmacological properties many of them have aroused interest from synthetic chemists and the pharmaceutical industry alike. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the structural diversity of terpenes from marine-derived fungi, highlighting individual examples of chemical structures and placing them in a context of other terpenes of fungal origin. Wherever possible, information regarding the biological activity is presented. PMID:20948911

  15. Dynamic Derivative Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Liu; Jun Pan

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal investment strategy of an investor who can access not only the bond and the stock markets, but also the derivatives market. We consider the investment situation where, in addition to the usual diusive price shocks, the stock market experiences sudden price jumps and stochastic volatility. The dynamic portfolio problem involving derivatives is solved in closed-form.

  16. Partial Derivative Visualization Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2004-11-11

    This resource is a small gallery of demos for illustrating partial derivatives geometrically. These animations can be used by instructors in a classroom setting or by students to aid in acquiring a visualization background for partial derivatives. Two file formats, gif and QuickTime files are used for the animations which can be downloaded.

  17. Renewable Chemicals: Dehydroxylation of Glycerol and Polyols

    PubMed Central

    ten Dam, Jeroen; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable chemicals is gaining attention over the past few years. The natural resources from which they can be derived in a sustainable way are most abundant in sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose. These highly functionalized molecules need to be de-functionalized in order to be feedstocks for the chemical industry. A fundamentally different approach to chemistry thus becomes necessary, since the traditionally employed oil-based chemicals normally lack functionality. This new chemical toolbox needs to be designed to guarantee the demands of future generations at a reasonable price. The surplus of functionality in sugars and glycerol consists of alcohol groups. To yield suitable renewable chemicals these natural products need to be defunctionalized by means of dehydroxylation. Here we review the possible approaches and evaluate them from a fundamental chemical aspect. PMID:21887771

  18. Exposure Levels for Chemical Threat Compounds; Information to Facilitate Chemical Incident Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command] [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Exposure Standards, Limits and Guidelines for Chemical Threat Compunds ABSTRACT Exposure criteria for chemical warfare (CW) agents and certain toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) used as CW agents (such as chlorine fill in an improvised explosive device) have been developed for protection of the civilian general public, civilian employees in chemical agent processing facilities and deployed military populations. In addition, compound-specific concentrations have been developed to serve as how clean is clean enough clearance criteria guiding facility recovery following chemical terrorist or other hazardous release events. Such criteria are also useful to verify compound absence, identify containment boundaries and expedite facility recovery following chemical threat release. There is no single right value or concentration appropriate for all chemical hazard control applications. It is acknowledged that locating and comparing the many sources of CW agent and TIC exposure criteria has not been previously well-defined. This paper summarizes many of these estimates and assembles critical documentation regarding their derivation and use.

  19. Dynamic Derivative Strategies

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jun

    2003-09-25

    This paper studies the optimal investment strategy of an investor who can access not only the bond and the stock markets, but also the derivatives market. We consider the investment situation where, in addition to the usual ...

  20. Deriving Common Model Characteristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Momsen

    In this activity, students confront several different models - from the DNA helix Watson and Crick constructed in their laboratory to a map of McDonalds density in the US - and work in small groups to derive their commonalities.

  1. Credit derivatives in Brazil

    E-print Network

    Rüther, Henrique

    2007-01-01

    The amounts outstanding of credit derivatives have grown exponentially over the past years, and these financial intruments that allow market participants to trade credit risk have become very popular in Europe and in the ...

  2. Teaching Cournot without Derivatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Presents a simple technique for teaching the Cournot model to first-year microeconomic students. Involves demonstrating, without the use of derivatives, that out of all rectangles with a common perimeter, the square has the greatest area. (RLH)

  3. Derivative Matching Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Once again, the Mathematical Association of America has struck instructional gold with this latest gem from their online collection of resources for mathematics educators. Created by Barbara Margolius, this derivative matching game presents users with a game board showing graphs of functions on cards. Essentially, the goal of the game is to match the functions with their derivatives. Visitors can begin by reading an overview of the game, along with some brief instructions, and then they should dive right in. The game can also be customized to match functions with just first derivatives or both first and second derivatives. Mathematics educators will have a lot of fun with this one, and even the mathematically uncertain can be drawn into the fold with this easy to use resource.

  4. Derivative actions in China 

    E-print Network

    Lin, Shaowei

    2014-07-02

    The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was ...

  5. Extended Derivative Dispersion Relations

    E-print Network

    R. F. Avila; M. J. Menon

    2006-01-24

    It is shown that, for a wide class of functions with physical interest as forward scattering amplitudes, integral dispersion relations can be replaced by derivative forms without any high-energy approximation. The applicability of these extended derivative relations, in the investigation of forward proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering, is exemplified by means of a Pomeron-Reggeon model with totally nondegenerate trajectories.

  6. Derivative beliefs and evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Sheinin; Laurette Dubé; Bernd H. Schmitt

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine how consumers form beliefs and evaluate derivatives (e.g. handheld computers) and branded derivatives (e.g. Palm handheld computers). The aim is to study how consumers combine two categories (e.g. “handheld products” and “computers”) to form beliefs, how the similarity between the categories influences beliefs, how the addition of a brand changes

  7. Chemical Ecology: Chemical Communication in Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William F.

    1983-01-01

    Substances that deliver chemical messages between same/different species are called semiochemicals. Surveyed are three types of semiochemicals (pheromones, allomones, and kairomones), types of organisms involved, and specific chemicals used to carry the various kinds of messages. (JN)

  8. Stratospheric Methane Derived from Aura MLS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minschwaner, K. R.; Manney, G. L.; Lambert, A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Walker, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    The stratospheric distribution of methane has been derived using measurements of water vapor, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Aura satellite. The method utilizes trace gas correlations and separation of air mass regimes based on measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on the SCISAT I satellite. The reliable vertical extent of derived methane from MLS ranges from near the tropopause through the upper stratosphere, and covers all seasons and latitudes observed by MLS over the course of the Aura mission from 2004 to 2011. Methane distributions and their time evolution are compared to simulations from the SLIMCAT chemical transport model. Applications of the derived CH4 product include assessment of the CO photochemical budget, interpretation of the upper stratospheric ClO time series from MLS and the chlorine budget, and diagnosis of trace gas transport during polar vortex mixing events and stratospheric sudden warmings.

  9. Antimicrobial evaluation of some arylsulfanylpyrazinecarboxylic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jampilek, Josef; Dolezal, Martin; Buchta, Vladimir

    2007-05-01

    The radical-ionic coupling of chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid derivatives with methoxybenzenethiols, carried out in the presence of a heterogeneous copper catalyst, provided the series of 6- or 5- or 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)sulfanyl-pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid derivatives as well as 6- or 5- or 3-(3-methoxyphenyl)sulfanylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid derivatives. The prepared compounds were evaluated as potential antifungal agents and new antituberculotics. Their preliminary in vitro evaluation of antimycobacterial activity according to the international program with the Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition and Coordinating Facility (TAACF) is presented. Several compounds showed an interesting activity in the preliminary screening with a percentage growth inhibition of the virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv between 50 to 100% at the concentration 6.25 microg/mL. Structure-activity relationships among the chemical structure, the physical properties and the biological activities of the evaluated compounds are discussed in the article. PMID:17504199

  10. Increment of antimycobaterial activity on lichexanthone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, Ana Camila; Honda, Neli Kika; Pavan, Fernando R; Leite, Clarice Q F; Matos, Maria de Fatima Cepa; Perdomo, Renata Trentin; Bogo, Danielle; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz; Beatriz, Adilson

    2013-11-01

    A new dihydropyranexanthone derived from the natural xanthone lichexanthone (1) was synthesised and, together with other 18 derivatives including ?-bromo and ?-aminoalkoxylxanthones (containing methyl, ethyl, propyl, tertbutylamino and piperidinyl moieties), were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nine ?-aminoalkoxylxanthones showed good antimycobacterial activity, and their in vitro cytotoxicity was determined using VERO cells in order to calculate the selectivity index (SI). One of these nitrogenated xanthone derivatives showed very promising results, with MIC of 2.6 ?M and SI of 48. This MIC is comparable to values found in "first and second line" drugs commonly used to treat TB. In order to understand better about this compound, it was evaluated together with two other ones that showed good SI, against resistant clinical strains of M. tuberculosis to verify the existence of cross-resistance. A chemometrical approach was useful to establish a pattern of antitubercular activity among the group of ?-aminoalkoxylxanthones, according to some structural and chemical features. PMID:23106287

  11. Xanthocidin derivatives as topoisomerase II? enzymatic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Yaji, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Kenji; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Shindo, Mitsuru; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined xanthocidin, a biotic isolated from Streptomyces xanthocidicus in 1966, because its supply is limited. Based on its chemical structure, xanthocidin has the potential to become a lead compound in the production of agrochemicals and anti-cancer drugs; however, it is unstable under both basic and acidic conditions. We recently established the total synthesis of xanthocidin using the FeCl3-mediated Nazarov reaction, and obtained two stable derivatives (#1 and #2). The results of the present study demonstrated that these derivatives exhibited the inhibitory activity of topoisomerase II?, known as a molecular target for cancer chemotherapy, and this was attributed to the respective exo-methylene ketone group without DNA intercalation. The results obtained also suggest that these derivatives may have value as lead compounds in the synthesis of topoisomerase II? inhibitors. PMID:24492731

  12. Dielectric transition of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangling; Su, Shi; Zhou, Lei; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao

    2014-09-01

    The dielectric behavior of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers formed at different carbonization temperatures was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The impedance data are presented in the form of Cole-Cole plots and four equivalent electrical circuits are derived. It is found that by increasing carbonization temperature from 500 to 800 °C, a strong capacitive element in the parallel equivalent circuit is transformed into an inductive element, while the contact resistance and parallel resistance are significantly decreased. Along with the morphological and chemical structural evolution, respectively witnessed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the dielectric transition deduced from the transformation of electrical circuits can be correlated to the proposed microstructural changes of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers and the interaction/interference among them.

  13. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  14. CHEMICAL SAFETY ALERTS-

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Safety Alerts are short publications which explain specific hazards that have become evident through chemical accident investigation efforts. EPA has produced over a dozen Alerts to date. This year's Alert: Managing Chemical Reactivity Hazards...

  15. CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals in Progress Bulletin is a quarterly newsletter which highlights regulatory and program activities of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Regular features and news items include the existing chemicals program, new chemicals program, pollution prevention activi...

  16. Chemical Growth Regulators for Guayule Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Schubert, W. W.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test Tubes containing Guayule - tissue cultures were used in experiments to test effects of chemical-growth regulators. The shoots grew in response to addition of 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)-triethylamine (triethylamine (TEA) derivative) to agar medium. Preliminary results indicate that a class of compounds that promotes growth in soil may also promote growth in a culture medium. Further experiments are needed to define the effect of the TEA derivative.

  17. PREDICTION OF OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENT (KOW) WITH ALGORITHMICALLY DERIVED VARIABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statistical model was developed with algorithmically derived independent variables based on chemical structure for prediction of octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow) measured for more than 4,000 chemicals. he procedure first classified the chemicals into 14 groups based o...

  18. The impact of chemical evolution on the observable properties of stellar populations

    E-print Network

    M. Tosi

    2000-08-22

    The major effects of the chemical evolution of galaxies on the characteristics of their stellar populations are reviewed. A few examples of how the observed stellar properties derived from colour--magnitude diagrams can constrain chemical evolution models are given.

  19. Performance characteristics of endoreversible chemical engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, J. M.; Orlov, Vladimir N.

    1993-11-01

    Chemical engines process mass flows to convert differences in chemical potential into work—the analog of heat engines processing heat flows to generate work from temperature differences. For isothermal endoreversible chemical engines constrained to finite-time operation—examples of which include mass exchangers, electrochemical, photochemical, and solid-state devices: (i) optimal cycle types for maximizing average power output, (ii) upper bounds on power production, and (iii) sensitivity of these results to mass-transfer law, illustrated for linear and diffusive behavior, are derived.

  20. Skin irritation: Reference chemicals data bank.

    PubMed

    Bagley, D M; Gardner, J R; Holland, G; Lewis, R W; Regnier, J F; Stringer, D A; Walker, A P

    1996-02-01

    A list of 176 chemicals, all of high or consistent purity and stable on storage, has been developed using available comprehensive in vivo rabbit skin irritation data. No new in vivo testing was conducted to qualify a chemical for inclusion in the list. The chemicals were tested undiluted in in vivo studies, apart from those chemicals where high concentrations could be expected to cause severe effects. The in vivo data were generated in studies carried out since 1981 according to OECD Test Guideline 404 and following the principles of Good Laboratory Practice. The data were obtained from tests normally using at least three rabbits evaluated at the same time, involving application of 0.5 g or 0.5ml to the flank under semi-occlusive patches for 4 hr, and in which observations were made at least 24, 48 and 72 hr after removal of the patch. The chemicals represent a range of chemical classes [acids, acrylates/methacrylates, alcohols, aldehydes, alkalis, amines, brominated derivatives, chlorinated solvents, esters, ethers, fatty acids and mixtures, fragrance oils, halogenated aromatics, hydrocarbons (unsaturated), inorganics, ketones, nitrites, phenolic derivatives, S-containing compounds, soaps/surfactants, triglycerides] and different degrees of irritancy. They are ranked for skin irritation potential on the basis of a 'primary irritation index'. These chemicals could be used in validation tests of promising alternatives to the in vivo rabbit skin irritation/corrosion test. This is an essential step in the progression to regulatory acceptance of alternative procedures. PMID:20650176

  1. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection...derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection...derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection...derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.558 - Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic). 721.558 Section...721.558 Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as a salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (PMN P-96-1426) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1675 - Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name). 721.1675 Section...acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (PMN P-87-1337) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1675 - Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name). 721.1675 Section...acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (PMN P-87-1337) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4520 - Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative. 721.4520 Section 721.4520...Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative (PMN P-85-648) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4520 - Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative. 721.4520 Section 721.4520...Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative (PMN P-85-648) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.558 - Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic). 721.558 Section...721.558 Salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as a salt of a fatty alkylamine derivative (PMN P-96-1426) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4520 - Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative. 721.4520 Section 721.4520...Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative (PMN P-85-648) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1675 - Disulfonic acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name). 721.1675 Section...acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical...acid rosin amine salt of a benzidine derivative (PMN P-87-1337) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4520 - Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative. 721.4520 Section 721.4520...Isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant...isopropylidene, bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl) derivative (PMN P-85-648) is subject...

  13. Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2010-08-24

    Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  14. Derived enriched uranium market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rutkowski

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived

  15. Deriving force from inductance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. de Almeida Bueno; A. K. T. Assis

    1998-01-01

    The correctness of calculating the force on current carrying circuits by taking the derivative of the inductance coefficient of the circuits is shown even in the case of a single closed circuit, contrary to the opinion of some authors. This demonstration is illustrated with the force exerted by a cylinder with poloidal current on an infinitesimal strip belonging to the

  16. CHEMICAL SAFETY Emergency Numbers

    E-print Network

    Bolch, Tobias

    Storage 11 Chemical Inventory 12 Chemical Transportation 13 Chemical Labeling 13 Chemical Spills 14 Ethidium Bromide Spills 15 Injuries 16 4. Laboratory Safety Inspections Safety Officer Inspections 17 5 Oxidizing Materials 22 Toxic Materials 24 Corrosive Materials 24 Dangerously Reactive Materials 25 7

  17. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Benjamin M.; Guo, Zhongwu

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cell-surface proteins and glycoproteins are anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), a family of glycolipids that are post-translationally attached to proteins at their C-termini. GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological and pathological events, such as cell recognition and adhesion, signal transduction, host defense, and acting as receptors for viruses and toxins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPI anchors and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems and exploring their potential therapeutic applications. In the first part of this comprehensive article on the chemical synthesis of GPIs, classic syntheses of naturally occurring GPI anchors from protozoan parasites, yeast, and mammals are covered. The second part of the article focuses on recent diversity-oriented strategies for the synthesis of GPI anchors containing unsaturated lipids, “click chemistry” tags, and highly branched and modified structures. PMID:22794184

  18. The chemical life(1).

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-06-01

    You write this narrative autoethnography to open up a conversation about our chemical lives. You go through your day with chemical mindfulness, questioning taken-for-granted ideas about natural and artificial, healthy and unhealthy, dependency and addiction, trying to understand the chemical messages we consume through the experiences of everyday life. You reflect on how messages about chemicals influence and structure our lives and why some chemicals are celebrated and some are condemned. Using a second-person narrative voice, you show how the personal is relational and the chemical is cultural. You write because you seek a connection, a chemical bond. PMID:24905820

  19. Chemically modified chitin and chitosan as biomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Sashiwa; Sei-ichi Aiba

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies of the chemical modification of chitin and chitosan are discussed from the viewpoint of biomedical applications. Special emphasis is placed on the role of individual functional groups in applications of modified chitosan. The modifications discussed here include chitosan attached to sugars, dendrimers, cyclodextrins, crown ethers, and glass beads. Among these derivatives, sugar-modified chitosans are excellent candidates for drug

  20. PINS chemical identification software

    DOEpatents

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Krebs, Kennth M.

    2004-09-14

    An apparatus and method for identifying a chemical compound. A neutron source delivers neutrons into the chemical compound. The nuclei of chemical elements constituting the chemical compound emit gamma rays upon interaction with the neutrons. The gamma rays are characteristic of the chemical elements constituting the chemical compound. A spectrum of the gamma rays is generated having a detection count and an energy scale. The energy scale is calibrated by comparing peaks in the spectrum to energies of pre-selected chemical elements in the spectrum. A least-squares fit completes the calibration. The chemical elements constituting the chemical compound can be readily determined, which then allows for identification of the chemical compound.

  1. RESRAD-CHEM: A computer code for chemical risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Hartmann, H.M.; Jones, L.G.; Biwer, B.M.; Dovel, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    RESRAD-CHEM is a computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate chemically contaminated sites. The code is designed to predict human health risks from multipathway exposure to hazardous chemicals and to derive cleanup criteria for chemically contaminated soils. The method used in RESRAD-CHEM is based on the pathway analysis method in the RESRAD code and follows the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance on chemical risk assessment. RESRAD-CHEM can be used to evaluate a chemically contaminated site and, in conjunction with the use of the RESRAD code, a mixed waste site.

  2. Chemically defined generation of human cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Paul W; Matsa, Elena; Shukla, Praveen; Lin, Ziliang C; Churko, Jared M; Ebert, Antje D; Lan, Feng; Diecke, Sebastian; Huber, Bruno; Mordwinkin, Nicholas M; Plews, Jordan R; Abilez, Oscar J; Cui, Bianxiao; Gold, Joseph D; Wu, Joseph C

    2014-08-01

    Existing methods for human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) cardiac differentiation are efficient but require complex, undefined medium constituents that hinder further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of cardiomyogenesis. Using hiPSCs derived under chemically defined conditions on synthetic matrices, we systematically developed an optimized cardiac differentiation strategy, using a chemically defined medium consisting of just three components: the basal medium RPMI 1640, L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and rice-derived recombinant human albumin. Along with small molecule-based induction of differentiation, this protocol produced contractile sheets of up to 95% TNNT2(+) cardiomyocytes at a yield of up to 100 cardiomyocytes for every input pluripotent cell and was effective in 11 hiPSC lines tested. This chemically defined platform for cardiac specification of hiPSCs will allow the elucidation of cardiomyocyte macromolecular and metabolic requirements and will provide a minimal system for the study of maturation and subtype specification. PMID:24930130

  3. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else drawing the boundary on a reference image. Hence, a farmer can start to engage in precision farming shortly after gaining access to the Web site, without the need for incurring the high costs of conventional precision-agriculture data-collection practices that include collecting soil samples, mapping electrical conductivity of soil, and compiling multiyear crop-yield data. Given the boundary of a field, a SAMZ server computes the zones within the field in a three-stage process. In the first stage, a vector-valued image of the field is constructed by assembling, from the archives, the equivalent of a stack of the available images of the field (see figure). In the second stage, the vector-valued image is analyzed by use of a wavelet transform that detects spatial variations considered significant for precision farming while suppressing small-scale heterogeneities that are regarded as insignificant. In the third stage, a segmentation algorithm assembles the zones from smaller regions that have been identified in the wavelet analysis.

  4. Platform Chemicals from an Oilseed Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Tupy, Mike; Schrodi Yann

    2006-11-06

    The US chemical industry is $460 billion in size where a $150 billion segment of which is non-oxygenated chemicals that is sourced today via petroleum but is addressable by a renewable feedstock if one considers a more chemically reduced feedstock such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oil, due to its chemical functionality, provides a largely untapped opportunity as a renewable chemical source to replace petroleum-derived chemicals and produce platform chemicals unavailable today. This project examined the fertile intersection between the rich building blocks provided by vegetable oils and the enhanced chemical modification capability provided by metathesis chemistry. The technology advanced in this study is the process of ethylene cross-metathesis (referred to as ethenolysis) with vegetable oil and vegetable oil derivatives to manufacture the platform-chemical 9-decenoic acid (or 9DA) and olefin co-products. The project team meet its goals of demonstrating improved catalyst efficiencies of several multiples, deepening the mechanistic understanding of metathesis, synthesis and screening of dozens of new catalysts, designing and modeling commercial processes, and estimating production costs. One demonstrable result of the study was a step change improvement in catalyst turnover number in the ethenolysis of methyl oleate as reported here. We met our key measurable of producing 100 lbs of 9DA at the pilot-scale, which demonstrated ability to scale-up ethenolysis. DOE Project funding had significant positive impact on development of metathetically modified vegetable oils more broadly as the Cargill/Materia partnership, that was able to initiate primarily due to DOE funding, has succeeded in commercializing products, validating metathesis as a platform technology, and expanding a diverse products portfolio in high value and in large volume markets. Opportunities have expanded and business development has gained considerable momentum and enabled further expansion of the Materia/Cargill relationship. This project exceeded expectations and is having immediate impact on DOE success by replacing petroleum products with renewables in a large volume application today.

  5. Insulin-derived amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Singla, Gaurav; Singla, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the term for diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble polymeric protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Insulin-derived amyloidosis is a rare, yet significant complication of insulin therapy. Insulin-derived amyloidosis at injection site can cause poor glycemic control and increased insulin dose requirements because of the impairment in insulin absorption, which reverse on change of injection site and/or excision of the mass. This entity should be considered and assessed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, in patients with firm/hard local site reactions, which do not regress after cessation of insulin injection at the affected site. Search strategy: PubMed was searched with terms “insulin amyloidosis”. Full text of articles available in English was reviewed. Relevant cross references were also reviewed. Last search was made on October 15, 2014. PMID:25593849

  6. Fractional Derivative Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Mark D. Roberts

    2009-09-07

    The degree by which a function can be differentiated need not be restricted to integer values. Usually most of the field equations of physics are taken to be second order, curiosity asks what happens if this is only approximately the case and the field equations are nearly second order. For Robertson-Walker cosmology there is a simple fractional modification of the Friedman and conservation equations. In general fractional gravitational equations similar to Einstein's are hard to define as this requires fractional derivative geometry. What fractional derivative geometry might entail is briefly looked at and it turns out that even asking very simple questions in two dimensions leads to ambiguous or intractable results. A two dimensional line element which depends on the Gamma-function is looked at.

  7. Solar-driven chemical energy source for a Martian biota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benton C. Clark

    1979-01-01

    Microorganisms deep in the Martian soil could derive energy indirectly from the sun via chemical reactions involving atmospheric photolysis products of the solar ultraviolet flux. The Viking discovery of a chemically uniform regolith which, though poor in organics, is rich in sulfur-containing compounds suggests reaction sequences in which sulfur is recycled through reduced and oxidized states by biologically catalyzed reactions

  8. Empirical NMR Chemical Shift Correlations for Methyl and Methylene Protons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates

    1984-01-01

    Presents an internally consistent set of 63 substituent constants developed for use with the Schoolery Relationship to predict the chemical shifts of methylene protons of acyclic compounds. Chemical shift data used in deriving the constants were taken mainly from primary sources of HNMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra. (JN)

  9. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    are involved in the production of food, cosmetics, fuels, and anything else that requires the mixing: chemistry, chemical equations, math, etc.) There is a branch of Chemical Engineering called Process on a large scale. This applies to all production: crude oil separation, food processing, cosmetic

  10. Quinaldine derivatives: preparation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Jampilek, Josef; Dolezal, Martin; Kunes, Jiri; Buchta, Vladimir; Silva, Luis; Kralova, Katarina

    2005-11-01

    The series of quinaldine derivatives were prepared, some of them by means of novel synthetic methods. The synthetic approach, analytical and spectroscopic data of all newly synthesized compounds are presented. The prepared compounds were tested for their in vitro antifungal activity as well as for their photosynthesis-inhibiting activity (the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts (Spinacia oleracea L.) and the reduction of chlorophyll content in Chlorella vulgaris Beij.). Structure-activity relationships among the chemical structure, the physical properties and the biological activities of the evaluated compounds are discussed in the article. PMID:16787342

  11. [Antidiuretic activity of dithiocarbamic acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Korablec, M V; Evets, M A

    1977-01-01

    Chemically pure dithiocarbamates, thiuramsulphides and ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamates display a well-marked antidiuretic action. They materially reduce diuresis, natri- and kaliuresis in rats (1/5 LD(50) per 1 kg into the stomach) and in dogs (sodium N, N-diethyl-dithiocarbamate-into renal artery). Without changing the tubular reabsorption DEDTC inhibits the glomerular filtration of the dogs' kidneys. Furosemide (lasix) prevents the development of the an antidiuletic anidiuretic effect and reduction of the sodium and potassium excretion provoked in rats with DEDTC, zinc N, N', N"-tetraethylthiuram-disulphide and ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate. Furosemide is recommended for the treatment of acute poisonings with dithiocarbaminic acid derivatives. PMID:200467

  12. Notion of a virtual derivative

    E-print Network

    Gintaras Valiukevicius

    2011-04-12

    Diagrams as a graphic expresion of derivatives is proposed for calculation of derivatives for composed function. The concret diagram is understood as a virtual derivative in contrast of concret derivative. In polynomial expression of functions derivative the concret derivative will be every monomic member, and the virtual derivative represent the sum of similar monomic members. The word virtual denotes that we dont need to know every virtual derivative, we don't write all the sequence of these virtual derivatives, and simply pick the needed one. This is in contrast of tradition to write the whole algebraic expresion as a denotion of whole function's derivative. Such graphic expresion can be helpful in the problems of differential geometry, in the various asymptotic expantions, also in the solution of some differential equations.

  13. Rheological properties of sulfoacetate derivatives of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Chauvelon, Gaëlle; Doublier, Jean-Louis; Buléon, Alain; Thibault, Jean-François; Saulnier, Luc

    2003-04-01

    Water-soluble cellulose acetate sulfate derivatives (CAS) have been prepared through chemical reaction involving sulfuric acid as a catalyst. These CAS have been obtained from cellulosic materials of different origins (pure cellulose, wheat bran, maize bran) and their rheological behavior in salt-free aqueous solution has been estimated in dilute and semi-dilute regime using dynamic viscoelastic and viscosity measurements. Influence of concentration, temperature of solubilization and temperature of measurement has been investigated. Weak gel-like properties were exhibited at elevated concentration (typically above 7-8 g/L). These systems also exhibited thixotropic properties: the structure was partly broken down upon shearing and recovered at rest. They also displayed thermoreversibility with large hysteresis, the melting temperature being approximately 15 degrees C higher than the temperature at which gelation took place. These overall observations clearly indicate that these distinctive properties arise from intermolecular association of the macromolecular chains of the cellulose derivative. PMID:12668095

  14. Bacterial degradation of chlorophenols and their derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophenols (CPs) and their derivatives are persistent environmental pollutants which are used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, pesticides and other industrial products. CPs, which include monochlorophenols, polychlorophenols, chloronitrophenols, chloroaminophenols and chloromethylphenols, are highly toxic to living beings due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and cytotoxic properties. Several physico-chemical and biological methods have been used for removal of CPs from the environment. Bacterial degradation has been considered a cost-effective and eco-friendly method of removing CPs from the environment. Several bacteria that use CPs as their sole carbon and energy sources have been isolated and characterized. Additionally, the metabolic pathways for degradation of CPs have been studied in bacteria and the genes and enzymes involved in the degradation of various CPs have been identified and characterized. This review describes the biochemical and genetic basis of the degradation of CPs and their derivatives. PMID:24589366

  15. Halogenated coumarin derivatives as novel seed protectants.

    PubMed

    Brooker, N; Windorski, J; Bluml, E

    2008-01-01

    Development of new and improved antifungal compounds that are target-specific is backed by a strong Federal, public and commercial mandate. Many plant-derived chemicals have proven fungicidal properties, including the coumarins (1,2-Benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants such as clover, sweet woodruff and grasses. Preliminary research has shown the coumarins to be a highly active group of molecules with a wide range of antimicrobial activity against both fungi and bacteria. It is believed that these cyclic compounds behave as natural pesticidal defence molecules for plants and they represent a starting point for the exploration of new derivative compounds possessing a range of improved antifungal activity. Within this study, derivatives of coumarin that were modified with halogenated side groups were screened for their antifungal activity against a range of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Fungi included in this in vitro screen included Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), Phytophthora spp. (damping off and seedling rot), Rhizoctonia spp. (damping off and root rot) and Pythium spp. (seedling blight), four phylogenetically diverse and economically important plant pathogens. Studies indicate that these halogenated coumarin derivatives work very effectively in vitro to inhibit fungal growth and some coumarin derivatives have higher antifungal activity and stability as compared to the original coumarin compound alone. The highly active coumarin derivatives are brominated, iodinated and chlorinated compounds and results suggest that besides being highly active, very small amounts can be used to achieve LD100 rates. In addition to the in vitro fungal inhibition assays, results of polymer seed coating compatibility and phytotoxicity testing using these compounds as seed treatments will also be reported. These results support additional research in this area of natural pesticide development. PMID:19226745

  16. Effect of cellulose derivatives on alginate microspheres prepared by emulsification.

    PubMed

    Chan, L W; Heng, P W; Wan, L S

    1997-01-01

    Generally discrete and spherical calcium alginate microspheres with a high drug encapsulation efficiency were readily prepared by an emulsification process. They were found to release drug rapidly. In the present study, co-polymer in the form of cellulose derivatives was added to sodium alginate in an attempt to modify the drug release profiles of the microspheres. The effects of cellulose derivatives on the morphology and drug encapsulation efficiency of the microspheres were also evaluated. The cellulose derivatives increased the degree of agglomeration of the microspheres. Small and spherical microspheres were produced from cellulose derivatives of low viscosity while larger microspheres which tended to be elongated were produced from cellulose derivatives of high viscosity. The drug encapsulation efficiency and the drug release profiles were influenced by the chemical nature of the cellulose derivative as well as its viscosity. The efficiency of drug encapsulation generally increased while the rate of drug release decreased with increasing viscosity of the cellulose derivatives. Less hydrophilic cellulose derivatives such as methyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose were found to increase the efficiency of encapsulating sulphaguanidine, while more hydrophilic cellulose derivatives such as hydroxypropyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose had the opposite effect. Among the cellulose derivatives used, only hydroxypropyl cellulose retarded the drug release of the microspheres. PMID:9292431

  17. Thermal luminescence spectroscopy chemical imaging sensor.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Arthur H; Buican, Tudor N; Roese, Erik S; Sutter, James; Samuels, Alan C

    2012-10-01

    The authors present a pseudo-active chemical imaging sensor model embodying irradiative transient heating, temperature nonequilibrium thermal luminescence spectroscopy, differential hyperspectral imaging, and artificial neural network technologies integrated together. We elaborate on various optimizations, simulations, and animations of the integrated sensor design and apply it to the terrestrial chemical contamination problem, where the interstitial contaminant compounds of detection interest (analytes) comprise liquid chemical warfare agents, their various derivative condensed phase compounds, and other material of a life-threatening nature. The sensor must measure and process a dynamic pattern of absorptive-emissive middle infrared molecular signature spectra of subject analytes to perform its chemical imaging and standoff detection functions successfully. PMID:23033092

  18. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10193 Section 721.10193...2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-06-263, Chemical B;...

  19. Deriving Darcy's Law

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Karen Salvage

    This exercise begins with a demonstration of fluid flow through porous sediment using a constant head permeameter, with the students conducting the experiment and collecting the data. The demo is followed by a Think-Pair-Share exercise in which the question is posed to the class: "What could we change in order to increase flow through the system?" The class then works through their brainstormed list of ideas, discussing each and evaluating whether it is correct or a misconception. The students derive Darcy's Law qualitatively, based upon the results of the Think-Pair-Share exercise and discussions.

  20. Chemical Signals Production

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    ­ Food detection ­ Social signals (vomeronasal organs) #12;Olfactory signal features · Directionality organ ­ Responds to range of different chemicals ­ Sensitive to low concentrations · Labeled-line coding ­ Individual receptors respond to single chemicals ­ Organ has many different cells types ­ Higher sensitivity

  1. Physical vs Chemical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomena are physical changes, including the crushing of a can, melting of ice, and melting of sugar, and chemical changes, including and the rusting of iron and burning of sugar. This analysis will address the chemical change component.

  2. DTP - Chemical Biology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Chemical Biology Consortium Home Discovery Development Pathways Grants/Contracts Books/Publications Site Search Data Search What's New Chemical Biology Consortium (CBC) Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis To download Adobe Reader for documents

  3. Household Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the risk of injury. Before Before a Household Chemical Emergency The following are guidelines for buying and ... is (800) 222-1222. During During a Household Chemical Emergency Get out of the residence immediately if ...

  4. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  5. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  6. Floor Chemical Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the issues to consider when selecting floor-care chemicals, including the floor-finish systems for hard-surface floors and the care of carpeted floors. Provides thoughts on cleaning chemical usage and environmental awareness. (GR)

  7. Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology 4 units Prof. Richard Brutchey, Fall 2014 (Lecture = 12:00­12:50 pm MWF) CHEM 455 is an upper-division undergraduate course in Chemical Nanotechnology. The intent

  8. Chemical Reactions (Netorials)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chemical Reactions: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

  9. Do metformin a real anticarcinogen? A critical reappraisal of experimental data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has emerged that antidiabetic biguanides [phenformin (PF), buformin (BF) and metformin (MF)] are promising candidates for prevention of cancer. It was shown that antidiabetic biguanides postpone spontaneous carcinogenesis as well as inhibit carcinogenesis induced by chemical, radiation and biological factors (virus, transgene, genetic modifications, special diet, etc.) in a number of organs and tissues in various strains of mice and rats. The present review focused on some details of experiments such as design of studies, dose and route of administration of biguanide, and age of animals at start of treatment etc. Conclusion may be done that there are rather sufficient evidence of cancer-preventive activity of antidiabetic biguanides in experimental animals. PMID:25333035

  10. Physical and Chemical Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Wood

    2010-11-15

    Overview of physical and chemical changes with practice activities and a quiz. Worksheet - Physical Chemical Change Worksheet After viewing the worksheet, copy and paste it into a new blank Google Document - MyDSD Google Login Title your Document "Chemical and Physical Change". Make sure to include your name and period in the body of the doc. The answers in your document should be a different color or font. Examples of Chemical Changes Changes info page More Examples After completing the rest ...

  11. Chemical of the Week

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

    1997-01-01

    Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri at the University of Wisconsin-Madison adds a new chemical to this page every week. The site was created for his general chemistry courses, Chem 103 and Chem 104, to increase students' knowledge about various chemicals and their use. Users can view featured chemicals from the currently updated fall course (103) or from the spring course (104). The chemicals featured thus far include: lime, methane, uranium, the chemistry of autumn colors, and gases that emit light.

  12. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  13. One-Pot Enantioselective Syntheses of Iminosugar Derivatives Using Organocatalytic

    E-print Network

    Barbas III, Carlos F.

    -catalyzed intermolecular aldol reaction7 and other related reactions,8 enantioselective syntheses of a number of compoundOne-Pot Enantioselective Syntheses of Iminosugar Derivatives Using Organocatalytic anti-Michael-anti-Aza-Henry Reactions Ritsuo Imashiro, Hisatoshi Uehara, and Carlos F. Barbas III* The Skaggs Institute for Chemical

  14. Spectral Characterization of Plant-Derived Dissolved Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from fresh or early-stage decomposing soil amendment materials may play an important role in the process of organic matter accumulation. The DOM can influence many chemical processes, due to its reactivity with both soil solution components and soil surfaces. W...

  15. More on Chemical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is a series of chemical reactions and observation of signs of a chemical change. The laboratory activities can be done by students or as a teacher demonstration. They involve mixing chemicals and noting color change, formation of a precipitate, and production of a gas.

  16. HARVARD UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL BIOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    HARVARD UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL BIOLOGY PHD PROGRAM 2013-2014 Student Handbook #12;Program Contacts at the beginning of each semester. Laboratory Rotations Students in the Chemical Biology Program are expected an interest in having Chemical Biology Program Students in their labs. Students may rotate in the labs

  17. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  18. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

  19. Toxicology and Chemical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

  20. Equilibrium Chemical Engines

    E-print Network

    Tatsuo Shibata; Shin-ichi Sasa

    1997-10-30

    An equilibrium reversible cycle with a certain engine to transduce the energy of any chemical reaction into mechanical energy is proposed. The efficiency for chemical energy transduction is also defined so as to be compared with Carnot efficiency. Relevance to the study of protein motors is discussed. KEYWORDS: Chemical thermodynamics, Engine, Efficiency, Molecular machine.

  1. Chemical Plume Source Localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuo Pang; Jay A. Farrell

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume using an autonomous vehicle as a sensor probe in a fluid flow. The fluid flow is assumed to have a high Reynolds number. Therefore, the dispersion of the chemical is dominated by turbulence, resulting in an intermittent chemical signal. The

  2. Chemical mapping of planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Metzger, A. E.; Arnold, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two instruments, the gamma-ray spectrometer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, are uniquely suited to the chemical mapping of planetary surfaces from orbit. Through their detection of characteristic line spectra they measure the concentrations of a suite of elements in each area overflown. Multielement chemical maps derived from these remote measurements are used in the construction of evolutionary models of planetary bodies and of the solar system as a whole. The NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer and a gas proportional X-ray spectrometer were flown over 20 percent of the lunar surface during the Apollo 15 and 16 missions. These instruments measured chemical differences across the boundaries of known lunar provinces and revealed several new features of lunar-surface composition. Advanced spectrometers which are under development for future missions are able to educe much more information in a given time span than the Apollo instruments. They may be used in possible future missions such as Lunar Polar Orbiter, a Mars orbiter, a Mercury orbiter, outer planet satellite missions, rendezvous with asteroids and cometary nuclei, and surface-penetrating planetary probes.

  3. Fabrication of optical film derived from biomass using eco-friendly nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Murakami, Gaku; Mori, Yuto; Ichikawa, Takumi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Obata, Tsutomu; Yokoyama, Yoshiyuki; Mizuno, Wataru; Sumioka, Junji; Horita, Yuji

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the chemical design and fabrication of optical film derived from biomass using eco-friendly nanoimprint lithography. The optical film derived from biomass with subwavelength structures was successfully demonstrated in specific desired properties. The linearly polymerized polysaccharide in optical film derived from biomass indicated two effects of high concentration of acrylate group in the side-chain terminus for highly sensitivity, and the ring components containing bulky disaccharide for suitable optical properties. The optical film derived from biomass is applicable to future development of antireflective material with subwavelength structures and suitable refractive index material as a chemical design concept.

  4. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  5. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  6. Chemistry Review: Chemical Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Kessler

    2010-01-01

    This review provides many details about chemical reactions and the components involved in order to make one happen, such as energy, heat, density, and substance. Provided are animations that show molecular combustion that occurs with a chemical reaction. The role of atoms is also described, including Ionic bonds that occur or break in a chemical reaction. Simple experiments use substances such as vinegar, water, and baking soda to show a real chemical reaction in progress. Temperature change in chemical reactions is explained in detail, along with endothermic and exothermic reactions.

  7. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  8. Chemical Reactivity Worksheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-24

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Office of Response and Restoration has created the Chemical Reactivity Worksheet to help teachers, students, and the general public learn about the chemical reactivity of thousands of common hazardous chemicals. After downloading a free program, visitors will find that the datasheets contain information about the hazards of a number of chemicals, along with information on whether a chemical reacts with air, water, or other materials. Visitors can create their own custom chemical datasheets or virtually "mix" chemicals to find out what dangers might arise from accidental mixing. The site is rounded out by an excellent FAQ section, along with information about the technical specifications of the program and a development history.

  9. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

  10. The first 2(IB),3(IA)-heterodifunctionalized ?-cyclodextrin derivatives as artificial enzymes.

    PubMed

    Letort, S; Mathiron, D; Grel, T; Albaret, C; Daulon, S; Djedaïni-Pilard, F; Gouhier, G; Estour, F

    2015-02-14

    Novel 2,3-heterodisubstituted ?-cyclodextrin derivatives were designed as artificial enzymes to degrade chemical warfare agents. One of them reduced the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential by soman faster than its monosubstituted analog. PMID:25572650

  11. Optimal Investment in Derivative Securities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Carr; Xing Jin; Dilip B. Madan

    2000-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal investment in a risky asset, and in derivatives written on the price process of this asset, when the underlying asset price process is a pure jump Levy process. The duality approach of Karatzas and Shreve is used to derive the optimal consumption and investment plans. In our economy, the optimal derivative payoff can be

  12. Thermoelastic constitutive equations for chemically hardening materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, B. W.; Levitsky, M.

    1974-01-01

    Thermoelastic constitutive equations are derived for a material undergoing solidification or hardening as the result of a chemical reaction. The derivation is based upon a two component model whose composition is determined by the degree of hardening, and makes use of strain-energy considerations. Constitutive equations take the form of stress rate-strain rate relations, in which the coefficients are time-dependent functions of the composition. Specific results are developed for the case of a material of constant bulk modulus which undergoes a transition from an initial liquidlike state into an isotropic elastic solid. Potential applications are discussed.

  13. Chemical space networks: a powerful new paradigm for the description of chemical space.

    PubMed

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    The concept of chemical space is playing an increasingly important role in many areas of chemical research, especially medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. It is generally conceived as consisting of numerous compound clusters of varying sizes scattered throughout the space in much the same way as galaxies of stars inhabit our universe. A number of issues associated with this coordinate-based representation are discussed. Not the least of which is the continuous nature of the space, a feature not entirely compatible with the inherently discrete nature of chemical space. Cell-based representations, which are derived from coordinate-based spaces, have also been developed that facilitate a number of chemical informatic activities (e.g., diverse subset selection, filling 'diversity voids', and comparing compound collections).These representations generally suffer the 'curse of dimensionality'. In this work, networks are proposed as an attractive paradigm for representing chemical space since they circumvent many of the issues associated with coordinate- and cell-based representations, including the curse of dimensionality. In addition, their relational structure is entirely compatible with the intrinsic nature of chemical space. A description of the features of these chemical space networks is presented that emphasizes their statistical characteristics and indicates how they are related to various types of network topologies that exhibit random, scale-free, and/or 'small world' properties. PMID:24925682

  14. Chemical evolution STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Absorption Chemical evolution STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 8. Absorption; chemical evolution Piet Piet van der Kruit, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute Absorption; chemical evolution #12;Outline Absorption Chemical evolution Outline Absorption Holmberg's analysis Analysis of Disney et al. Edge

  15. Higher-derivative 3-algebras

    E-print Network

    Mohsen Alishahiha; Sunil Mukhi

    2008-09-05

    Starting with the N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on D2-branes and incorporating higher-derivative corrections to lowest nontrivial order, we perform a duality to derive the Lorentzian 3-algebra theory along with a set of derivative corrections. We find that these corrections can be expressed entirely in terms of intrinsic 3-algebra quantities: the 3-bracket and covariant derivatives. Our analysis is performed for both bosonic and fermionic terms. We conjecture that the derivative corrections we obtain are relevant for Euclidean 3-algebra theories as well.

  16. Trioxsalen derivatives with lipoxygenase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Hadjipavlou-Litina, D; E Bariamis, S; Militsopoulou, M; Athanassopoulos, C M; Papaioannou, D

    2009-12-01

    Trioxsalen (TRX) is a 4,5',8-trimethylated psoralen analog presenting interesting biological activities when irradiated with UVA light. A series of TRX derivatives, which where obtained by its chemical modification and incorporation of a variety of unsaturated functions at position 4' of the psoralen ring-system, were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and their inhibitory activity on soybean lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation. The reducing properties of the compounds were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and found to be very low, in the range 0-14%, with the exception of the hydroxamic acid 6 which showed almost identical activity to BHT. TRX derivative 3 significantly inhibited LOX, with IC(50) 9.4 muM. With the exception of TRX, all tested analogs inhibited lipid peroxidation in the range of 35-91%. The most potent compound, namely TRX derivative 3, was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity in vivo on rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, and was found to be of almost identical activity to indomethacin. The results of the biological tests are discussed in terms of structural characteristics. PMID:19912068

  17. Journal of Chemical Education: Chemical Resource Shelf

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1995-01-01

    Produced under the auspices of the Journal of Chemical Education Online, this site is the basis for that journal's "Book Buyer's Guide." It provides high school and college-level chemistry educators with various teaching resources, including a comprehensive index to chemistry textbooks in print. The index is arranged by subject, under which entries are listed in chronological order, from newest to oldest. Subjects covered range from Biochemistry and Computers in Chemistry to Quantum Chemistry and Writing in Science. In addition to basic bibliographic information, when available, each entry includes citations of reviews and links to publishers' online catalogs. Another feature is "Hal's Picks of the Month," a growing archive of over 30 "books and recent articles for teachers of chemistry and related sciences" as recommended and reviewed by Professor Harold (Hal) Harris of the University of Missouri - St. Louis Chemistry Department. "Journals of Interest to Chemical Educators" and "Suppliers of Software for Chemical Education" are two other lists available at this site.

  18. Hand chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. PMID:25653184

  19. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  20. Miniature chemical measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Prospect of microfabricated monolithic devices that accomplish complete chemical assays is enticing. Early work with microfabricated chemical analysis devices focused on separations methods. More recently reagent manipulation has been integrated with separation devices to create more powerful capabilities. Examples of procedures, other than separations, that have been demonstrated on micromachined structures include reagent mixing, dilution, and reaction, preconcentration through sample stacking and biopolymer tagging for detection. Developments in liquid phase microfabricated chemical analysis devices are reviewed.