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Sample records for bilateral dorsal perilunate

  1. Ultrasound assessment of bilateral symmetry in dorsal Lisfranc ligament.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Joshua J; Graves, Nathan C; Rettedal, David D; Frush, Katherine; Vardaxis, Vassilios

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral symmetry of the ligaments is a common assumption used as an intrasubject control for clinical diagnosis. The present study investigated the bilateral symmetry of the dorsal Lisfranc ligament (dLL) using ultrasound. Data were acquired from 50 asymptomatic subjects in a seated position at a loaded calf raise machine equipped with a force plate. The testing conditions included low, medium, and high stress at 0° and 15° abducted foot positions. Images of the dLL were captured and measured using a 10.0-MHz ultrasound transducer and custom written MATLAB software, respectively. The data were analyzed using paired t tests to compare the bilateral measurements of the dLL length under all test conditions. The bilateral pooled dLL length was 7.01 ± 1.38 mm and showed a moderate correlation with the foot length and width. No bilateral differences were found in the dLL length under any of the stress loads in the abducted position or under the medium and high stress load in the rectus position. However, the low stress load rectus position demonstrated a significant bilateral difference in the dLL length (p = .005). The smallest bilateral difference was observed at the 15° abducted position under medium stress (measurement error mean -0.062 mm). Our data suggest that the contralateral dLL length can be used as an intrasubject control for clinical purposes. However, we recommend that the dLL length measurements should be taken in weightbearing position with the foot in the abducted position under medium stress (bilateral stance), reducing potential strain-induced asymmetry. PMID:23522739

  2. The role of arthroscopy for treatment of perilunate injuries.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Guillaume; Burnier, Marion; Marc, Antoine; Merlini, Lorenzo; Izem, Yadar

    2015-05-01

    Background?Open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) is currently the gold standard treatment of acute perilunate injuries (PLIs). Less invasive surgery, including arthroscopic techniques, has recently emerged in the hope that results similar to those of ORIF could be obtained with less tissue disturbance. Our purpose was to review retrospectively a series of selected PLIs treated with arthroscopic assistance over the past 10 years. Materials and Methods?Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 135 acute PLIs were surgically treated in our unit. A total of 27 patients were treated with arthroscopic assistance, among whom 18 were reviewed clinically and radiologically. Description of Technique?After an initial closed gross reduction, radio- and midcarpal arthroscopy were performed to clean up the debris and assess the cartilaginous, bony, and ligamentous damage. In 22 cases arthroscopy was followed by either radiolunate and lunotriquetral pinning, scapholunate ligament repair, and SL joint pinning or ORIF of a scaphoid fracture through a mini-invasive dorsal approach. In the remaining six cases, fixation of the ligamentous and/or bony injuries was done using arthroscopy alone. Results?Arthroscopic findings are presented as well as the clinical results in a subgroup of patients. At final follow-up, visual analog scale (VAS) pain was rated 18/100 on average (minimum 0, maximum 50). If we consider only the patients without reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD; n?=?14), the average active wrist flexion-extension was 87° (58% of the normal contralateral side) and the average grip strength was 30?kg (71% of the normal contralateral side). Conclusions?Although no statistical comparisons were made, we found that the results were similar to those of ORIF. The results of our study suggest that the use of arthroscopy to treat selected PLIs may be a reliable adjunct either alone or in combination with a dorsal mini-open approach. PMID:25945294

  3. Bilateral mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia after chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong-Gui; Kong, Wei-Wei; Ge, Da-Long; Luo, Ceng; Hu, San-Jue

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Low back pain is one of the most inextricable problems encountered in clinics. Animal models that imitate symptoms in humans are valuable tools for investigating low back pain mechanisms and the possible therapeutic applications. With the development of genetic technology in pain field, the possibility of mutating specific genes in mice has provided a potent tool for investigating the specific mechanisms of pain. The aim of the present study was to develop a mouse model of chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD), in which gene mutation can be applied to facilitate the studies of chronic pain. METHODS Chronic compression of L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia was conducted in mice by inserting ?ne stainless steel rods into the intervertebral foramina, one at L4 and the other at L5. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were examined with von Frey filaments and radiating heat stimulator, respectively. RESULTS The CCD mice displayed dramatic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as tactile allodynia in the hindpaw ipsilateral to CCD. In addition, this mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as tactile allodynia was also found to spread to the contralateral hindpaw. CONCLUSION This model, combined with the possible genetic modification, will strengthen our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of low back pain. It also favors the development of new treatment strategies for pain and hyperalgesia after spinal injury and other disorders which affect the dorsal root ganglion in humans. PMID:21788994

  4. Dorsal thalamic nuclei in Caiman crocodilus.

    PubMed

    Pritz, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    In Caiman crocodilus, identification of nuclei that comprise the dorsal thalamus was determined by: injections of retrograde tracers into cortex/pallium; injections of retrograde tracers into the noncortical telencephalon; and injections of anterograde tracers into thalamic nuclei. With the exception of nucleus dorsolateralis anterior, which has bilateral projections, all other dorsal thalamic nuclei send axons to terminate in the ipsilateral telencephalon. Nuclei that only projected to cortex/pallium were: dorsolateralis anterior; diagonalis; and dorsal geniculate. Neuronal aggregates that send axons that terminated in the dorsolateral area (dorsal ventricular ridge) included: rotundus; reuniens pars centralis and pars diffusa; medialis complex posterior; posterocentralis; and area ventrolateralis. Medialis complex anterior axons ended in the ventrolateral area (basal ganglia). Nucleus dorsomedialis projected to both cortex/pallium and the dorsolateral area. Based on the locus of telencephalic termination and fiber trajectory from the dorsal thalamus, nuclei of the dorsal thalamus were divided into several groups. PMID:25116757

  5. Effects of bilateral lesions of the dorsolateral funiculi and dorsal columns at the level of the low thoracic spinal cord on the control of locomotion in the adult cat. I. Treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W; Drew, T

    1996-08-01

    1. A quantitative and longitudinal analysis of locomotion was made after bilateral lesions of the dorsolateral funiculi (DLF) and/or the dorsal columns (DC) in the lower thoracic cord (T12 or T13) in five adult cats. All cats were chronically implanted several weeks before the spinal cord lesion to permit the recording of electromyographic (EMG) activity from selected flexor and extensor muscles of the fore- and hindlimbs of each side. This allowed each cat to act as its own control when comparing the pattern and amplitude of EMG activity before and after the lesion. All experiments were also videotaped to allow an analysis of the kinematic changes before and after the lesions. Kinematic data were only analyzed for the side of the cat facing the camera; for all cats this was the left side. 2. After recovery periods of 2-5 mo, wheat-germ-agglutinated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was injected caudal to the lesion site (normally at L2). The extent of the lesion was verified both histologically and by evaluating the number of HRP-labeled neurons in different supraspinal structures. These analyses showed that the cortico- and rubrospinal tracts (CST and RST, respectively) were completely interrupted, bilaterally, in two of five of the cats; in one of these cats the DCs were also interrupted. In the other three cats there was more variable damage, and the CST and RST were only completely interrupted on the right side of one of these animals. The DCs were completely sectioned in two of these cats. 3. During the 1st wk subsequent to the lesion, most cats had difficulty in supporting their weight and in walking. However, within 10 days all were able to walk, unaided, for extended periods on the treadmill at speeds of at least 0.35 m/s. In the two cats with the complete, bilateral DLF lesions, the animals dragged both their left and right hindpaws along the treadmill belt during the swing phase of the step cycle (paw drag) throughout the testing period of 3-5 mo. In the other three cats, paw drag in either hindlimb was only seen in the 1st 2-3 wk after the lesions, with the exception of the cat with the complete lesion of the DLF on the right side, which showed sustained paw drag in the right hindlimb throughout the testing period. 4. Significant increases in step cycle and swing duration following the lesion were observed only in the two cats with the largest lesions. In all five cats, statistical comparisons of the slopes from a linear regression analysis showed that the relationship between swing and step cycle duration was unchanged by the lesions. 5. Joint angles in the left hindlimb of the two cats with the largest lesions were generally smaller (more flexed) than in the prelesion controls. This was particularly true for the knee and ankle joints. The other three cats showed changed joint angle values for the hip, knee, and ankle only in the 1st 2-3 wk after the lesions. All of the cats, except the one with the least damage to the left DLF, exhibited increased joint excursions at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the left limb throughout the recovery period. 6. There were sustained changes in the coupling between the hip and the knee of the left limb, together with smaller changes in the coupling of the knee and ankle in the two cats with the complete lesions of the DLF. In contrast to the prelesion controls, flexion at the ankle occurred before swing onset in these same two cats. The changes in the coordination between the hip and the knee were associated with changes in the temporal coupling between the hip flexor, sartorius (Srt), and the knee flexor, semitendinosus (St). Despite some improvement, the coupling between these two muscles never fully recovered to the prelesion values. Similar, but smaller, changes in the delay between Srt and St were also seen in two of the other three cats. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:8871204

  6. Bilateral thoracic ganglion cyst : a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kazanci, Burak; Tehli, Ozkan; Türkoglu, Erhan; Guclu, Bulent

    2013-05-01

    Ganglion cysts usually arise from the tissues around the facet joints. It is usually associated with degenerative cahanges in facet joints. Bilateral thoracic ganglion cysts are very rare and there is no previous case that located in bilateral intervertebral foramen compressing the L1 nerve root associated with severe radiculopathy. We report a 53 years old woman who presented with bilateral groin pain and severe numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cystic mass in the intervertebral foramen between 12th thoracal and 1st lumbar vertebrae. The cystic lesions were removed after bilateral exposure of Th12-L1 foramens. The result of hystopathology confirmed the diagnosis as ganglion cyst. The ganglion cyst may compromise lumbar dorsal ganglion when it located in the intervertebral foramen. The surgeon should keep this rare entity in their mind for differential diagnosis. PMID:23908708

  7. The human lumbar dorsal rami.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N; Wilson, A S; Tynan, W

    1982-01-01

    The L 1-4 dorsal rami tend to form three branches, medial, lateral, and intermediate, which are distributed, respectively, to multifidus, iliocostalis, and longissimus. The intertransversarii mediales are innervated by a branch of the dorsal ramus near the origin of the medial branch. The L 4 dorsal ramus regularly forms three branches while the L 1-3 levels the lateral and intermediate branches may, alternatively, arise from a short common stem. The L 5 dorsal ramus is much longer than the others and forms only a medial and an intermediate branch. Each lumbar medial branch innervates two adjacent zygapophysial joints and ramifies in multifidus, supplying only those fascicles which arise from the spinous process with the same segmental number as the nerve. The comparative anatomy of the lumbar dorsal rami is discussed and the applied anatomy with respect to 'rhizolysis', 'facet denervation' and diagnostic paraspinal electromyography is described. PMID:7076562

  8. Sensory and spinal inhibitory dorsal midline crossing is independent of Robo3

    PubMed Central

    Comer, John D.; Pan, Fong Cheng; Willet, Spencer G.; Haldipur, Parthiv; Millen, Kathleen J.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Kaltschmidt, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Commissural neurons project across the midline at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS), providing bilateral communication critical for the coordination of motor activity and sensory perception. Midline crossing at the spinal ventral midline has been extensively studied and has revealed that multiple developmental lineages contribute to this commissural neuron population. Ventral midline crossing occurs in a manner dependent on Robo3 regulation of Robo/Slit signaling and the ventral commissure is absent in the spinal cord and hindbrain of Robo3 mutants. Midline crossing in the spinal cord is not limited to the ventral midline, however. While prior anatomical studies provide evidence that commissural axons also cross the midline dorsally, little is known of the genetic and molecular properties of dorsally-crossing neurons or of the mechanisms that regulate dorsal midline crossing. In this study, we describe a commissural neuron population that crosses the spinal dorsal midline during the last quarter of embryogenesis in discrete fiber bundles present throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Using immunohistochemistry, neurotracing, and mouse genetics, we show that this commissural neuron population includes spinal inhibitory neurons and sensory nociceptors. While the floor plate and roof plate are dispensable for dorsal midline crossing, we show that this population depends on Robo/Slit signaling yet crosses the dorsal midline in a Robo3-independent manner. The dorsally-crossing commissural neuron population we describe suggests a substrate circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal spinal cord. PMID:26257608

  9. Dorsal augmentation with septal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Murrell, George L

    2008-05-01

    Deficiency of nasal dorsal projection may be inherent or acquired. Repair is most commonly performed with an onlay graft. When nasal septal cartilage is available, it is the author's preferred source for graft material. It is important to realize that dorsal augmentation is an operation performed for aesthetic not functional reasons. As such, patients understandably scrutinize their postoperative result, and attention to detail in all aspects of the surgery is critical in achieving a favorable outcome. The author's technique for using septal cartilage for dorsal augmentation is presented. Specific considerations include patient selection and analysis, graft harvesting, preparation, and placement, donor-site care, and recipient site preparation and postoperative care. PMID:20567698

  10. Dorsal Capsuloplasty for Dorsal Instability of the Distal Ulna

    PubMed Central

    Kouwenhoven, S.T.P.; de Jong, T.; Koch, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background?Dorsal instability of the distal ulna can lead to chronic wrist pain and loss of function. Structural changes to the dorsal radioulnar ligaments (DRUL) of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and the dorsal capsule around the ulnar head with or without foveal detachment can lead to volar subluxation of the distal radius e.g., dorsal instability of the distal ulna. Purpose?Is to evaluate the post-operative results of reinstituting distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) stability through reefing of the dorsal capsule and dorsal radioulnar ligaments, with and without a foveal reattachment of the TFCC. Methods?A total of 37 patients were included in this retrospective study. Diagnosis and treatment was based strictly on dry wrist arthroscopy. In 17 patients isolated reefing of the DRUL and their collateral tissue extension was performed. In 20 patients an additional foveal reinsertion was performed. Postoperative results were evaluated with the DASH questionnaire, VAS scores, grip strength and range of motion. These findings were extrapolated in the Mayo wrist score. The two subgroups were compared. Results?Mayo wrist scores of the whole population had a mean of 73. There was no difference between the group that was treated with reefing of the DRUL only and the group that was treated with a combined foveal reinsertion. Conclusion?This relatively simple 'dorsal reefing' procedure, with foveal reinsertion when indicated, is a reliable method to restore volar-dorsal DRUJ stability with a significant decrease in pain sensation, good DASH scores and restoration of functional grip strength and ROM. Type of Study/Level of Evidence?Therapeutic, Level IV. PMID:24436811

  11. Bilateral Integrative Medicine, Obviously

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Steven H.; Shapiro, Simon J.

    2006-01-01

    Unstated and unacknowledged bias has a profound impact on the nature and implementation of integrative education models. Integrative education is the process of training conventional biomedical and traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in each tradition such that patient care may be effectively coordinated. A bilateral education model ensures that students in each tradition are cross-taught by experts from the ‘other’ tradition, imparting knowledge and values in unison. Acculturation is foundational to bilateral integrative medical education and practice. Principles are discussed for an open-minded bilateral educational model that can result in a new generation of integrative medicine teachers. PMID:16786060

  12. Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Yuk Chuen; Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is one of the most common problems encountered in orthopedic practice. However, simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders is quite rare. Case Presentation: We report a case of a 75-year-old woman presented with simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following a trauma, complicated with a traction injury to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. Conclusions: Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. The excessive traction force during closed reduction may lead to nerve palsy. Clear documentation of neurovascular status and adequate imaging before and after a reduction should be performed. PMID:25685749

  13. Dorsal Hump Reduction and Osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Reilly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the technique for planning, executing, and troubleshooting dorsal hump reduction for the cosmetic rhinoplasty patient. Details of the discussion include the necessary elements of the preoperative consultation with the patient, the specific instruments used to effectively and reproducibly create osteotomies, the anatomic and patient variables that require special attention, and the necessary measures to guard against potential complications. PMID:26616694

  14. Echinoderms have bilateral tendencies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chengcheng; Wu, Liang; Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present. PMID:22247765

  15. Does Loss of Spasticity Matter? A 10-Year Follow-up after Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedroff, Kristina; Lowing, Kristina; Jacobson, Dan N. O.; Astrom, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Nineteen children (four females, 15 males; mean age 4y 7mo, SD 1y 7mo) with bilateral spastic CP, were prospectively assessed at baseline and 18 months, 3 years, and 10 years after SDR. Assessments…

  16. Bilateral Parotid Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, JS; Thakur, A; Mohindroo, NK; Mohindroo, S; Sharma, DR

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis of parotid is a rare clinical entity, and cases of bilateral tubercular parotitis are even rarer. We present a case of bilateral primary parotid tuberculosis in a 49-year-old female. The patient received anti-tuberculosis treatment for six months, resulting in complete resolution of the disease. We also review the theories related to the pathogenesis of tubercular parotitis, and propose a novel hypothesis about greater involvement of parotid gland as compared to other salivary glands in primary tuberculosis. PMID:21887065

  17. Bilateral vocal fold chondromas.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying-Ta; Petty, Brian E; Huang, Wei; Dailey, Seth H

    2013-03-01

    Laryngeal chondromas are uncommon, benign, slow-growing neoplasms with few reports in the literature. Vocal fold chondromas are even more rare, and all reported cases are unilateral. Here, we present the first case of bilateral vocal fold chondromas. Detailed evaluation, careful resection with phonomicrosurgery technique, and perioperative voice therapy are considered essential for the management. PMID:23406842

  18. Bilateral Symmetry of Distortions of Tactile Size Perception.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R; Ghosh, Arko; Yahya, Tasneem

    2015-11-01

    The perceived distance between touches on the limbs is generally bigger for distances oriented across the width of the limb than for distances oriented along the length of the limb. The present study aimed to investigate the coherence of such distortions of tactile size perception across different skin surfaces. We investigated distortions of tactile size perception on the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both the left and right hands as well as the forehead. Participants judged which of two tactile distances felt larger. One distance was aligned with the proximodistal axis (along the body), the other with the mediolateral axis (across the body). Clear distortions were found on all five skin surfaces, with stimuli oriented across the width of the body being perceived as farther apart than those oriented along the length of the body. Consistent with previous results, distortions were smaller on the palmar than on the dorsal hand surface. Distortion on the forehead was intermediate between the dorsal and palmar surfaces. There were clear correlations between distortion on the left and right hands, for both the dorsal and palmar skin surfaces. In contrast, within each hand, there was no significant correlation between the two skin surfaces. Distortion on the forehead was not significantly correlated with that on any of the other skin surfaces. These results provide evidence for bilaterally symmetric representations underlying tactile size perception. PMID:26562894

  19. Sonographic features of agenesis of dorsal pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Gouru, Swapna; Senthil, Sathiya

    2013-01-01

    Agenesis of dorsal pancreas is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that occurs due to failure of the dorsal pancreatic bud to form the body and tail of the pancreas. We report the sonographic appearance of this condition in six cases. PMID:24082486

  20. Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyan, Annapurneswari; Radhakrishna, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) is not an uncommon entity in contemporary breast clinics. Improved life expectancy after breast cancer treatment and routine use of contra-lateral breast mammography has led to increased incidence of BBC. Our study objective was to define the epidemiological and tumour characteristics of BBC in India. Materials and Methods A total of 1251 breast cancer patients were treated during the period January 2007 to March 2015 and 30 patients were found to have BBC who constituted the study population (60 tumour samples). Synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBC) was defined as two tumours diagnosed within an interval of 6 months and a second cancer diagnosed after 6 months was labelled as metachronous breast cancer (MBC). Analyses of patient and tumour characteristics were done in this prospective data base of BBC patients. Results Median patient age was 66 years (range 39-85). Majority of the patients had SBC (n=28) and in 12 patients the second tumour was clinically occult and detected only by mammography of the contra-lateral breast. The second tumour was found at lower tumour size compared to the first in 73% of cases and was negative for axillary metastasis in 80% of cases (24/30). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histological type (n=51) and majority of the tumours were ER/PR positive (50/60). Her2 was overexpressed in 13 tumours (21%). Over 70% (22/30) of patients had similar histology in both breasts and amongst them grade concordance was present in about 69% (15/22) of patients. Concordance rates of ER, PR and Her2 statuses were 83%, 80% and 90% respectively. Bilateral mastectomy was the commonest surgery performed in 80% of the patients followed by bilateral breast conservation in 13%. At the end of study period, 26 patients were alive and disease free. Median survival was 29 months (range 3-86 months). Conclusion In most patients with BBC, the second tumour is identified at an early stage than index tumours supporting the importance of contralateral breast cancer screening at the time of primary diagnosis and during follow-up. BBC occurs more frequently in old age group and majority of these tumours are estrogen dependent. There is good pathological concordance between the index tumour and the contralateral breast cancer. PMID:26500995

  1. The functional anatomy of speech perception: Dorsal and ventral processing pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, Hickok and Poeppel (2000) have proposed a new model of the functional anatomy of speech perception. The model posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventrolaterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex which serves as an interface between sound and meaning. The dorsal stream projects dorsoposteriorly toward the parietal lobe and ultimately to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of ``parity'' between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the dorsal stream represents a tight connection between speech perception and speech production, it is not a critical component of the speech perception process under ecologically natural listening conditions. Some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways is also proposed. A variety of recent empirical tests of this model have provided further support for the proposal.

  2. Dorsal stream : from algorithm to neuroscience

    E-print Network

    Jhuang, Hueihan

    2011-01-01

    The dorsal stream in the primate visual cortex is involved in the perception of motion and the recognition of actions. The two topics, motion processing in the brain, and action recognition in videos, have been developed ...

  3. Dorsal Horn Circuits for Persistent Mechanical Pain.

    PubMed

    Peirs, Cedric; Williams, Sean-Paul G; Zhao, Xinyi; Walsh, Claire E; Gedeon, Jeremy Y; Cagle, Natalie E; Goldring, Adam C; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Liu, Zheng; Marell, Paulina S; Seal, Rebecca P

    2015-08-19

    Persistent mechanical hypersensitivity that occurs in the setting of injury or disease remains a major clinical problem largely because the underlying neural circuitry is still not known. Here we report the functional identification of key components of the elusive dorsal horn circuit for mechanical allodynia. We show that the transient expression of VGLUT3 by a discrete population of neurons in the deep dorsal horn is required for mechanical pain and that activation of the cells in the adult conveys mechanical hypersensitivity. The cells, which receive direct low threshold input, point to a novel location for circuit initiation. Subsequent analysis of c-Fos reveals the circuit extends dorsally to nociceptive lamina I projection neurons, and includes lamina II calretinin neurons, which we show also convey mechanical allodynia. Lastly, using inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, we show that multiple microcircuits in the dorsal horn encode this form of pain. PMID:26291162

  4. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, Sanjay; Chaudhary, Dhruva; Singhla, Vikas; Narang, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature. PMID:20931041

  5. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  6. Bilateral Achilles tendon enlargement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Miao, Xu-dong; Yang, Di-sheng; Tao, Hui-min

    2011-12-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare, autosomal-recessive, lipid-storage disease with accumulation of cholestanol in most tissues, particularly within the Achilles tendons. It has been characterized both clinically and biochemically, and recently from the molecular biological aspect as well. Juvenile cataract, childhood diarrhea, mental retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomas are the most prominent features of this disease. Bilateral symmetrical firm masses of Achilles tendons may be the first symptom the patient recognizes because it can jeopardize his or her ability to walk. However, the treatment strategies for tendon tumors vary. In a recent case, we diagnosed the disease properly, according to the clinical manifestations and the radiological and laboratory examinations. The genetic mutation was characterized by analyzing sterol 27-hydroxylase from the patient's family (located on nucleotide 599) and led to a nonsense mutation. It is a unique type of mutation that has never been reported to our knowledge. Tendon lesions are characterized by the loss of muscle fibers and accumulation of lipid products. To help the patient regain the strength of the Achilles tendon and walking abilities, a large area of tendon tumor was excised, followed by reconstruction with a tibialis posterior allograft, which is the second strongest tendon in the foot and ankle. Although the use of this type of graft is uncommon, the final result was satisfactory. At the 10-month follow-up examination, the patient could walk easily without pain. This case report suggests that the surgical procedure will provide an alternative for the repair of large-area degenerative Achilles tendons. PMID:22146219

  7. Diversification of CYCLOIDEA expression in the evolution of bilateral flower symmetry in Caprifoliaceae and Lonicera (Dipsacales)

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Dianella G.; Martins, Tiago; Chimney, Edward; Donoghue, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The expression of floral symmetry genes is examined in the CYCLOIDEA lineage following duplication, and these are linked to changes in flower morphology. The study focuses on Dipsacales, comparing DipsCYC2 gene expression in Viburnum (radially symmetrical Adoxaceae) to members of early-diverging lineages of the bilaterally symmetrical Caprifoliaceae (Diervilla and Lonicera). Methods Floral tissue from six species, which included dorsal, lateral and ventral regions of the corolla, was dissected. RNA was extracted from these tissues and each copy of DipsCYC2 was amplified with reverse transcriptase PCR. Key Results Members of DipsCYC2 were expressed across the corolla in the radially symmetrical Viburnum plicatum. A shift to bilaterally symmetrical flowers at the base of the Caprifoliaceae was accompanied by a duplication of the DipsCYC2 gene, resulting in DipsCYC2A and DipsCYC2B, and by loss of expression of both of these copies in the ventral petal. In Lonicera (Caprifolieae), there is a shift from flowers with two dorsally and three ventrally oriented corolla lobes to a clear differentiation of dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes. This shift entailed a decoupling of expression of DipsCYC2A and DipsCYC2B; DipsCYC2B continues to be expressed in the dorsal and lateral lobes, while DipsCYC2A expression is restricted to just the two dorsal lobes. A reversion to more radially symmetrical flowers within Lonicera was accompanied by a re-expansion of expression of both DipsCYC2A and DipsCYC2B. Conclusions The transition to bilateral symmetry in Caprifoliaceae involved: (a) duplication of an ancestral DipsCYC2 gene; (b) the loss of expression of both of these copies in the ventral petal; and (c) changes in the zone of expression, with one copy continuing to be expressed across the dorsal and lateral petals, and the other copy becoming restricted in expression to the dorsal corolla lobes. PMID:21478175

  8. Dorsal wrist ganglion: Current review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Sanjay; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Ganglion cyst is the most common soft tissue tumour of hand. Sixty to seventy percent of ganglion cysts are found in the dorsal aspect of the wrist. They may affect any age group; however they are more common in the twenties to forties. Its origin and pathogenesis remains enigmatic. Non-surgical treatment is unreliable with a high recurrence rates. Open surgical excision leads to unsightly scar and poor outcome. Arthroscopy excision has shown very promising result with very low recurrence rate. We reviewed the current literature available on dorsal wrist ganglion. PMID:25983472

  9. Dorsal Forebrain Anomaly in Williams Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    in range to that seen in Down syndrome, show an unusual and uneven neuropsychological profileDorsal Forebrain Anomaly in Williams Syndrome Albert M. Galaburda, MD; J. Eric Schmitt, BS; Scott W. Atlas, MD; Stephan Eliez, MD; Ursula Bellugi, EdD; Allan L. Reiss, MD Background: Williams syndrome (WMS

  10. Dorsal and Ventral Pathways for Prosody.

    PubMed

    Sammler, Daniela; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Anwander, Alfred; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Belin, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Our vocal tone-the prosody-contributes a lot to the meaning of speech beyond the actual words. Indeed, the hesitant tone of a "yes" may be more telling than its affirmative lexical meaning [1]. The human brain contains dorsal and ventral processing streams in the left hemisphere that underlie core linguistic abilities such as phonology, syntax, and semantics [2-4]. Whether or not prosody-a reportedly right-hemispheric faculty [5, 6]-involves analogous processing streams is a matter of debate. Functional connectivity studies on prosody leave no doubt about the existence of such streams [7, 8], but opinions diverge on whether information travels along dorsal [9] or ventral [10, 11] pathways. Here we show, with a novel paradigm using audio morphing combined with multimodal neuroimaging and brain stimulation, that prosody perception takes dual routes along dorsal and ventral pathways in the right hemisphere. In experiment 1, categorization of speech stimuli that gradually varied in their prosodic pitch contour (between statement and question) involved (1) an auditory ventral pathway along the superior temporal lobe and (2) auditory-motor dorsal pathways connecting posterior temporal and inferior frontal/premotor areas. In experiment 2, inhibitory stimulation of right premotor cortex as a key node of the dorsal stream decreased participants' performance in prosody categorization, arguing for a motor involvement in prosody perception. These data draw a dual-stream picture of prosodic processing that parallels the established left-hemispheric multi-stream architecture of language, but with relative rightward asymmetry. PMID:26549262

  11. Retinal Glia Promote Dorsal Root Ganglion Axon Regeneration

    E-print Network

    Lorber, Barbara; Chew, Daniel J.; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Chong, Rachel S.; Fawcett, James W.; Martin, Keith R.

    2015-03-27

    growth and branching of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) in culture. Furthermore, transplantation of retinal glia significantly enhanced regeneration of DRG axons past the dorsal root entry zone after root crush in adult rats. To identify...

  12. Organization of thalamic afferents to anterior dorsal ventricular ridge in turtles. I. Projections of thalamic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Balaban, C D; Ulinski, P S

    1981-07-20

    Dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) is a thalamorecipient, subcortical telencephalic structure in reptiles and birds. Although there is a fair amount of information about sources of afferents to DVR, little is known about the relationship of projections from individual thalamic nuclei to the organization of the structure. This study examines the relationship between thalamic projections and both areal and zonal divisions of anterior DVR (ADVR; Balaban, '78a) of emydid turtles with orthograde degeneration, autoradiographic and horseradish peroxidase techniques. Individual thalamic nuclei contribute either a diffuse or a restricted projection to ADVR. Diffuse projections arise primarily from the dorsomedial anterior nucleus. These fine-caliber axons distribute bilaterally over a wide region of the telencephalon via both medial and lateral thalamotelencephalic pathways. The terminal regions include septum, striatum and the medial bank of cortex caudal to the lamina terminalis. In ADVR, the fibers are distributed sparsely in zones 2-4 of dorsal, medial and ventral areas. Restricted projections to ADVR originate in nucleus rotundus, nucleus reuniens and nucleus caudalis. They ascend ipsilaterally in the lateral thalamotelencephalic pathway (lateral forebrain bundle), and enter ADVR rostral to the anterior commissure. Nucleus rotundus projects to zone 4 of dorsal area, nucleus caudalis projects to zones 2-4 of dorsal division of medial area, and nucleus reuniens projects to zones 2-4 of both the ventral division of medial area and the ventral area. Comparison of these results with thalamotelencephalic projections in mammals suggests that diffuse and restricted thalamic projection systems are a common feature of both groups. Restricted thalamic projections in reptiles, birds and mammals terminating in anatomically distinct regions, also appear to be associated with different sensory modalities. The significance of diffuse systems is not clear. PMID:7251947

  13. Visually guided targeting enhances bilateral force variability in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Kenway, Leanne C; Bisset, Leanne M; Kavanagh, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the effect of visual feedback on between-limb force variability relationships in young and older adults. Abduction force was examined in healthy young (n = 15, 25 ± 4 years) and older adults (n = 18, 71 ± 6 years) during simultaneous isometric contractions of both index fingers. Target forces ranged from 5% to 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), where force variability and first dorsal interosseus activity were measured while (1) subjects viewed visual targets for both index fingers, (2) a visual target was provided for the dominant index finger only, and (3) visual targets were removed for both index fingers during bilateral isometric contractions. When subjects were provided with bilateral visual feedback during simultaneous contractions at low forces (5% and 10% MVC), older adults produced greater force variability than younger subjects (p = 0.002). However, when bilateral visual feedback was removed, age-related differences in variability were no longer present. Between-limb force variability differences existed at higher force outputs (20% and 30% MVC) when visual feedback was removed for the nondominant limb during bilateral isometric index finger abduction (p = 0.002). The control of bilateral force variability is compromised in older adults when visuomotor processes are engaged. However, age-related differences in force variability are abolished when no task-related visual feedback is available, and isometric contractions are based on internally guided feedback. PMID:26521134

  14. Effect of Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampal Lesions on Contextual Fear Conditioning and Unconditioned Defensive Behavior Induced by Electrical Stimulation of the Dorsal Periaqueductal Gray

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Carolina Irurita; de Oliveira Galvão, Bruno; Maisonette, Silvia; Landeira-Fernandez, J.

    2014-01-01

    The dorsal (DH) and ventral (VH) subregions of the hippocampus are involved in contextual fear conditioning. However, it is still unknown whether these two brain areas also play a role in defensive behavior induced by electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG). In the present study, rats were implanted with electrodes into the dPAG to determine freezing and escape response thresholds after sham or bilateral electrolytic lesions of the DH or VH. The duration of freezing behavior that outlasted electrical stimulation of the dPAG was also measured. The next day, these animals were subjected to contextual fear conditioning using footshock as an unconditioned stimulus. Electrolytic lesions of the DH and VH impaired contextual fear conditioning. Only VH lesions disrupted conditioned freezing immediately after footshock and increased the thresholds of aversive freezing and escape responses to dPAG electrical stimulation. Neither DH nor VH lesions disrupted post-dPAG stimulation freezing. These results indicate that the VH but not DH plays an important role in aversively defensive behavior induced by dPAG electrical stimulation. Interpretations of these findings should be made with caution because of the fact that a non-fiber-sparing lesion method was employed. PMID:24404134

  15. Common and uncommon bilateral adult renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anjali; Silverman, Paul M.; Kundra, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Masses can involve the kidney unilaterally or bilaterally. The purpose of this article is to review common and uncommon adult renal masses that present bilaterally. Clinical and imaging findings are described. Renal masses that present in a bilateral fashion can have particular clinical and imaging characteristics and knowledge of their presentation enables appropriate diagnosis and management, especially in a multidisciplinary care setting. More commonly found bilateral renal masses that are discussed include metastasis, lymphoproliferative disorders, adult polycystic kidney disease, angiomyolipomas, renal infracts and renal abscesses. Less common bilateral renal masses include transitional cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, and hematomas. PMID:22750134

  16. Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Children after Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Grande, M.; Lisi, G.; Bianchi, D.; Bove, P.; Miano, R.; Esser, A.; De Sanctis, F.; Neri, A.; Grande, S.; Villa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure due to bilateral ureteral obstruction is a rare complication after appendectomy in children. We report a case of bilateral ureteric obstruction in a 14-year-old boy nine days after surgery for an acute appendicitis. After saline-filling of the urinary bladder, transabdominal ultrasound demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis of moderate degree. No abscess was found with CT but presence of millimetric stones on both distal ureters was shown, with bilateral calyceal dilatation. Cystoscopy revealed inflammatory changes in the bladder base. Following introduction of bilateral ureteric stents, there was rapid normalisation of urinary output and serum creatinine. PMID:26295001

  17. Bilateral Crossed "Unfused" Renal Ectopia.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, Aashish; James, Vivek M; Kumar, Amit; Jaimini, Abhinav; Mondal, Anupam

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic kidney-uncrossed or crossed, or with and without fusion-is a common congenital developmental anomaly. Commonly employed imaging modalities used for evaluating such condition include ultrasonography, IV pyelography, and contrast-enhanced CT scan. Here in, we describe a rare case report of an incidentally detected bilateral crossed renal ectopia without fusion on Tc-DTPA scan in the setting of inconclusive ultrasonography and deranged renal function. PMID:26204207

  18. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage.

    PubMed

    McCall, Andrew A; Yates, Bill J

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that non-labyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10?days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained. PMID:22207864

  19. HDAC I inhibition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulates predator-odor fear learning and generalization

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Robin K.; Hebert, Jenna C.; Thomas, Arthur S.; Wann, Ellen G.; Muzzio, Isabel A.

    2015-01-01

    Although predator odors are ethologically relevant stimuli for rodents, the molecular pathways and contribution of some brain regions involved in predator odor conditioning remain elusive. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the dorsal hippocampus has been shown to enhance shock-induced contextual fear learning, but it is unknown if HDACs have differential effects along the dorso-ventral hippocampal axis during predator odor fear learning. We injected MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor, bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus of mice and found that it had no effects on innate anxiety in either region. We then assessed the effects of MS-275 at different stages of fear learning along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Animals were injected with MS-275 or vehicle after context pre-exposure (pre-conditioning injections), when a representation of the context is first formed, or after exposure to coyote urine (post-conditioning injections), when the context becomes associated with predator odor. When MS-275 was administered after context pre-exposure, dorsally injected animals showed enhanced fear in the training context but were able to discriminate it from a neutral environment. Conversely, ventrally injected animals did not display enhanced learning in the training context but generalized the fear response to a neutral context. However, when MS-275 was administered after conditioning, there were no differences between the MS-275 and vehicle control groups in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Surprisingly, all groups displayed generalization to a neutral context, suggesting that predator odor exposure followed by a mild stressor such as restraint leads to fear generalization. These results may elucidate distinct functions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor-induced fear conditioning as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying fear generalization. PMID:26441495

  20. HDAC I inhibition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulates predator-odor fear learning and generalization.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Robin K; Hebert, Jenna C; Thomas, Arthur S; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2015-01-01

    Although predator odors are ethologically relevant stimuli for rodents, the molecular pathways and contribution of some brain regions involved in predator odor conditioning remain elusive. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the dorsal hippocampus has been shown to enhance shock-induced contextual fear learning, but it is unknown if HDACs have differential effects along the dorso-ventral hippocampal axis during predator odor fear learning. We injected MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor, bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus of mice and found that it had no effects on innate anxiety in either region. We then assessed the effects of MS-275 at different stages of fear learning along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Animals were injected with MS-275 or vehicle after context pre-exposure (pre-conditioning injections), when a representation of the context is first formed, or after exposure to coyote urine (post-conditioning injections), when the context becomes associated with predator odor. When MS-275 was administered after context pre-exposure, dorsally injected animals showed enhanced fear in the training context but were able to discriminate it from a neutral environment. Conversely, ventrally injected animals did not display enhanced learning in the training context but generalized the fear response to a neutral context. However, when MS-275 was administered after conditioning, there were no differences between the MS-275 and vehicle control groups in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Surprisingly, all groups displayed generalization to a neutral context, suggesting that predator odor exposure followed by a mild stressor such as restraint leads to fear generalization. These results may elucidate distinct functions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor-induced fear conditioning as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying fear generalization. PMID:26441495

  1. Selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic diplegia secondary to stroke in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Melissa Ann; Berman, Casey Melissa; Mazzola, Catherine Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is often recommended for children with spastic paraparesis and cerebral palsy. SDR reduces spasticity in the lower extremities for these children with spastic paraplegia. However, SDR is infrequently recommended for adults with spasticity. Spastic diplegia in adult patients can be due to stroke, brain or spinal cord injury from trauma, infection, toxic-metabolic disorders, and other causes. Although rarely considered, SDR is an option for adult patients with spastic diplegia as well. Case Description: The authors describe a patient who underwent a SDR with a successful postoperative outcome. This man suffered a hypertensive and hemorrhagic stroke secondary to intravenous drug abuse at age 46. A SDR was performed after two failed intrathecal baclofen pump placements due to recurrent infections, likely resulting from his immunocompromised status. The patient underwent lumbar laminectomies and dorsal rhizotomies at levels L1-S1 bilaterally. Postoperatively, the patient's spasticity was significantly reduced. His Ashworth spasticity score decreased from 4/5 to 1/5, and the reduction in tone has been durable over 3 years. Conclusion: SDR in older patients with spastic paraparesis may be considered as a treatment option. PMID:26167363

  2. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated bilaterally from 14 to 18 weeks old rats, and a primary culture was prepared. Calcium activity was measured ratiometrically using the fluorescent Ca(2+)-indicator Fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester. All neurons were stimulated twice with 20?mM?K(+), followed by stimulation with either 0.3 or 0.5? ? M Capsaicin, alone or in combination with algogenic chemicals (bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2 (all 10(-5)?M), and adenosine (10(-3)?M)) at pH 7.4 and 6.0. Neurons from diabetic animals exhibited an overall increased response to stimulation with 20?mM?K(+) compared to neurons from control. Stimulation with Capsaicin alone caused an augmented response in neurons from diabetic animals compared to control animals. When stimulated with a combination of Capsaicin and algogenic chemicals, no differences between the two groups of neurons were measured, neither at pH 7.4 nor 6.0. In conclusion, diabetes-induced alterations in calcium activity of the DRG neurons were found, potentially indicating altered neuronal responses during myocardial ischemia. PMID:23662103

  3. The Unc-5 Receptor Is Directly Regulated by Tinman in the Developing Drosophila Dorsal Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Asadzadeh, Jamshid; Neligan, Niamh; Canabal-Alvear, Judith J.; Daly, Amanda C.; Kramer, Sunita Gupta; Labrador, Juan-Pablo

    2015-01-01

    During early heart morphogenesis cardiac cells migrate in two bilateral opposing rows, meet at the dorsal midline and fuse to form a hollow tube known as the primary heart field in vertebrates or dorsal vessel (DV) in Drosophila. Guidance receptors are thought to mediate this evolutionarily conserved process. A core of transcription factors from the NK2, GATA and T-box families are also believed to orchestrate this process in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Nevertheless, whether they accomplish their function, at least in part, through direct or indirect transcriptional regulation of guidance receptors is currently unknown. In our work, we demonstrate how Tinman (Tin), the Drosophila homolog of the Nkx-2.5 transcription factor, regulates the Unc-5 receptor during DV tube morphogenesis. We use genetics, expression analysis with single cell mRNA resolution and enhancer-reporter assays in vitro or in vivo to demonstrate that Tin is required for Unc-5 receptor expression specifically in cardioblasts. We show that Tin can bind to evolutionary conserved sites within an Unc-5 DV enhancer and that these sites are required for Tin-dependent transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26356221

  4. Dorsal hippocampal lesions boost performance in the rat sequential reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Eckart, M T; Huelse-Matia, M C; Schwarting, R K W

    2012-05-01

    It is commonly accepted that the hippocampus plays a major role in declarative memory across species and that it is of particular relevance for spatial memory in rodents. However, the interplay between hippocampal function and nondeclarative memory systems, such as procedural stimulus-response (S-R) or sequential learning, is less clear: depending on task requirements, an interaction, dissociation or interference between hippocampal function and other memory systems may occur. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dorsal ibotenic hippocampal lesions on learning and performance of sequential behavior in a rat version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses of the lesions revealed a bilateral volume reduction of ? 46% (histological analyses: ? 59%) of the total hippocampus. They were largely confined to its dorsal part and led to an expected spatial memory deficits in an object place recognition test as compared to healthy controls, even though sham lesions had the same effect. Our earlier studies on sequential learning had revealed substantial impairments in case of dorsal striatal dopaminergic lesions. In the present study, however, hippocampal lesioned animals unexpectedly showed superior performance throughout SRTT testing and training as compared to controls, which resulted in a higher degree of subsequent automated sequential behavior. Thus, our data reveal the infrequent case where hippocampal lesions lead to long-term improvements in test performance of a type of rather complex procedural behavior. One possible explanation for this effect is that hippocampal activity in rodents can interfere with other memory systems during the acquisition of procedural tasks with very low spatial requirements, as used here. Alternative explanations for the observed superior SRTT performance in lesioned animals, such as hyperactivity or increased exploratory drive are also topic of the discussion. PMID:21748823

  5. Bilateral Molariform Mandibular Second Premolars

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Sonu; Kumar Mandal, Pradip; Ghosh, Chiranjit

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side and erupted macrodontic premolar on the other side and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, and molariform crowns and tapering, single roots. PMID:25685564

  6. [Therapeutic approach to bilateral hepatoblastoma].

    PubMed

    Babut, J M; Le Gall, E; Bourdelat, D; Jouan, H; Gruel, Y

    1983-01-01

    The treatment of a case of bilateral hepatoblastoma by continuous infusion of adriamycin in the hepatic artery accompanied by ligature of the right hepatic artery enabled the authors to carry out six weeks later an extensive right lobe hepatectomy. Unfortunately the patient died seven weeks after the partial hepatectomy from complication of surgery. Thus it was possible to demonstrate the effectiveness of the intra arterial chemotherapy. No residual tumor could be found at autopsy. As in the case with the adult, arterial ligature combined with carefully targeted chemotherapy would seem to be potentially important therapeutic option in the treatment of malignant liver tumors in children. PMID:6303615

  7. [Bilateral chylothorax after gastric surgery].

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Anguiano, M P; Agudo, O; Lobo, J; Tihista, J A; Alonso, I; Calvo, A

    2005-01-01

    Chylothorax is a lymphatic effusion of chylous in the pleural space due to thoracic duct obstruction or injury. The most frequent aetiology is cancer; it is also related to chest trauma and iatrogenic. We describe the case of bilateral chylothorax in a 76-year-old woman, right predominant, during the post-operational phase of gastric surgery. This presented itself with respiratory insufficiency and tachycardia without initial haemodynamic compromise. It presented a favourable evolution after conservative treatment, cessation of oral intake and TPN and chest tube during 10 to 14 days. PMID:16421622

  8. Unusual Bilateral Paramolars Associated with Clinical Complications

    PubMed Central

    Sulabha, A. N.; Sameer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Paramolars are rare supernumerary structures of maxillofacial complex that occur buccally or lingually near the molar row. Predominantly these occur singly; bilateral presentation is very rare. This paper reports two unusual bilateral presentations of paramolars with clinical complication and its management. One of the cases in the present paper also documents the cooccurrence of bilateral paramolars and microdontia of single tooth and one of its paramolars presented with multilobed crown with an anomalous buccal tubercle. PMID:26078890

  9. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  10. [Massive bilateral adrenal hemorrhage: role of imaging].

    PubMed

    Kably, M I; Zamiati, W; Benkirane, H; Kadiri, R

    2004-05-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare and potentially life threatening situation in adults. The clinical presentation is non-specific, and the diagnosis is based on imaging. The purpose of this report is to provide an illustrative case of spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage that occurred during pregnancy. The sonographic and computed tomographic findings included large bilateral adrenal hematomas with no evidence of underlying malignancy. Since bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life threatening situation, prompt laboratory and imaging evaluation are essential and may reduce both morbidity and mortality. PMID:15205660

  11. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kaplan, Tevfik; Turker, Hasan Bozkurt; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity. PMID:26175916

  12. Endourological treatment of bilateral ureteral stones in bilateral ureteral duplication with right ureterocele

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Volkan; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Yonguc, Tar?k; Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Polat, Salih; Basmaci, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral collecting system duplication is a very rare abnormality, including the splitting of the ureteric bud. Complete ureteral duplication with two separate openings in the urinary bladder is also extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of bilateral ureteral stones in bilateral duplicated collecting system. PMID:26279727

  13. Identification and molecular characterization of dorsal and dorsal-like genes in the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Min Chul; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-12-01

    To date, knowledge of the immune system in aquatic invertebrates has been reported in only a few model organisms, even though all metazoans have an innate immune system. In particular, information on the copepod's immunity and the potential role of key genes in the innate immune systems is still unclear. In this study, we identified dorsal and dorsal-like genes in the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana. In silico analyses for identifying conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships supported their gene annotations. The transcriptional levels of both genes were slightly increased from the nauplius to copepodid stages, suggesting that these genes are putatively involved in copepodid development of P. nana. To examine the involvement of both genes in the innate immune response and under stressful conditions, the copepods were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), different culture densities, salinities, and temperatures. LPS significantly upregulated mRNA expressions of dorsal and dorsal-like genes, suggesting that both genes are transcriptionally sensitive in response to immune modulators. Exposure to unfavorable culture conditions also increased mRNA levels of dorsal and dorsal-like genes. These findings suggest that transcriptional regulation of the dorsal and dorsal-like genes would be associated with environmental changes in P. nana. PMID:26297599

  14. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  15. Bilateral sporadic aniridia: review of management

    PubMed Central

    Adeoti, Caroline O; Afolabi, Adeyinka A; Ashaye, Adebimpe O; Adeoye, Adenike O

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report a rare case of bilateral sporadic aniridia in an African child and review the management modalities. Presentation We report a case of bilateral sporadic aniridia with horizontal nystagmus, axial cataract optic disc, and fovea hypoplasia in a 5-year-old female patient. She was managed conservatively. Various modalities of treatment are reviewed. PMID:20957053

  16. Structural Alteration of the Dorsal Visual Network in DLB Patients with Visual Hallucinations: A Cortical Thickness MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Franciotti, Raffaella; Tartaro, Armando; Caulo, Massimo; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Visual hallucinations (VH) represent one of the core features in discriminating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Previous studies reported that in DLB patients functional alterations of the parieto-occipital regions were correlated with the presence of VH. The aim of our study was to assess whether morphological changes in specific cortical regions of DLB could be related to the presence and severity of VH. We performed a cortical thickness analysis on magnetic resonance imaging data in a cohort including 18 DLB patients, 15 AD patients and 14 healthy control subjects. Relatively to DLB group, correlation analysis between the cortical thickness and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) hallucination item scores was also performed. Cortical thickness was reduced bilaterally in DLB compared to controls in the pericalcarine and lingual gyri, cuneus, precuneus, superior parietal gyrus. Cortical thinning was found bilaterally in AD compared to controls in temporal cortex including the superior and middle temporal gyrus, part of inferior temporal cortex, temporal pole and insula. Inferior parietal and supramarginal gyri were also affected bilaterally in AD as compared to controls. The comparison between DLB and AD evidenced cortical thinning in DLB group in the right posterior regions including superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, cuneus, pericalcarine and lingual gyri. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between cortical thickness and NPI hallucination item scores showed that the structural alteration in the dorsal visual regions including superior parietal gyrus and precuneus closely correlated with the occurrence and severity of VH. We suggest that structural changes in key regions of the dorsal visual network may play a crucial role in the physiopathology of VH in DLB patients. PMID:24466177

  17. UNMEDULLATED FIBERS ORIGINATING IN DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA

    PubMed Central

    Gasser, Herbert S.

    1950-01-01

    The compound action potential of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia, as recorded in cat skin nerves after conduction of simultaneously initiated impulses, shows among its components a temporal dispersion corresponding to velocities between 2.3 and 0.7 M.P.S. The maximum representation of the component velocities is at about 1.2 M.P.S. On both sides of the maximum the representation falls off irregularly, in such a way that groupings in the distribution produce in the action potential a configuration in which successive features appear always in the same positions at a given conduction distance. Through this demonstration of a characteristic configuration the system of the unmedullated fibers is brought into analogy with that of the medullated fibers. The unmedullated fibers originating in the dorsal root ganglia have distinctive physiological properties, among which is a large positive potential which reaches its maximum immediately after the spike and decrements to half relaxation in about 50 msec., at 37°C. The positive phases of the unit potentials in the compound action potential, owing to their duration, sum to a much greater extent than the temporally dispersed spikes; and, since they have sizes such that one equivalent to 25 per cent of the spike height would not be at the limit, in the summation process the major portion of the compound action potential is caused to be written at a potential level positive to the starting base line. The position of the spikes in the sequence can be seen in the analyses in Section III. The course of the activity in unit fibers is subject to variation in ways affecting the positive potential. Preliminary descriptions, based on orienting experiments, of how these variations are conditioned are given in Section I. Two of the findings are particularly noteworthy. One is the high sensitivity of the dimensions of the postspike positivity to temperature in the range of temperatures at which skin nerves may be expected to function, even when the environmental temperatures of an animal are moderate. The other is the high sensitivity to conditioning by previous activity. The positivity is first decreased, then replaced by a negative potential of similar duration. Reasons have been given why it is inadvisable at the present time to call the postspike potential an after-potential. A comparison has been made of the properties of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia with those of fibers arising from sympathetic ganglia. The differences are so great that, in the interest of precision in designation, a division of the C group of fibers into two subgroups is indicated. It is suggested that the two subgroups be named respectively d.r.C and s.C. Measurements have been made of the diameters of the d.r.C fibers in a saphenous nerve stained with silver. Graphs showing the number of fibers at each diameter are presented in Section II. In Section III there are shown constructions, from histological data, of the action potential as it would appear, after 3 cm. of conduction, with the correlation between diameter and velocity in strict linearity. The degree of fit between the constructed and recorded potentials can be seen in Fig. 18. PMID:15428610

  18. Bilateral cochlear implants in children R. Litovskya,*, P. Johnstonea

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    Bilateral cochlear implants in children R. Litovskya,*, P. Johnstonea , A. Parkinsonb , R. Petersc of listening with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) improves the ability of children to hear speech in noise reserved. Keywords: Bilateral; Cochlear; Implantation; Pediatric; Binaural; Experience 1. Introduction

  19. RTK signaling modulates the Dorsal gradient.

    PubMed

    Helman, Aharon; Lim, Bomyi; Andreu, María José; Kim, Yoosik; Shestkin, Tatyana; Lu, Hang; Jiménez, Gerardo; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Paroush, Ze'ev

    2012-08-01

    The dorsoventral (DV) axis of the Drosophila embryo is patterned by a nuclear gradient of the Rel family transcription factor, Dorsal (Dl), that activates or represses numerous target genes in a region-specific manner. Here, we demonstrate that signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) reduces nuclear levels and transcriptional activity of Dl, both at the poles and in the mid-body of the embryo. These effects depend on wntD, which encodes a Dl antagonist belonging to the Wingless/Wnt family of secreted factors. Specifically, we show that, via relief of Groucho- and Capicua-mediated repression, the Torso and EGFR RTK pathways induce expression of WntD, which in turn limits Dl nuclear localization at the poles and along the DV axis. Furthermore, this RTK-dependent control of Dl is important for restricting expression of its targets in both contexts. Thus, our results reveal a new mechanism of crosstalk, whereby RTK signals modulate the spatial distribution and activity of a developmental morphogen in vivo. PMID:22791891

  20. Two case reports of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Ye, Lin-Yang; Yu, Bo; Guo, Jia-Xiang; Liu, Qian; Chen, Yun

    2015-09-16

    Primary adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, non-functioning adrenal benign tumor that is composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of haemopoietic elements. Clinically, it is difficult to get diagnosed with adrenal myelolipoma because the patient usually doesn't have obvious symptoms and signs in early stage. In the present study, two cases of primary bilateral adrenal myelolipomas are reported. Clinical presentation, imaging diagnostic features, histopathological changes and surgical treatments of the two patients are discussed. Preoperative diagnostic imaging examinations (B-mode ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging sans) assisted getting a prediction diagnosis of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas. A two-stage surgery was used to successfully excise bilateral adrenal myelolipomas in the two patients. Conventional open adrenalectomy was applied to remove the adrenal myelolipomas greater than 6 cm, and laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed to excise the adrenal tumors smaller than 6 cm. Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas of the two patients were finally confirmed by postoperative histopathological examinations. Understanding clinical, imaging diagnostic and histopathological features of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas will facilitate timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Surgical removal of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas is safe, curative and beneficial. The two-stage surgery appears to be the best treatment option for the patients with bilateral adrenal myelolipomas because it achieves optimal treatment effectiveness with minimized sequelae. PMID:26380835

  1. Two case reports of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Ye, Lin-Yang; Yu, Bo; Guo, Jia-Xiang; Liu, Qian; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Primary adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, non-functioning adrenal benign tumor that is composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of haemopoietic elements. Clinically, it is difficult to get diagnosed with adrenal myelolipoma because the patient usually doesn’t have obvious symptoms and signs in early stage. In the present study, two cases of primary bilateral adrenal myelolipomas are reported. Clinical presentation, imaging diagnostic features, histopathological changes and surgical treatments of the two patients are discussed. Preoperative diagnostic imaging examinations (B-mode ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging sans) assisted getting a prediction diagnosis of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas. A two-stage surgery was used to successfully excise bilateral adrenal myelolipomas in the two patients. Conventional open adrenalectomy was applied to remove the adrenal myelolipomas greater than 6 cm, and laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed to excise the adrenal tumors smaller than 6 cm. Bilateral adrenal myelolipomas of the two patients were finally confirmed by postoperative histopathological examinations. Understanding clinical, imaging diagnostic and histopathological features of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas will facilitate timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Surgical removal of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas is safe, curative and beneficial. The two-stage surgery appears to be the best treatment option for the patients with bilateral adrenal myelolipomas because it achieves optimal treatment effectiveness with minimized sequelae. PMID:26380835

  2. Fibromuscular Dysplasia Presenting with Bilateral Renal Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Doody, O.; Adam, W. R.; Foley, P. T.; Lyon, S. M.

    2009-03-15

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report a rare case of bilateral segmental renal infarction secondary to FMD in a young male patient. His initial presentation with loin pain and pyrexia resulted in a delay in the definitive diagnosis of FMD. He was successfully treated with bilateral balloon angioplasty. The delayed diagnosis in this patient until the condition had progressed to bilateral renal infarcts highlights the need for prompt investigation and diagnosis of suspected cases of FMD.

  3. Bilateral Tubercular Mastitis - Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A K; Mubin, S; Yousuf, N A; Rahman, M; Islam, M A; Ahmed, S U

    2015-07-01

    Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis. Moreover the disease is often overlooked and misdiagnosed as carcinoma or pyogenic abscess. Reports on breast tuberculosis have been few; reported incidence of breast tuberculosis amongst the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.1 and 4 percent. Bilateral involvement is still more uncommon (3%). Here we report 3 cases of adult female ranging from 27 to 35 years who presented with 1 to 4 months history of firm lumps in both breasts and no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of breast lump in all 3 cases were done but in 1 case showed evidence of tubercular mastitis and other 2 cases findings were inconclusive. Subsequent Excisional Biopsy of those 2 cases showed features of tuberculosis. All 3 were prescribed with four drug anti-tubercular treatments continued for 12 months in 2 cases and 9 months in other case depending upon their response. The lumps disappeared and ulcer healed after anti-tubercular treatment. PMID:26329964

  4. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra.

  5. Identification of dorsal-ventral hippocampal differentiation in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Kally C; Flatberg, Arnar; Islam, Sobia; Olsen, Lene C; Kruge, Ingvild Ulsaker; Witter, Menno P

    2015-09-01

    The adult hippocampal formation (HF) is functionally, connectionally, and transcriptionally differentiated along the dorsal-ventral axis. At birth, the hippocampus appears shortened along its dorsal-ventral axis. We therefore questioned at what postnatal age the differentiated dorsal-ventral hippocampus is present. We first established that the ventral tissue in the short postnatal hippocampus remains ventral in the adult-like hippocampus. Second, using anatomical tracing techniques we report that, within the first postnatal week, the main input from the entorhinal cortex (EC) to HF is topographically organized. The terminal distribution of this input along the dorsal-ventral axis of HF was related to a dorsolateral-to-ventromedial axis of origin in EC, thus reflecting adult topography. Finally, we examined gene expression along the dorsal-ventral axis in the developing hippocampus. We found that several genes that were differentially enriched in the adult dorsal and ventral hippocampus were similarly enriched in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal poles at birth. The differentially expressed genes relate to different molecular pathways and biomarkers of disease. Taken together, these data lead us to conclude that the entire dorsal-ventral axis of HF is present at birth showing adult-like functional differentiation. Moreover, our findings indicate that the neonatal ventral hippocampus is enriched with biomarkers associated with mental illnesses. These include schizophrenia, affective and anxiety disorders, disorders previously deemed as ventral hippocampal associated disorders, as well as alcoholism. Our results thus suggest an early developmental susceptibility of the ventral HF to mental illness. PMID:25012113

  6. Interactions between dorsal and ventral streams for controlling skilled grasp

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The two visual systems hypothesis suggests processing of visual information into two distinct routes in the brain: a dorsal stream for the control of actions and a ventral stream for the identification of objects. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that the dorsal and ventral streams are not strictly independent, but do interact with each other. In this paper, we argue that the interactions between dorsal and ventral streams are important for controlling complex object-oriented hand movements, especially skilled grasp. Anatomical studies have reported the existence of direct connections between dorsal and ventral stream areas. These physiological interconnections appear to be gradually more active as the precision demands of the grasp become higher. It is hypothesised that the dorsal stream needs to retrieve detailed information about object identity, stored in ventral stream areas, when the object properties require complex fine-tuning of the grasp. In turn, the ventral stream might receive up to date grasp-related information from dorsal stream areas to refine the object internal representation. Future research will provide direct evidence for which specific areas of the two streams interact, the timing of their interactions and in which behavioural context they occur. PMID:26169317

  7. Development and plasticity of dorsal and ventral visual functions : insights from behavioral and FMRI investigations of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy

    E-print Network

    Noonan, Sarah Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    perception and spatial perception; differential impairmentterms of its role in spatial perception, it is also widelyspatial categorization in young infants:“What” and “where” in early visual perception.

  8. 1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye

    E-print Network

    Singh, Amit

    1 Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of 2 the Drosophila eye 3 Sarah M. Oros a,b,1 , Meghana Tare b,1 , Madhuri Kango-Singh a,b,c , Amit Singh a,b,c, 4 xxxx 141516 17 Keywords: 18 Drosophila eye 19 Dorso-ventral eye patterning 20 Pannier 21 GATA-1 22

  9. Rapid Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Brain Regions after Early Bilateral Enucleation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Functional sensory and motor areas in the developing mammalian neocortex are formed through a complex interaction of cortically intrinsic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and cortically extrinsic mechanisms such as those mediated by thalamic input from the senses. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are believed to be involved in cortical patterning and the establishment of areal boundaries in early development; however, the nature of the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic processes is not well understood. In a previous study, we used a perinatal bilateral enucleation mouse model to test some aspects of this interaction by reweighting sensory input to the developing cortex. Visual deprivation at birth resulted in a shift of intraneocortical connections (INCs) that aligned with ectopic ephrin A5 expression in the same location ten days later at postnatal day (P) 10. A prevailing question remained: Does visual deprivation first induce a change in gene expression, followed by a shift in INCs, or vice versa? In the present study, we address this question by investigating the neuroanatomy and patterns of gene expression in post-natal day (P) 1 and 4 mice following bilateral enucleation at birth. Our results demonstrate a rapid reduction in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) size and ephrin A5 gene expression 24-hours post-enucleation, with more profound effects apparent at P4. The reduced nuclear size and diminished gene expression mirrors subtle changes in ephrin A5 expression evident in P1 and P4 enucleated neocortex, 11 and 8 days prior to natural eye opening, respectively. Somatosensory and visual INCs were indistinguishable between P1 and P4 mice bilaterally enucleated at birth, indicating that perinatal bilateral enucleation initiates a rapid change in gene expression (within one day) followed by an alteration of sensory INCs later on (second postnatal week). With these results, we gain a deeper understanding of how gene expression and sensory input together regulate cortical arealization and plasticity during early development. PMID:26452243

  10. Deep dorsal vein arterialization in arteriogenic impotence: use of the dorsal artery as a neoarterial source.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J M; Kaufman, J L; Fitch, W P

    1995-09-01

    Deep dorsal vein (DDV) arterialization has developed as a treatment option for patients with arteriogenic impotence, especially in situations where artery-to-artery bypass is not feasible. The inferior epigastric artery (IEA), harvested through a lower abdominal incision, has usually served as the neoarterial source. Using dynamic infusion cavernosometry and cavernosography (DICC) to evaluate arterial and venous erection factors and pudendal arteriography to define arterial anatomy, we have identified 16 patients with cavernosal artery (CA) obstruction and a normal dorsal artery (DA) to serve as the neoarterial source. All patients were less than 50 years old (mean 34.8 +/- 8.6 years). During DICC, the gradient between systemic and CA systolic occlusion pressures averaged 38.7 mmHg. Two patients showed moderate and two minimal corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD). From 1991-94, all 16 underwent microscopic DA-DDV arterialization. Four of these patients also underwent venous ligation procedures and three had IEA bypass to the other DA. With adequate follow-up in 15 men, the results for six are considered excellent or normal (40%); eight improved (53.3%) and one was unchanged. In the improved group are three men who did not respond adequately to maximum penile injection therapy before surgery but used small doses afterward with success. Of the three smokers in the series, two were improved and one unchanged. Excellent results were found in four of five men (80%) under age 30 but only one of five (20%) over age 40. Complications included two instances of penile shortening and one of glans hyperemia requiring reoperation. By avoiding an abdominal approach, operative times, morbidity and recovery were substantially shortened. This operative approach can provide an excellent treatment for nonsmokers with CA obstruction and a normal DA. PMID:8750049

  11. Functional-structural degeneration in dorsal and ventral attention systems for Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shaowen; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Li, Bo; Sun, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidence of attention related failures in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has already been proposed by previous studies. However, previous studies lacked of systematic investigation on the functional and structural substrates for attention function for patients with AD and aMCI. In this work, we investigated the functional connectivity and gray matter density in dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN, VAN) of normal participants (n?=?15) and patients with aMCI (n?=?12) and AD (n?=?16) by applying group independent component analysis (ICA) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Using ICA, we extracted the functional patterns of DAN and VAN which are respectively responsible for the "top-down" attention process and "bottom-up" process. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant group-differed functional connectivity in bilateral frontal eye fields (FEF) area and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) area, as well as posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus in the dorsal system. With regard to the ventral system, group-effects were significantly focused in right orbital superior/middle frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus around the temporal-parietal junction area. Post hoc cluster-level comparisons revealed totally impaired functional substrates for both attentional networks for patients with AD, whereas selectively impaired attention systems for patients with aMCI with impaired functional patent of DAN but preserved functional pattern of VAN. Correspondingly, VBM analysis revealed gray matter loss in right ventral and dorsal frontal cortex was in the AD group, whereas preserved gray matter density was in aMCI, even a little extent of expansion of gray matter density in several participants. Using multivariate regression analysis we found discrepant couplings of functional-structural degenerations between both patient groups. Specifically, positive coupling of structural-functional degeneration was found in right dorsal and ventral frontal cortex in the AD group, whereas inverse coupling in dorsal frontal cortex was found in the aMCI group. These findings suggested discrepant functional-structural degenerations in both attention systems between both patient groups, widening avenues to better understanding the attentional deficits in patients with aMCI and AD. PMID:25452158

  12. Meso-diencephalic regions projecting to spinal cord and dorsal column nuclear complex in the hedgehog-tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of neurons projecting to the spinal cord and dorsal column nuclear complex was investigated in the mesodiencephalic regions of the lesser hedgehog-tenrec, Echinops telfairi (Insectivora) by using the retrograde flow technique. While only few neurons projected to the dorsal column nuclear complex, numerous cells were found to give rise to spinal projections. Rubro-spinal neurons of various sizes were distributed over the entire rostrocaudal extent of the contra-lateral nucleus; a few neurons were also located ipsilaterally, Unlike that of the opossum, the projection appeared to be somatotopically organised. Interstitio-spinal neurons were differentiated into several subpopulations according to their location and laterality of projection. In the ipsilateral periventricular grey, in addition, there was a distinct population of cells possibly corresponding to the nucleus of Darkschewitsch. The mesencephalic central grey contained relatively few labeled neurons, the great majority of them being mesencephalic trigeminal, ectopic cuneiform or midline cells. Labeled cuneiform and midline cells, on the other hand, were quite numerous, extending both from a level just caudal to the trochlear nucleus to levels far beyond the rostral tip of the somatic oculomotor nucleus. The discrepancy between the poorly differentiated oculomotor nuclei and the apparently well-developed Edinger-Westphal complex is discussed. Hypothalamo-spinal neurons were essentially restricted to dorsal regions: the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PAV), the dorso-medial (DmHy) and dorso-intermediate cell groups as well as the lateral hypothalamic zone. The latter two cell groups were bilaterally labeled, while the labeled neurons in DmHy and PAV were located predominantly ipsilaterally. Labeled neurons in the amygdala, colliculus superior and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were only found following cervical injections; all other mentioned areas and the posterior commissure complex projected to, at least, midthoracic level. PMID:1736685

  13. Muscarinic type 2 receptors in the lateral dorsal tegmental area modulate cocaine and food seeking behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, S; Foster, R; Gubner, N; Phillips, TJ; Mark, GP

    2010-01-01

    The cholinergic input from the lateral dorsal tegmental area (LDTg) modulates the dopamine cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and plays an important role in cocaine taking. Specific pharmacological agents that block or stimulate muscarinic receptors in the LDTg change acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the VTA. Furthermore, manipulations of cholinergic input in the VTA can change cocaine taking. In the current study, the ACh output from the LDTg was attenuated by treatment with the selective muscarinic type 2 (M2) autoreceptor agonist oxotremorine sesquifumarate (OxoSQ). We hypothesized that OxoSQ would reduce the motivation of rats to self-administer both natural and drug rewards. Animals were tested on progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement for food pellets and cocaine. On test days, animals on food and on cocaine schedules were bilaterally microinjected prior to the test. Rats received either LDTg OxoSQ infusions or LDTg artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) infusions in a within-subjects design. In addition, infusions were delivered into a dorsal brain area above LDTg as an anatomical control region. OxoSQ microinjection in the LDTg, compared to aCSF, significantly reduced both the number of self-administered pellets and cocaine infusions during the initial half of the session; this reduction was dose-dependent. OxoSQ microinjections into the area just dorsal of the LDTg had no significant effect on self-administration of food pellets or cocaine. Animals were also tested in locomotor activity chambers for motor effects following the above microinjections. Locomotor activity was mildly increased by OxoSQ microinjection into the LDTg during the initial half of the session. Overall, these data suggest that LDTg cholinergic neurons play an important role in modifying the reinforcing value of natural and drug rewards. These effects cannot be attributed to significant alterations of locomotor behavior and are likely accomplished through LDTg muscarinic autoreceptors. PMID:20667466

  14. Bilateral self-inflicted infectious dacryoadenitis.

    PubMed

    Latasiewicz, Marta; Chang-Sotomayor, Meilin; Alonso-Caldarelli, Claudia; Farias-Plazas, Fabian; Leszczynska, Anna; Gonzalez-Candial, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this report is to present a case of a patient with bilateral lacrimal gland abscesses in the course of dacryoadenitis. A 45-year-old female patient with a long history of cocaine abuse presented with bilateral bacterial dacryoadenitis and upper lid inflammation with purulent discharge from a palpebral wound of the right upper lid. The diagnosis was confirmed with microbiology culture and an orbital CT scan, which revealed lacrimal gland abscesses. The patient admitted to vigorous eye scratching, which we believe was the mechanism responsible for the process. The infection resolved on targeted antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of bilateral infectious dacryoadenitis produced in a self-inflicted mechanism in a cocaine addict. PMID:25208047

  15. Bilateral Supernumerary Kidney: A Very Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Suat; Batur, Abdussamet; Keskin, Zeynep; Koc, Abdulkadir; Firat Ozcan, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    To our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare renal abnormality and there are five cases presented in the literature. It is difficult to diagnose supernumerary kidney and clinicians have not detected most cases preoperatively. Laboratory and imaging studies were acquired and carefully examined. The normal laboratory tests were found. Emergency ultrasonography was performed and they revealed no signs of parenchymal abnormality in both kidneys. Serial imaging study including enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. An imaging study identified bilateral supernumerary kidney with expanded collecting systems. On each side, significant rotation anomaly was found. In addition, there were two different renal arteries originating from the aorta. This report presents radiological determinations of supernumerary kidney bilaterally in a young man. We think that CT commonly appears to be enough for the diagnosis of supernumerary kidneys. PMID:25780543

  16. Selective Functional Disconnection of the Dorsal Subregion of the Temporal Pole in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lixue; Qin, Wen; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Zhu, Jiajia; Liu, Huaigui; Liu, Xingyun; Xu, Yongjie; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Although extensive resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes have been reported in schizophrenia, rsFC changes in the temporal pole (TP) remain unknown. The TP contains several subregions with different connection patterns; however, it is not known whether TP subregions are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Sixty-six schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy comparison subjects underwent resting-state fMRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in (SENSE-SPIRAL) imaging sequence to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The TP was subdivided into the dorsal (TPd) and ventral (TPv) subregions. Mean fMRI time series were extracted for each TP subregion and entered into a seed-based rsFC analysis. Direct between-group comparisons revealed reduced rsFC between the right TPd and brain regions involved in language processing and multisensory integration in schizophrenia, including the left superior temporal gyrus, left mid-cingulate cortex, and right insular cortex. The rsFC changes of the right TPd in schizophrenia were independent of the grey matter reduction of this subregion. Moreover, these rsFC changes were unrelated to illness severity, duration of illness and antipsychotic medication dosage. No significant group differences were observed in the rsFC of the left TPd and bilateral TPv subregions. These findings suggest a selective (the right TPd) functional disconnection of TP subregions in schizophrenia. PMID:26058049

  17. An in vitro assay system for studying synapse formation between nociceptive dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn neurons

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Donald J.; Choudhury, Papiya; MacDermott, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Synapses between nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and spinal cord dorsal horn neurons represent the first loci for transmission of painful stimuli. Our knowledge of the molecular organization and development of these synapses is sparse due, partly, to a lack of a reliable model system that reconstitutes synaptogenesis between these two neuronal populations. To address this issue, we have established an in vitro assay system consisting of separately purified DRG neurons and dorsal horn neurons on astrocyte micro-islands. Using immunocytochemistry, we have found that 97%, 93%, 98%, 96%, and 94% of DRG neurons on these microislands express markers often associated with nociceptive neurons including Substance P, TRPV1, calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), TrKA, and peripherin, respectively. Triple labeling with these nociceptive-like markers, synaptic vesicle marker Vglut2 and using MAP2 as a dendritic marker revealed the presence of nociceptive-like markers at synaptic terminals. Using this immunocytochemical approach, we counted contact points as overlapping MAP2/Vglut2 puncta and showed that they increased with time in culture. Single and dual patch clamp recordings showed that overlapping Vglut2/MAP2 puncta observed after a few days in culture are likely to be functional synapses between DRG and dorsal horn neurons in our in vitro assay system. Taken together, these data suggest our co-culture microisland model system consists of mostly nociceptive-like DRG neurons that express presynaptic markers and form functional synapses with their dorsal horn partners. Thus, this model system may have direct application for studies on factors regulating development of nociceptive DRG/dorsal horn synapses. PMID:20385165

  18. Unusual Presentation of Recurrent Pyogenic Bilateral Psoas Abscess Causing Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism by Iliac Vein Compression

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Mohsin; Sakam, Sailaja; Ashraf, Umair; Marquez, Jose Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Bilateral psoas abscess • acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis • bilateral pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Progressive left leg swelling • productive cough with whitish sputum • right flank pain Medication: Antibiotics and anticoagulation Clinical Procedure: CT-guided percutaneous drain placement Specialty: Internal Medicine/Critical Care Objective: Unusual presentation Background: Psoas abscesses are a known cause of back pain, but they have not been reported as a cause of acute lower extremity thromboses and bilateral pulmonary emboli. We report a patient with bilateral psoas abscesses causing extensive pulmonary emboli through compression of the iliac vein. Case Report: A 47-year-old man presented with bilateral leg swelling over 4 weeks. Physical examination revealed a thin male with bilateral leg swelling, extending to the thigh on his left side. He had hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl, leukocytosis of 16 000/ml, and an elevated D-dimer. A computed tomography (CT) angiogram of his chest showed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli and infarcts. He remained febrile with vague flank pain, prompting a CT of his abdomen and pelvis that showed large, multiloculated, septated, bilateral psoas abscesses with compression of the left femoral vein by the left psoas abscess and a thrombus distal to the occlusion. Two liters of pus was drained from the left psoas abscess by CT-guidance, and although the Gram staining showed Gram-positive cocci in clusters, cultures from the abscess and blood were negative. A repeat CT showed resolution of the abscesses, and the drain was removed. He was discharged to a nursing home to complete a course of intravenous antibiotics and anticoagulation. Conclusions: Although the infectious complications of psoas abscesses have been described in the literature, the mechanical complications of bilateral psoas abscesses are lacking. It is important to assess for complete resolution of psoas abscesses through follow-up imaging to prevent venous thromboembolic events. PMID:26356406

  19. Atraumatic bilateral scapular spine fracture several months after bilateral reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Simon; De Beuckeleer, Luc; Stoffelen, Daniël; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Pouillon, Marc

    2014-05-01

    We report an 89-year-old woman with bilateral atraumatic scapular spine fracture several months after bilateral reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Recently, RTSA has gained popularity in the surgical treatment of complex shoulder disorders such as cuff tear arthropathy. However, scapular fractures may occur several months after surgery as a late complication of this procedure. In this case report we focus on a relatively uncommon subtype, the scapular spine fracture. Although well-known in the orthopedic literature, radiologists are less familiar with this complication. To the best of our knowledge, bilateral scapular fractures have not yet been reported. PMID:24276680

  20. Chromatin and transcriptional regulators act in a cascade to establish a bilateral asymmetry of the C. elegans nervous system

    E-print Network

    Nakano, Shunji, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Neuroanatomical bilateral asymmetry is a widespread feature in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Although mostly bilaterally symmetric, the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans displays bilateral asymmetry. Bilateral ...

  1. SCORPION DIAGRAM: DORSAL VIEW OF CENTRUROIDESVITTATUS Chester J. Stojanovich

    E-print Network

    23e SCORPION DIAGRAM: DORSAL VIEW OF CENTRUROIDESVITTATUS Chester J. Stojanovich ,...pedipalp I I I po s tab do m e n( ..... ..... ..... #12;.24 SCORPION DIAGRAM: VENTRAL VIEW OF CENTRUROIDES with many setae 8tinger with few setae Hadruru.· arizonensis OLIVE HAIRY SCORPION I I stinger without

  2. Role of the Dorsal Hippocampus in Object Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Sara; Russo, Fabio; Torromino, Giulia; Pendolino, Valentina; Calabresi, Paolo; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal hippocampus is crucial for mammalian spatial memory, but its exact role in item memory is still hotly debated. Recent evidence in humans suggested that the hippocampus might be selectively involved in item short-term memory to deal with an increasing memory load. In this study, we sought to test this hypothesis. To this aim we developed…

  3. Selective dorsal rhizotomy in Hong Kong: multidimensional outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sophelia Hoi-Shan; Yam, Kwong Yiu; Yiu-Lau, Beverley Pui-Heung; Poon, Candice Yuen-Ching; Chan, Nerita Nar-Chi; Cheung, Ho Man; Wu, Morris; Chak, Wai Kwong

    2008-07-01

    We prospectively case series study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of selective dorsal rhizotomy plus physiotherapy. Twenty children with spastic cerebral palsy, selected for selective dorsal rhizotomy (mean age, 8.57 years; range, 5.96-11.18 years), were assessed before, and 6 and 12 months after, selective dorsal rhizotomy. Main outcome measures included the Modified Ashworth Scale, passive range of joint movement, the Gross Motor Function Measure, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, and three-dimensional gait analysis. The results confirmed that selective dorsal rhizotomy plus physiotherapy provided a statistically significant reduction of spasticity, functional improvements in mobility and self-care performance, and increased participation in social situations in our study group (85% exhibited normal intelligence, and 90% belonged to Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III). The Gross Motor Function Measure proved to be sensitive in documenting motor functional changes, except for children at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I. Instrumental three-dimensional gait analysis with kinematics and kinetics data analysis confirmed gait improvements in children of higher motor function. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure indicated improvements in social participation. PMID:18555169

  4. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. PMID:23097247

  5. Bilateral ptosis: an atypical presentation of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Naphade, Pravin Umakant; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Rai, Dheeraj

    2012-01-01

    Isolated ptosis is a rare presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC). Here we report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with acute onset bilateral symmetrical ptosis with no other neurological deficit. Her imaging revealed a single cystic ring-enhancing lesion with perilesional oedema in the midbrain suggestive of NCC. She responded well to prednisolone. PMID:22843753

  6. Bilateral ptosis: an atypical presentation of neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Naphade, Pravin Umakant; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Rai, Dheeraj

    2012-01-01

    Isolated ptosis is a rare presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC). Here we report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with acute onset bilateral symmetrical ptosis with no other neurological deficit. Her imaging revealed a single cystic ring-enhancing lesion with perilesional oedema in the midbrain suggestive of NCC. She responded well to prednisolone. PMID:22843753

  7. Why Women Are Choosing Bilateral Mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Suplee, Patricia D; D'Emilia, Ian

    2015-12-01

    The rate of women choosing to have a bilateral mastectomy as a treatment for unilateral breast cancer has increased since the 1990s, particularly among younger women. This article describes a qualitative study that was conducted to explore this decision-making process. PMID:26583641

  8. Computed tomographic findings in bilateral adrenal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, G.E.; Baert, A.L.; Kint, E.J.; Pringot, J.H.; Goddeeris, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) features of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis are reported in two cases that demonstrate two typical different clinical and morphological manifestations of the disease. The incidence and CT appearance of adrenal tuberculosis are discussed, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

  9. Bilateral hindlimb adactyly in an adult cat.

    PubMed

    Barrand, K R; Cornillie, P K L N

    2008-05-01

    Adactyly (terminal transverse hemimelia) is a rare condition in the cat. The clinical and radiographic findings in a one-year-old cat with bilateral hindlimb adactyly are described. The cat was treated conservatively and appeared to cope well with its deformity. PMID:18373539

  10. The nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) and the dorsal terminal nucleus (DTN) of opossums (Didelphis marsupialis aurita).

    PubMed

    Vargas, C D; Volchan, E; Nasi, J P; Bernardes, R F; Rocha-Miranda, C E

    1996-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was injected unilaterally into the pretectocollicular region of opossums (Didelphis marsupialis aurita), primarily to investigate the existence of a commissural subcortical pathway but also to reveal afferents and efferents of the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) and dorsal terminal nucleus (DTN) in this species. Labelled cells and terminals were observed in the contralateral NOT-DTN. Furthermore, HRP was injected bilaterally in the region of the inferior olive (IO) to verify if the distribution of labelled cells in the NOT-DTN overlapped the region of commissural labelled cells. The two subpopulations of retrogradely labelled cells coincided, being distributed within the retinal terminal field attributed to the NOT-DTN, as revealed by contralateral eye injections of HRP. The commissural cells were located slightly more ventral than the olivary cells in the optic tract. The pretectocollicular WGA-HRP injections also labelled cells and terminals bilaterally in the lateral terminal nucleus (LTN), interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus, posterior fibers (INSFp), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and superior colliculus (SC) and ipsilaterally in the medial terminal nucleus (MTN). In addition, further caudally, labelled cells and terminals were observed bilaterally in the nuclei prepositus hypoglossi (PH) and in the medial (MVN) and lateral (LVN) vestibular nuclei. Labelled terminals were found in the ipsilateral nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP) and in the IO with ipsilateral predominance. This study allowed an anatomical delimitation of the NOT-DTN in this opossum species, as defined by the olivary and commissural subpopulations, as well as a hodological evaluation of this region. The existence of some common anatomical aspects with other mammalian species is discussed. PMID:8828860

  11. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study

    PubMed Central

    ten Berg, Paul W. L.; Dobbe, Johannes G. G.; Strackee, Simon D.; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD) of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6); 0.4 (1.2); 0.2 (0.6) mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was ?1.1 (4.9); ?1.5 (3.3); 1.0 (3.7)°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available. PMID:26413532

  12. Bilateral and Ipsilateral Ascending Tectopulvinar Pathways in Mammals: A Study in the Squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi)

    PubMed Central

    Fredes, Felipe; Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Karten, Harvey; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian pulvinar complex is a collection of dorsal thalamic nuclei related to several visual and integrative processes. Previous studies have shown that the superficial layers of the superior colliculus project to multiple divisions of the pulvinar complex. Although most of these works agree about the existence of an ipsilateral tectopulvinar projection arising from the stratum griseum superficialis, some others report a bilateral projection originating from this same tectal layer. We investigated the organization of the tectopulvinar projections in the Californian ground squirrel using cholera toxin B (CTb). We confirmed previous studies showing that the caudal pulvinar of the squirrel receives a massive bilateral projection originating from a specific cell population located in the superficial collicular layers (SGS3, also called the “lower SGS” or “SGSL”). We found that this projection shares striking structural similarities with the tectorotundal pathway of birds and reptiles. Morphology of the collicular cells originating this projection closely corresponds to that of the bottlebrush tectal cells described previously for chickens and squirrels. In addition, we found that the rostral pulvinar receives an exclusively ipsilateral projection from a spatially separate population of collicular cells located at the base of the stratum opticum, deeper than the cells projecting to the caudal pulvinar. These results strongly support, at a structural level, the homology of the pathway originating in the SGS3 collicular cells upon the caudal pulvinar with the tectorotundal pathway of nonmammalian amniotes and contribute to clarifying the general organization of the tectopulvinar pathways in mammals. PMID:22120503

  13. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Eliçora, Sultan ?evik; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Bi?kin, Sultan; Damar, Murat; Bilgin, Ergin

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB) facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT) examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis. PMID:26175920

  14. Reference Frames for Reach Planning in Macaque Dorsal Premotor Cortex Aaron P. Batista,1,2

    E-print Network

    Shenoy, Krishna V.

    Reference Frames for Reach Planning in Macaque Dorsal Premotor Cortex Aaron P. Batista,1,2 Gopal in macaque dorsal premotor cortex. J Neurophysiol 98: 966­983, 2007. First published June 20, 2007; doi:10

  15. A review of bilateral training for upper extremity hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Upper extremity hemiparesis is the most common post-stroke disability. Longitudinal studies have indicated that 30-66% of stroke survivors do not have full arm function 6 months post-stroke. The current gold standard for treatment of mild post-stroke upper limb impairment is constraint-induced therapy but, because of the inclusion criteria, alternative treatments are needed which target more impaired subjects. Bilateral arm training has been investigated as a potential rehabilitation intervention. Bilateral arm training encompasses a number of methods including: (1) bilateral isokinematic training; (2) mirror therapy using bilateral training; (3) device-driven bilateral training; and (4) bilateral motor priming. Neural mechanisms mediating bilateral training are first reviewed. The key bilateral training studies that have demonstrated evidence of efficacy will then be discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning clinical implications based on the reviewed literature. PMID:19517519

  16. Restoration of erectile function with intracavernous injections of endothelial progenitor cells after bilateral cavernous nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, C H; Wu, Y N; Lin, Y H; Syu Huang, R F; Liu, S P; Chiang, H S

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived endothelial cells capable of circulating, proliferating, and differentiating into mature endothelial cells. Circulating EPCs can be directly recruited to some extent at sites of injury, and their administration could accelerate repair or endothelialization of the damaged tissue. We investigated the effects of intracavernous injections of EPCs into the corpora cavernosa of rats with erectile dysfunction (ED) caused by bilateral cavernous nerve (CN) injury. Overall, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: sham surgery, vehicle-only, or EPC treatment. Rats in the EPC treatment and vehicle-only groups were subjected to bilateral CN injury before injection of EPCs or vehicle, respectively, into the corpora cavernosa. Four weeks after surgery, erectile function was assessed by measuring maximum intracavernosal pressure (ICP), change in ICP, area under the ICP curve, and ratio of change in ICP and mean arterial pressure (MAP; ?ICP/MAP). Penile tissue was histomorphometrically analyzed for the expression of neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), neurofilament-1 (NF-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and smooth muscle cell content. Maximum ICP and all other functional parameters of erectile function were significantly reduced in the vehicle-only group vs. the sham and EPC treatment groups (all p < 0.001). Smooth muscle cell content was decreased in the vehicle-only vs. the sham and EPC treatment groups (both p < 0.01). Expressions of vWF and eNOS in the dorsal artery were significantly higher in the EPC treatment than the vehicle-only group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EPC treatment restored erectile function in a rat model of bilateral CN injury through recruitment of EPCs toward the dorsal artery and preservation of smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum. These findings elucidate the therapeutic potential of EPCs for treating ED in humans. PMID:26311341

  17. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for its position in the window as well as the pixel value for the central pixel of the window. The absolute difference between these two pixel values is calculated and used as an address in a lookup table. Each processing element has a lookup table, unique for its position in the window, containing the weight coefficients for the Gaussian function for that position. The pixel value is multiplied by the weight, and the outputs of the processing element are the weight and pixel-value weight product. The products and weights are fed to the adder tree. The sum of the products and the sum of the weights are fed to the divider, which computes the sum of products the sum of weights. The output of the divider is denoted the bilateral smoothed image. The smoothing function is a simple weighted average computed over a 3 3 subwindow centered in the 9 9 window. After smoothing, the image is delayed by an additional amount of time needed to match the processing time for computing the bilateral smoothed image. The bilateral smoothed image is then subtracted from the 3 3 smoothed image to produce the final output. The prototype filter as implemented in a commercially available FPGA processes one pixel per clock cycle. Operation at a clock speed of 66 MHz has been demonstrated, and results of a static timing analysis have been interpreted as suggesting that the clock speed could be increased to as much as 100 MHz.

  18. Simultaneous Bilateral Cochlear Implantation in Adults: A Multicenter Clinical Study

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    - neous" bilateral cochlear implantation (both im- plants placed during a single surgical procedure for bilateral listening compared with the unilateral condition when the ear opposite to the side of the noise unilateral ear comparisons for nearly all (32/34) subjects. Bilateral benefit was also found for a few

  19. The Dorsal Tail Tubercle of Mertensiella caucasica and M. luschani (Amphibia: Salamandridae)

    E-print Network

    Sever, David M.

    The Dorsal Tail Tubercle of Mertensiella caucasica and M. luschani (Amphibia: Salamandridae) DAVID a tubercle projecting from the skin of the dorsal tail base, the single morphological character that defines the genus. The dorsal tail tubercle functions during courtship, and its role is similar in both species

  20. Bilateral staged thoracotomy for multiple lung hydatidosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydatid cyst disease is still a problem in many countries. Surgical removal is currently the generally accepted choice of treatment for lung hydatidosis. However, operating on bilateral widespread lung hydatidosis is still controversial. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment in bilateral multiple hydatid disease of the lung. Methods In this study, we reviewed our experience in the surgical treatment of 17 (3.7%) patients with bilateral, and at least three, lung hydatid cysts. These 17 patients (8 male, 9 female), with an average age of 34.6 years (range 12–58 years), underwent bilateral staged thoracotomy. Results In total 105 lung cysts were removed from 17 patients who underwent staged thoracotomies. The mean count of cysts was 6.7 (range 3–20 cysts). Most of the cysts (38.2%) were located in the right lower lobe. The mean interval between thoracotomies was 4.2 (range 3–5) days. Two patients (11.7%) had cysts associated with hepatic hydatidosis and one (5.8%) had cysts associated with the spleen; they were treated via phrenotomy during thoracotomies. All cysts were removed without lung resection. We observed some complications such as prolonged air leaks (n?=?2), atelectasis (n?=?3) and empyema (n?=?2). No further surgery was required for management of complications. The mean hospital stay was 9.3 days. (range 7–23 days). Oral albendazole was started on the 2nd post operative day after the first thoracotomy in the dose of 10–20 mg/kg and was continued for 3 months with a gap of 1 week after each 21 days. No recurrences or deaths occured during the follow-up period. Conclusions Although staged thoracotomy applied in 3–5 days after the initial thoracotomy increases the total hospital stay, it decreases the chance of possible complications can occur in cysts in the other lung when long intervals are preferred between the first and the second thoracotomy. In our experience, bilateral staged thoracotomy is an appropriate surgical option because morbidity rates are minimal and the hospital stay is acceptable for the treatment of bilateral widespread lung hydatidosis, even in patients who had a total of 20 hydatid cysts. PMID:23641938

  1. Unusual Bilateral Rim Fracture in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Rafols, Claudio; Monckeberg, Juan Edo; Numair, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of one case of bilateral acetabular rim fracture in association with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), which was treated with a hip arthroscopic procedure, performing a partial resection, a labral reinsertion, and a subsequential internal fixation with cannulated screws. Up to date, there are in the literature only two reports of rim fracture and “os acetabuli” in association with FAI. In the case we present, the pincer and cam resection were performed without complications; the technique used was published previously. With this technique the head of the screw lays hidden by the reattached labrum. We removed partially the fractured rim fragment and the internal fixation of the remaining portion was achieved with a screw. In the event of a complete resection of the fragment, it would have ended with a LCE angle of 18° and a high probability of hip instability. We believe that this bilateral case helps establish the efficacy and reproducibility of the technique described by Larson. PMID:25722907

  2. Bilateral idiopathic optic neuritis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiffany S; Crow, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old primiparous woman at 31 weeks gestation with no prior history of ocular disease, autoimmune disease, or recent viral infection presented with rapidly decreasing visual acuity to 20/400 OD and counting fingers OS over 11 days. MRI demonstrated mild bilateral optic nerve enhancement. Humphrey 30-2 visual field testing showed bilateral seco-central scotomas. MR venogram, visual evoked potentials, preeclampsia workup, and serum blood tests for folate, B6, B12, Toxoplasmosis, Bartonella, Lyme disease, ACE levels, RPR, and LFTs were all within normal limits. After one-time treatment of IV 125?mg methylprednisolone and spinal tap, visual acuity improved to 20/20 OD and 20/20 OS. PMID:23305442

  3. Bilateral Orbital Abscesses After Strabismus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Lee, Winston; Garg, Aakriti; Garibaldi, Daniel C; Leibert, Michelle; Kazim, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Infectious orbital complications after strabismus surgery are rare. Their incidence is estimated to be 1 case per 1,100 surgeries and include preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, subconjunctival and sub-Tenon's abscesses, myositis, and endophthalmitis. This report describes the case of an otherwise healthy 3-year-old boy who underwent bilateral medial rectus recession and disinsertion of the inferior obliques. A few days after surgery, the patient presented with bilateral periorbital edema and inferotemporal chemosis. A series of CT scans with contrast revealed inferotemporal orbital collections OU. The patient immediately underwent transconjunctival drainage of fibrinous and seropurulent collections in the sub-Tenon's space and experienced rapid improvement a few days later. The patient is reported to be in stable condition in a follow-up examination performed more than a year after the reported events. PMID:24896771

  4. Bilateral granulomatous mastitis with a different etiology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Hyouk; Jang, Ki Seok; Chung, Min Sung

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) and Tuberculosis mastitis (TM) are rare inflammatory diseases of the breast that can clinically mimic malignancy causing misdiagnosis as breast cancer. We present a rare case of bilateral granulomatous mastitis with a different etiology. An initial lesion developed in the right breast was diagnosed as IGM, which was treated with antibiotics and surgery. A subsequent lesion developed in the contralateral breast 5 months later and was diagnosed as TM, which also completely responded to antituberculosis medication without surgical excision. Differential diagnosis was made using the results of the polymerase chain reaction for tuberculosis (TBC-PCR) of both of the breast lesions in addition to typical pathologic findings of IGM in the right breast and an antituberculosis medication response in the left breast. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral granulomatous mastitis with a different etiology. PMID:25519013

  5. Single-incision bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarkar, Deepraj; Katara, Avinash; Deshmane, Vinay; Mittal, Gaurav; Udwadia, Tehemton E

    2011-01-01

    Although single-incision laparoscopic surgery made an appearance on the surgical scene only recently, it is being increasingly applied in the treatment of a variety of disorders. We report single-incision bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy and salpingooophorectomy performed in two patients who had previously undergone breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer. Each procedure was undertaken using two 5-mm and one 3-mm ports inserted through a 2-cm transverse supraumbilical incision and standard laparoscopic instruments. The operative time was 50 and 65 min respectively and the blood loss negligible. The patients were discharged 36 and 24 h after surgery, required minimal postoperative analgesia and remain well at a follow up of 19 and 17 months, respectively. With the benefit of improved cosmesis, the single-incision approach holds the potential to replace the traditional bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy. PMID:21197250

  6. [Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma: spontaneous intracranial hypotension?].

    PubMed

    Augustin, J; Proust, F; Verdure, L; Langlois, O; Freger, P

    2003-03-01

    We report a case of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) in a 48-year-old man, who presented with postural headaches, tinnitus and progressive confusion without intoxication, head trauma or abnormal hemostasis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebellar tonsillar herniation in the foramen magnum and a deformation of the brainstem. Outcome was normal after surgery. We discuss about the rare causes of SDH in young adults. PMID:12736581

  7. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadel, Ehab

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis Symptoms: Face engorgement • neck swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. Case Report: This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Conclusions: Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present case shows that external jugular vein thrombosis can also be found in persons without malignancy. PMID:26301793

  8. Bilateral pregnancy luteoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Annu; Gokhale, Uday A; Pillai, G Rajasekharan

    2014-09-01

    Pregnancy luteoma is a non-neoplastic lesion of the ovary occurring during pregnancy and is usually discovered incidentally at the time of a cesarean section or during postpartum tubal ligation. An accurate diagnosis is important for the mother and the fetus as it can be confused with ovarian malignancy leading to unnecessary surgery. We report a case of a pregnant female who was discovered to have bilateral enlarged ovaries at the time of emergency cesarean section. PMID:25337317

  9. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed. PMID:26653687

  10. Arthroscopic Reduction of Complex Dorsal Metacarpophalangeal Dislocation of Index Finger

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Akira; Itotani, Yuji; Mizuseki, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    Complex dorsal dislocation of the metacarpophalangeal joint is an uncommon injury, typically caused by entrapment of the volar plate within the joint space. Closed reduction of the dislocation is not effective; instead, open reduction is necessary to release the soft tissues interposed between the metacarpal head and the proximal phalanx. However, an operative risk of digital nerve injury exists because of intricate displacement of the normal anatomy. We successfully reduced a dislocation by arthroscopic release of the entrapped volar plate. The case involved an 11-year-old boy with a complex dorsal dislocation of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the right index finger that had failed closed reduction. This technique allowed for reliable joint reduction, enabling observation of the structures obstructing the reduction; was less invasive; and avoided the risk of neurovascular injury. It is a reasonable method to use when the volar plate prevents reduction of the dislocation. PMID:24904773

  11. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany )

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  12. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  13. Neural Dynamics of Phonological Processing in the Dorsal Auditory Stream

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A.; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80–100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors. PMID:24068810

  14. Mitotic activity in dorsal epidermis of Rana pipiens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Arce, H.; Mizell, S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of statistically significant rhythms of mitotic division in dorsal epidermis of frogs, Rana pipiens, exposed to a 12:12 light:dark environment for 14 days. The results include the findings that (1) male animals have a primary period of 22 hr in summer and 18 hr in winter, (2) female animals have an 18 hr period, and (3) parapinealectomy and blinding abolish the rhythm.

  15. A cellular Potts model of germband retraction and dorsal closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, M. Shane; Rohner, Jason; Crews, Sarah; McCleery, W. Tyler; Robinson, W. Bradley

    2011-03-01

    Germband retraction and dorsal closure are critical morphogenetic events in fruit fly embryogenesis. Both involve the coordinated reshaping of two epitheloid tissues -- germband (GB) and amnioserosa (AS). The GB is initially curled into a U-shape with the AS between the arms of the U. Retraction leaves the embryo's dorsal surface covered by AS cells which then contract to pull lateral parts of the GB up to cover the dorsal surface. We have simulated these events using a cellular Potts model. The model is 3D with several generalized cell types: a central yolk; a surrounding monolayer of AS and GB cells with epithelial polarization; and an outer vitelline membrane enclosing the cells and a perivitelline fluid. The model also incorporates several critical cell behaviors: polarized apical constriction of AS cells; controlled relaxation of stretched GB cells; and differentiation of GB cells at the GB-AS interface so that these cells then contract a supracellular purse-string and extend filopodia that reach across the AS and zip together the GB's approaching lateral flanks. We will discuss how all of these components are necessary to reproduce normal tissue motions and those observed during laser microsurgery experiments. Supported by NSF Grant IOB-0545679.

  16. Spinal dorsal dermal sinus tract: An experience of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ishwar; Rohilla, Seema; Kumar, Prashant; Sharma, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal dorsal dermal sinus is a rare entity, which usually comes to clinical attention by cutaneous abnormalities, neurologic deficit, and/or infection. The present study was undertaken to know the clinical profile of these patients, to study associated anomalies and to assess the results of surgical intervention. Methods: Medical records of 21 patients treated for spinal dorsal dermal sinus from September 2007 to December 2013 were reviewed. Results: We had 21 patients with male: female ratio of 13:8. Only 2 patients were below 1-year of age, and most cases (15) were between 2 and 15 years (mean age = 8.2 years). Lumbar region (11 cases) was most frequently involved, followed by thoracic (4 cases), lumbosacral, and cervical region in 3 patients each. All of our patients presented with neurological deficits. Three patients were admitted with acute meningitis with acute onset paraplegia and had intraspinal abscess. The motor, sensory, and autonomic deficits were seen in 14, 6, and 8 patients, respectively. Scoliosis and congenital talipes equinovarus were the common associated anomalies. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of dysraphic state and excision of the sinus. Overall, 20 patients improved or neurological status stabilized and only 1 patient deteriorated. Postoperative wound infection was seen in 2 cases. Conclusions: All patients with spinal dorsal dermal sinuses should be offered aggressive surgical treatment in the form of total excision of sinus tract and correction of spinal malformation, as soon as diagnosed. PMID:26539316

  17. omega-Conotoxin inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission evoked by dorsal root stimulation in rat superficial dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Motin, Leonid; Adams, David J

    2008-10-01

    A number of omega-conotoxins are potent and selective antagonists of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and are potentially effective as analgesic agents. omega-Conotoxins CVID and CVIB, venom peptides from Conus catus, inhibit N-type and N/P/Q-type VGCCs, respectively, in rat dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. In the present study, we tested the effects of five different omega-conotoxins, CVID, CVIB, MVIIA, MVIIC and GVIA, on excitatory synaptic transmission between primary afferents and dorsal horn superficial lamina neurons of rat spinal cord. The N-type VGCC antagonists CVID (200nM) and MVIIA (500nM) completely and irreversibly inhibited excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the dorsal horn superficial lamina. The N- and P/Q-type VGCC antagonist CVIB (200nM) reversibly reduced evoked EPSC amplitude an average of 34+/-8%, whereas MVIIC (200nM) had no effect on excitatory synaptic transmission. In neurons receiving polysynaptic input, CVIB reduced both the EPSC amplitude and the "success rate" calculated as the relative number of primary afferent stimulations that resulted in postsynaptic responses. These results indicate that (i) the analgesic action of omega-conotoxins that antagonise N-type VGCCs may be attributed to inhibition of neurotransmission between primary afferents and superficial dorsal horn neurons, (ii) nociceptive synaptic transmission between primary afferents and superficial lamina neurons is mediated predominantly by N-type VGCCs, and (iii) in contrast to the irreversible inhibition by CVID, MVIIA and GVIA, the inhibition of excitatory monosynaptic transmission by CVIB is reversible. PMID:18644398

  18. Functional connectivity of dorsal and ventral frontoparietal seed regions during auditory orienting.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stephanie; Huang, Samantha; Furtak, Sharon C; Belliveau, John W; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-10-01

    Our ability to refocus auditory attention is vital for even the most routine day-to-day activities. Shifts in auditory attention can be initiated "voluntarily," or triggered "involuntarily" by unexpected novel sound events. Here we employed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses of auditory functional MRI data, to compare functional connectivity patterns of distinct frontoparietal cortex regions during cued voluntary vs. novelty-driven involuntary auditory attention shifting. Overall, our frontoparietal seed regions exhibited significant PPI increases with auditory cortex (AC) areas during both cued and novelty-driven orienting. However, significant positive PPI patterns associated with voluntary auditory attention (cue>novel task regressor), but mostly absent in analyses emphasizing involuntary orienting (novel>cue task regressor), were observed with seeds within the frontal eye fields (FEF), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and right supramarginal gyri (SMG). In contrast, significant positive PPIs associated selectively with involuntary orienting were observed between ACs and seeds within the bilateral anterior interior frontal gyri (IFG), left posterior IFG, SMG, and posterior cingulate cortices (PCC). We also found indices of lateralization of different attention networks: PPI increases selective to voluntary attention occurred primarily within right-hemispheric regions, whereas those related to involuntary orienting were more frequent with left-hemisphere seeds. In conclusion, despite certain similarities in PPI patterns across conditions, the more dorsal aspects of right frontoparietal cortex demonstrated wider connectivity during cued/voluntary attention shifting, whereas certain left ventral frontoparietal seeds were more widely connected during novelty-triggered/involuntary orienting. Our findings provide partial support for distinct attention networks for voluntary and involuntary auditory attention. PMID:25128464

  19. Bilateral Wilms' tumors: changing concepts in management

    SciTech Connect

    Laberge, J.M.; Nguyen, L.T.; Homsy, Y.L.; Doody, D.P.

    1987-08-01

    Bilaterality is uncommon in Wilms' tumor, being present in 4% to 8% of the cases. We report the combined experience of two children's hospitals in one city over a 20-year period. We encountered nine cases of synchronous bilateral nephroblastoma (National Wilms' Tumor Study 3, stage V). Age at diagnosis ranged from 9 to 41 months (mean 23 months). There were five girls and four boys. Associated findings include nephroblastomatosis in three cases (33%), one of which also had a familial history; undescended testis in two cases; and minor anomalies in two other cases. Surgical treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy with contralateral partial nephrectomy or tumorectomy in six cases, nephrectomy with contralateral biopsy only in two cases, and the other patient had bilateral biopsies initially, followed at a later date by partial nephrectomy on one side. All patients received chemotherapy; actinomycin D (AMD) only was used in the oldest case, vincristine and AMD in five cases, to which was added cyclophosphamide in one case and adriamycin in two. Seven patients received radiation therapy. Seven out of the nine patients survived more than 2 years (77%); five are well, off chemotherapy, with no evidence of disease from 4 to 11 years after diagnosis. Two patients suffered from chronic renal failure and one died from complications after renal transplantation more than 19 years after diagnosis. The two patients who died from their disease presented with more advanced tumor. Therefore, the agressiveness of multimodal therapy can be tailored according to stage and histology, and effective chemotherapy allows maximal preservation of renal parenchyma in patients with stage I and II tumors.

  20. Feature integration and object representations along the dorsal stream visual hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Carolyn Jeane; Fallah, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    The visual system is split into two processing streams: a ventral stream that receives color and form information and a dorsal stream that receives motion information. Each stream processes that information hierarchically, with each stage building upon the previous. In the ventral stream this leads to the formation of object representations that ultimately allow for object recognition regardless of changes in the surrounding environment. In the dorsal stream, this hierarchical processing has classically been thought to lead to the computation of complex motion in three dimensions. However, there is evidence to suggest that there is integration of both dorsal and ventral stream information into motion computation processes, giving rise to intermediate object representations, which facilitate object selection and decision making mechanisms in the dorsal stream. First we review the hierarchical processing of motion along the dorsal stream and the building up of object representations along the ventral stream. Then we discuss recent work on the integration of ventral and dorsal stream features that lead to intermediate object representations in the dorsal stream. Finally we propose a framework describing how and at what stage different features are integrated into dorsal visual stream object representations. Determining the integration of features along the dorsal stream is necessary to understand not only how the dorsal stream builds up an object representation but also which computations are performed on object representations instead of local features. PMID:25140147

  1. Bilateral discoid medial menisci: a rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Puspak; Bhagwat, Kishan; Panigrahi, Tapas; Gopinathan, Nirmalraj

    2014-01-01

    Discoid medial meniscus is a relatively rare pathology of the knee joint, with bilateral cases even rarer. Herein, we report the case of a 25-year-old man diagnosed with discoid medial meniscus in the right knee with a horizontal tear. Increased cupping of the medial condyle of the tibia, widening of the medial joint space and the presence of discoid meniscus in the right knee prompted investigation of the asymptomatic left knee with magnetic resonance imaging. The contralateral asymptomatic knee also showed evidence of discoid medial meniscus. The symptomatic knee was successfully treated by arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, with excellent functional outcome. PMID:25273941

  2. Progressive bilateral thinning of the parietal bones

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, C.G.; Andren, L.; Olivecrona, H.

    1982-03-01

    Observation of a case of progressive bilateral parietal thinning within a period of 14 years induced us to study skull films of 3 636 consecutive patients. Parietal thinning was found in 86 patients (2.37%). It was more common in women, with a sex ratio of 1:1.9. The mean age of the females was 72 years, and that of the males 63 years. Previous skull films of 25 of these patients were available and showed progression in 10. It is concluded that parietal thinning is a slowly progressive disease of middle-aged and old patients and is not an anatomical variant or congenital dysplasia of the dipole.

  3. Bilateral maculopathy associated with Pierre Robin sequence.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Matthew T; Vasan, Ryan; Levy, Richard; Davis, Jessica; Chan, R V Paul

    2012-08-01

    Pierre Robin sequence has been associated with a number of ocular complications, including myopia, strabismus, Möbius syndrome, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, glaucoma, cataract, microphthalmos, coloboma of choroid, and retinal detachment. We report a 10-day-old boy who presented with micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate as well as multiple congenital anomalies. Ophthalmic examination was notable for bilateral maculopathy, with focal areas of retinal and retinal pigment epithelial atrophy. The association of Pierre Robin sequence and maculopathy has been reported only twice previously. PMID:22929457

  4. Bilateral opercular syndrome caused by perinatal difficulties.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Koeda, T; Maegaki, Y; Tanaka, C; Takeshita, K

    1997-01-01

    Four patients with pseudobulbar palsy, mental retardation and various degrees of speech disturbance associated with perinatal difficulties are described as having an acquired type of opercular syndrome. There were two patients with fetal bradycardia and three with subarachnoid haemorrhage and neonatal convulsion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cortical atrophy in the bilateral opercula with some signal abnormalities in the underlying white matter in common. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) also confirmed the presence of hypoperfusion in the regions. Although the opercular syndrome is a clinical entity with a multitude of underlying pathologies, perinatal difficulties could be an important cause of the acquired type. PMID:10728199

  5. Multispectral image denoising with optimized vector bilateral filter.

    PubMed

    Peng, Honghong; Rao, Raghuveer; Dianat, Sohail A

    2014-01-01

    Vector bilateral filtering has been shown to provide good tradeoff between noise removal and edge degradation when applied to multispectral/hyperspectral image denoising. It has also been demonstrated to provide dynamic range enhancement of bands that have impaired signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Typical vector bilateral filtering described in the literature does not use parameters satisfying optimality criteria. We introduce an approach for selection of the parameters of a vector bilateral filter through an optimization procedure rather than by ad hoc means. The approach is based on posing the filtering problem as one of nonlinear estimation and minimization of the Stein's unbiased risk estimate of this nonlinear estimator. Along the way, we provide a plausibility argument through an analytical example as to why vector bilateral filtering outperforms bandwise 2D bilateral filtering in enhancing SNR. Experimental results show that the optimized vector bilateral filter provides improved denoising performance on multispectral images when compared with several other approaches. PMID:24184727

  6. Intracellular mechanisms of cocaine-memory reconsolidation in the basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Audrey Marie

    The ability of cocaine-associated environmental contexts to promote relapse in abstinent humans and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in laboratory animals depends on the formation and maintenance of maladaptive context-response-cocaine associative memories, the latter of which can be disrupted by manipulations that interfere with memory reconsolidation. Memory reconsolidation refers to a protein synthesis-dependent phenomenon whereby memory traces are reincorporated back into long-term memory storage following their retrieval and subsequent destabilization. To elucidate the distinctive roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) in the reconsolidation of context-response-cocaine memories, Experiments 1-3 evaluated novel molecular mechanisms within each structure that control this phenomenon. Experiment 1 tested the hypothesis that activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the BLA and nucleus accumbens core (NACc - a substrate for Pavlovian cocaine-memory reconsolidation) would critically control instrumental cocaine-memory reconsolidation. To determine this, rats were re-exposed to a context that had previously been used for cocaine self-administration (i.e., cocaine memory-reactivation) and immediately thereafter received bilateral intra-BLA or intra-NACc microinfusions of the ERK inhibitor U0126 or vehicle (VEH) and were subsequently tested for drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior (non-reinforced lever responding) ~72 h later. Re-exposure to the cocaine-paired context at test fully reinstated cocaine-seeking behavior, relative to responding in an alternate, extinction context, and post-reactivation U0126 treatment in the BLA, but not the NACc, impaired cocaine-seeking behavior, relative to VEH. This effect was associated with a temporary increase in ERK2, but not ERK1, phosphorylation in the BLA and required explicit reactivation of the target memory trace (i.e., did not similarly manifest when U0126 was administered after exposure to an unpaired context), suggesting that ERK in the BLA plays a critical role in restabilizing contextual cocaine-related memories. Next, Experiment 2 evaluated the hypothesis that the transcription factor (TF) nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) would also critically mediate instrumental cocaine-memory reconsolidation in the BLA. Remarkably, the NF-kappaB inhibitor, sulfasalazine (SSZ), administered bilaterally into the BLA following cocaine-memory reactivation, did not significantly alter subsequent cocaine-seeking behavior, relative to VEH, despite producing an observable trend for an enhancement in this behavior. Future studies will be needed to further examine this relationship, but the present findings may suggest that NF-kappaB TFs acts as negative regulators of cocaine-memory reconsolidation. Finally, Experiment 3 tested the hypothesis that members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are obligatory for instrumental cocaine-memory reconsolidation. Consistent with our hypothesis, PP2, a nonspecific inhibitor of SFKs, administered bilaterally into the DH after cocaine-memory reactivation, attenuated subsequent drug-context induced motivation for cocaine, relative to VEH, in a memory reactivation-dependent manner. This effect was associated with a preferential disruption of SFK-mediated phosphorylation of the NR2a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit. Together, these findings begin to illuminate how the BLA and DH may subserve the long-term stability of maladaptive cocaine-related memories that underlie contextual stimulus control over cocaine-seeking behavior.

  7. Shape representations in the primate dorsal visual stream

    PubMed Central

    Theys, Tom; Romero, Maria C.; van Loon, Johannes; Janssen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The primate visual system extracts object shape information for object recognition in the ventral visual stream. Recent research has demonstrated that object shape is also processed in the dorsal visual stream, which is specialized for spatial vision and the planning of actions. A number of studies have investigated the coding of 2D shape in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP), one of the end-stage areas of the dorsal stream which has been implicated in the extraction of affordances for the purpose of grasping. These findings challenge the current understanding of area AIP as a critical stage in the dorsal stream for the extraction of object affordances. The representation of three-dimensional (3D) shape has been studied in two interconnected areas known to be critical for object grasping: area AIP and area F5a in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), to which AIP projects. In both areas neurons respond selectively to 3D shape defined by binocular disparity, but the latency of the neural selectivity is approximately 10 ms longer in F5a compared to AIP, consistent with its higher position in the hierarchy of cortical areas. Furthermore, F5a neurons were more sensitive to small amplitudes of 3D curvature and could detect subtle differences in 3D structure more reliably than AIP neurons. In both areas, 3D-shape selective neurons were co-localized with neurons showing motor-related activity during object grasping in the dark, indicating a close convergence of visual and motor information on the same clusters of neurons. PMID:25954189

  8. Pediatric bilateral large concurrent thalamic glioblastoma: An unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nityanand; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Mahapatra, Ashok K; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral thalamic tumors are rare. Pediatric bilateral thalamic glioblastomas are even rarer, only five cases reported in the English literature till date. The clinical presentation, natural history, and prognosis of pediatric thalamic tumors are still relatively obscure. In this article, we report an 8-year-old patient with large bilateral thalamic glioblastomas and briefly discuss its clinical presentation, possible modalities of management, and prognosis, in the light of available literature. PMID:24891914

  9. Hiatus Hernia Repair with Bilateral Oesophageal Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite advances in surgical repair of hiatus hernias, there remains a high radiological recurrence rate. We performed a novel technique incorporating bilateral oesophageal fixation and evaluated outcomes, principally symptom improvement and hernia recurrence. Methods. A retrospective study was performed on a prospective database of patients undergoing hiatus hernia repair with bilateral oesophageal fixation. Retrospective and prospective quality of life (QOL), PPI usage, and patient satisfaction data were obtained. Hernia recurrence was assessed by either barium swallow or gastroscopy. Results. 87 patients were identified in the database with a minimum of 3 months followup. There were significant improvements in QOL scores including GERD HRQL (29.13 to 4.38, P < 0.01), Visick (3 to 1), and RSI (17.45 to 5, P < 0.01). PPI usage decreased from a median of daily to none, and there was high patient satisfaction (94%). 57 patients were assessed for recurrence with either gastroscopy or barium swallow, and one patient had evidence of recurrence on barium swallow at 45 months postoperatively. There was an 8% complication rate and no mortality or oesophageal perforation. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that our technique is both safe and effective in symptom control, and our recurrence investigations demonstrate at least short term durability. PMID:26065030

  10. Multifocal bilateral metatarsal tuberculosis: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Vipul; Sud, Alok; Mehtani, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis, or phthisis (consumption) as it was popularly known in the Greek era, has been endemic in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa; however, the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic has seen the re-emergence of this disease in the areas in which it was not very commonly reported. With this, the need for understanding and treatment of rare presentations of tuberculosis has become of paramount importance to achieve the World Health Organization millennium goal of a "reversal of incidence by 2015." Foot involvement has been reported in 0.1% to 0.3% of extrapulmonary cases. Multifocal lesions have an incidence of <10% in osteoarticular tuberculosis. Bilateral feet involvement in multifocal tuberculosis has not yet been reported in either children or adults in published studies. We report a case of tuberculosis with lesions in the bilateral metatarsals, the occurrence of which is very rare. The diagnosis was mainly histopathologic owing to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. Early identification and treatment with antitubercular drugs will normally result in a good cosmetic and functional result. PMID:25441279

  11. Atypical Bilateral Fuchs Uveitis: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Cristóbal; Hurtado, Erika; Faingold, Dana; Demetrio, Carmen; Schlaen, Ariel; Zas, Marcelo; Zarate, Jorge; Rosetti, Silvia; de Lima, Andrea Paes; Croxatto, Juan Oscar; Chiaradía, Pablo; Burnier, Miguel N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Fuchs uveitis associated with vitreous infiltration and posterior segment involvement requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes identification of this entity difficult. The aim of this case report was to present the characteristics of a patient with atypical Fuchs uveitis and the procedures needed to rule out the differential diagnosis with specific attention to the utility of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Case Report One case of chronic bilateral uveitis with severe vitreous opacities is presented. After extensive systemic workup, including vitrectomy, the case had no identifiable systemic etiology. IVCM of the cornea revealed the presence of dendritiform keratic precipitates. Conclusion The diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis is based on clinical findings as no confirmatory laboratory tests are available. A high index of suspicion is key to an early diagnosis, especially in the cases with vitreous opacities and posterior segment manifestations. Auxiliary tests such as IVCM may aid the clinician in the diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis. PMID:26483668

  12. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  13. Spermatozoa protein alterations in infertile men with bilateral varicocele.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Cui, Zhihong; Ayaz, Ahmet; Gupta, Sajal; Willard, Belinda; Gopalan, Banu; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Among infertile men, a diagnosis of unilateral varicocele is made in 90% of varicocele cases and bilateral in the remaining varicocele cases. However, there are reports of under-diagnosis of bilateral varicocele among infertile men and that its prevalence is greater than 10%. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) extracted from spermatozoa cells of patients with bilateral varicocele and fertile donors. Subjects consisted of 17 men diagnosed with bilateral varicocele and 10 proven fertile men as healthy controls. Using the LTQ-orbitrap elite hybrid mass spectrometry system, proteomic analysis was done on pooled samples from 3 patients with bilateral varicocele and 5 fertile men. From these samples, 73 DEP were identified of which 58 proteins were differentially expressed, with 7 proteins unique to the bilateral varicocele group and 8 proteins to the fertile control group. Majority of the DEPs were observed to be associated with metabolic processes, stress responses, oxidoreductase activity, enzyme regulation, and immune system processes. Seven DEP were involved in sperm function such as capacitation, motility, and sperm-zona binding. Proteins TEKT3 and TCP11 were validated by Western blot analysis and may serve as potential biomarkers for bilateral varicocele. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of DEP and identified proteins with distinct reproductive functions which are altered in infertile men with bilateral varicocele. Functional proteomic profiling provides insight into the mechanistic implications of bilateral varicocele-associated male infertility. PMID:25999357

  14. A polydactylous human foot with 'double-dorsal' toes.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, D; McDiarmid, J; Tickle, C

    1998-07-01

    A human polydactylous left foot with 9 toes, amputated from an 11-mo-old child, was examined by x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging and by gross dissection to identify the digits. The normal sequence of toes from medial to lateral is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Examination of the morphology of tendons and muscles suggested the toe sequence was 1, 2, 3/4, ?5, 2, 3/4, 3/4, 5. The 2 toes in the sequence that are underlined were displaced dorsally and were found to have 2 extensor tendons, no flexor tendons and nails that were conical and situated at their tips. These toes resembled those described as 'double-dorsal' and which develop in paws of mice in which a gene normally expressed ventrally is functionally inactivated (Loomis et al. 1996). Specification of toe formation occurs in leg buds early in embryonic development and later there is rotation of the limb so that the anterior (rostral) part comes to lie medially, i.e. the hallux which was anterior (rostral) now is on the inner (medial) side of the foot. A disruption in the patterning of this foot in both anteroposterior (rostral-caudal) and dorsoventral axes during development could be responsible. PMID:9758142

  15. Patella Dislocation with Vertical Axis Rotation: The “Dorsal Fin” Patella

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, David; Carrothers, Andrew D.; Khanduja, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented following minor trauma to her right knee. While dancing she externally rotated around a planted foot and felt sudden pain in her right knee. She presented with her knee locked in extension with a “dorsal fin” appearance of the soft tissues tented over the patella. This was diagnosed as a rare case of an intraarticular patella dislocation, which was rotated 90 degrees about the vertical axis. Closed reduction in the emergency room was unsuccessful but was achieved in theatre under general anaesthetic with muscle relaxation. Postreduction arthroscopy demonstrated that no osteochondral or soft tissue damage to the knee had been sustained. In patients presenting with a knee locked in extension with tenting of skin over the patella (the “dorsal fin” appearance), intra-articular patella dislocation should be suspected. Attempts to reduce vertical patella dislocations under sedation with excessive force or repeatedly without success should be avoided to prevent unnecessary damage to the patellofemoral joint. In this clinical situation we recommend closed reduction under general anaesthetic followed by immediate knee arthroscopy under the same anaesthetic to ensure that there is no chondral damage to the patella or femoral trochlea and to rule out an osteochondral fracture. PMID:25883819

  16. Retinal Glia Promote Dorsal Root Ganglion Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Rachel S.; Fawcett, James W.; Martin, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is limited by several factors including a lack of neurotrophic support. Recent studies have shown that glia from the adult rat CNS, specifically retinal astrocytes and Müller glia, can promote regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons. In the present study we investigated whether retinal glia also exert a growth promoting effect outside the visual system. We found that retinal glial conditioned medium significantly enhanced neurite growth and branching of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) in culture. Furthermore, transplantation of retinal glia significantly enhanced regeneration of DRG axons past the dorsal root entry zone after root crush in adult rats. To identify the factors that mediate the growth promoting effects of retinal glia, mass spectrometric analysis of retinal glial conditioned medium was performed. Apolipoprotein E and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) were found to be present in high abundance, a finding further confirmed by western blotting. Inhibition of Apolipoprotein E and SPARC significantly reduced the neuritogenic effects of retinal glial conditioned medium on DRG in culture, suggesting that Apolipoprotein E and SPARC are the major mediators of this regenerative response. PMID:25816134

  17. Gateways of ventral and dorsal streams in mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanxin; Gao, Enquan; Burkhalter, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    It is widely held that the spatial processing functions underlying rodent navigation are similar to those encoding human episodic memory (Doeller et al, 2010). Spatial and nonspatial information are provided by all senses including vision. It has been suggested that visual inputs are fed to the navigational network in cortex and hippocampus through dorsal and ventral intracortical streams (Whitlock et al, 2008), but this has not been shown directly in rodents. We have used cyto- and chemoarchitectonic markers, topographic mapping of receptive fields and pathway tracing to determine in mouse visual cortex whether the lateromedial (LM) and the anterolateral fields (AL), which are the principal targets of primary visual cortex (V1) (Wang and Burkhalter, 2007) specialized for processing nonspatial and spatial visual information (Gao et al, 2006), are distinct areas with diverse connections. We have found that the LM/AL border coincides with a change in type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m2AChR) expression in layer 4 and with the representation of the lower visual field periphery. Our quantitative analyses further show that LM strongly projects to temporal cortex as well as the lateral entorhinal cortex, which has weak spatial selectivity (Hargreaves et al, 2005). In contrast, AL has stronger connections with posterior parietal cortex, motor cortex and the spatially selective medial entorhinal cortex (Haftig et al, 2005). These results support the notion that LM and AL are architecturally, topographically and connectionally distinct areas of extrastriate visual cortex and that they are gateways for ventral and dorsal streams. PMID:21289200

  18. Two major network domains in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Commons, Kathryn G

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin neurons in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MR) are clustered into heterogeneous groups that give rise to topographically organized forebrain projections. However, a compelling definition of the key subgroups of serotonin neurons within these areas has remained elusive. In order to be functionally distinct, neurons must participate in distinct networks. Therefore, we analyzed subregions of the DR and MR by their afferent input. Clustering methods and principal component analysis were applied in mouse to anterograde tract-tracing experiments available from the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas. The results revealed a major break in the networks of the DR such that the caudal third of the DR was more similar in afferent innervation to the MR than it was to the rostral two-thirds of the DR. The rostral part of the DR is associated with networks controlling motor and motivated behavior, while the caudal DR is more closely aligned with regions that regulate rhythmic hippocampal activity. Thus, a major source of heterogeneity within the DR is inclusion of the caudal component, which may be more accurately viewed as a dorsal extension of the MR. PMID:25652113

  19. Core Promoter Functions in the Regulation of Gene Expression of Drosophila Dorsal Target Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Zehavi, Yonathan; Kuznetsov, Olga; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Developmental processes are highly dependent on transcriptional regulation by RNA polymerase II. The RNA polymerase II core promoter is the ultimate target of a multitude of transcription factors that control transcription initiation. Core promoters consist of core promoter motifs, e.g. the initiator, TATA box, and the downstream core promoter element (DPE), which confer specific properties to the core promoter. Here, we explored the importance of core promoter functions in the dorsal-ventral developmental gene regulatory network. This network includes multiple genes that are activated by different nuclear concentrations of Dorsal, an NF?B homolog transcription factor, along the dorsal-ventral axis. We show that over two-thirds of Dorsal target genes contain DPE sequence motifs, which is significantly higher than the proportion of DPE-containing promoters in Drosophila genes. We demonstrate that multiple Dorsal target genes are evolutionarily conserved and functionally dependent on the DPE. Furthermore, we have analyzed the activation of key Dorsal target genes by Dorsal, as well as by another Rel family transcription factor, Relish, and the dependence of their activation on the DPE motif. Using hybrid enhancer-promoter constructs in Drosophila cells and embryo extracts, we have demonstrated that the core promoter composition is an important determinant of transcriptional activity of Dorsal target genes. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the importance of core promoter composition in the regulation of Dorsal target genes. PMID:24634215

  20. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal and anal fins in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Standen, E M; Lauder, G V

    2007-01-01

    Recent kinematic and hydrodynamic studies on fish median fins have shown that dorsal fins actively produce jets with large lateral forces. Because of the location of dorsal fins above the fish's rolling axis, these lateral forces, if unchecked, would cause fish to roll. In this paper we examine the hydrodynamics of trout anal fin function and hypothesize that anal fins, located below the fish's rolling axis, produce similar jets to the dorsal fin and help balance rolling torques during swimming. We simultaneously quantify the wake generated by dorsal and anal fins in brook trout by swimming fish in two horizontal light sheets filmed by two synchronized high speed cameras during steady swimming and manoeuvring. Six major conclusions emerge from these experiments. First, anal fins produce lateral jets to the same side as dorsal fins, confirming the hypothesis that anal fins produce fluid jets that balance those produced by dorsal fins. Second, in contrast to previous work on sunfish, neither dorsal nor anal fins produce significant thrust during steady swimming; flow leaves the dorsal and anal fins in the form of a shear layer that rolls up into vortices similar to those seen in steady swimming of eels. Third, dorsal and anal fin lateral jets are more coincident in time than would be predicted from simple kinematic expectations; shape, heave and pitch differences between fins, and incident flow conditions may account for the differences in timing of jet shedding. Fourth, relative force and torque magnitudes of the anal fin are larger than those of the dorsal fin; force differences may be due primarily to a larger span and a more squarely shaped trailing edge of the anal fin compared to the dorsal fin; torque differences are also strongly influenced by the location of each fin relative to the fish's centre of mass. Fifth, flow is actively modified by dorsal and anal fins resulting in complex flow patterns surrounding the caudal fin. The caudal fin does not encounter free-stream flow, but rather moves through incident flow greatly altered by the action of dorsal and anal fins. Sixth, trout anal fin function differs from dorsal fin function; although dorsal and anal fins appear to cooperate functionally, there are complex interactions between other fins and free stream perturbations that require independent dorsal and anal fin motion and torque production to maintain control of body position. PMID:17210968

  1. Interocular symmetry analysis of bilateral eyes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Bao, Fang Jun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interocular symmetry of several biometric parameters between both eyes. The symmetry between the right and left eye of 397 subjects in 14 biometric parameters, spherical equivalent of refractive error (SE), Jackson crossed cylinder power of refractive error astigmatism with axes at 90° and 180° (RJ0) and at 45° and 135° (RJ45), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), average corneal curvature (CC), Jackson crossed cylinder power of corneal astigmatism (CJ0 and CJ45), corneal asphericity coefficient (Q), intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT) and vitreous chamber depth (VCD), was assessed by comparative data analysis. Aside from RJ0 (p?=?0.00), RJ45 (p?=?0.02) and Q (p?=?0.00), the overall interocular differences of other biometric parameters between fellow eyes were not significant (p?>?0.05). The interocular correlation and Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between fellow eyes in 14 biometric parameters. Correlations between interocular differences in SE and that in RJ0 (p?=?0.03), CC (p?=?0.00), AL (p?=?0.00) and VCD (p?=?0.00) were statistically significant. There were similar strong linear relationships between refractive error astigmatism vectors and corneal astigmatism vectors in bilateral eyes. There were negative correlations of RJ45 and CJ45 between bilateral eyes. A potentially clinically important interocular symmetry in SE, BCVA, CC, CJ0, CJ45, IOP, CCT, AL, ACD, LT and VCD is found in this research, while the differences of RJ0, RJ45 and Q between left and right eyes seem a bit large. The negative interocular relationships of RJ45 and CJ45 demonstrate moderate mirror symmetry exists among fellow eyes. High interocular symmetry in bilateral eyes may be helpful in intraocular lens power calculation, intraocular pressure evaluation, post-operative visual acuity and refraction prediction at the time the fellow eye is undergoing refractive surgery. PMID:24734876

  2. The Presence of Nuclear Cactus in the Early Drosophila Embryo May Extend the Dynamic Range of the Dorsal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Michael D.; Reeves, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    In a developing embryo, the spatial distribution of a signaling molecule, or a morphogen gradient, has been hypothesized to carry positional information to pattern tissues. Recent measurements of morphogen distribution have allowed us to subject this hypothesis to rigorous physical testing. In the early Drosophila embryo, measurements of the morphogen Dorsal, which is a transcription factor responsible for initiating the earliest zygotic patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis, have revealed a gradient that is too narrow to pattern the entire axis. In this study, we use a mathematical model of Dorsal dynamics, fit to experimental data, to determine the ability of the Dorsal gradient to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis. We found that two assumptions are required for the model to match experimental data in both Dorsal distribution and gene expression patterns. First, we assume that Cactus, an inhibitor that binds to Dorsal and prevents it from entering the nuclei, must itself be present in the nuclei. And second, we assume that fluorescence measurements of Dorsal reflect both free Dorsal and Cactus-bound Dorsal. Our model explains the dynamic behavior of the Dorsal gradient at lateral and dorsal positions of the embryo, the ability of Dorsal to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis, and the robustness of gene expression to stochastic effects. Our results have a general implication for interpreting fluorescence-based measurements of signaling molecules. PMID:25879657

  3. The presence of nuclear cactus in the early Drosophila embryo may extend the dynamic range of the dorsal gradient.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Michael D; Reeves, Gregory T

    2015-04-01

    In a developing embryo, the spatial distribution of a signaling molecule, or a morphogen gradient, has been hypothesized to carry positional information to pattern tissues. Recent measurements of morphogen distribution have allowed us to subject this hypothesis to rigorous physical testing. In the early Drosophila embryo, measurements of the morphogen Dorsal, which is a transcription factor responsible for initiating the earliest zygotic patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis, have revealed a gradient that is too narrow to pattern the entire axis. In this study, we use a mathematical model of Dorsal dynamics, fit to experimental data, to determine the ability of the Dorsal gradient to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis. We found that two assumptions are required for the model to match experimental data in both Dorsal distribution and gene expression patterns. First, we assume that Cactus, an inhibitor that binds to Dorsal and prevents it from entering the nuclei, must itself be present in the nuclei. And second, we assume that fluorescence measurements of Dorsal reflect both free Dorsal and Cactus-bound Dorsal. Our model explains the dynamic behavior of the Dorsal gradient at lateral and dorsal positions of the embryo, the ability of Dorsal to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis, and the robustness of gene expression to stochastic effects. Our results have a general implication for interpreting fluorescence-based measurements of signaling molecules. PMID:25879657

  4. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Samir H.; Porrino, Jack A.; Green, John R.; Chew, Felix S.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation.

  5. Tuberculosis of bilateral first costotransverse joints.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mayank; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Naik, Ananta Kumar; Arya, Rajendera Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Involvement of posterior spine constitutes to 1-6% of the cases of spinal tuberculosis (TB). To the best of our knowledge, TB of costotransverse joints has only been reported once in the literature. The purpose of this study is to describe a case of TB arthritis of costotransverse joints. A 22-year-old immunocompetent patient presented with a 3-month history of pain in the neck and upper back along with a swelling on the left side of the base of the neck. On performing an MRI of the cervicodorsal spine, there was evidence of destructive collections at the bilateral first and right-sided second costotransverse joints. The patient was diagnosed as a case of tubercular pathology and was managed successfully with antitubercular chemotherapy. PMID:23907973

  6. An Unusual Case of Bilateral Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Pistolese, C. A.; Di Trapano, R.; Girardi, V.; Costanzo, E.; Di Poce, I.; Simonetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate the exact extension of the disease and to plan the correct treatment. Final diagnosis is histological. We described an unusual case of IGM with bilateral involvement in a patient with history of pacemaker implantation and IGM typical clinical symptoms. Mammography, ultrasound, and MRI examinations were performed to identify the inflammatory disorder and to plan the correct therapy. Imaging features were correlated with final histological diagnosis of IGM. PMID:23781373

  7. Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after kidney surgery.

    PubMed

    Sozzo, S; Carratù, P; Damiani, M F; Falcone, V A; Palumbo, A; Dragonieri, S; Resta, O

    2012-06-01

    A 57-year-old woman underwent an enucleoresection of her right kidney angiomyolipoma. Two weeks later she was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea at rest with orthopnea. The chest x-ray showed the elevation of both hemidiaphragms and the measurement of the sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. A diaphragm paralysis can be ascribed to several causes, i.e. trauma, compressive events, inflammations, neuropathies, or it can be idiopathic. In this case, it was very likely that the patient suffered from post-surgery neuralgic amyotrophy. To our knowledge, there are only a few reported cases of neuralgic amyotrophy, also known as Parsonage-Turner Syndrome, which affects only the phrenic nerve as a consequence of a surgery in an anatomically distant site. PMID:23193847

  8. Isolated tuberculous lymphadenitis presenting as bilateral buboes

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Arun Prasath; Samuel, Soumya; Vadivel, Sivasubramanian; Kothandapany, Srivenkateswaran

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal and femoral buboes are defined as localized enlargement of lymph nodes in the groin that are painful, and may or may not be fluctuant. We report a case of 42-year-old female who presented with bilateral inguinal swelling of 6 months duration. After a complete evaluation, she was found to be a case of isolated inguinal tuberculous lymphadenitis. There was complete resolution with standard antituberculous therapy. Isolated inguinal tuberculous lymphadenitis though a rare entity in developed countries is not uncommon in developing nations. In this era of syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases, which carries its own pros and cons, this case report emphasizes the need to look beyond the venereal causes and calls for thorough evaluation and management. PMID:26392662

  9. Citalopram alleviates chronic stress induced depression-like behaviors in rats by activating GSK3? signaling in dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Dang, Wei; Jianting, Miao; Su, Changjun; Wang, Huaning; Chen, Yunchun; Tan, Qingrong

    2012-07-27

    Aside from monoamine disturbances, recent evidence has implicated particular intracellular pathways, including Wnt signaling, in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the role of Wingless (Wnt)-Dishevelled (DVL)-glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) signaling in the depression-like behaviors exhibited by rats exposed to chronic forced swim stress. We found that the rats subjected to forced swim stress for 14 consecutive days exhibited obvious depression-like behaviors and showed decreased levels of phosphorylated GSK3? and ?-catenin in the hippocampus. Chronic citalopram treatment alleviated the depression-like behaviors and reversed the disruptions of the phosphorylated GSK3? and ?-catenin in stressed rats. Furthermore, when the stressed rats with citalopram treatment received bilateral, dorsal hippocampus infusions of a DVL inhibitor, sulindac, the depression-like effects induced by chronic stress reappeared. These findings suggest that the Wnt-DVL-GSK3? signaling in the hippocampus is markedly involved in the pathophysiology of depression induced by chronic stress. The Wnt-DVL-GSK3? pathway may mediate the therapeutic action of citalopram, and the manipulation of DVL could be a target for novel antidepressants. PMID:22634067

  10. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  11. Bilateral Cochlear Implantation in Children: Experiences and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Andrea; Spitzlei, Vera; Lippert, Karl L.; Keilmann, Annerose

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2006, the University Clinic for Ear Nose and Throat and Communication Disorders in Mainz, Germany, performed 41 bilateral cochlear implantations in children. This article addresses some of the factors to be considered in a decision to bilaterally implant a child, including the age of the child at the first implant, the length of…

  12. Bilateral Symmetrical Congenital Giant Becker's Nevus: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Angoori Gnaneshwar

    2015-01-01

    Becker's nevus is a focal epidermal hypermelanotic disorder. It morphologically presents as unilateral, hyperpigmented, hypertrichotic patch on upper trunk, proximal upper extremities and arms. However, Becker's nevus presenting as bilateral, symmetrical patches is rare. Herein, we report a rare case of giant Becker's nevus with bilateral symmetrical presentation in an adult male. PMID:26538733

  13. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    PubMed Central

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  14. Spatial Hearing and Speech Intelligibility in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    Spatial Hearing and Speech Intelligibility in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users Ruth Y. Litovsky,1 use bilateral cochlear implants. The first aim of the study was to investigate the change in speech hearing through cochlear implants in postlingually deafened adults, there is an early emergence of spatial

  15. Applications of a bilateral denoising filter in biological electron microscopy

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Wen

    Applications of a bilateral denoising filter in biological electron microscopy Wen Jiang,a Matthew of biological sample to the radiation damage, the low dose imaging conditions used for electron microscopy the effectiveness of a bilateral denoising filter in various biological electron microscopy applications

  16. Size-dependent regulation of dorsal-ventral patterning in the early Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Mayra; Nahmad, Marcos; Reeves, Gregory T.; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2013-01-01

    How natural variation in embryo size affects patterning of the Drosophila embryo dorsal-ventral (DV) axis is not known. Here we examined quantitatively the relationship between nuclear distribution of the Dorsal transcription factor, boundary positions for several target genes, and DV axis length. Data were obtained from embryos of a wild-type background as well as from mutant lines inbred to size select embryos of smaller or larger sizes. Our data show that the width of the nuclear Dorsal gradient correlates with DV axis length. In turn, for some genes expressed along the DV axis, the boundary positions correlate closely with nuclear Dorsal levels and with DV axis length; while the expression pattern of others is relatively constant and independent of the width of the Dorsal gradient. In particular, the patterns of snail (sna) and ventral nervous-system defective (vnd) correlate with nuclear Dorsal levels and exhibit scaling to DV length; while the pattern of intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind) remains relatively constant with respect to changes in Dorsal and DV length. However, in mutants that exhibit an abnormal expansion of the Dorsal gradient which fails to scale to DV length, only sna follows the Dorsal distribution and exhibits overexpansion; in contrast, vnd and ind do not overexpand suggesting some additional mechanism acts to refine the dorsal boundaries of these two genes. Thus, our results argue against the idea that the Dorsal gradient works as a global system of relative coordinates along the DV axis and suggest that individual targets respond to changes in embryo size in a gene-specific manner. PMID:23800450

  17. Rare cause of paraparesis: bilateral obturator neuropathy after hysterosalpingectomy.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Roberto; Mejía-Jiménez, Inmaculada; de Fuenmayor-Fernández de la Hoz, Carlos Pablo; Ruiz-Morales, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral obturator nerve injury during pelvic surgery is an infrequent cause of lower limb paraparesis. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with a large uterine leiomyoma who underwent simple total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy. At 24?h after the surgery, the patient noticed loss of muscle strength when adducting both legs. She had no problem with other movements and no sensory or sphincter abnormalities. Neurological examination confirmed that there was loss of strength only in the adductor muscles, with preserved sensory function and reflexes, suggesting bilateral obturator nerve involvement. Pelvic MRI showed a small postsurgical haematoma in the Douglas recess, but far from the obturator nerves. 2?weeks later, electromyography showed positive sharp waves and low motor unit recruitment in the adductor magnus muscles, confirming acute, bilateral obturator nerve neuropathy. The few cases of bilateral obturator neuropathy that have been reported were mostly related to abdominopelvic interventions. PMID:26689250

  18. Comparative gait initiation kinematics between simulated unilateral and bilateral ankle hypomobility: Does bilateral constraint improve speed performance?

    PubMed

    Delafontaine, A; Honeine, J-L; Do, M-C; Gagey, O; Chong, R K

    2015-08-31

    Improvement of motor performance in unilateral upper limb motor disability has been shown when utilizing inter-limb coupling strategies during physical rehabilitation. This suggests that 'default' bilateral central motor commands are facilitated. Here, we tested whether this bilateral motor control principle may be generalized to the lower limbs during gait initiation, which involves alternate bilateral actions. Disability was simulated by strapping to produce ankle hypomobility. Healthy adult subjects initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint (control), or with the stance, swing or bilateral ankles strapped. The duration of the anticipatory postural adjustments lengthened and the center of mass instantaneous progression velocity at foot-off decreased when the ankle was strapped. During the step execution phase, progression velocity at foot-contact was higher when both ankles were strapped compared to unilateral strapping of the stance ankle. These findings suggest that bilateral central motor commands are favored during walking tasks. Indeed, unilateral constraint of the stance ankle should compel the central nervous system to adapt specific commands to the constraint and normal sides whereas the 'default' bilateral motor commands would be utilized when both ankles are strapped leading to better kinematics performance. Bilateral in-phase upper limb coordination and bilateral alternating lower limb locomotor movements may share similar control mechanisms. PMID:26197055

  19. AAV-Mediated Gene Transfer to Dorsal Root Ganglion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongwei; Fischer, Gregory; Hogan, Quinn H

    2016-01-01

    Transferring genetic molecules into the peripheral sensory nervous system to manipulate nociceptive pathophysiology is a powerful approach for experimental modulation of sensory signaling and potentially for translation into therapy for chronic pain. This can be efficiently achieved by the use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) in conjunction with nociceptor-specific regulatory transgene cassettes. Among different routes of delivery, direct injection into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) offers the most efficient AAV-mediated gene transfer selectively into the peripheral sensory nervous system. Here, we briefly discuss the advantages and applications of intraganglionic microinjection, and then provide a detailed approach for DRG injection, including a list of the necessary materials and description of a method for performing DRG microinjection experiments. We also discuss our experience with several adeno-associated virus (AAV) options for in vivo transgene expression in DRG neurons. PMID:26611592

  20. Purification of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons from Rat by Immunopanning

    PubMed Central

    Zuchero, J. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGs) are sensory neurons that facilitate somatosensation and have been used to study neurite outgrowth, regeneration, and degeneration and PNS and CNS myelination. Studies of DRGs have relied on cell isolation strategies that generally involve extended culture in the presence of antimitotic agents or other cytotoxic treatments that target dividing cells. The surviving cells typically are dependent on serum for growth. Other methods, involving purification of DRGs based on their large size, produce low yield. In contrast, the immunopanning-based method described here for prospective isolation of DRGs from rodents allows for rapid purification in the absence of antimitotic agents and serum. These DRG cultures take place in a defined medium. They are free of Schwann cells and other glia and thus can be used to study the role of glia in the biology of DRG neurons. PMID:25086011

  1. Acute compartment syndrome of the dorsal forearm following noncontact injury.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Brent; Comstock, Sean

    2010-09-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening condition in which early diagnosis and surgical consultation for fasciotomy are required to preserve functional outcome. The diagnosis is typically considered in patients with traumatic mechanisms of injury such as a direct blow and crush to the compartment, particularly when there is a fracture in the same compartment. We report the case of a patient with acute compartment syndrome of the dorsal forearm that occurred as a result of an atypical noncontact traumatic mechanism. Establishing the diagnosis of compartment syndrome was complicated in this patient, as some of the signs and symptoms of acute compartment syndrome could have been attributed to the presence of a coexisting rupture of the extensor digitorum muscle. This report serves to remind emergency physicians that, although rare, acute compartment syndrome can result from exertional and noncontact traumatic mechanisms. PMID:20925169

  2. Evidence against pain specificity in the dorsal posterior insula

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Karen D.; Bushnell, M. Catherine; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; St. Lawrence, Keith; Coghill, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The search for a “pain centre” in the brain has long eluded neuroscientists.  Although many regions of the brain have been shown to respond to painful stimuli, all of these regions also respond to other types of salient stimuli. In a recent paper, Segerdahl et al. (Nature Neuroscience, 2015)  claims that the dorsal posterior insula (dpIns) is a pain-specific region based on the observation that the magnitude of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) fluctuations in the dpIns correlated with the magnitude of evoked pain.  However, such a conclusion is, simply, not justified by the experimental evidence provided.  Here we discuss three major factors that seriously question this claim. PMID:26401267

  3. RAPID COMMUNICATION Dorsal Premotor Cortex and Conditional Movement Selection: A PET

    E-print Network

    Fagg, Andrew H.

    ), kinematics, or direction of target or limb movement. A com- activation of dorsal premotor cortex duringRAPID COMMUNICATION Dorsal Premotor Cortex and Conditional Movement Selection: A PET Functional and conditional movement selection: a PET functional map- notion that PMd is also involved in a more general

  4. The dorsal branch of the digital nerve: an anatomic study and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Tellioglu, A T; Sensöz, O

    1998-02-01

    The dorsal branch of the digital nerve was studied in 40 fingers from 8 cadavers. Our anatomic dissections showed that the dorsal branch of all digital nerves was constantly present. It arose from the digital nerve at the base of the proximal phalanx where digital vascular bifurcation usually occurred. The dorsal branch crossed the digital vascular bundle posteriorly and lay just above the extensor mechanism deeper to the dorsal-sensitive branches of the ulnar and radial nerves in the proximal and middle part of the proximal phalanx. The dorsal branch of the digital nerve supplies not only the dorsum of the middle phalanx, but also sends a branch to the dorsum of the proximal phalanx. Both dorsal branches should be used for maximal sensation while performing an innervated cross-finger flap. Furthermore, if only one digital nerve anastomosis is performed, a painful neuroma may develop from the unrepaired digital nerve stump. Therefore both of the transected digital nerves should be repaired. The dissections of the dorsal branches may be started proximally from distal palmar crease when any difficulties are encountered for nerve isolation. Nerve stumps of the dorsal branches should be placed in a deeper tissue plane and epineural sutures may be useful to prevent painful neuroma. This technique should be used in selected patients to gain maximal sensibility regarding the described points. PMID:9495462

  5. Robust, bistable patterning of the dorsal surface of the Drosophila embryo

    E-print Network

    Othmer, Hans

    Robust, bistable patterning of the dorsal surface of the Drosophila embryo David M. Umulis-independent spatial distribution of a morpho- gen. However, during dorsal­ventral patterning in the Drosophila embryo of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by a heterodimer of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) Decapentaplegic (Dpp

  6. Sex differences in polymorphic body coloration and dorsal pattern in Darwin's frogs (Rhinoderma darwinii)

    E-print Network

    1 Sex differences in polymorphic body coloration and dorsal pattern in Darwin's frogs (Rhinoderma, Germany We demonstrate that Darwin's frogs (Rhinoderma darwinii) show sex differences in dorsal pattern polymorphism is widely recognized (Gay, 1848; Jiménez de la Espada, 1875; Werner, 1897; Krieg, 1924; Wilhelm

  7. The Response of Dorsal Root Ganglion Axons to Nerve Growth Factor Gradients Depends on Spinal Level

    E-print Network

    Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

    The Response of Dorsal Root Ganglion Axons to Nerve Growth Factor Gradients Depends on Spinal Level assay to generate precisely controllable nerve growth factor gradients, we show for the first time that the guidance and outgrowth response of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons to identical nerve growth factor

  8. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p < 0.01),whereas the post-operative results were not significantly improved for the control group (1.2 ± 0.7 min vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 min, p > 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. PMID:22882515

  9. Modulation of Morphogenesis by Egfr during Dorsal Closure in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Olga; Cheng, David Chung-Pei; Reed, Bruce; Harden, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    During Drosophila embryogenesis the process of dorsal closure (DC) results in continuity of the embryonic epidermis, and DC is well recognized as a model system for the analysis of epithelial morphogenesis as well as wound healing. During DC the flanking lateral epidermal sheets stretch, align, and fuse along the dorsal midline, thereby sealing a hole in the epidermis occupied by an extra-embryonic tissue known as the amnioserosa (AS). Successful DC requires the regulation of cell shape change via actomyosin contractility in both the epidermis and the AS, and this involves bidirectional communication between these two tissues. We previously demonstrated that transcriptional regulation of myosin from the zipper (zip) locus in both the epidermis and the AS involves the expression of Ack family tyrosine kinases in the AS in conjunction with Dpp secreted from the epidermis. A major function of Ack in other species, however, involves the negative regulation of Egfr. We have, therefore, asked what role Egfr might play in the regulation of DC. Our studies demonstrate that Egfr is required to negatively regulate epidermal expression of dpp during DC. Interestingly, we also find that Egfr signaling in the AS is required to repress zip expression in both the AS and the epidermis, and this may be generally restrictive to the progression of morphogenesis in these tissues. Consistent with this theme of restricting morphogenesis, it has previously been shown that programmed cell death of the AS is essential for proper DC, and we show that Egfr signaling also functions to inhibit or delay AS programmed cell death. Finally, we present evidence that Ack regulates zip expression by promoting the endocytosis of Egfr in the AS. We propose that the general role of Egfr signaling during DC is that of a braking mechanism on the overall progression of DC. PMID:23579691

  10. Adult-type pigment cells, which color the ocular sides of flounders at metamorphosis, localize as precursor cells at the proximal parts of the dorsal and anal fins in early larvae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Washio, Youhei; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Aritaki, Masato; Uji, Susumu; Suzuki, Tohru

    2008-12-01

    Flounders form left-right asymmetry in body coloration during metamorphosis through differentiation of adult-type melanophores and xanthophores on the ocular side. As the first step in investigating the formation of flounder body coloration asymmetry, in this study, we aimed to determine where the precursors of adult-type chromatophores distribute in larvae before metamorphosis. In Paralichthys olivaceus and Verasper variegatus, GTP cyclohydrolase 2 (gch2), a common marker of melanoblasts and xanthoblasts, was found to be transiently expressed in cells located along the bilateral skeletal muscles at the basal parts of the dorsal and anal fins of premetamorphic larvae. When V. variegatus larvae were fed with a strain of Artemia collected in Brazil, this gch2 expression was abolished and the differentiation of adult-type melanophores was completely inhibited, while the density of larval melanophores was not affected. In a cell trace test in which the cells at the basal part of the dorsal fin were labeled with DiI at the premetamorphic stage, adult-type melanophores labeled with DiI were found in the skin on the ocular side after metamorphosis. These data suggest that, in flounder larvae, adult-type melanophores are distributed at the basal parts of the dorsal and anal fins as unpigmented precursor cells. PMID:19046161

  11. Giant mucinous cystic adenoma with pancreatic atrophy mimicking dorsal agenesis of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gagnière, Johan; Dupré, Aurélien; Ines, David Da; Tixier, Lucie; Pezet, Denis; Buc, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous cystic adenoma (MCA) of the pancreas is a rare benign cystic tumor with ovarian-like stroma and lack of communication with the pancreatic ductal system. The ovarian tissue is incorporated from the left gonad within the dorsal pancreas during embryogenesis. Consequently, congenital dorsal agenesis of the pancreas (DAP) cannot be associated with MCA. We report the case of a giant MCA associated with atrophy of the dorsal pancreas mimicking complete DAP. Pancreato-magnetic resonance imaging failed to identify the dorsal pancreas but the absence of diabetes mellitus and compression of the splenic vein with major tributaries rectified the diagnosis of secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. Unusual proximal location of the cyst in the pancreas may have induced chronic obstruction of both the dorsal pancreatic duct and the splenic vein, with secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. PMID:24672649

  12. Bilateral lesions in a specific subregion of posterior insular cortex impair conditioned taste aversion expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Schier, Lindsey A; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    The gustatory cortex (GC) is widely regarded for its integral role in the acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) in rodents, but large lesions in this area do not always result in CTA impairment. Recently, using a new lesion mapping system, we found that severe CTA expression deficits were associated with damage to a critical zone that included the posterior half of GC in addition to the insular cortex (IC) that is just dorsal and caudal to this region (visceral cortex). Lesions in anterior GC were without effect. Here, neurotoxic bilateral lesions were placed in the anterior half of this critical damage zone, at the confluence of the posterior GC and the anterior visceral cortex (termed IC2 ), the posterior half of this critical damage zone that contains just VC (termed IC3 ), or both of these subregions (IC2 + IC3 ). Then, pre- and postsurgically acquired CTAs (to 0.1 M NaCl and 0.1 M sucrose, respectively) were assessed postsurgically in 15-minute one-bottle and 96-hour two-bottle tests. Li-injected rats with histologically confirmed bilateral lesions in IC2 exhibited the most severe CTA deficits, whereas those with bilateral lesions in IC3 were relatively normal, exhibiting transient disruptions in the one-bottle sessions. Groupwise lesion maps showed that CTA-impaired rats had more extensive damage to IC2 than did unimpaired rats. Some individual differences in CTA expression among rats with similar lesion profiles were observed, suggesting idiosyncrasies in the topographic representation of information in the IC. Nevertheless, this study implicates IC2 as the critical zone of the IC for normal CTA expression. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:54-73, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26053891

  13. Amygdala and Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Connectivity during an Emotional Working Memory Task in Borderline Personality Disorder Patients with Interpersonal Trauma History

    PubMed Central

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Oei, Nicole Y. L.; Paret, Christian; Niedtfeld, Inga; Spinhoven, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is critically involved in ignoring emotional distraction while maintaining goal-directed behavior. Antagonistic interactions between brain regions implicated in emotion processing, e.g., amygdala, and brain regions involved in cognitive control, e.g., dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, dmPFC), may play an important role in coping with emotional distraction. We previously reported prolonged reaction times associated with amygdala hyperreactivity during emotional distraction in interpersonally traumatized borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC): Participants performed a working memory task, while neutral versus negative distractors (interpersonal scenes from the International Affective Picture System) were presented. Here, we re-analyzed data from this study using psychophysiological interaction analysis. The bilateral amygdala and bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were defined as seed regions of interest. Whole-brain regression analyses with reaction times and self-reported increase of dissociation were performed. During emotional distraction, reduced amygdala connectivity with clusters in the left dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC was observed in the whole group. Compared to HC, BPD patients showed a stronger coupling of both seeds with a cluster in the right dmPFC and stronger positive amygdala connectivity with bilateral (para)hippocampus. Patients further demonstrated stronger positive dACC connectivity with left posterior cingulate, insula, and frontoparietal regions during emotional distraction. Reaction times positively predicted amygdala connectivity with right dmPFC and (para)hippocampus, while dissociation positively predicted amygdala connectivity with right ACC during emotional distraction in patients. Our findings suggest increased attention to task-irrelevant (emotional) social information during a working memory task in interpersonally traumatized patients with BPD. PMID:25389397

  14. Anton's Syndrome due to Bilateral Ischemic Occipital Lobe Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Zuki?, Sanela; Sinanovi?, Osman; Hodži?, Renata; Mujagi?, Svjetlana; Smajlovi?, Edina

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with Anton's syndrome (i.e., visual anosognosia with confabulations), who developed bilateral occipital lobe infarct. Bilateral occipital brain damage results in blindness, and patients start to confabulate to fill in the missing sensory input. In addition, the patient occasionally becomes agitated and talks to himself, which indicates that, besides Anton's syndrome, he might have had Charles Bonnet syndrome, characterized by both visual loss and hallucinations. Anton syndrome, is not so frequent condition and is most commonly caused by ischemic stroke. In this particular case, the patient had successive bilateral occipital ischemia as a result of massive stenoses of head and neck arteries. PMID:25530893

  15. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Topographic profiles have been obtained across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is noted within domains between linear discontinuities in directions parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. The results suggest that western Aphrodite Terra is similar to terrestrial oceanic divergent plate boundary environments, and that the cross-strike discontinuities are analogous to oceanic fracture zones rather than strike-slip faults.

  16. Severe bilateral ischemic retinal vasculitis following cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Laura B; Kim, Brian T; Jardón, Javier; Townsend-Pico, William; Santos, Carmen; Moshfeghi, Andrew A; Albini, Thomas A; Eliott, Dean; Sobrin, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    This report describes two cases of severe, bilateral ischemic retinal vasculitis following cataract surgeries at different surgical centers. In both cases, the patient underwent bilateral cataract surgeries, performed 1 week apart for each eye. In the perioperative period following the second of the two surgeries, both patients developed severe, bilateral intraocular inflammation and profound vision loss. The underlying cause of this adverse response remains unknown. The authors suggest that the severe inflammatory reaction could be related to an intraoperative intracameral vancomycin injection. PMID:25127533

  17. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome Presenting as Bilateral Central Retinal Artery Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Steven S.; Patel, Yogin P.; Desai, Ankit; Desai, Uday R.

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 22-year-old African American woman presented with bilateral vision loss associated with headache. Her ocular examination was significant for bilateral retinal arterial “boxcarring,” retinal whitening, retinal hemorrhages, and cherry red spots. She was diagnosed with bilateral central retinal artery occlusions and was hospitalized due to concomitant diagnosis of stroke and hypercoagulable state. She was also found to be in heart failure and kidney failure. Rheumatology was consulted and she was diagnosed with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Approximately 7 months after presentation, the patient's vision improved and remained stable at 20/200 and 20/80. PMID:25722904

  18. Rehabilitation for bilateral amputation of fingers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Stapanian, Adrienne M.P.; Staley, Keith E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe reconstructive surgeries, therapy, prostheses, and adaptations for a patient who experienced bilateral amputation of all five fingers of both hands through the proximal phalanges in January 1992. The patient made considerable progress in the use of his hands in the 10 mo after amputation, including nearly a 120% increase in the active range of flexion of metacarpophalangeal joints. In late 1992 and early 1993, the patient had "on-top plasty" surgeries, in which the index finger remnants were transferred onto the thumb stumps, performed on both hands. The increased web space and functional pinch resulting from these procedures made many tasks much easier. The patient and occupational therapists set challenging goals at all times. Moreover, the patient was actively involved in the design and fabrication of all prostheses and adaptations or he developed them himself. Although he was discharged from occupational therapy in 1997, the patient continues to actively find new solutions for prehension and grip strength 18 yr after amputation.

  19. Pregnancy with bilateral tubercular pleural effusion: challenges.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Vanita; Gombar, Satinder; Kumar, Navneet; Goyal, Nitika; Gupta, Kanika

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. Diagnosis is challenging, especially when the patient presents with acute respiratory distress. The incidence of pleural effusion in TB is 3-25% and in the majority of patients, is unilateral. We describe the intensive care management of a 27-year-old pregnant woman admitted to our hospital with life threatening respiratory distress and circulatory shock. She continued to have severe metabolic and respiratory acidosis with shock in spite of the resuscitative measures undertaken. At that point, a bedside lung ultrasonography showed bilateral pleural effusion which was followed with therapeutic thoracocentesis of the right side. This resulted in the stabilization of the respiratory mechanics and haemodynamics of the patient. The pleural fluid culture tested positive for acid fast bacilli after 4 weeks in the intensive care unit. Anti-TB therapy was started and she made a rapid recovery with liberation from mechanical ventilation. The early use of bedside lung ultrasonography was instrumental in the successful management of this patient. PMID:24395882

  20. Psychosocial Outcomes after Bilateral Hand Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mansher; Oser, Megan; Zinser, Jennifer; Sisk, Geoffroy; Carty, Matthew J; Sampson, Christian; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the first successful hand transplantation in 1998, there have been multiple reports about surgical technique, transplant survival, and immunosuppression. However, very limited published data exist on psychosocial outcomes following hand transplantation. Methods: We report psychosocial outcomes in a patient with bilateral hand transplants at the midforearm level with serial follow-ups over 3.5 years. Different metrics used to study psychosocial outcomes included the following: SF-12, CES-D, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Rosenberg SE, and EQ-5D. Result: Preoperatively, our patient did not have any evidence of depression (CES-D = 3), had a nonstressful relationship with his spouse (Dyadic Adjustment Scale = 100), and self-esteem was in the normal range (Rosenberg SE = 21). These metrics and his additional scales (SF-12 MCS, EQ-5D, and EQ-VAS) did not change appreciably and were within the normal range for the entire duration of 3.5-year follow-up at all different time points. Conclusion: With the increasing popularity of hand transplantation and the increasing awareness of the importance of psychosocial parameters in overall success, appropriate, comprehensive, and standardized measurements are important. These should be an integral part of patients’ screening and follow-up. PMID:26579339

  1. [Bilaterality in acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Imamura, Shunichi; Honda, Hideyuki; Miyata, Masanori; Mizukoshi, Akihito; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2005-03-01

    Bilaterality in acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss (ALHL) is more generally recognized than that in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Subjects were 274 patients diagnosed with ALHL based on criteria of a study group of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan, i.e., total of 3 low tone hearing of 70dB or more and, a total of 3 high-tone hearing of 60dB or less, and treated at the departments of otolaryngology at Yamanashi University and Suwa Central Hospital. ALHL involving bilateral ears symptoms and/or bilateral hearing impairment conforming to diagnostic criteria was selected and summarized. Clinical ear symptoms, clinical test results, and hearing levels (total 3 low tone hearing, 1kHz, and total of 3 high-tone hearing) were statistically analyzed. We also reviewed Japanese clinical reports of ALHL that include bilateral cases. In 32 cases (11.7%) of 274 cases, both ear symptoms and hearing impairment were bilateral. In 22 (8.0%) of the 274, bilateral ear symptoms were present, but showed unilateral hearing loss conforming to diagnostic criteria. Another 22 (8.0%) out the 274 reported unilateral ear symptoms, but hearing tests indicated bilateral ALHL. A total of 76 cases (27.7%) of the 274 had bilaterality in either ear symptoms or hearing loss. Our review indicated that 9.0% (162 of 1803) ALHL patients were bilaterally affected, possibly indicating that AIHL includes a larger number of bilateral cases than currently assumed, if the opposite side were given a especially detailed clinical interview. Statistical analysis (Mann Whitney test, P<0.01) of hearing of unilateral cases indicated that 3 low tone hearing was more affected than 3 high-tone hearing, even on the normal side. These results indicate that ALHL tends to be bilateral, possibly due to the mechanism of pathogenesis, and also that the mechanism may include both local and general conditions. This more closely resembles Meniere's disease than idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Both sides of bilateral cases were not usually the same in hearing patterns, glycerol test results, or prognosis. A statistically significant difference (Mann Whitney test, P<0.01) in total of 3 low tone hearing was seen between worse and better sides in bilateral cases. The degree of disease on both sides in bilateral cases thus was not always the same. Bilateral cases may result from both the influence of general conditions such as fatigue, stress, and lack of sleep and local conditions such as pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops that may cause differences in both ears. No clear difference was seen in clinical symptoms, hearing levels, and clinical examination, e.g., Schellong and glyceol tests, between unilateral and bilateral cases. Bilateral cases had a poorer prognosis (lower complete recovery ratio; chi2 test P<0.01) than unilateral cases. Our results indicated that cautious evaluation of opposite ear is necessary in diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of ALHL. PMID:15828287

  2. WntD is a feedback inhibitor of Dorsal/NF-kB in Drosophila development and immunity

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    with the discovery that the Toll/NF-kB pathway, in addition to patterning the dorsal­ventral axis of the fly embryo activity in the fly. The dorsal­ventral (D­V) axis of the Drosophila embryo is initially patterned by Dorsal defines the spatial organization of tissues in the embryo, with ventral-most cells becoming

  3. Wide-field functional imaging of blood flow and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rodent dorsal window chamber

    E-print Network

    Choi, Bernard

    Wide-field functional imaging of blood flow and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rodent dorsal Article history: Accepted 8 July 2011 Available online 23 July 2011 The rodent dorsal window chamber microvasculature in the rodent dorsal skin that is immobilized by surgically implanted titanium frames, allowing

  4. Effects of an Improved Auditory-Periphery Model on the Response Properties of Modeled Neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Bruce, Ian

    in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus Stephen Vetsis, Xiaohan Zheng, Herbert F. Voigt and Ian C. Bruce, Senior Member Abstract-- Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) neurons were simulated using two different models of auditory of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) [4]. This study used the 1993 Carney model of the auditory periphery

  5. Ulnar nerve motor conduction to the first dorsal interosseous muscle.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, Nathan D; Buschbacher, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The ulnar motor study to the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) is commonly performed, but does not test the terminal deep palmar branch of the ulnar nerve. Although damage to the ulnar nerve most often occurs at the elbow, the damage may occur elsewhere along the course of the nerve, including damage to the deep palmar branch. Ulnar conduction studies of the deep branch have been performed with recording from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. These studies have used differing methodologies and were mostly limited by small sample size. The aim of this study was to develop a normative database for ulnar nerve conduction to the FDI. A new method of recording from the FDI was developed for this study. It utilizes recording with the active electrode over the dorsal first web space, with the reference electrode placed at the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint. This technique reliably yields negative takeoff measurements. An additional comparison was made between ulnar motor latency with recording at the ADM and with recording at the FDI. For this study, 199 subjects with no risk factors for neuropathy were tested. The latency, amplitude, area, and duration were recorded. The upper limit of normal (ULN) was defined as the 97th percentile of observed values. The lower limit of normal (LLN) was defined as the 3rd percentile of observed values. For the FDI, mean latency was 3.8 +/- 0.5 ms, with a ULN of 4.7 ms for males, 4.4 ms for females, and 4.6 ms for all subjects. Mean amplitude was 15.8 +/- 4.9 mV, with a LLN of 5.1 for all subjects. Side-to-side differences in latency to the FDI, from dominant to nondominant hands, was -0.1 +/- 0.4 ms, with a ULN of 0.8 ms. For the amplitude, up to a 52% decrease from side to side was normal. For the same-limb comparison of the FDI and ADM, the mean latency difference was 0.6 +/- 0.4 ms, with a ULN increase of 1.3 ms for latency to the ADM versus the FDI. PMID:17206927

  6. La NLPC en décubitus dorsal modifié : notre expérience

    PubMed Central

    El Harrech, Youness; Ghoundale, Omar; Zaini, Rachid; Moufid, Kamal; Touiti, Driss

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Introduction et objectif : La NLPC est conventionnellement réalisée en décubitus ventral. Cette position présente de nombreux inconvénients. Notre objectif était d’évaluer de façon prospective le caractère sûr et efficace de la NLPC en position de décubitus dorsal modifié (DDM). Matériel et méthodes : Entre novembre 2004 et janvier 2010, 159 NLPC ont été réalisées en DDM. Le patient a été mis en décubitus dorsal avec un billot sous le flanc permettant une rotation de 45 degrés du côté opposé. Une position de lithotomie modifiée était associée si un double accès antérograde et rétrograde simultané était nécessaire. Après ponction rénale, la dilatation a été faite selon la technique « one shot » ou en utilisant les dilatateurs d’Alken. Les caractéristiques des patients et des calculs, la durée opératoire, le séjour hospitalier, les complications et le taux d’absence de calculs résiduels (« stone free ») ont été analysés. Résultats : L’âge moyen des patients était de 47 ± 13,1 ans (22–70). Vingt-et-un patients avaient des ATCD de chirurgie rénale du même côté. Vingt-six patients avaient un rein unique anatomique ou fonctionnel. Un patient avait un rein en fer à cheval et deux patients avaient une malrotation rénale. Le diamètre moyen des calculs était de 3,4 ± 1,9 cm (1,3–5,4) et 20 patients avaient des calculs coralliformes. Dix patients avaient des calculs urétéraux et ont eu une urétéroscopie simultanée. La durée moyenne de l’intervention était de 60 ± 29 min. Deux interventions ont été interrompues en raison d’un saignement important. Trois cas de fièvre postopératoire et 2 cas de fistule urinaire traités par sonde en double J ont été notés. Aucune plaie vasculaire ou viscérale n’a été rapportée ni de plaie pleuropulmonaire. Huit patients ont eu une seconde séance de NLPC durant la même hospitalisation. Après trois mois le taux d’absence de calculs résiduels était de 91,8 %. Conclusion : La NLPC en DDM a permis de traiter de façon sûre et efficace les calculs rénaux. Elle a offert plusieurs avantages : facilité d’installation et non-nécessité de changer la position, pas de compression thoracique, moins de contraintes anesthésiques, réduction du risque de plaie colique et possibilité d’accès simultané antérograde et rétrograde. PMID:21801684

  7. Jagged-Notch signaling ensures dorsal skeletal identity in the vertebrate face

    PubMed Central

    Zuniga, Elizabeth; Stellabotte, Frank; Crump, J. Gage

    2010-01-01

    The development of the vertebrate face relies on the regionalization of neural crest-derived skeletal precursors along the dorsoventral (DV) axis. Here we show that Jagged-Notch signaling ensures dorsal identity within the hyoid and mandibular components of the facial skeleton by repressing ventral fates. In a genetic screen in zebrafish, we identified a loss-of-function mutation in jagged 1b (jag1b) that results in dorsal expansion of ventral gene expression and partial transformation of the dorsal hyoid skeleton to a ventral morphology. Conversely, misexpression of human jagged 1 (JAG1) represses ventral gene expression and dorsalizes the ventral hyoid and mandibular skeletons. We further show that jag1b is expressed specifically in dorsal skeletal precursors, where it acts through the Notch2 receptor to activate hey1 expression. Whereas Jagged-Notch positive feedback propagates jag1b expression throughout the dorsal domain, Endothelin 1 (Edn1) inhibits jag1b and hey1 expression in the ventral domain. Strikingly, reduction of Jag1b or Notch2 function partially rescues the ventral defects of edn1 mutants, indicating that Edn1 promotes facial skeleton development in part by inhibiting Jagged-Notch signaling in ventral skeletal precursors. Together, these results indicate a novel function of Jagged-Notch signaling in ensuring dorsal identity within broad fields of facial skeletal precursors. PMID:20431122

  8. A case of acute dorsal radiocarpal dislocation with radial styloid fracture.

    PubMed

    Takase, Katsumi; Morohashi, Akira

    2013-11-01

    We describe a case report of dorsal radiocarpal dislocation with fracture of the radial styloid process. A 21-year-old right-handed male was injured in a fall while snowboarding. Plain radiographic findings revealed dorsal dislocation of radiocarpal joint with fracture of the radial styloid process; we performed CT studies to examine the radius fracture in greater detail. These findings revealed a radial styloid fracture with avulsion fracture of dorsal articular margin of the distal part of the radius. Surgical treatment was performed 4 days after the injury. However, it was impossible to reduce the dorsal dislocation of radiocarpal joint only after the fixation of the radial styloid process. The dorsal radiocarpal ligaments and articular capsule had ruptured transversely on the radiocarpal joint with avulsion fracture of dorsal articular margin of the distal part of the radius. To repair the torn ligaments and capsule, we inserted three mini suture anchors into the dorsal edge of the radius and fixed these tissues on the radius. At present, 1 year after surgery, he has no pain with activity or at rest, and satisfactory results have been obtained. PMID:23412180

  9. Wheatstone bridge fed from a bilateral constant current source.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, C; Oommen, D

    1980-03-01

    A simple inexpensive scheme of an electronic amplifier for Wheatstone bridge application is presented. The bridge is excited from a bilateral constant current square wave source. The advantage of constant current drive is presented. PMID:18647085

  10. Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma without adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Simpson, William Greg; Babbar, Paurush; Payne, Lynnetta Faith

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a rare case of bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that presented as a primary malignancy. An 83-year-old man presented with newly discovered bilateral adrenal incidentalomas, fatigue, and 30 pound weight loss. Of the 116 cases of primary adrenal NHL reported, over half have presented bilaterally and occur with adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, the finding of bilateral adrenal masses requires an urgent work-up of the functional status of the adrenal gland as well as a thorough analysis of the imaging characteristics seen on noncontrast computed tomography (CT) in order to maximize patient survival. Adrenal function testing was normal. Repeat CT imaging revealed rapidly growing lesions with high attenuations; both masses >10 HU. Histological examination of core biopsies discovered malignant lymphoma with no known past history of lymphoma. Our case coincides with the literature, which states that a mass with attenuation >10 HU in the adrenal glands has a high risk of malignancy. PMID:25837497

  11. Spontaneous Unruptured Bilateral Tubal Pregnancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghomian, Nayereh; Lotfalizadeh, Marziyeh

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral spontaneous tubal ectopic pregnancy is the rarest form of extra uterine pregnancy. The diagnosis is usually made intraoperatively and levels of serum BHCG and ultrasound has not been useful in the diagnosis of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy. A 33-year-old woman with 8 weeks amenorrhea and sever lower abdominal pain was admitted. A transvaginal pelvic ultrasound revealed left adnexal mass and massive fluid collection in the pelvis and abdomen. The serum BHCG was 5,700 mIU/ml and in laparotomy bilateral unruptured tubal pregnancy was noted. Left salpingectomy and right salpingostomy were performed. The diagnosis of bilateral spontaneous tubal ectopic pregnancy is usually made intraoperatively. Both tubes at the time of surgery should be closely examined in order to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26538784

  12. Sound localization and interaural time sensitivity with bilateral cochlear implants

    E-print Network

    Poon, Becky Bikkei

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implantation is becoming more common as clinicians attempt to provide better sound-source localization and speech reception in noise for cochlear implant (CI) users. While some improvement over the ...

  13. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Srivatsan, K S; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation "keratocyst" was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately. PMID:25298727

  14. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, K. S.; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation “keratocyst” was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately. PMID:25298727

  15. Relocation of mitochondria to the prospective dorsal marginal zone during Xenopus embryogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, H. J.; Phillips, C. R.; Boore, J. L.; Bertman, J.; Whalon, B.; Danilchik, M. V.

    1995-01-01

    Dorsal-ventral axis formation in Xenopus laevis begins with a cytoplasmic rotation during the first cell cycle and culminates in a series of cell interactions and movements during gastrulation and neurulation that lead to the formation of dorsal-anterior structures. Evidence reported here indicates that mitochondria are differentially redistributed along the prospective dorsal-ventral axis as a consequence of the cortical-cytoplasmic rotation during the first cell cycle. This finding reinvigorates a possibility that has been considered for many years: asymmetries in cytoplasmic components and metabolic activities contribute to the development of morphological asymmetries.

  16. A New Method to Extract Dorsal Hand Vein Pattern using Quadratic Inference Function

    E-print Network

    Khan, Maleika Heenaye Mamode

    2010-01-01

    Among all biometric, dorsal hand vein pattern is attracting the attention of researchers, of late. Extensive research is being carried out on various techniques in the hope of finding an efficient one which can be applied on dorsal hand vein pattern to improve its accuracy and matching time. One of the crucial step in biometric is the extraction of features. In this paper, we propose a method based on quadratic inference function to the dorsal hand vein features to extract its features. The biometric system developed was tested on a database of 100 images. The false acceptance rate (FAR), false rejection rate (FRR) and the matching time are being computed.

  17. Opiates and Pain Pathways: Demonstration of Enkephalin Synapses on Dorsal Horn Projection Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, M. A.

    1982-03-01

    The participation of the opiate peptide enkephalin in the neural circuitry of the dorsal horn was examined at the light and ultrastructural level through the use of the combined techniques of immunocytochemistry and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Enkephalin immunoreactive axonal endings made direct synaptic contact with the soma and proximal dendrites of dorsal horn thalamic projection neurons. This observation demonstrates that one major synaptic site of enkephalin modulation of the transfer of nociceptive information in the dorsal horn is on the projection neurons themselves.

  18. SEM study on the dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel, Petaurista leucogenys.

    PubMed

    Emura, S; Tamada, A; Hayakawa, D; Chen, H; Jamali, M; Taguchi, H; Shoumura, S

    1999-09-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform (FI), fungiform (FU), foliate (FO) and vallate papillae (VA) were observed. The FI were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. In the region of the VA, the FI appeared as giant cones. The FU were present as rounded bodies scattered over the dorsal surface of the tongue. They were relatively scarce and appear to be concentrated around the edges of the tongue. The FO were observed on the posterolateral regions of the tongue. The flying squirrel showed the triangular arrangement of the three VA, with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly. PMID:10560016

  19. Functional outcomes following surgical treatment of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-T; Feng, C-H; Tsay, P-K; Lai, J-P; Chen, Y-R

    2011-01-01

    Debate continues regarding unilateral or bilateral treatment for mandibular condylar fractures. This retrospective study evaluates the functional outcomes of bilateral condylar process fractures after surgical intervention. From May 1994 to December 2004, 51 adult patients with bilateral mandibular condylar process fractures were studied. There were 33 cases of bilateral condylar fractures (type I); 12 cases of condylar-subcondylar fractures (type II); and six cases of bilateral subcondylar fractures (type III). All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation. Four patients had chin deviation, six had malocclusion, three had poor chewing function and eight had limited mouth opening. Type I patients had a significantly higher incidence of limited mouth opening (P=0.039) and associated maxillary fractures (n=12) and psychiatric disease (n=6) which yielded significantly poor functional outcomes. Complications included transient facial paresis (n=4), fracture and loosening of postoperative plates (n=3) and surgical wound infections (n=2). Open reduction with rigid fixation for bilateral condylar fractures provided satisfactory functional outcomes in this study. Concomitant maxillary fractures and underlying psychiatric problems are poor outcome factors. Aggressive rehabilitation in the first 9 months is important for early functional recovery. PMID:20961735

  20. Alexander disease with mild dorsal brainstem atrophy and infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease. PMID:22818990

  1. Retronasal odor representations in the dorsal olfactory bulb of rats

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2012-01-01

    Animals perceive their olfactory environment not only from odors originating in the external world (orthonasal route) but also from odors released in the oral cavity while eating food (retronasal route). Retronasal olfaction is crucial for the perception of food flavor in humans. However, little is known about the retronasal stimulus coding in the brain. The most basic question is if and how route affects the odor representations at the level of the olfactory bulb (OB), where odor quality codes originate. We used optical calcium imaging of presynaptic dorsal OB responses to odorants in anesthetized rats to ask whether the rat OB could be activated retronasally, and how these responses compare to orthonasal responses under similar conditions. We further investigated the effects of specific odorant properties on orthoversus retronasal response patterns. We found that at a physiologically relevant flow rate retronasal odorants can effectively reach the olfactory receptor neurons, eliciting glomerular response patterns that grossly overlap with those of orthonasal responses, but differ from the orthonasal patterns in the response amplitude and temporal dynamics. Interestingly, such differences correlated well with specific odorant properties. Less volatile odorants yielded relatively smaller responses retronasally, but volatility did not affect relative temporal profiles. More polar odorants responded with relatively longer onset latency and time to peak retronasally, but polarity did not affect relative response magnitudes. These data provide insight into the early stages of retronasal stimulus coding and establish relationships between ortho- and retronasal odor representations in the rat OB. PMID:22674270

  2. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed

    Pickard, Gary E; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-10-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  3. Multimodal connectivity of motor learning-related dorsal premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Robert M; Lesage, Elise; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Clos, Mareike; Fox, Peter; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-12-01

    The dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) is a key region for motor learning and sensorimotor integration, yet we have limited understanding of its functional interactions with other regions. Previous work has started to examine functional connectivity in several brain areas using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and meta-analytical connectivity modelling (MACM). More recently, structural covariance (SC) has been proposed as a technique that may also allow delineation of functional connectivity. Here, we applied these three approaches to provide a comprehensive characterization of functional connectivity with a seed in the left dPMC that a previous meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies has identified as playing a key role in motor learning. Using data from two sources (the Rockland sample, containing resting state data and anatomical scans from 132 participants, and the BrainMap database, which contains peak activation foci from over 10,000 experiments), we conducted independent whole-brain functional connectivity mapping analyses of a dPMC seed. RSFC and MACM revealed similar connectivity maps spanning prefrontal, premotor, and parietal regions, while the SC map identified more widespread frontal regions. Analyses indicated a relatively consistent pattern of functional connectivity between RSFC and MACM that was distinct from that identified by SC. Notably, results indicate that the seed is functionally connected to areas involved in visuomotor control and executive functions, suggesting that the dPMC acts as an interface between motor control and cognition. PMID:26282855

  4. Retronasal odor representations in the dorsal olfactory bulb of rats.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Verhagen, Justus V

    2012-06-01

    Animals perceive their olfactory environment not only from odors originating in the external world (orthonasal route) but also from odors released in the oral cavity while eating food (retronasal route). Retronasal olfaction is crucial for the perception of food flavor in humans. However, little is known about the retronasal stimulus coding in the brain. The most basic questions are if and how route affects the odor representations at the level of the olfactory bulb (OB), where odor quality codes originate. We used optical calcium imaging of presynaptic dorsal OB responses to odorants in anesthetized rats to ask whether the rat OB could be activated retronasally, and how these responses compare to orthonasal responses under similar conditions. We further investigated the effects of specific odorant properties on orthonasal versus retronasal response patterns. We found that at a physiologically relevant flow rate, retronasal odorants can effectively reach the olfactory receptor neurons, eliciting glomerular response patterns that grossly overlap with those of orthonasal responses, but differ from the orthonasal patterns in the response amplitude and temporal dynamics. Interestingly, such differences correlated well with specific odorant properties. Less volatile odorants yielded relatively smaller responses retronasally, but volatility did not affect relative temporal profiles. More polar odorants responded with relatively longer onset latency and time to peak retronasally, but polarity did not affect relative response magnitudes. These data provide insight into the early stages of retronasal stimulus coding and establish relationships between orthonasal and retronasal odor representations in the rat OB. PMID:22674270

  5. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  6. Bilateral femoral neck fractures secondary to chronic carbamazepine use treated by bilateral dynamic hip screw: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sariyilmaz, Kerim; Gulenc, Baris; Ozkunt, Okan; Dikici, Fatih; Yazicioglu, Onder

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bilateral femoral neck fractures without major trauma are rare and related to several conditions. Insufficiency fractures due to the use of anti-epileptic drug are one of the rare causes. This case study is about bilateral femoral neck insufficiency fractures resulting from chronic use of anti-epileptic drug. Presentation of case A 26-year-old woman was referred to our emergency department with a complaint of bilateral groin pain and a 12-year history of irregular carbamazepine use. The diagnosis was bilateral femoral neck insufficiency fractures due to irregular long-term carbamazepine use. One-stage bilateral dynamic hip screw osteosynthesis was performed. After 2 years of follow up, good result was obtained. Discussion There are several risk factors for insufficiency fracture, and antiepileptic drug related osteoporosis is one of the reason. These drugs have negative effect on bone methabolism and bone mineral density. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of bilateral femoral neck insufficiency fracture due to chronic carbamazepine use. Joint and bone pain with a history of long-term use of anti-epileptic drug should be investigated carefully, and insufficiency fractures should be kept in mind. PMID:25528039

  7. pharyngeal dentition. Three pairs of dorsal pharyngeal tooth plates are present, associated

    E-print Network

    pharyngeal dentition. Three pairs of dorsal pharyngeal tooth plates are present, associated and comparatively weak pharyngeal dentition (AI-Hussaini 1947). Acknowledgments I thank the many people who helped

  8. Single-Session Radiofrequency Ablation of Bilateral Lung Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Palussiere, Jean Gomez, Fernando; Cannella, Matthieu; Ferron, Stephane; Descat, Edouard; Fonck, Marianne; Brouste, Veronique; Avril, Antoine

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study examined the feasibility and efficacy of bilateral lung radiofrequency ablation (RFA) performed in a single session. Methods: From 2002-2009, patients with bilateral lung metastases were treated by RFA, where possible in a single session under general anesthesia with CT guidance. The second lung was punctured only if no complications occurred after treatment of the first lung. Five lung metastases maximum per patient were treated by RFA and prospectively followed. The primary endpoint was the evaluation of acute and delayed complications. Secondary endpoints were calculation of hospitalization duration, local efficacy, median survival, and median time to tumor progression. Local efficacy was evaluated on CT or positron emission tomography (PET) CT. Results: Sixty-seven patients were treated for bilateral lung metastases with RFA (mean age, 62 years). Single-session treatment was not possible in 40 due to severe pneumothoraces (n = 24), bilateral pleural contact (n = 14), and operational exclusions (n = 2). Twenty-seven (41%) received single-session RFA of lesions in both lungs for 66 metastases overall. Fourteen unilateral and four bilateral pneumothoraces occurred (18 overall, 66.7%). Unilateral (n = 13) and bilateral (n = 2) chest tube drainage was required. Median hospitalization was 3 (range, 2-8) days. Median survival was 26 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 19-33). Four recurrences on RFA sites were observed (4 patients). Median time to tumor progression was 9.5 months (95% CI, 4.2-23.5). Conclusions: Although performing single-session bilateral lung RFA is not always possible due to pneumothoraces after RFA of first lung, when it is performed, this technique is safe and effective.

  9. Cellular effects of swim stress in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Lynn G; Pan, Yu-Zhen; Freeman-Daniels, Emily; Rani, Shobha; Nunan, John D; Akanwa, Adaure; Beck, Sheryl G

    2007-07-01

    Swim stress regulates forebrain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in a complex manner and its effects are initiated in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of swim stress on the physiology of DRN neurons in conjunction with 5-HT immunohistochemistry. Basic membrane properties, 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated responses and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were measured using whole-cell patch clamp techniques. Rats were forced to swim for 15min and 24h later DRN brain slices were prepared for electrophysiology. Swim stress altered the resting membrane potential, input resistance and action potential duration of DRN neurons in a neurochemical-specific manner. Swim stress selectively elevated glutamate EPSC frequency in 5-HT DRN neurons. Swim stress non-selectively reduced EPSC amplitude in all DRN cells. Swim stress elevated the 5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic activity that selectively targeted 5-HT cells. Non-5-HT DRN neurons appeared to be particularly responsive to the effects of a milder handling stress. Handling elevated EPSC frequency, reduced EPSC decay time and enhanced a 5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated inhibition of mEPSC frequency selectively in non-5-HT DRN cells. These results indicate that swim stress has both direct, i.e., changes in membrane characteristics, and indirect effects, i.e., via glutamatergic afferents, on DRN neurons. These results also indicate that there are distinct local glutamatergic afferents to neurochemically specific populations of DRN neurons, and furthermore that these distinct afferents are differentially regulated by swim stress. These cellular changes may contribute to the complex effects of swim stress on 5-HT neurotransmission and/or the behavioral changes underlying the forced swimming test model of depression. PMID:17602840

  10. Chronic alcohol produces neuroadaptations to prime dorsal striatal learning.

    PubMed

    DePoy, Lauren; Daut, Rachel; Brigman, Jonathan L; MacPherson, Kathryn; Crowley, Nicole; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Pickens, Charles L; Cinar, Resat; Saksida, Lisa M; Kunos, George; Lovinger, David M; Bussey, Timothy J; Camp, Marguerite C; Holmes, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Drug addictions including alcoholism are characterized by degradation of executive control over behavior and increased compulsive drug seeking. These profound behavioral changes are hypothesized to involve a shift in the regulation of behavior from prefrontal cortex to dorsal striatum (DLS). Studies in rodents have shown that ethanol disrupts cognitive processes mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but the potential effects of chronic ethanol on DLS-mediated cognition and learning are much less well understood. Here, we first examined the effects of chronic EtOH on DLS neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity, and endocannabinoid-CB1R signaling. We next tested for ethanol-induced changes in striatal-related learning and DLS in vivo single-unit activity during learning. Mice exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exhibited expansion of dendritic material in DLS neurons. Following CIE, DLS endocannabinoid CB1 receptor signaling was down-regulated, and CB1 receptor-dependent long-term depression at DLS synapses was absent. CIE mice showed facilitation of DLS-dependent pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning, relative to air-exposed controls. CIE mice were also quicker to extinguish a stimulus-reward instrumental response and faster to reduce Pavlovian approach behavior under an omission schedule. In vivo single-unit recording during learning revealed that CIE mice had augmented DLS neuronal activity during correct responses. Collectively, these findings support a model in which chronic ethanol causes neuroadaptations in the DLS that prime for greater DLS control over learning. The shift to striatal dominance over behavior may be a critical step in the progression of alcoholism. PMID:23959891

  11. Neurochemical Characterization of the Tree Shrew Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Matthew W.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Perez-Costas, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington’s, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum. PMID:21887131

  12. Purification and culture of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Delree, P; Leprince, P; Schoenen, J; Moonen, G

    1989-06-01

    To study the trophic requirements of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRG) in vitro, we developed a purification procedure that yields highly enriched neuronal cultures. Forty to fifty ganglia are dissected from the spinal column of an adult rat. After enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of the ganglia, myelin debris are eliminated by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient. The resulting cell suspension is layered onto a nylon mesh with a pore size of 10 microns. Most of the neurons, the diameter of which ranged from 17 microns to greater than 100 microns, are retained on the upper surface of the sieve; most of the non-neuronal cells with a caliber of less than 10 microns after trypsinization go through it. Recovery of neurons is achieved by reversing the mesh onto a Petri dish containing culture medium. Neurons to non-neurons ratio is 1 to 10 in the initial cell suspension and 1 to 1 after separation. When these purified neurons are seeded at a density of 3,000 neurons/cm2 in 6 mm polyornithine-laminin (PORN-LAM) coated wells, neuronal survival (assessed by the ability to extend neurites), measured after 48 hr of culture, is very low (from 0 to 16%). Addition of nerve growth factor (NGF) does not improve neuronal survival. However, when neurons are cultured in the presence of medium conditioned (CM) by astrocytes or Schwann cells, 60-80% of the seeded, dye-excluding neurons survive. So, purified adult DRG neurons require for their short-term survival and regeneration in culture, a trophic support that is present in conditioned medium from PNS or CNS glia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2754765

  13. Slow chemical transmission between dorsal root ganglion neuron somata.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Kim, Hyunhee; Li, Qi; Wong, Fiona K; Stanley, Elise F

    2012-11-01

    Somatic sensory neuron somata are located within the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and are mostly ensheathed by individual satellite glial cell sheets. It has been noted, however, that a subpopulation of these DRG somata are intimately associated, separated only by a single thin satellite glial cell membrane septum. We set out to test whether such neuron-glial cell-neuron trimers (NGlNs) are also linked functionally. The presence of NGlNs in chick DRGs was confirmed by electron microscopy. Selective satellite glial cell immunostains were identified and were used to image the inter-neuron septa in DRG frozen sections. We used a gentle, dispase-based enzymatic method to isolate chick and rat NGlNs in vitro for double patch clamp recordings. In the majority of pairs tested, an action potential-like stimulus train delivered to one soma resulted in a delayed, noisy and long-duration response in its idle partner. The response to a second stimulus train given minutes later was markedly facilitated. Both bidirectional and unidirectional transmission was observed between the paired neurons. Transmission was chemical and block by the general purinergic blocker suramin implicated ATP as a neurotransmitter. We conclude that the two neuronal somata in the NGlN can communicate by chemical transmission, which may involve a transglial, bi-synaptic pathway. This novel soma-to-soma transmission reflects a novel form of processing that may play a role in sensory disorders in the DRG and interneuron communication in the central nervous system. PMID:22845723

  14. Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus Modulate Autonomic Responses but Not Behavioral Consequences Associated to Acute Restraint Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Scopinho, América A.; Lisboa, Sabrina F. S.; Guimarães, Francisco S.; Corrêa, Fernando M. A.; Resstel, Leonardo B. M.; Joca, Sâmia R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the dorsal (DH) and the ventral (VH) poles of the hippocampus are structurally, molecularly and functionally different regions. While the DH is preferentially involved in the modulation of spatial learning and memory, the VH modulates defensive behaviors related to anxiety. Acute restraint is an unavoidable stress situation that evokes marked and sustained autonomic changes, which are characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP), intense heart rate (HR) increases, skeletal muscle vasodilatation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, which are accompanied by a rapid skin temperature drop followed by body temperature increases. In addition to those autonomic responses, animals submitted to restraint also present behavioral changes, such as reduced exploration of the open arms of an elevated plus-maze (EPM), an anxiogenic-like effect. In the present work, we report a comparison between the effects of pharmacological inhibition of DH and VH neurotransmission on autonomic and behavioral responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjection of the unspeci?c synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 1mM) into the DH or VH attenuated BP and HR responses, as well as the decrease in the skin temperature, elicited by restraint stress exposure. Moreover, DH or VH inhibition before restraint did not change the delayed increased anxiety behavior observed 24 h later in the EPM. The present results demonstrate for the ?rst time that both DH and VH mediate stress-induced autonomic responses to restraint but they are not involved in the modulation of the delayed emotional consequences elicited by such stress. PMID:24147071

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress impairment in the spinal dorsal horn of a neuropathic pain model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Enji; Yi, Min-Hee; Shin, Nara; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Sena; Kim, Eunjee; Kwon, Kisang; Lee, Sunyeul; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Chul Bae, Yong; Kim, Yonghyun; Kwon, O.-Yu; Lee, Won Hyung; Kim, Dong Woon

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, but its role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In this study, we examined the ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in a L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced rat neuropathic pain model. SNL-induced neuropathic pain was assessed behaviorally using the CatWalk system, and histologically with microglial activation in the dorsal spinal horn. L5 SNL induced BIP upregulation in the neuron of superficial laminae of dorsal spinal horn. It also increased the level of ATF6 and intracellular localization into the nuclei in the neurons. Moreover, spliced XBP1 was also markedly elevated in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. The PERK-elF2 pathway was activated in astrocytes of the spinal dorsal horn in the SNL model. In addition, electron microscopy revealed the presence of swollen cisternae in the dorsal spinal cord after SNL. Additionally, inhibition of the ATF6 pathway by intrathecal treatment with ATF6 siRNA reduced pain behaviors and BIP expression in the dorsal horn. The results suggest that ER stress might be involved in the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, a disturbance in UPR signaling may render the spinal neurons vulnerable to peripheral nerve injury or neuropathic pain stimuli. PMID:26109318

  16. Functional Reorganization of Motor and Limbic Circuits after Exercise Training in a Rat Model of Bilateral Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuo; Myers, Kalisa G.; Guo, Yumei; Ocampo, Marco A.; Pang, Raina D.; Jakowec, Michael W.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is widely used for neurorehabilitation of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, little is known about the functional reorganization of the injured brain after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation (bilateral, dorsal striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions). One week after training, cerebral perfusion was mapped during treadmill walking or at rest using [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Regional cerebral blood flow-related tissue radioactivity (rCBF) was analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. In non-exercised rats, lesions resulted in persistent motor deficits. Compared to sham-lesioned rats, lesioned rats showed altered functional brain activation during walking, including: 1. hypoactivation of the striatum and motor cortex; 2. hyperactivation of non-lesioned areas in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit; 3. functional recruitment of the red nucleus, superior colliculus and somatosensory cortex; 4. hyperactivation of the ventrolateral thalamus, cerebellar vermis and deep nuclei, suggesting recruitment of the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit; 5. hyperactivation of limbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, septum, raphe, insula). These findings show remarkable similarities to imaging findings reported in PD patients. Exercise progressively improved motor deficits in lesioned rats, while increasing activation in dorsal striatum and rostral secondary motor cortex, attenuating a hyperemia of the zona incerta and eliciting a functional reorganization of regions participating in the cerebellar-thalamocortical circuit. Both lesions and exercise increased activation in mesolimbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, laterodorsal tegmental n., ventral pallidum), as well as in related paralimbic regions (septum, raphe, insula). Exercise, but not lesioning, resulted in decreases in rCBF in the medial prefrontal cortex (cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic). Our results in this PD rat model uniquely highlight the breadth of functional reorganizations in motor and limbic circuits following lesion and long-term, aerobic exercise, and provide a framework for understanding the neural substrates underlying exercise-based neurorehabilitation. PMID:24278239

  17. Bilateral large traumatic hemorrhage of the basal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nityanand; Mahapatra, Ashok; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed is extremely rare. It is defined as a hemorrhagic lesion located in the basal ganglia or neighboring structures such as the internal capsule and the thalamus. This report describes a 37-year-old man who had large bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) with subdural hematoma and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. With regards to an etiology of bilateral hemorrhage of the basal ganglia, we could not disclose any possible cause except head injury in spite of full diagnostic work-up. Our final diagnosis was bilateral traumatic BGH (TBGH). The pathomechanism of such injuries is still not clear and it is proposed to be due to shear injury to the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. Rather than any features of the TBGH itself, duration of coma and/or associated temporal herniation predicted slower recovery and worse outcome. Bilateral TBGH is an extremely rare entity, compatible with a favorable recovery, if not associated with damage to other cortical and subcortical structures and occurring in isolation. TBGH can be considered as a marker of poor outcome rather than its cause. The BGHs seem to be hemorrhagic contusions resulting from a shearing injury, due to high velocity impact. PMID:25685230

  18. Bilateral implantation in children with cochleovestibular nerve hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Oker, N; Loundon, N; Marlin, S; Rouillon, I; Leboulanger, N; Garabédian, E N

    2009-10-01

    To report on the outcomes of sequential bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) in children with inner ear malformation. The study design is a retrospective case study. The setting is a tertiary reference center. Two children presenting a profound bilateral congenital hearing loss with bilateral hypoplasia of the cochleovestibular nerves and hypoplasic external semicircular canal had a cochlear implant at respectively 16 months and 33 months. A second implant was proposed at respectively 17 and 20 months after the first implant. The main outcome measures are audiometry, perceptive results in closed and open set words (CSW and OSW) and oral production at follow-up. The first cochlear implant gave respectively mean thresholds at 60 dB and 70 dB. Bilateral CI showed mean threshold at respectively 40 dB and 55 dB. In case 1, perceptive assessment was 83% and 70% in respectively CSW and OSW with oral production and comprehension of sentences after 1 year follow-up. In case 2, the perceptive assessment showed no perceptive or linguistic evolution at 6 months follow-up. In cochleovestibular nerve hypoplasia, bilateral implantation could be discussed in cases of limited result after unilateral implant. PMID:19665238

  19. Unilateral versus Bilateral Instrumentation in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Robert W.; Saleh, Ahmed; Molinari, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeff; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Systematic review. Clinical Questions?(1) What is the comparative efficacy of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? (2) What is the safety of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? Methods?Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched up to September 30, 2014, to identify studies reporting the comparative efficacy and safety of unilateral versus bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery. Studies including recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 as adjunct therapy and those with follow-up of less than 2 years were excluded. Results?Ten randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria: five compared unilateral with bilateral instrumentation using open transforaminal or posterior lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF/PLIF), one used open posterolateral fusion, and four used minimally invasive TLIF/PLIF. There were no significant differences between unilateral and bilateral screw instrumentation with respect to nonunion, low back or leg pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index, reoperation, or complications. Conclusions?The existing literature does not identify significant differences in clinical outcomes, union rates, and complications when unilateral instrumentation is used for degenerative pathologic conditions in the lumbar spine. The majority of published reports involve single-level lumbar unilateral instrumentation. PMID:26131385

  20. Directional bilateral filters for smoothing fluorescence microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Manasij; Mohan, Kavya; Seelamantula, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Images obtained through fluorescence microscopy at low numerical aperture (NA) are noisy and have poor resolution. Images of specimens such as F-actin filaments obtained using confocal or widefield fluorescence microscopes contain directional information and it is important that an image smoothing or filtering technique preserve the directionality. F-actin filaments are widely studied in pathology because the abnormalities in actin dynamics play a key role in diagnosis of cancer, cardiac diseases, vascular diseases, myofibrillar myopathies, neurological disorders, etc. We develop the directional bilateral filter as a means of filtering out the noise in the image without significantly altering the directionality of the F-actin filaments. The bilateral filter is anisotropic to start with, but we add an additional degree of anisotropy by employing an oriented domain kernel for smoothing. The orientation is locally adapted using a structure tensor and the parameters of the bilateral filter are optimized for within the framework of statistical risk minimization. We show that the directional bilateral filter has better denoising performance than the traditional Gaussian bilateral filter and other denoising techniques such as SURE-LET, non-local means, and guided image filtering at various noise levels in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). We also show quantitative improvements in low NA images of F-actin filaments.

  1. A new radiological method to detect dorsally penetrating screws when using volar locking plates in distal radial fractures. The dorsal horizon view.

    PubMed

    Haug, L C; Glodny, B; Deml, C; Lutz, M; Attal, R

    2013-08-01

    Penetration of the dorsal screw when treating distal radius fractures with volar locking plates is an avoidable complication that causes lesions of the extensor tendon in between 2% and 6% of patients. We examined axial fluoroscopic views of the distal end of the radius to observe small amounts of dorsal screw penetration, and determined the ideal angle of inclination of the x-ray beam to the forearm when making this radiological view. Six volar locking plates were inserted at the wrists of cadavers. The actual screw length was measured under direct vision through a dorsal approach to the distal radius. Axial radiographs were performed for different angles of inclination of the forearm at the elbow. Comparing axial radiological measurements and real screw length, a statistically significant correlation could be demonstrated at an angle of inclination between 5° and 20°. The ideal angle of inclination required to minimise the risk of implanting over-long screws in a dorsal horizon radiological view is 15°. PMID:23908427

  2. Genetic Characterization of Tube and Pelle, Genes Required for Signaling between Toll and Dorsal in the Specification of the Dorsal-Ventral Pattern of the Drosophila Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, P. M.; Anderson, K. V.

    1993-01-01

    tube and pelle are two of the maternally transcribed genes required for dorsal-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo. Females homozygous for strong alleles of tube or pelle produce embryos that lack all ventral and lateral embryonic pattern elements. By analyzing the phenotypes caused by 24 pelle and 9 tube alleles, we have defined characteristic features of the two genes, including the extremely variable phenotypes of a number of tube alleles and the antimorphic character of a number of pelle alleles. Double mutant females carrying dominant ventralizing alleles of Toll and dorsalizing alleles of tube or pelle produce dorsalized embryos, suggesting that tube and pelle act downstream of the membrane protein Toll in the signaling pathway that defines the embryonic dorsal-ventral pattern. Both tube and pelle are also important zygotically for survival: at least 30% of the zygotes lacking either tube or pelle die before adult stages, while 90-95% of tube(-) pelle(-) double mutant zygotes die. We discuss the phenotypes of tube-pelle double mutants in the context of whether the two proteins interact directly. PMID:8244004

  3. Morphometric changes in subcortical structures of the central auditory pathway in mice with bilateral nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Truong, Dongnhu T; Rendall, Amanda R; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly

    2015-04-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCD) have been observed in human reading and language impaired populations. Injury-induced MCD in rodent models of reading disability show morphological changes in the auditory thalamic nucleus (medial geniculate nucleus; MGN) and auditory processing impairments, thus suggesting a link between MCD, MGN, and auditory processing behavior. Previous neuroanatomical examination of a BXD29 recombinant inbred strain (BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J) revealed MCD consisting of bilateral subcortical nodular heterotopia with partial callosal agenesis. Subsequent behavioral characterization showed a severe impairment in auditory processing-a deficient behavioral phenotype seen across both male and female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mice. In the present study we expanded upon the neuroanatomical findings in the BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mutant mouse by investigating whether subcortical changes in cellular morphology are present in neural structures critical to central auditory processing (MGN, and the ventral and dorsal subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus; VCN and DCN, respectively). Stereological assessment of brain tissue of male and female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mice previously tested on an auditory processing battery revealed overall smaller neurons in the MGN of BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mutant mice in comparison to BXD29/Ty coisogenic controls, regardless of sex. Interestingly, examination of the VCN and DCN revealed sexually dimorphic changes in neuronal size, with a distribution shift toward larger neurons in female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J brains. These effects were not seen in males. Together, the combined data set supports and further expands the observed co-occurrence of MCD, auditory processing impairments, and changes in subcortical anatomy of the central auditory pathway. The current stereological findings also highlight sex differences in neuroanatomical presentation in the presence of a common auditory behavioral phenotype. PMID:25549859

  4. Role of CA3 and CA1 subregions of the dorsal hippocampus on temporal processing of objects

    PubMed Central

    Hoge, Jennifer; Kesner, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Previous research in the dorsal CA1 and dorsal CA3 subregions of the hippocampus has been shown to play an important role in mediating temporal order memory for spatial location information. What is not known is whether the dorsal CA3 and dorsal CA1 subregions of the hippocampus are also involved in temporal order for visual object information. Rats with dorsal CA1, dorsal CA3 or control lesions were tested in a temporal order task for visual objects using an exploratory paradigm. The results indicated that the controls and the dorsal CA3 lesioned rats preferred the first rather then the last object they had explored previously, indicating good memory for temporal order of object presentation. In contrast, rats with dorsal CA1 lesions displayed a profound deficit in remembering the order of the visual object presentations in that they preferred the last object rather than the first. All three groups of rats preferred a novel object compared to a previously explored object suggesting normal detection of visual object novelty. The results suggest that only the dorsal CA1, but not dorsal CA3, region is critical for processing temporal information for visual objects without affecting the detection of new visual objects. PMID:17560815

  5. Bilateral Renal Dysplasia, Nephroblastomatosis, and Bronchial Stenosis. A New Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB. PMID:25871299

  6. Bilateral renal dysplasia, nephroblastomatosis, and bronchial stenosis. A new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB. PMID:25871299

  7. Perioperative Outcomes Following Unilateral Versus Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Linda I; Edelstein, Adam I; Thompson, Rachel M; Alvi, Hasham M; Kwasny, Mary J; Manning, David W

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SB-TKA) is potentially a cost saving manner of caring for patients with bilateral symptomatic knee arthritis. We performed a retrospective analysis using the 2010-2012 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) to evaluate the risk of perioperative complication following SB-TKA. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and 30-day complication rates were studied using a propensity score-matched analysis comparing patients undergoing unilateral TKA and SB-TKA. A total of 4489 patients met the inclusion criteria, of which 973 were SB-TKA. SB-TKA was associated with increased overall complications (P = 0.023), medical complications (P = 0.002) and reoperation (OR 2.12, P = 0.020). Further, total length of hospital stay (4.0 vs 3.4 days, P < 0.001) was significantly longer following bilateral surgery. PMID:26072300

  8. Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT) initially misdiagnosed as acute iridocyclitis.

    PubMed

    Gonul, Saban; Bozkurt, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT) is a relatively new clinical entity characterized by bilateral acute loss of iris pigment epithelium, iris transillumination, pigment dispersion in the anterior chamber, and sphincter paralysis. We report the case of a 30-year-old male who was initially diagnosed with acute iridocyclitis in a different clinic and treated with topical and systemic corticosteroids. He was referred to our clinic to seek another opinion because his symptoms did not improve. An ocular examination revealed bilateral pigment dispersion into the anterior chamber, diffuse iris transillumination, pigment dusting on the anterior lens capsule, atonic and distorted pupils, and increased intraocular pressure, suggesting a diagnosis of BAIT rather than iridocyclitis. Clinicians should be aware of the differential diagnosis of syndromes associated with pigment dispersion from iridocyclitis to avoid aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy and detailed investigation for uveitis. PMID:25945534

  9. Bilateral vestibular loss, oscillopsia, and the cervico-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Chambers, B R; Mai, M; Barber, H O

    1985-06-01

    Oscillopsia during head movement occurs in patients with bilateral vestibular loss and may be transient or persistent. To investigate mechanisms underlying recovery we tested the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), visual-vestibular interaction, and the cervico-ocular reflex (COR); we used a pseudorandom oscillatory stimulus with a frequency band width of 0 to 5 Hz in six patients with bilaterally absent caloric responses and in 10 normal controls. Seven control subjects had low-gain COR responses, but these were anticompensatory with respect to the VOR. Three asymptomatic patients with an absent or grossly deficient VOR had increased oculomotor responses at all frequencies when oscillated in light. Compensatory COR responses were detected in these patients but not in patients with persisting oscillopsia. In some patients with bilateral vestibular loss, augmented cervico-ocular and visual reflexes may compensate, at least partially, for an absent VOR. PMID:3927239

  10. Neglected bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cherrad, Taoufik; Louaste, Jamal; Kasmaoui, El Houcine; Bousbaä, Hicham; Rachid, Khaled

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon (PT) is extremely rare and is generally associated to some chronic diseases. When the rupture becomes chronic, it is more difficult to repair that as it remained untreated. The diagnosis, which is clinical, is often delayed, guided by standard radiography and confirmed by ultrasound or MRI. The management of a bilateral neglected, chronic patellar tendon rupture must address some serious difficulties: the proximally retracted patella, the reconstruction of the patellar tendon, finally, the temporary protection of this repair. We report a case of neglected bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon in a chronic hemodialysis patient, treated with a plastic surgery of the ipsilateral quadriceps tendon. PMID:26566349

  11. Blindness after bilateral neck dissection: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Pazos, G A; Leonard, D W; Blice, J; Thompson, D H

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of the literature is to identify the probable causes of blindness after bilateral radical neck dissections. This case report and literature review also discusses possible preventive measures that may avert this catastrophic outcome. Cases of blindness after bilateral radical neck dissection were identified by an electronic literature search, as well as cross-checking all references of the above-identified papers. Eleven previous cases of blindness after bilateral neck dissection were identified. The most common cause was posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION), which was permanent. We present the only case in the literature in which blindness occurred after radical neck dissections separated by a span of 9 years. The cause of blindness in our patient was posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Contributing factors included anemia, hypotension, and disruption of collateral venous return from the neck. PMID:10512147

  12. Bilateral orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: A rare case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Pimpalkar, Rahul Devidas; Barpande, Suresh R; Bhavthankar, Jyoti D; Mandale, Mandakini S

    2014-01-01

    Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a developmental cyst of jaw and was initially considered by the World Health Organization (1992) as the uncommon orthokeratinized variant of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). However, studies have shown that OOC has peculiar clinicopathologic aspects when compared with other developmental odontogenic cysts, especially OKC. So orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst now stands out to be a distinct entity. Clinically, it occurs as a single cyst, shows a predilection for males and is most often found in the second to the fifth decade. Its bilateral occurrence is extremely rare. The purpose of the article is to present a rare case of bilateral OOC arising in the mandible and review the literature on bilateral occurrence of this lesion. PMID:25328309

  13. Bilateral chylothorax as a complication of internal jugular vein cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Puneet; Shankar, Subramanian; Kumar, Vivek; Naithani, Nardeep

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is one of the most prevalent procedures in the Intensive Care Unit. Complications are reported in about 15% of the patients and usually comprise of infection, arterial puncture, malpositioning, pneumothorax, local hematoma, hemothorax, and so on. Chylothorax is a rare complication of this procedure. We present a 42-year-old lady, who developed bilateral massive chylothorax after cannulation of her left internal jugular vein (IJV), due to direct injury to the thoracic duct during the procedure. The patient was successfully managed with bilateral chest tube drainage and omission of oral feeds for four days. Development of bilateral chylothorax as a complication of IJV cannulation is rare, but merits reporting, in view of a large number of central venous cannulations being undertaken. Critical care professionals should be aware of this rare complication of a common procedure to facilitate early identification and institute appropriate therapy. PMID:26180388

  14. Clinical symptoms of bilateral anterior cerebral artery territory infarction.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Maki, Toshiyuki; Kunimoto, Masanari

    2011-02-01

    Bilateral anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory infarction is rare and its associated symptoms are still not well understood. We evaluated the clinical symptoms of four patients with bilateral ACA infarction. The common clinical features were various primitive reflexes and parkinsonian symptoms including akinesia, rigidity and hypophonia. Frontal release signs were present in all patients with ACA infarction even without direct involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Enhanced glabellar tap response, previously not reported in patients with ACA infarction, was the most consistent finding, and electrophysiological studies confirmed hyperexcitability of the late component of the blink reflex. The bilateral lesions in the deep white matter may be associated with the observed symptoms, reflecting functional disconnection of the medial prefrontal-subcortical circuitry. PMID:21159512

  15. Dorsal premotor cortex is involved in switching motor plans

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Bernier, Alexandre; Tremblay, Elsa; Cisek, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that neural activity in primate dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) can simultaneously represent multiple potential movement plans, and that activity related to these movement options is modulated by their relative subjective desirability. These findings support the hypothesis that decisions about actions are made through a competition within the same circuits that guide the actions themselves. This hypothesis further predicts that the very same cells that guide initial decisions will continue to update their activities if an animal changes its mind. For example, if a previously selected movement option suddenly becomes unavailable, the correction will be performed by the same cells that selected the initial movement, as opposed to some different group of cells responsible for online guidance. We tested this prediction by recording neural activity in the PMd of a monkey performing an instructed-delay reach selection task. In the task, two targets were simultaneously presented and their border styles indicated whether each would be worth 1, 2, or 3 juice drops. In a random subset of trials (FREE), the monkey was allowed a choice while in the remaining trials (FORCED) one of the targets disappeared at the time of the GO signal. In FORCED-LOW trials the monkey was forced to move to the less valuable target and started moving either toward the new target (Direct) or toward the target that vanished and then curved to reach the remaining one (Curved). Prior to the GO signal, PMd activity clearly reflected the monkey's subjective preference, predicting his choices in FREE trials even with equally valued options. In FORCED-LOW trials, PMd activity reflected the switch of the monkey's plan as early as 100 ms after the GO signal, well before movement onset (MO). This confirms that the activity is not related to feedback from the movement itself, and suggests that PMd continues to participate in action selection even when the animal changes its mind on-line. These findings were reproduced by a computational model suggesting that switches between action plans can be explained by the same competition process responsible for initial decisions. PMID:22493577

  16. Unilateral Breast Reconstruction Using Bilateral Inferior Gluteal Artery Perforator Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Mayu; Ogawa, Marina; Shibuya, Mai; Yasumura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ishikawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: For reconstructing moderate-to-high projection breasts in nulliparous patients with insufficient abdominal tissue or prior abdominal surgeries, a unilateral inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) flap is an alternative procedure. In patients with slim hips, however, unilateral gluteal tissue is insufficient and inferior gluteal crease displacement may develop postoperatively. Donor-site asymmetry is also a major disadvantage. In these circumstances, bilateral IGAP flaps provide sufficient tissue without significant gluteal deformity. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using bilateral IGAP flaps by a single surgeon between November 2007 and December 2012. A quantitative outcome assessment was performed and compared with that of 22 unilateral IGAP flap patients operated on by the same surgeon. Results: Twenty patients underwent reconstruction with 40 IGAP flaps. Of the 40 flaps, 39 survived and 1 developed total necrosis due to repeated venous thrombosis. In 15 of 20 patients, the size of reconstructed breast was comparable to that of the contralateral breast. Final inset flap weight was 462.3 g for bilateral flaps and 244.3 g for unilateral flaps. Total operating time was 671.1 minutes (bilateral flaps) and 486.8 minutes (unilateral flaps). Conclusions: Use of bilateral IGAP flaps for breast reconstruction helps to avoid asymmetry of the inferior buttock volume and shape. Bilateral flaps provide sufficient tissue volume and allow for reconstruction of a breast comparable to the unaffected side. In patients with moderate-to-high projection breast whose abdominal tissue cannot be used for reconstruction, IGAP flaps may be a suitable alternative. PMID:25878925

  17. Left Dorsal Speech Stream Components and Their Contribution to Phonological Processing

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takenobu; Kell, Christian A.; Restle, Julia; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Models propose an auditory-motor mapping via a left-hemispheric dorsal speech-processing stream, yet its detailed contributions to speech perception and production are unclear. Using fMRI-navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we virtually lesioned left dorsal stream components in healthy human subjects and probed the consequences on speech-related facilitation of articulatory motor cortex (M1) excitability, as indexed by increases in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of a lip muscle, and on speech processing performance in phonological tests. Speech-related MEP facilitation was disrupted by rTMS of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the sylvian parieto-temporal region (SPT), and by double-knock-out but not individual lesioning of pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and not by rTMS of the ventral speech-processing stream or an occipital control site. RTMS of the dorsal stream but not of the ventral stream or the occipital control site caused deficits specifically in the processing of fast transients of the acoustic speech signal. Performance of syllable and pseudoword repetition correlated with speech-related MEP facilitation, and this relation was abolished with rTMS of pSTS, SPT, and pIFG. Findings provide direct evidence that auditory-motor mapping in the left dorsal stream causes reliable and specific speech-related MEP facilitation in left articulatory M1. The left dorsal stream targets the articulatory M1 through pSTS and SPT constituting essential posterior input regions and parallel via frontal pathways through pIFG and dPMC. Finally, engagement of the left dorsal stream is necessary for processing of fast transients in the auditory signal. PMID:25632119

  18. Bilateral coexistence of keratoconus and macular corneal dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamdan, Ghazi; Al-Mutairi, Sultan; Al-Adwani, Eiman; Al-Mujaini, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral coexistence of keratoconus and macular corneal dystrophy is a very rare clinical entity. Further elaboration on the possible genetic, histopathologic, pathophysiologic and biochemical correlation is required to study the nature of the condition. The authors hereby report a 21-year-old female who presented with the typical signs and topographic evidence of keratoconus in association with macular corneal dystrophy. Histopathologic evaluation from the excised corneal button after corneal transplant confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, there is only one previous report in the literature linking the association of keratoconus and macular corneal dystrophy in the same eye bilaterally. PMID:20671834

  19. Conservative management in congenital bilateral upper eyelid eversion.

    PubMed

    Dohvoma, Viola Andin; Nchifor, Alice; Ngwanou, Aronette Nana; Attha, Elisabeth; Ngounou, Faustin; Bella, Assumpta Lucienne; Ebana Mvogo, Côme

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To report the case of congenital bilateral upper eyelid eversion with severe chemosis that was successfully managed conservatively. Report. The patient was a six-hour-old male neonate with bilateral congenital upper eyelid eversion and severe chemosis, following uneventful delivery. Conservative management consisted of the application of antibiotic ointment and padding the exposed conjunctiva with 5% hypertonic saline-soaked gauze. The eyelids reverted spontaneously on day 3 and the condition was completely resolved by the third week. Conclusion. Congenital upper lid eversion is usually a benign condition which responds well to conservative treatment. Creating awareness amongst healthcare professionals is essential. PMID:25960903

  20. Conservative Management in Congenital Bilateral Upper Eyelid Eversion

    PubMed Central

    Nchifor, Alice; Ngwanou, Aronette Nana; Attha, Elisabeth; Ngounou, Faustin; Bella, Assumpta Lucienne; Ebana Mvogo, Côme

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To report the case of congenital bilateral upper eyelid eversion with severe chemosis that was successfully managed conservatively. Report. The patient was a six-hour-old male neonate with bilateral congenital upper eyelid eversion and severe chemosis, following uneventful delivery. Conservative management consisted of the application of antibiotic ointment and padding the exposed conjunctiva with 5% hypertonic saline-soaked gauze. The eyelids reverted spontaneously on day 3 and the condition was completely resolved by the third week. Conclusion. Congenital upper lid eversion is usually a benign condition which responds well to conservative treatment. Creating awareness amongst healthcare professionals is essential. PMID:25960903

  1. Spontaneous bilateral rod fracture of malleable penile prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Yonguc, Tarik; Arslan, Burak; Kozacioglu, Zafer; Degirmenci, Tansu; Polat, Salih; Minareci, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical failure with a malleable penile prosthesis is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reporting on a bilateral AMS 650 rod mechanical failure. We present a 50-year-old man with organic erectile dysfunction who experienced bilateral AMS 650 rod fracture after 14 years. The rod fracture of the left side was confirmed via X-ray preoperatively. The surgical exploration revealed a fracture of both rods. After the removal of both rods, we implanted a new malleable device during the same session. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient was satisfied with his prosthesis. PMID:25408816

  2. Early bilateral nephrectomy in infantile autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Tamara Mary; O'Hagan, Emma; McKeever, Karl Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The management of neonatal autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) complicated by severe pulmonary insufficiency presents complex clinical challenges. Where massive nephromegaly exists, early bilateral nephrectomy, supportive peritoneal dialysis and early aggressive nutrition can minimise infant mortality. Consensus, however, is lacking on the role and optimal timing of nephrectomy, with decision-making driven by the patient's clinical condition and the expertise of the centre. We report on our experience of an infant with ARPKD requiring neonatal renal replacement therapy and survival at 14?months following early bilateral nephrectomy. PMID:26670891

  3. Bilateral mandibular subcondylar fractures contributing to airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bavitz, J B; Collicott, P E

    1995-08-01

    Bilateral mandibular fracture contributing to airway obstruction is a well-understood phenomenon. This is typically described as a rather immediate or acute process. After trauma, the production of a "flail mandible" with concomitant loss of support of tongue muscles is thought to result in obstruction of the upper airway. An unusual case in which the bilateral mandibular fractures contributed to an airway obstruction 10 days after the initial trauma is described. The cause is explained and methods of prevention and treatment are presented. PMID:7490488

  4. Bilateral muscular tinnitus due to myoclonus of extrinsic auricular muscles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kijeong; Chang, Jiwon; Park, Sangheon; Im, Gi Jung; Choi, Hyung Joon; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Hyung-Jong

    2015-04-01

    The muscular tinnitus due to an extrinsic auricular myoclonus is an extremely rare disorder which demonstrates a semirhythmic involuntary movement of the ear. We report a 33-year-old man with clicking tinnitus caused by focal myoclonic jerks of bilateral posterior auricularis muscle and bilateral temporalis muscle. This muscular tinnitus persisted except for when he was sleeping or breath holding. His symptom responded poorly to medical therapy but was controlled by botulinum toxin type A injection under electromyography monitoring with favorable outcome. Previous reports of this condition and possible therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:25466808

  5. Severe Acute Orthopnea: Ipilimumab-Induced Bilateral Phrenic Nerve Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jinnur, Praveen; Lim, Kaiser G

    2015-08-01

    Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Several immune-related adverse events including potential fatal events have been reported following its use. We report a case of a 66-year-old man who presented with severe acute exertional dyspnea and orthopnea following administration of ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma. Although various peripheral neuropathy syndromes associated with ipilimumab have been reported, bilateral phrenic nerve paralysis has not been previously reported. This case also highlights the clinical features of bilateral phrenic nerve neuropathy. Pulmonologists have to be aware of these unusual immune-related respiratory adverse events in patients being treated with monoclonal antibodies. PMID:25956728

  6. [Bilateral visual deterioration in excessive tobacco and alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Cyrus-Hajmassy, M

    2012-09-01

    A 33-year-old patient with a history of excessive alcohol and tobacco abuse for years presented with bilateral painless deterioration of vision in the last 3 months. Examination revealed the initial phase of bilateral optic nerve atrophy. In cases like this a purely clinical discrimination between Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and tobacco-alcohol neuropathy can be very challenging. In this case LHON could be confirmed by genetic analysis. Visual and neurological outcomes differ for different mutations. Therapy with idebenone, a derivate of coenzyme Q, seems to be promising at least in selected patient groups. PMID:22767349

  7. Harvey Cushing's Contributions to Plastic Surgery: Bilateral Cleft Lip Repair.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, Josher; Pendleton, Courtney; Rachwalski, Martin; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2014-01-01

    Harvey Cushing has been deemed by many as the neurosurgeon of the 20th century. Cushing's unknown contributions to the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery were only recently reported. Further review of his teaching and operative records, brought from Johns Hopkins to Yale University, revealed an unpublished case of bilateral cleft lip repair that he performed. In this article, we present in detail this comprehensive case and describe, with the help of his personal teaching notes and illustrations, how Cushing combined methods from world-renowned surgeons to approach bilateral cleft lip deformities. PMID:23551074

  8. Bilateral Cystic Lymphangioma of Ovary Associated with Chylous Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Arakeri, Surekha Ulhas; Patil, Vijaya L.; Mulay, Himanshu Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Intraabdominal cystic lymphangiomas are rare and are located in retroperitoneum, mesentery, omentum and other visceral organs. Lymphangiomas of the ovary are rare and are usually unilateral. Cases with bilateral cystic lymphangiomas of the ovary are reported very rarely in literature. We report a rare case of bilateral cystic lymphangioma of ovary associated with chylous ascites in a 35-year-old lady who presented with complaints of severe dysmenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea since 6 months with history of chyluria for the past 3 years. PMID:26435959

  9. Rare cause of bilateral groin swelling: Round ligament varicosities.

    PubMed

    Bulbul, Erdogan; Taskin, Mine Islimye; Yanik, Bahar; Demirpolat, Gulen; Adali, Ertan; Basbug, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Round ligament varicosity (RLV) is rare and almost all cases are pregnant women. RLV appears as a unilateral or bilateral groin swelling. Pain and tenderness may present. Clinical evaluation is inadequate for exact diagnosis because inguinal hernia has similar findings. Ultrasonography (US) is essential when a groin swelling is detected in a pregnant woman. We present gray scale US and colour Doppler US findings of a 32-week pregnant woman with bilateral RLVs at the inguinal canal, parauterine area and in the myometrium. PMID:26430450

  10. Bilateral synchronous ossifying fibromas of the mandible: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tayfur, Mahir; Tayfur, Ebru Kadioglu; Balc?, Mecdi Gurhan; Deger, Ayse Nur; C?men, Ferda Keskin; Daltaban, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma of the jaw is a benign fibroosseous tumour. The growth of it is slowly and it is well circumscribed. Occurrence of multiple ossifying fibromas (synchronous) is rare in the jaw, and only a few cases have been documented. The most of these cases were in only maxilla. The fewer cases were reported in both of maxilla and mandible. We report a case of bilateral synchronous ossifying fibromas involving the mandible of a 37 years old male. The importance of our case is that bilaterality and synchronous of the lesions. Our case is the first synchronous mandibler lesion in literature reported. PMID:26191307

  11. Reversible severe bilateral visual loss in an unusual case of bilateral lateral geniculate myelinolysis during acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Viloria, Alejandro; Jimenez, Beatriz; Palacín, Marta

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with pancreatitis following cholecystectomy. During hospitalisation, he reported bilateral acute vision loss. His best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was counting fingers in the right eye and 20/200 in the left eye. Ocular fundus examination and optical coherence tomography revealed a slight alteration in the retinal nerve fibres in the nasal macular region. Automated perimetry revealed bilateral visual field defects affecting both temporal and nasal hemifields in a predominantly nasal distribution, and brain MRI confirmed symmetrical lesions within both lateral geniculate nuclei. BCVA was gradually recovered, reaching 20/20 within 6?weeks. PMID:26718705

  12. Neurogenesis and precursor cell differences in the dorsal and ventral adult canine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Aileen; Dalton, Marshall; Sidhu, Kuldip; Sachdev, Perminder; Reynolds, Brent; Valenzuela, Michael

    2015-04-23

    During evolution a unique anterior-posterior flexure posited the canine dentate gyrus in two distinct dorsal and ventral positions. We therefore sought to explore neurogenesis and neurogenic cell-related difference along the canine hippocampal dorsal-ventral axis. Post mortem histological analysis revealed 49.1% greater doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and a 158.5% greater percentage of double labeled DCX-positive/neuronal nuclei (NeuN) positive cells in the dorsal subgranular zone compared to the ventral. We then show neural precursor cells isolated from fresh hippocampal tissue are capable of proliferating long term, and after differentiation, express neuronal and glial markers. Dorsal hippocampal isolates produced a 120.0% higher frequency of sphere-forming neural precursor cells compared to ventral hippocampal tissue. Histological DCX and neurosphere assay results were highly correlated. Overall, we provide the first evidence that the dorsal canine hippocampus has a markedly higher rate of adult neurogenesis than the ventral hippocampus, possibly related to a greater frequency of contributory neural precursor cells. PMID:25778416

  13. Opposing dorsal/ventral stream dynamics during figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Wokke, Martijn E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-02-01

    The visual system has been commonly subdivided into two segregated visual processing streams: The dorsal pathway processes mainly spatial information, and the ventral pathway specializes in object perception. Recent findings, however, indicate that different forms of interaction (cross-talk) exist between the dorsal and the ventral stream. Here, we used TMS and concurrent EEG recordings to explore these interactions between the dorsal and ventral stream during figure-ground segregation. In two separate experiments, we used repetitive TMS and single-pulse TMS to disrupt processing in the dorsal (V5/HMT?) and the ventral (lateral occipital area) stream during a motion-defined figure discrimination task. We presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between relatively low-level (figure boundary detection) from higher-level (surface segregation) processing steps during figure-ground segregation. Results show that disruption of V5/HMT? impaired performance related to surface segregation; this effect was mainly found when V5/HMT? was perturbed in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. Surprisingly, disruption of the lateral occipital area resulted in increased performance scores and enhanced neural correlates of surface segregation. This facilitatory effect was also mainly found in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. These results suggest a "push-pull" interaction in which dorsal and ventral extrastriate areas are being recruited or inhibited depending on stimulus category and task demands. PMID:24116840

  14. Dorsal vertebral column abnormalities in dogs with disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

    PubMed

    Decker, S De; Volk, H A

    2014-06-21

    Although disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) most often affects the ventral aspect of the vertebral column, this study evaluated the occurrence, nature and clinical relevance of dorsal vertebral column abnormalities in 10 dogs with DISH for which CT or MRI and a complete neurological examination were available. Dorsal vertebral column abnormalities were present in eight dogs and included articular process hypertrophy (n=7 dogs), periarticular new bone formation (n=1), pseudoarthrosis between spinous processes (n=4) and thickening of the dorsal lamina (n=4). These dorsal vertebral abnormalities caused clinically relevant vertebral canal stenosis in six dogs and were the only cause of clinical signs in four of these dogs. Although the lumbosacral joint was not affected by DISH, these six dogs demonstrated lumbosacral vertebral canal stenosis and clinical signs of cauda equina compression, which included paraparesis (n=5 dogs), lumbosacral pain (n=4), urinary incontinence (n=4), faecal incontinence (n=1) and urinary and faecal incontinence (n=1). There is a possible association between DISH and hypertrophy of dorsal vertebral structures, potentially resulting in vertebral canal stenosis. Although these changes occurred at segments fused by DISH, they predominantly affected adjacent non-affected segments. PMID:24828088

  15. Use of twin dorsal middle phalangeal finger flaps for thumb or index finger reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Qi, W; Chen, K J

    2013-05-01

    Amputation or degloving injuries of the thumb or index finger are highly disabling. We describe the use of twin dorsal middle finger flaps harvested from the dorsal aspects of the middle and ring fingers, and based on one palmar proper digital artery, its venae comitantes, and the dorsal branches of the palmar digital nerves of the middle and ring fingers, respectively. These flaps offer advantages when large soft tissue defects of the thumb or index finger are present. In this study, twin dorsal middle finger flaps were used in nine patients (six thumbs, three index fingers). All flaps completely survived. At the mean follow-up of 20 months, the appearance of the reconstructed thumbs or index fingers was acceptable, the length was maintained, and the mean static 2-point discrimination values were 10 mm in the palmar flap and 13 mm in the dorsal flap of the reconstructed digit. All patients were satisfied with the appearance and mobility of the donor fingers. All but one donor finger showed normal finger pulp sensibility, with a static 2-point discrimination between 3 and 6 mm. PMID:22233713

  16. Bilateral Unknown Key-Share Attacks in Key Agreement Protocols

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Bilateral Unknown Key-Share Attacks in Key Agreement Protocols Liqun Chen Hewlett Unknown Key-Share (UKS) resilience is a basic security attribute in authenticated key agreement protocols, whereby two entities A and B should not be able to be coerced into sharing a key between them when in fact

  17. Bilateral Social Security Instruments Concluded between European Socialist Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Andrei

    1982-01-01

    Presents a review of existing bilateral treaties, conventions, and agreements in the field of social policy concluded between European socialist countries. It summarizes their basic principles, their social security provisions (old-age benefit, employment injury benefits, cash benefits for sickness and maternity), and the provisions concerning…

  18. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program and Special Bilateral Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program and Special Bilateral Projects provides short-term study and travel seminars abroad for U.S. educators in the social sciences and humanities for the purpose of improving their understanding and knowledge of the people and culture of other countries. There are approximately 10 seminars with 16 participants…

  19. INTRODUCTION Development of the nervous system in a bilaterally symmetric

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    INTRODUCTION Development of the nervous system in a bilaterally symmetric organism critically of Biologists Limited 1994 Central nervous system midline cells constitute a discrete group of Drosophila, the midline cells display patterns of gene expression distinct from the lateral central nervous system

  20. Bilateral Total Optic Atrophy Due to Transdermal Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    ??can, Yalç?n; Co?kun, Çi?dem; Öner, Veysi; Türkçü, Fatih Mehmet; Ta?, Mehmet; Alaku?, Mehmet Fuat

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we document a 54-year-old woman with total bilateral optic nerve atrophy after local application of methanol containing spirit. Almost all the reported cases of methanol intoxication in the literature are caused by oral ingestion. In this rare case, we present transdermal absorption of methanol that may cause irreversible blindness in addition to intracerebral lesions. PMID:23580862

  1. Bilateral Song Production in Domestic Canaries Roderick A. Suthers,1

    E-print Network

    Suthers, Roderick A.

    Bilateral Song Production in Domestic Canaries Roderick A. Suthers,1 Eric Vallet,2 Aure´ lie Tanvez 2004 ABSTRACT: We studied the mechanism of song production in the outbred common or domestic canary song. Song production by do- mestic canaries is not strongly lateralized as it is in the conspecific

  2. Acute kidney injury due to bilateral ureteral obstruction in children

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Daniele; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Bove, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral ureteral obstruction in children is a rare condition arising from several medical or surgical pictures. It needs to be promptly suspected in order to attempt a quick renal function recovery. In this paper we concentrated on uncommon causes of obstruction, with the aim of giving a summary of such multiple, rare and heterogeneous conditions joint together by the common denominator of sudden bilateral ureteral obstruction, difficult to be suspected at times. Conversely, typical and well-known diseases have been just run over. We considered pediatric cases of ureteral obstruction presenting as bilateral, along with some cases which truly appeared as single-sided, because of their potential bilateral presentation. We performed a review of the literature by a search on PubMed, CrossRef Metadata Search, internet and reference lists of single articles updated to May 2014, with no time limits in the past. Given that we deal with rare conditions, we decided to include also papers in non-English languages, published with an English abstract. For the sake of clearness, we divided our research results into 8 categories: (1) urolithiasis; (2) congenital urinary tract malformations; (3) immuno-rheumatologic causes of ureteral obstruction; (4) ureteral localization of infections; (5) other systemic infective causes of ureteral obstructions; (6) neoplastic intrinsic ureteral obstructions; (7) extrinsic ureteral obstructions; and (8) iatrogenic trigonal obstruction or inflammation. Of course, different pathogenic mechanisms underlay those clinical pictures, partly well-known and partly not completely understood. PMID:25374811

  3. Reduced Misinformation Effects Following Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Buckley, Sharon; Dagnall, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on memory for a visual event narrative were investigated. In the study phase, participants were exposed to a set of pictures accompanied by a verbal commentary describing the events depicted in the pictures. Next, the participants were asked either misleading or control questions about…

  4. PRECISION OF SINGLE VERSUS BILATERAL HIP BONE MINERAL DENSITY SCANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a precise, fast, and noninvasive method to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition. Software that integrates the results of bilateral DXA hip scans has recently become available. The present study was undertaken to determine and compare the...

  5. Origins of Bilateral Symmetry: Hox and Dpp Expression

    E-print Network

    Finnerty, John R.

    of bilateral symmetry. Although animals of the phylum Cnidaria are not within the Bilateria, some arose before the evolutionary split of Cnidaria and Bilateria. The Bilateria is an evolutionary lineage is the phylum Cnidaria (sea anem- ones, corals, hydras, and jellyfishes). Mod- ern cnidarians resemble

  6. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia after intrathecal chemotherapy and cranial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lepore, F.E.; Nissenblatt, M.J.

    1981-12-01

    A 26-year-old man developed transient bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with exotropia after cranial irradiation and intrathecal administration of methotrexate for lymphoma. Resolution of the ophthalmoplegia and the decrease in abnormally high levels of cerebrospinal fluid myelin basic protein after discontinuation of intrathecal medication suggested demyelination from chemotherapy and irradiation.

  7. Bilateral iliac arterial thrombosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) cria

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Joshua W.; Middleton, John R.; Bozynski, Chantelle C.; Shaw, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    A 3-month-old male alpaca was presented for acute onset of non-weight-bearing left hind limb lameness. Antemortem diagnostics revealed a mass to the right of the urinary bladder and no blood flow in the left femoral artery. Necropsy revealed bilateral iliac arterial thrombi and an abscess near the urinary bladder. PMID:23450866

  8. Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ting; Jensen, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral asymmetry, a form of limb laterality in the context of moving two limbs, emerges in childhood. Children and adults show lateral preference in tasks that involve the upper and lower limbs. The importance of research in limb laterality is the insight it could provide about lateralized functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Analyzing…

  9. Bilateral oligopoly in pollution permit markets - experimental evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We experimentally investigate behavior in a bilateral oligopoly using a supply function equilibria model (Klemper and Meyer 1989; Hendricks and McAfee 2010; Malueg and Yates 2009). We focus on the role that market size and the degree of firm heterogeneity have on the market equilibrium. Our results ...

  10. Bayer bilateral denoising on TriMedia3270

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelippeau, H.; Akil, M.; Dias Rodrigues, B.; Talbot, H.; Bara, S.

    2009-02-01

    Digital cameras are now commonly included in several digital devices such as mobile phones. They are present everywhere and have become the principal image capturing tool. Inherent to light and semiconductors properties, sensor noise [10] continues to be an important factor of image quality [12], especially in low light conditions. Removing the noise with mathematical solutions appears thus unavoidable to obtain an acceptable image quality. However, embedded devices are limited by processing capabilities and power consumption and thus cannot make use of the full range of complex mathematical noise removing solutions. The bilateral filter [6] appears to be an interesting compromise between implementation complexity and noise removing performances. Especially, the Bayer [5] bilateral filter proposed in [11] is well adapted for single sensor devices. In this paper, we simulate and optimize the Bayer bilateral filter execution on a common media-processor: the TM3270 [4] from the NXP Semiconductors TriMedia family. To do so we use the TriMedia Compilation System (TCS). We applied common optimization techniques (such as LUT, loop unrolling, convenient data type representation) as well as custom TriMedia operations. We finally propose a new Bayer bilateral filter formulation dedicated to the TM3270 architecture that yields an execution improvement of 99.6% compared to the naÃve version. This improvement results in real-time video processing at VGA resolution at the 350MHz clock rate.

  11. Bilateral Matched-Impedance Teleoperation with Application to Excavator Control

    E-print Network

    Salcudean, Tim

    Bilateral Matched-Impedance Teleoperation with Application to Excavator Control S.E. Salcudean, K and slave impedances to match sti and soft environmentsand to interpolate between them is presented impedance to that transmitted to the operator's hand 1 . Studies have shown that to achieve transparency

  12. Binaural Unmasking with Bilateral Cochlear Implants CHRISTOPHER J. LONG,1

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    Binaural Unmasking with Bilateral Cochlear Implants CHRISTOPHER J. LONG,1 ROBERT P. CARLYON,1 RUTH 100,000 deaf patients worldwide have had their hearing restored by a cochlear implant (CI) fitted of binaural deprivation. Keywords: cochlear implants, binaural hearing, masking level difference, signal

  13. Sequential bilateral cochlear implantation in children B. Petersa,*, R. Litovskyb

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    Sequential bilateral cochlear implantation in children B. Petersa,*, R. Litovskyb , J. Lakea , A and the ability to localize the source of sounds. Patients who have undergone unilateral cochlear implantation the degree to which similar benefits are realized by children who receive a second cochlear implant after

  14. Localization ability with bimodal hearing aids and bilateral cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeber, Bernhard U.; Baumann, Uwe; Fastl, Hugo

    2004-09-01

    After successful cochlear implantation in one ear, some patients continue to use a hearing aid at the contralateral ear. They report an improved reception of speech, especially in noise, as well as a better perception of music when the hearing aid and cochlear implant are used in this bimodal combination. Some individuals in this bimodal patient group also report the impression of an improved localization ability. Similar experiences are reported by the group of bilateral cochlear implantees. In this study, a survey of 11 bimodally and 4 bilaterally equipped cochlear implant users was carried out to assess localization ability. Individuals in the bimodal implant group were all provided with the same type of hearing aid in the opposite ear, and subjects in the bilateral implant group used cochlear implants of the same manufacturer on each ear. Subjects adjusted the spot of a computer-controlled laser-pointer to the perceived direction of sound incidence in the frontal horizontal plane by rotating a trackball. Two subjects of the bimodal group who had substantial residual hearing showed localization ability in the bimodal configuration, whereas using each single device only the subject with better residual hearing was able to discriminate the side of sound origin. Five other subjects with more pronounced hearing loss displayed an ability for side discrimination through the use of bimodal aids, while four of them were already able to discriminate the side with a single device. Of the bilateral cochlear implant group one subject showed localization accuracy close to that of normal hearing subjects. This subject was also able to discriminate the side of sound origin using the first implanted device alone. The other three bilaterally equipped subjects showed limited localization ability using both devices. Among them one subject demonstrated a side-discrimination ability using only the first implanted device.

  15. Note: Unshielded bilateral magnetoencephalography system using two-dimensional gradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Ogata, Kuniomi; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Konaka, Kuni; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2010-09-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures neuronal activity with high temporal resolution. The aim of this study was to develop a new type of MEG system that can measure bilateral MEG waveforms without a magnetically shielded room, which is an obstacle to reducing both the cost and size of an MEG system. An unshielded bilateral MEG system was developed using four two-dimensional (2D) gradiometers and two symmetric cryostats. The 2D gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device and wire-wound pickup coil detects a magnetic-field gradient in two orthogonal directions, or ?/?x(?2Bz/?z2), and reduces environmental magnetic-field noise by more than 50 dB. The cryostats can be symmetrically positioned in three directions: vertical, horizontal, and rotational. This makes it possible to detect bilateral neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex simultaneously. Bilateral auditory-evoked fields (AEF) of 18 elderly subjects were measured in an unshielded hospital environment using the MEG system. As a result, both the ipsilateral and the contralateral AEF component N100m, which is the magnetic counterpart of electric N100 in electroencephalography and appears about 100 ms after the onset of an auditory stimulus, were successfully detected for all the subjects. Moreover, the ipsilateral P50m and the contralateral P50m were also detected for 12 (67%) and 16 (89%) subjects, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the unshielded bilateral MEG system can detect MEG waveforms, which are associated with brain dysfunction such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Down syndrome.

  16. Bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, O. P.; Verma, A. K.; Mishra, A.; Agarwal, G.; Agarwal, A.; Mishra, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the outcome of patients undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). Methods: All patients who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for CS at the Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences hospital between 1991 and 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed to obtain patient characteristics and follow-up data. Results: Twenty-seven patients were studied. Mean age was 28.74 ± 12.95 years (range 9–60), male:female ratio was 1.7:1. About half that is, 48.19% were of Cushing's disease (failed trans-sphenoidal surgery [TSS]), 37.04% were of ectopic CS (ECS), and 14.81% were of CS due to bilateral adrenal pathology. Median follow-up period was 80.5 months. Before surgery, 74.1% patients had body mass index > which after surgery declined to <25 in 75% of them. Hypertension was present in 85.2% and after surgery resolved in 40%. Diabetes mellitus was present in 44.4% and after surgery resolved in 33% of them. Hirsutism and proximal muscle weakness were present in 55.6% and 70.4% patients, respectively, and after surgery improved markedly in all patients. Adrenal crisis developed in 36.3% and Nelson's syndrome in 41.7% patients during follow-up. Three patients died in perioperative period while three succumbed to the disease during follow-up. Two patients developed recurrence of endogenous cortisol production during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Bilateral adrenalectomy is a valid treatment option for palliating severe symptoms in Pituitary Cushing's with failed TSS and unlocalized ECS but the procedure is curative for CS due to bilateral adrenal disease. Overall morbidity and mortality is higher than other endocrine operations. Co-morbidities tend to be more severe and are a risk factor for mortality during the time patient survives. PMID:26693437

  17. Technique of Dorsal Transversely Oriented Transposition Flap for Web Reconstruction in Toe Syndactyly Surgery.

    PubMed

    Saito, Susumu; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    In toe desyndactyly, a dorsal or plantar commissural flap, combined with skin grafts, will ensure an acceptable result. However, the parallel unsightly scars in the longitudinal direction on the dorsum of the toes will sometimes fail to satisfy the patient's and/or the parents' aesthetic expectations. To address this issue, we developed a technique using a transversely oriented transposition flap for web reconstruction, which can spare the dorsal interdigital skin maximally to shift the dorsal scars plantarly such that they become inconspicuous. The design of the flap is simple and uncomplicated surgically. Moreover, the donor site morbidity is minimal, owing to the good healing potential of the transverse scars. This technique could be an alternative in web reconstruction of toe desyndactyly, especially in cases with high cosmetic priority. PMID:25998477

  18. Efficient EGFR Signaling and Dorsal-Ventral Axis Patterning Requires Syntaxin Dependent Gurken Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ai-Guo; Tamori, Yoichiro; Huang, Yi-Chun; Melendez, Natalia Toledo; Deng, Wu-Min

    2013-01-01

    Vesicle trafficking plays a crucial role in the establishment of cell polarity in various cellular contexts, including axis-pattern formation in the developing egg chamber of Drosophila. The EGFR ligand, Gurken (Grk), is first localized at the posterior of young oocytes for anterior-posterior axis formation and later in the dorsal-anterior region for induction of the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis, but regulation of Grk localization by membrane trafficking in the oocyte remains poorly understood. Here, we report that Syntaxin-1A (Syx1A) is required for efficient trafficking of Grk protein for DV patterning. We show that Syx1A is associated with the Golgi membrane and is required for the transportation of Grk-containing vesicles along the microtubules to their dorsal anterior destination in the oocyte. Our studies reveal that the Syx1A dependent trafficking of Grk protein is required for efficient EGFR signaling during DV patterning. PMID:23127433

  19. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Joo, Young-Eun; Kang, Ho-Cheol; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun; Chung, Min-Young; Kim, Sei-Jong

    2006-12-01

    Partial or complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly that results from the embryological failure of the dorsal pancreatic bud to form the body and tail of the pancreas. To date, four cases have been reported in Korea. We report an additional case; a 25-year-old woman presented with diabetes mellitus and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a normal-appearing pancreatic head, but the body and tail were not visualized. Endoscopic cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) revealed a short pancreatic duct in the uncinate process and the head and the duct of Santorini draining into the minor papilla. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were similar to the CT and ERCP results. The patient was diagnosed with partial agenesis of the dorsal pancreas by CT, ERCP and MRI. PMID:17249505

  20. Using blind source separation techniques to improve speech recognition in bilateral cochlear implant patients

    E-print Network

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2008-06-05

    . In this work, a different approach to bilateral processing is explored based on blind source separation (BSS) by utilizing two implants driven by a single processor. Sentences corrupted by interfering speech or speech-shaped noise are presented to bilateral...

  1. Bilateral sectioning of the anterior ethmoidal nerves does not eliminate the diving response in voluntarily diving rats

    PubMed Central

    Chotiyanonta, Jill S; DiNovo, Karyn M; McCulloch, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    The diving response is characterized by bradycardia, apnea, and increased peripheral resistance. This reflex response is initiated by immersing the nose in water. Because the anterior ethmoidal nerve (AEN) innervates the nose, our hypothesis was that intact AENs are essential for initiating the diving response in voluntarily diving rats. Heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (BPa) were monitored using implanted biotransmitters. Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to voluntarily swim 5 m underwater. During diving, HR decreased from 480 ± 15 to 99 ± 5 bpm and BPa increased from 136 ± 2 to 187 ± 3 mmHg. Experimental rats (N = 9) then received bilateral AEN sectioning, while Sham rats (N = 8) did not. During diving in Experimental rats 7 days after AEN surgery, HR decreased from 478 ± 13 to 76 ± 4 bpm and BPa increased from 134 ± 3 to 186 ± 4 mmHg. Responses were similar in Sham rats. Then, during nasal stimulation with ammonia vapors in urethane-anesthetized Experimental rats, HR decreased from 368 ± 7 to 83 ± 4 bpm, and BPa increased from 126 ± 7 to 175 ± 4 mmHg. Responses were similar in Sham rats. Thus, 1 week after being sectioned the AENs are not essential for initiating a full cardiorespiratory response during both voluntary diving and nasal stimulation. We conclude that other nerve(s) innervating the nose are able to provide an afferent signal sufficient to initiate the diving response, although neuronal plasticity within the medullary dorsal horn may be necessary for this to occur. PMID:24400143

  2. A Longitudinal Study in Adults with Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Time Course for Individual Ear and Bilateral Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Ruth M.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Laura K.; Strube, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of progress in the 2nd implanted ear as it relates to the 1st implanted ear and to bilateral performance in adult sequential cochlear implant recipients. In addition, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to patient outcomes. Method: The authors performed a prospective…

  3. Morphological, biophysical and synaptic properties of glutamatergic neurons of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Punnakkal, Pradeep; Schoultz, Carolin; Haenraets, Karen; Wildner, Hendrik; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Interneurons of the spinal dorsal horn are central to somatosensory and nociceptive processing. A mechanistic understanding of their function depends on profound knowledge of their intrinsic properties and their integration into dorsal horn circuits. Here, we have used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT2) gene (vGluT2::eGFP mice) to perform a detailed electrophysiological and morphological characterisation of excitatory dorsal horn neurons, and to compare their properties to those of GABAergic (Gad67::eGFP tagged) and glycinergic (GlyT2::eGFP tagged) neurons. vGluT2::eGFP was detected in about one-third of all excitatory dorsal horn neurons and, as demonstrated by the co-expression of vGluT2::eGFP with different markers of subtypes of glutamatergic neurons, probably labelled a representative fraction of these neurons. Three types of dendritic tree morphologies (vertical, central, and radial), but no islet cell-type morphology, were identified in vGluT2::eGFP neurons. vGluT2::eGFP neurons had more depolarised action potential thresholds and longer action potential durations than inhibitory neurons, while no significant differences were found for the resting membrane potential, input resistance, cell capacitance and after-hyperpolarisation. Delayed firing and single action potential firing were the single most prevalent firing patterns in vGluT2::eGFP neurons of the superficial and deep dorsal horn, respectively. By contrast, tonic firing prevailed in inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal horn. Capsaicin-induced synaptic inputs were detected in about half of the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and occurred more frequently in superficial than in deep dorsal horn neurons. Primary afferent-evoked (polysynaptic) inhibitory inputs were found in the majority of glutamatergic and glycinergic neurons, but only in less than half of the GABAergic population. Excitatory dorsal horn neurons thus differ from their inhibitory counterparts in several biophysical properties and possibly also in their integration into the local neuronal circuitry. PMID:24324003

  4. MR in complete dorsal pancreatic agenesis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Shruti; Jhobta, Anupam; Sharma, Dinesh; Thakur, Charu S

    2014-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the pancreas is a complex process having a very low frequency of anatomic variation. The congenital anomalies are rare. Complete pancreatic and ventral pancreatic agenesis are incompatible with life. Dorsal pancreatic agenesis is exceedingly rare with less than 100 cases reported in the world literature. Patients with this anomaly may be asymptomatic or may present with abdominal pain, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, and acute or chronic pancreatitis. Such anomalies are rarely reported; therefore, clinical awareness of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas as a cause of these symptoms can expand the differential diagnosis and improve patient management. PMID:25024525

  5. Erector Spinal Muscular Schwannoma of the Dorsal Ramus Nerve: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Chang Hyun; Moon, Jae Gon; Lee, Ho Kook

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of intramuscular schwannoma originating from the dorsal ramus nerve in a 62-year-old woman. The mass grew slowly, with pain developing upon touch five years prior. No neurological deficit was detected. The mass was observed in the erector spinae muscles in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical excision was performed. The mass was well encapsulated with clear margin. The lesion appeared to originate from the cranial side. We completely removed the mass including the origin. Histopathology confirmed a schwannoma diagnosis. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a dorsal ramus-nerve schwannoma within the erector spinae muscles. PMID:26512285

  6. Pascal Pyramids, Pascal Hyper-Pyramids and a Bilateral Multinomial Theorem

    E-print Network

    Martin Erik Horn

    2003-11-04

    Part I: The two-dimensional Pascal Triangle will be generalized into a three-dimensional Pascal Pyramid and four-, five- or whatsoever-dimensional hyper-pyramids. Part II: The Bilateral Binomial Theorem will be generalised into a Bilateral Trinomial Theorem resp. a Bilateral Multinomial Theorem.

  7. Head docking for single stage robotic cortical sparing adrenalectomy for bilateral pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-03-01

    The optimal operative approach in a patient with bilateral pheochromocytoma is controversial. Subtotal minimal invasive cortical sparing adrenalectomy is gaining interest in many centers. We describe a novel technique for single stage approach for cortical sparing adrenalectomy for bilateral pheochromocytoma using head docking in order to offer good exposure of bilateral upper peritoneum without requiring patient or robot repositioning. PMID:26530976

  8. Adrenal Venous Sampling Is Useful for a Definitive Diagnosis in Cushing's Syndrome with Bilateral Adrenal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Seki, Toshiro; Yasuda, Atsushi; Kitajima, Natsumi; Oki, Masayuki; Takagi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Naoya; Hanai, Kazuya; Terachi, Toshiro; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    We report three cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS) with bilateral adrenal tumors. When bilateral adrenal tumors are encountered, a differential diagnosis is difficult to make, especially in the case of functioning bilateral adrenocortical adenoma. Adrenal scintigraphy has become a standard technique to determine the laterality of excessive hormone secretion; however, this examination results in bilateral adrenal activity in the functioning bilateral adrenocortical adenoma. Our three patients were diagnosed with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent CS based on biochemical testing, and an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan detected bilateral adrenal tumors. Adrenal scintigraphy showed bilateral adrenal activity in all cases. However, adrenal venous sampling (AVS) demonstrated three different hormone-excess patterns (case 1: bilateral cortisol-excess secretions; case 2: unilateral cortisol-excess secretion and bilateral aldosterone-excess secretions; and case 3: bilateral cortisol-excess secretions and bilateral aldosterone-excess secretions). Based on these findings, we could select optimal treatment for each case. Therefore, AVS is useful to obtain a definitive diagnosis and adequate therapy for CS with bilateral adrenal tumors. PMID:26662665

  9. Bilateral Symmetrical Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent 15-Year-Old Adolescent Boy

    PubMed Central

    Barankin, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent children. The bilateral symmetrical occurrence of herpes zoster lesions is extremely rare. We report a 15-year-old immunocompetent Chinese adolescent boy who developed bilateral symmetrical herpes zoster lesions. To our knowledge, the occurrence of bilateral symmetrical herpes zoster lesions in an immunocompetent individual has not been reported in the pediatric literature. PMID:25692062

  10. Bilateral percutaneous cervical cordotomy: immediate and long-term results in 36 patients with neoplastic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ischia, S; Luzzani, A; Ischia, A; Maffezzoli, G

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with neoplastic disease suffering from chronic bilateral pain were subjected to bilateral percutaneous cervical cordotomy. The technique and precautions to be taken in bilateral percutaneous cervical cordotomy performed either in one or two stages are described using a traditional or Levin's thermocouple-monitored electrode. The sequelae, complications and immediate and long-term results are reported. Images PMID:6584554

  11. Horizontal localization with bilateral hearing aids: Without is better than with

    E-print Network

    Horizontal localization with bilateral hearing aids: Without is better than with Tim Van den the effect of bilateral hearing aids on directional hearing in the frontal horizontal plane. Localization tests evaluated bilateral hearing aid users using different stimuli and different noise scenarios

  12. Dorsal Neck Muscle Vibration Induces Upward Shifts in the Endpoints of Memory-Guided Saccades in Monkeys

    E-print Network

    Corneil, Brian D.

    Dorsal Neck Muscle Vibration Induces Upward Shifts in the Endpoints of Memory-Guided Saccades form 28 February 2004 Corneil, Brian D. and Richard A. Andersen. Dorsal neck muscle vibration induces illusions induced by me- chanically vibrating muscles as a first step toward a mechanistic understanding

  13. Mirror System Activity for Action and Language Is Embedded in the Integration of Dorsal and Ventral Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbib, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We develop the view that the involvement of mirror neurons in embodied experience grounds brain structures that underlie language, but that many other brain regions are involved. We stress the cooperation between the dorsal and ventral streams in praxis and language. Both have perceptual and motor schemas but the perceptual schemas in the dorsal

  14. False Killer Whale Dorsal Fin Disfigurements as a Possible Indicator of Long-Line Fishery Interactions in Hawaiian Waters1

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    593 False Killer Whale Dorsal Fin Disfigurements as a Possible Indicator of Long-Line Fishery entanglement in fishing gear can be used to examine cetacean fishery interactions. False killer whales in offshore Hawaiian waters. We examined the rate of major dorsal fin dis- figurements of false killer whales

  15. The Retrograde Ulnar Dorsal Flap: Surgical Technique and Experience as Island Flap in Coverage of Hand Defects.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Amador, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Flaps from the forearm are often used to reconstruct soft-tissue defects in the hand. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap has the advantage that it does not sacrifice a major vascular axis. The anatomic bases of this flap are the proximal and distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery. The distal branch is partially accompanied with the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, and arrives under the abductor digiti quinti muscle making anastomoses with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. The proximal branch reaching the proximal third of the forearm, and anastomose with perforating branches of the ulnar artery. I used this island flap in 12 patients with coverage defects on the hand. The biggest flap was 13×6 cm. Only 1 flap had partial necrosis which did not lead to problems. The retrograde ulnar dorsal flap is a flap designed with reverse flow from the distal branch of the ulnar dorsal artery, and which does not sacrifice the ulnar artery. The donor defect on the forearm ulnar side had a greater esthetic acceptance. Knowing other distal anastomoses, described by other authors later, dorsal at the base of the fourth interdigital space grant greater security to the retrograde ulnar dorsal flap. It is worth highlighting the importance of preserving the adipofascial tissue around the pedicle. Experience with this flap permits us to state that it is a safe and reproducible flap to cover any defect on the dorsal of the hand as well as the first web space. PMID:26079665

  16. Abstract--We implemented an integrated system that can acquire neuronal signals from spinal cord dorsal horn neurons,

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Abstract--We implemented an integrated system that can acquire neuronal signals from spinal cord, mechanical, and polymodal). The nociceptive stimulus travels to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord through A and C fibers. The response of the spinal cord dorsal horn neurons are typically classified as low

  17. 12. Neary TJ (1984) Anterior thalamic nucleus projections to the dorsal pallium in ranid frogs. Neurosci Lett 51:213218

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Erich D.

    1984-01-01

    12. Neary TJ (1984) Anterior thalamic nucleus projections to the dorsal pallium in ranid frogs in frogs. Brain Behav Evol 4:295­306 16. Westhoff G, Roth G (2002) Morphology and projection pattern of medial and dorsal pallial neurons in the frog Discoglossus pictus and the salamander Plethodon jordani. J

  18. Bilateral Laparoscopic Gonadectomy in a Patient With Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Bilateral Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Asl Zare, Mohammad; Kalantari, Mahmood Reza; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Kamalati, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (previously called testicular feminization) is specified by a 46 XY karyotype and negative sex chromatin, bilateral undescended testes, female genitalia appearance, and lack of mullerian derivatives. Case Presentation: A 28-year-old woman with complete (severe) androgen resistance underwent prophylactic laparoscopic bilateral gonadectomy because of the eventually increased risk of gonadal malignancy. Although the gonads appeared grossly normal, microscopic examination revealed bilateral well differentiated sertoli–leydig cell tumor (SLCT). Discussion: Our Medline search revealed that this is the first reported case of bilateral sertoli–leydig cell tumor (SLCT) in androgen insensitivity syndrome. PMID:25032133

  19. Isolated bilateral macrodontia of mandibular second premolars: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Canoglu, Ebru; Canoglu, Harun; Aktas, Alper; Cehreli, Zafer C.

    2012-01-01

    Isolated bilateral macrodontia of mandibular second premolars is an extremely rare dental anomaly with only 5 cases reported to date. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 12-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of mandibular posterior teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolars and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, molariform crowns, and tapering, single roots. Following surgical removal of the impacted premolars, orthodontic therapy was initiated to correct the malocclusion. Along with the features and treatment of this rare anomaly, this case report also illustrates the benefits, in terms of treatment planning and surgical technique, of supplementing conventional radiography with cone-beam computed tomography to localize the macrodont premolars and accurately establish their relationship with the neighboring roots and anatomic structures. PMID:22904663

  20. Craniofacial Microsomia: Goldenhar Syndrome in Association with Bilateral Congenital Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, U. D.; Adhikari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) includes a spectrum of malformations primarily involving structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. Patients with hemifacial microsomia and epibulbar dermoids are said to have Goldenhar syndrome (GHS). Four-month-old boy with whitish pupillary reflex presented with the features of GHS in pediatric ophthalmology clinic. The child had ocular and auricular manifestations. There were no vertebral anomalies, but he had bilateral congenital cataract. The peculiarity of this case is the presence of the bilateral total congenital cataract, in association with CFM. There is absence of epibulbar dermoid or lipodermoid in the eyes, although the child had features of GHS. In addition to it, anesthetic intubation was smooth in this case. Any case diagnosed with CFM and/or GHS needs treatment through multidisciplinary approach, consultation in ophthalmology department is one of them. PMID:26635984

  1. Bilateral ovarian cystadenoma in a geriatric African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Hoby, Stefan; Aloisio, Fabio; Schumacher, Vanessa L

    2014-06-01

    A 59-yr-old, captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died of a cardiovascular collapse. Necropsy revealed bilateral replacement of the ovarian tissue by multiple cystic formations of up to 10 cm in diameter. The cysts were thin walled and filled with clear watery fluid. Smaller solid masses with an irregular surface projected from the wall of a few of the cysts. Histologically, the cystic structures were characterized by a single layer of well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells resting on a basement membrane. Occasionally the cysts contained nodular proliferations of single-layered, well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells forming anastomosing tubules and occasional papillary projections. The ovarian neoplasia was diagnosed as a bilateral multilocular serous ovarian cystadenoma. The nulliparous status and the advanced age may have contributed to the ovarian pathology. PMID:25000708

  2. An unusual triad: Bilateral dilated odontoma, hypodontia and peg laterals.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Alphy Alphonsa; Ahsan, Auswaf; George, Ahkin John; Aby, John

    2013-09-01

    The dilated odontoma is an infrequent developmental alteration that appears in any area of the dental arches and can affect deciduous, permanent and supernumerary tooth. Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly resulting from invagination of a portion of crown forming within the enamel organ during odontogenesis. The most extreme form of dens invaginatus is known as dilated odontoma. The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of bilateral dilated odontoma affecting a microdontic permanent lateral incisor in a 30 year old female patient with hypodontia and peglateral teeth with its clinical, radiological and histological features, which has yet been not reported. Bilateral presence of dilated odontoma is not a common occurrence, although a single tooth involvement in each case has been reported in the literature. PMID:24348628

  3. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with basilar aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Briganti, F; Maiuri, F; Tortora, F; Elefante, A

    2004-10-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with an associated aneurysm of the basilar tip, studied by CT angiography, MR angiography and digital angiography. The patient became symptomatic with an episode of loss of consciousness, likely due to reduced blood perfusion. The other 20 reported cases of bilateral carotid hypoplasia (only four of which with an associated aneurysm) are reviewed. The findings of noninvasive procedures (including narrowing of the carotid canals on CT) may lead to a correct diagnosis before angiography is performed; they may also help to differentiate angiographic narrowing of the hypoplastic internal carotids from the string sign often observed in some acquired conditions. PMID:15322780

  4. Simultaneous Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax Revealed Birt-Hogg-Dubè Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tamburrini, Alessandro; Sellitri, Francesco; Tacconi, Federico; Brancati, Francesco; Mineo, Tommaso Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax is a very rare clinical event, comprising approximately 1% of all spontaneous pneumothoraces. Clinical signs and symptoms may vary from mild chest pain and dyspnea to severe respiratory failure; nevertheless immediate treatment is mandatory as this condition can deteriorate and progress to tension pneumothorax. An underlying lung disease has been commonly described; in most istances primary or secondary tumors, interstitial diseases, and infectious diseases. Birt-Hogg-Dubè syndrome is a rare inherited disorder clinically characterized by multiple fibrofolliculomas, renal tumors, lung cysts, and, in ~24% of the patients, occurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax. In this case, we firstly report the concurrence of these rare conditions, as a patient presenting a simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was diagnosed with Birt-Hogg-Dubè syndrome based on the typical radiological findings and genetic testing of the folliculin gene located on chromosome 17. PMID:26346436

  5. Multiple sclerosis fatigue relief by bilateral somatosensory cortex neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Tecchio, Franca; Cancelli, Andrea; Cottone, Carlo; Zito, Giancarlo; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Ghazaryan, Anna; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Filippi, Maria Maddalena

    2014-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis-related fatigue is highly common and often refractory to medical therapy. Ten fatigued multiple sclerosis patients received two blocks of 5-day anodal bilateral primary somatosensory areas transcranial direct current stimulation in a randomized, double-blind sham-controlled, cross-over study. The real neuromodulation by a personalized electrode, shaped on the MR-derived primary somatosensory cortical strip, reduced fatigue in all patients, by 26 % in average (p = 0.002), which did not change after sham (p = 0.901). Anodal tDCS over bilateral somatosensory areas was able to relief fatigue in mildly disabled MS patients, when the fatigue-related symptoms severely hamper their quality of life. These small-scale study results support the concept that interventions modifying the sensorimotor network activity balances could be a suitable non-pharmacological treatment for multiple sclerosis fatigue. PMID:24854634

  6. [A bilateral posterior shoulder dislocation caused by humeral head osteonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Barbier, O; Van Gaver, E; Rigal, S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of simultaneous bilateral posterior shoulders dislocations in a 46-year-old male with antecedent of high-dose corticotherapy. The mechanism was non-traumatic after a contraction of the sub scapularis muscle in internal rotation. The interscapular pain was not initially diagnosed although a tomodensitometry was realized to eliminate a cardiovascular emergency. After reduction, the shoulders were unstable and the MRI showed an osteonecrosis of the humeral heads. The patient underwent surgery with an iliac spongy bone graft in the humeral nick. At 3 months, there was no recurrence and mobilities were good. Bilateral posterior shoulders dislocations are unusual and it is the first case of non-traumatic dislocation. Aetiology are often epilepsy, electrocution, and extreme traumatism. Diagnosis is often misrecognized and the treatment is not well codified. PMID:20093062

  7. Bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction presenting with hypertension and cerebral vascular accident.

    PubMed

    Tourchi, Ali; Kajbafzadeh, Abdolmohammad; Nejat, Farideh; Golmohammadi, Abolfazl; Alizadeh, Farshid; Mahboobi, Amir Hassan

    2010-11-01

    Cerebrovascular accident and renal hypertension secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) are extremely rare. A 6-year-old girl presented with intracranial hemorrhage because of hypertension secondary to the bilateral UPJO. This was successfully treated with craniotomy and subsequent percutaneous nephrostomy placement and bilateral pyeloplasty. Brain computerized tomography revealed right-sided intracranial hemorrhage, and renal ultrasonography confirmed bilateral severe hydronephrosis. Craniotomy with evacuation of intracerebral hematoma and bilateral nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance were performed. One week later, she underwent bilateral pyeloplasty in 2 stages. The patient has been well with normalized renal function and is completely cured of her hypertension in long-term follow-up. PMID:21034929

  8. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  9. Development/Plasticity/Repair Tlx1 and Tlx3 Coordinate Specification of Dorsal Horn

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    92037 The dorsal spinal cord synthesizes a variety of neuropeptides that modulate the transmission of a set of neuropeptide genes, including those encoding the anti-opioid peptide cholecystokinin horn neurons is further suggested by the expression of neuropeptides, including the opioid

  10. Incongruence between the sexes in preferences for body and dorsal fin size in Xiphophorus variatus.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, R David; Fontaine, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Female preference for male fin enhancements in poeciliid fishes may be driven by a preexisting perceptual bias for increased male lateral projection area (LPA). This hypothesis suggests that a male with enlarged body and/or fin size projects a larger image onto the female's retina at a given viewing distance, eliciting a greater sensory and thus behavioral response out of the female than a smaller male. Given the shared sensory/neural systems of opposite sex conspecifics, we might expect the LPA bias to also be present in males of at least some poeciliid species. However, we need not expect congruence between the sexes in the state of the bias over evolutionary time. To examine whether the sexes share a bias for sailfin-like dorsal fins, a trait not present in their evolutionary history, the bias favoring increased dorsal fin size and LPA observed in female Xiphophorus variatus, among other poeciliids, was investigated by testing male preference for dummy females varying in dorsal fin size, body size, and dorsal fin:body size ratio. In three sets of simultaneous choice experiments, males preferred females of larger body size when fin size was held constant and when total LPA was held constant, but showed no preference for larger fins when body size was held constant. The LPA bias is therefore less permissive in males than females with selection favoring a male's ability to discriminate between female body size - an indicator of fertility/fecundity - and fin size, which offers no known fitness benefits. PMID:23137586

  11. Cloning and characterization of Dorsal homologues in the hemipteran Rhodnius prolixusimb_909 681..690

    E-print Network

    Lowenberger, Carl

    Cloning and characterization of Dorsal homologues in the hemipteran Rhodnius prolixusimb_909 681 by transcription factors of the Rel/ Nuclear Factor kappa B (Rel/NF-kB) family. We have cloned and characterized light chain in human B-lymphocytes (Sen & Baltimore, 1986). A func- tional NF-kB transcription factor

  12. Dorsal Hippocampal CREB Is Both Necessary and Sufficient for Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Melanie J.; Neve, Rachael L.; Frankland, Paul W.; Josselyn, Sheena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the transcription factor CREB has been widely implicated in memory, whether it is sufficient to produce spatial memory under conditions that do not normally support memory formation in mammals is unknown. We found that locally and acutely increasing CREB levels in the dorsal hippocampus using viral vectors is sufficient to induce robust…

  13. Preterm Birth Affects Dorsal-Stream Functioning Even after Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, A.; Duret, M.; Mancini, J.; Gire, C.; Deruelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    With increasing numbers of preterm infants surviving, the impact of preterm birth on later cognitive development presents a major interest. This study investigates the impact of preterm birth on later dorsal- and ventral-stream functioning. An atypical pattern of performance was found for preterm children relative to full-term controls, but in the…

  14. Flight performance, energetics and water turnover of tippler pigeons with a harness and dorsal load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gessaman, J.A.; Workman, G.W.; Fuller, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a bird's mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Flight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO2 production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measuremets precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  15. 126 SHORT COMMUNICATIONS Binocular interaction on cells of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    126 SHORT COMMUNICATIONS Binocular interaction on cells of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus) in monocularly deprived (MD) and binocularly deprived (BD) cats had the normal concentricreceptive fields, but that early visual deprivation decreased this binocular interaction. In MD cats, where the effect was more

  16. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600?N, 3?Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  17. Sec61? is Required for Dorsal Closure during Drosophila Embryogenesis through its Regulation of Dpp Signaling

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaochen; Ward, Robert

    2010-01-28

    mutation in Sec61? that specifically perturbs dorsal closure. Sec61? encodes the main subunit of the translocon complex for co-translational import of proteins into the ER. JNK signaling is normal in Sec61? mutant embryos, but Dpp signaling is attenuated...

  18. A Role for the Human Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Fear Expression

    E-print Network

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    A Role for the Human Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Fear Expression Mohammed R. Milad, Gregory implicate the prelimbic (PL) region of the medial prefrontal cortex in the expression of conditioned fear in mediating or modulating fear responses. This study examined the role of dACC during fear conditioning

  19. Electrolytic Lesions of the Dorsal Hippocampus Disrupt Renewal of Conditional Fear after Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Jinzhao; Maren, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that the hippocampus is critical for context-dependent memory retrieval. In the present study, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats to examine the role of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in the context-specific expression of fear memory after extinction (i.e., renewal). Pre-training electrolytic lesions of…

  20. Reward Processing by the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus: 5-HT and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Minmin; Zhou, Jingfeng; Liu, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) represents one of the most sensitive reward sites in the brain. However, the exact relationship between DRN neuronal activity and reward signaling has been elusive. In this review, we will summarize anatomical, pharmacological, optogenetics, and electrophysiological studies on the functions and circuit mechanisms of…

  1. Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron satellite glial cell communication in dorsal

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron­ satellite glial cell communication in dorsal root activates P2X7 receptors in satellite cells that enwrap each DRG neuron and triggers the communication neuronal somata and thus triggers bidirectional communication between neurons and satellite cells. Results

  2. An excitatory pathway through dorsal columns to rubrospinal cells in the cat.

    PubMed

    Jeneskog, T; Padel, Y

    1984-08-01

    A somaesthetic excitatory pathway to rubrospinal cells, via other than cortico- or cerebello-rubral relays, has been demonstrated in cats, using intracellular recording techniques. After lesions of the rostral part of the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum, electrical stimulation of the contralateral forepaw and low intensity stimulation of the dorsal columns produced excitatory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s) in rubrospinal cells, which often reached the threshold for firing bursts of spikes. These somaesthetic e.p.s.p.s are composed of a burst of small elementary e.p.s.p.s which progressively create a depolarization with a long-lasting time course. Evidence has been obtained that the pathway runs through the dorsal columns to reach the red nucleus after a relay. Stimulation applied to the dorsal columns gives rise to the response with very low threshold current, close to 20 microA. Also, the firing pattern of lemniscal fibres to single-shock dorsal column stimulation has been correlated with the time course of excitation of the rubrospinal cells. As calculated from latencies of e.p.s.p.s the conduction velocity in the investigated pathway is over 55 m/s in the peripheral nerve fibres, indicating that thick, myelinated fibres are involved. It is suggested that the fast somaesthetic loop might, via the rubrospinal tract, participate in exploratory motor behaviour and in the adaptation of gait to the environment. PMID:6090642

  3. Nicotinic Receptors in the Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus Differentially Modulate Contextual Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Justin W.; Raybuck, Jonathan D.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine administration alters various forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Increasing work has found that the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially contribute to multiple behaviors. Thus, the present study examined whether the effects of nicotine in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus have distinct influences on contextual fear learning in male C57BL/6J mice. Direct infusion of nicotine into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in an enhancement of contextual fear learning, whereas nicotine infused into the ventral hippocampus resulted in deficits. Nicotine infusions into the ventral hippocampus did not alter hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning or time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus maze, a measure of anxiety, suggesting the effects are due to alterations in contextual learning and not other general processes. Finally, results from using direct infusions of MLA, a low-affinity ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, in conjunction with systemic nicotine, provide evidence that ?7-nAChRs in the ventral hippocampus mediate the detrimental effect of ventral hippocampal nicotine on contextual fear learning. These results suggest that with systemic nicotine administration, competition exists between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus for behavioral control over contextual learning. PMID:22271264

  4. Face and place processing in Williams syndrome: evidence for a dorsal-ventral dissociation

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    ­9], is not seen in individuals with Down syndrome (DNS), who are equally impaired in both. In face processingFace and place processing in Williams syndrome: evidence for a dorsal-ventral dissociation Brianna11April 2002; accepted 24 April 2002 Individuals with Williams syndrome (WMS) show an interesting

  5. Dorsal and ventral stream activation and object recognition performance in school-age children

    E-print Network

    Sereno, Martin

    Dorsal and ventral stream activation and object recognition performance in school-age children stream play a role in children's increasingly more proficient interactions with objects. In thirty-three 6- to 10-year-old children and 11 adults, we used fMRI to track the development of (1) the cortical

  6. Tranexamic acid evokes pain by modulating neuronal excitability in the spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Nobuko; Sasaki, Mika; Ohashi, Masayuki; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Baba, Hiroshi; Kohno, Tatsuro

    2015-01-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent widely used to reduce blood loss during surgery. However, a serious adverse effect of TXA is seizure due to inhibition of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine receptors in cortical neurons. These receptors are also present in the spinal cord, and antagonism of these receptors in spinal dorsal horn neurons produces pain-related phenomena, such as allodynia and hyperalgesia, in experimental animals. Moreover, some patients who are injected intrathecally with TXA develop severe back pain. However, the effect of TXA on spinal dorsal horn neurons remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of TXA by using behavioral measures in rats and found that TXA produces behaviors indicative of spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia. We then performed whole-cell patch-clamp experiments that showed that TXA inhibits GABAA and glycine receptors in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Finally, we also showed that TXA facilitates activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the spinal cord. These results indicated that TXA produces pain by inhibiting GABAA and glycine receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:26293582

  7. Development and taxonomic value of dorsal tertiary fringe scales of the adult mosquito wing (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The condition of dorsal tertiary fringe scales on the wings of females and males for numerous species of tribe Aedini and representative species of other culicid tribes is noted. With few exceptions the presence or absence of these scales appears to be consistent for species included in well-define...

  8. The Role of the Ventral and Dorsal Pathways in Reading Chinese Characters and English Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yafeng; Yang, Yanhui; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Li; Peng, Danling

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature in alphabetic languages suggests that the occipital-temporal region (the ventral pathway) is specialized for automatic parallel word recognition, whereas the parietal region (the dorsal pathway) is specialized for serial letter-by-letter reading (and). However, few studies have directly examined the role of the ventral and…

  9. Implications of Starvation-Induced Change in Right Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Volume in Anorexia Nervosa

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Implications of Starvation-Induced Change in Right Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Volume in Anorexia- gests a role for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN anterior cingulate; ACC; anorexia nervosa; AN; starvation; weight restoration; cognitive function

  10. Tumeur sous scapulaire: élastofibrome dorsal bilatéral à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Dlimi, Meriem; Boukind, Samira; Elatiqi, Oumkeltoum; Elamrani, Driss; Benchamkha, Yassine; Ettalbi, Saloua

    2015-01-01

    L’élastofibrome dorsal est une tumeur bénigne rare des parties molles siégeant typiquement sous la pointe de la scapula. Nous rapportons notre observation; pour préciser les caractéristiques cliniques et paracliniques de ce type de tumeur ainsi que les modalités de prise en charge; cette entité gagnerait à être connue par tout praticien; pour permettre une attitude thérapeutique bien codifiée. PMID:26405479

  11. A vertex specific dorsal selector Dve represses the ventral appendage identity in Drosophila head.

    PubMed

    Kiritooshi, Naruto; Yorimitsu, Takeshi; Shirai, Tetsuya; Puli, Oorvashi Roy; Singh, Amit; Nakagoshi, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Developmental fields are subdivided into lineage-restricted cell populations, known as compartments. In the eye imaginal disc of Drosophila, dorso-ventral (DV) lineage restriction is the primary event, whereas antero-posterior compartment boundary is the first lineage restriction in other imaginal discs. The Iroquois complex (Iro-C) genes function as dorsal selectors and repress the default, ventral, identity in the eye-head primordium. In Iro-C mutant clones, change of the dorsal identity to default ventral fate leads to generation of ectopic DV boundary, which results in dorsal eye enlargement, and duplication of ventral appendages like antenna and maxillary palp. Similar phenotypes were observed in heads with defective proventriculus (dve) mutant clones. Here, we show that the homeobox gene dve is a downstream effector of Iro-C in the dorsal head capsule (vertex) specification and represses the ventral (antennal) identity. Two homeodomain proteins Distal-less (Dll) and Homothorax (Hth) are known to be determinants of the antennal identity. Ectopic antenna formation in heads with dve mutant clones was associated with ectopic Dll expression and endogenous Hth expression in the vertex region. Interestingly, dve Dll double mutant clones could also induce ectopic antennae lacking the distal structures, suggesting that the Dve activity is crucial for repressing inappropriate antenna-forming potential in the vertex region. Our results clearly indicate that not only the activation of effector genes to execute developmental program but also the repression of inappropriate program is crucial for establishment of the organ identity. PMID:24971779

  12. Objects, Numbers, Fingers, Space: Clustering of Ventral and Dorsal Functions in Young Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinello, Alessandro; Cattani, Veronica; Bonfiglioli, Claudia; Dehaene, Stanislas; Piazza, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    In the primate brain, sensory information is processed along two partially segregated cortical streams: the ventral stream, mainly coding for objects' shape and identity, and the dorsal stream, mainly coding for objects' quantitative information (including size, number, and spatial position). Neurophysiological measures indicate that…

  13. We encountered a particularly intriguing imita-tion bird-dropping on the dorsal wing surface

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Antónia

    We encountered a particularly intriguing imita- tion bird-dropping on the dorsal wing surface't notice this at the time. Finding exqui- site bird-dropping imitations among moths, caterpillars the imitation bird dropping and odor was accom- panied by a most extraordinary wing pattern. To our astonishment

  14. fMRI Evidence for Dorsal Stream Processing Abnormality in Adults Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaminade, Thierry; Leutcher, Russia Ha-Vinh; Millet, Veronique; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of premature birth on the functional neuroanatomy of the dorsal stream of visual processing. fMRI was recorded while sixteen healthy participants, 8 (two men) adults (19 years 6 months old, SD 10 months) born premature (mean gestational age 30 weeks), referred to as Premas, and 8 (two men) matched controls (20…

  15. 4-Oxo-Aldehydes from the dorsal abdominal glands of the bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyses of the dorsal abdominal glands of fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs of the bed bud Cimex lectularius L. indicated the predominant constituents were (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal with lesser amounts of 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal. The latter two compounds have not previously...

  16. LOSSof a Specific Cell Type From Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus in Visually Deprived Cats

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    LOSSof a Specific Cell Type From Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus in Visually Deprived Cats S Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia 2601 cATs REARED under various conditions properties of single visual neurons of normhlly reared cats to those of visually deprived cats

  17. Gabapentin prevents oxaliplatin-induced central sensitization in the dorsal horn neurons in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruyang, Teng; Yang, Zhao; Wei, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The present study aims to study the alteration of glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal horn neurons and the effect of gabapentin on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Materials and Methods: Oxaliplatin (5 mg/kg) or saline was administered to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Gabapentin (60 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was injected daily. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using a series of von Frey filaments. The expression of glutamate receptor subunits (NR2B and GluR1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was measured in the dorsal horn. The glutamatergic strength was recorded in the spinal cord slices. Results: Administration of oxaliplatin induced significant hyperreactivity to mechanical stimuli in rats, which was attenuated by gabapentin. Significant increase in the expression of BDNF was found in the dorsal horn in rats receiving oxaliplatin, which was prevented by gabapentin. Further studies also observed a significant increase in the expression of GluR1 and NR2B, as well as enhanced glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal horn neurons in rats treated with oxaliplatin. The upregulation of glutamatergic transmission was significantly reversed by gabapentin. Conclusion: These results illustrated an increased expression of BDNF and enhanced glutamatergic transmission in rats with oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain, which was markedly attenuated by gabapentin. PMID:26124936

  18. Systems/Circuits Eye-Position Signals in the Dorsal Visual System Are

    E-print Network

    Krekelberg, Bart

    Systems/Circuits Eye-Position Signals in the Dorsal Visual System Are Accurate and Precise on Short-Universita¨t, D-35032 Marburg, Germany Eye-position signals (EPS) are found throughout the primate visual system in eye position. It remains unknown, however, whether cortical EPS (also known as "gain fields") have

  19. Reconciling Time, Space and Function: A New Dorsal-Ventral Stream Model of Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We present a new dorsal-ventral stream framework for language comprehension which unifies basic neurobiological assumptions (Rauschecker & Scott, 2009) with a cross-linguistic neurocognitive sentence comprehension model (eADM; Bornkessel & Schlesewsky, 2006). The dissociation between (time-dependent) syntactic structure-building and…

  20. Dorsal rhizotomy for children with cerebral palsy: support for concepts of motor control.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, C A

    1991-03-01

    The results from selective dorsal rhizotomy research suggest that therapists need to question some common clinical assumptions about movement dysfunction. The rationale for performing a selective dorsal rhizotomy is based on the clinical assumptions that spasticity is the underlying cause of disordered movement and that reducing or eliminating the spasticity will improve movement. This article reviews the literature related to movement dysfunction, the effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy, and the evidence for disordered motor control in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Selective dorsal rhizotomy appears to reduce spasticity and increase joint range of motion. Abnormal movement patterns, however, persist after the spasticity is reduced. Well-coordinated movement patterns are acquired slowly and appear to be related to an intense period of physical therapy. I argue that these results provide evidence that the presence of spasticity alone is an insufficient explanation for abnormal movement patterns. I propose that physical therapists redirect their efforts from developing methods for reducing spasticity to developing adequate assessment, treatment, and measurement techniques for assessing motor control in children with cerebral palsy. I believe we can maximize the functional potential of children with cerebral palsy by identifying problems related to motor control and applying sound principles of motor learning to treatment. PMID:2000441

  1. Control of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn by the nucleoside transporter ENT1

    PubMed Central

    Ackley, Michael A; Governo, Ricardo J M; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D; Baldwin, Stephen A; King, Anne E

    2003-01-01

    Adenosine modulates nociceptive processing in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In other tissues, membrane transporters influence profoundly the extracellular levels of adenosine. To investigate the putative role of nucleoside transporters in the regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, we employed immunohistochemistry and whole-cell patch-clamp recording of substantia gelatinosa neurons in slices of rat spinal cord in vitro. The rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT1) was revealed by antibody staining to be abundant in neonatal and mature dorsal horn, especially within laminae I-III. This was confirmed by immunoblots of dorsal horn homogenate. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), a potent non-transportable inhibitor of rENT1, attenuated synaptically evoked EPSCs onto lamina II neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of an adenosine A1 antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine produced a parallel rightward shift in the NBMPR concentration-effect curve. The effects of NBMPR were partially reversed by adenosine deaminase, which facilitates the metabolic degradation of adenosine. The modulation by NBMPR of evoked EPSCs was mimicked by exogenous adenosine or the selective A1 receptor agonist, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl adenosine. NBMPR reduced the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature EPSCs and increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked currents, an effect that is consistent with presynaptic modulation. These data provide the first direct evidence that nucleoside transporters are able to critically modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. PMID:12611914

  2. Systems/Circuits The Organization of Dorsal Frontal Cortex in Humans and

    E-print Network

    Mars, Rogier Bertrand

    Systems/Circuits The Organization of Dorsal Frontal Cortex in Humans and Macaques Je´ro^me Sallet,1 Thehumandorsalfrontalcortexhasbeenassociatedwiththemostsophisticatedaspectsofcognition,includingthosethatarethoughtto be especially refined in humans. Here we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) in humans and macaques to infer and compare

  3. Human Dorsal Striatum Encodes Prediction Errors during Observational Learning of Instrumental Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of…

  4. Distinct Roles for Dorsal CA3 and CA1 in Memory for Sequential Nonspatial Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farovik, Anja; Dupont, Laura M.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dorsal hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 are both involved in representing sequences of events that compose unique episodes. However, it is uncertain whether the contribution of CA3 is restricted to spatial information, and it is unclear whether CA1 encodes order per se or contributes by an active maintenance of…

  5. A subset of oligodendrocytes generated from radial glia in the dorsal spinal cord

    E-print Network

    Richardson, William D.

    1 A subset of oligodendrocytes generated from radial glia in the dorsal spinal cord Matthew Fogarty Richardson, tel +44 (0)20 7679 6729 w.richardson@ucl.ac.uk Keywords: Dbx, Cre, spinal cord, radial glia (149 words) Many oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord are derived from a region of the ventral

  6. DorsalVentral Gradient for Neuronal Plasticity in the Embryonic Spinal Cord

    E-print Network

    Betz, William J.

    Dorsal­Ventral Gradient for Neuronal Plasticity in the Embryonic Spinal Cord Ricardo H. Pineda Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045 Abstract Within the developing Xenopus spinal cord, voltage­ventral gradient for IKv regulation and a novel form of neuronal plasticity in spinal cord neurons. Keywords

  7. Neuron, Vol. 20, 883893, May, 1998, Copyright 1998 by Cell Press Dorsal Spinal Cord Neuroepithelium Generates

    E-print Network

    Richardson, William D.

    Neuron, Vol. 20, 883­893, May, 1998, Copyright ©1998 by Cell Press Dorsal Spinal Cord that spinal United Kingdom cord oligodendrocytes also are derived from a special- Division of Anatomy of the embryonic day 7 (E7) chick London Bridge or E14 rat spinal cord can give rise to oligodendrocytes London SE1

  8. The Tribolium castaneum ortholog of Sex combs reduced controls dorsal ridge development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In insects, the boundary between the embryonic head and thorax is formed by the dorsal ridge, a fused structure composed of portions of the maxillary and labial segments. However, the mechanisms that promote development of this unusual structure remain a mystery. In Drosophila, mutations in the Hox ...

  9. INTRODUCTION Locomotion using undulating dorsal or anal fins is a mode of fish

    E-print Network

    Curet, Oscar M.

    823 INTRODUCTION Locomotion using undulating dorsal or anal fins is a mode of fish swimming that has evolved independently in a number of unrelated teleost fish clades. Fishes swimming in this manner (Gymnarchus niloticus), the bowfin (Amia calva), and several deep- sea fishes such as the oarfish (Regalecus

  10. Bilateral Continuous Automated Distraction Osteogenesis: Proof of Principle.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Zachary S; Tricomi, Brad J; Faquin, William C; Magill, John C; Murphy, Brian A; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that automated, continuous, curvilinear distraction osteogenesis (DO) in a minipig model is effective when performed bilaterally, at rates up to 3?mm/day, to achieve clinically relevant lengthening.A Yucatan minipig in the mixed dentition phase underwent bilaterally, at a continuous DO at a rate of 2?mm/day at the center of rotation; 1.0 and 3.0?mm/day at the superior and inferior regions, respectively. The distraction period was 13 days with no latency period. Vector and rate of distraction were remotely monitored without radiographs, using the device sensor. After fixation and euthanasia, the mandible and digastric muscles were harvested. The ex vivo appearance, stability, and radiodensity of the regenerate were evaluated using a semiquantitative scale. Percent surface area (PSA) occupied by bone, fibrous tissue, cartilage, and hematoma were calculated using histomorphometrics. The effects of DO on the digastric muscles and mandibular condyles were assessed via microscopy, and degenerative changes were quantified.The animal was distracted to 21?mm and 24?mm on the right and left sides, respectively. Clinical appearance, stability, and radiodensity were scored as "3" bilaterally indicating osseous union. The total PSA occupied by bone (right?=?75.53?±?2.19%; left PSA?=?73.11?±?2.18%) approached that of an unoperated mandible (84.67?±?0.86%). Digastric muscles and condyles showed negligible degenerative or abnormal histologic changes.This proof of principle study is the first report of osseous healing with no ill-effect on associated soft tissue and the mandibular condyle using bilateral, automated, continuous, and curvilinear DO at rates up to 3?mm/day. The model approximates potential human application of continuous automated distraction with a semiburied device. PMID:26594967

  11. Chronic renal failure in a patient with bilateral ureterocele

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Samuel A.; Rafiu, Mojeed O.; Olanrewaju, Timothy O.

    2015-01-01

    Ureterocele is a congenital anomaly, in which there is mal-development of the caudal segments of the ureter. There is a female preponderance with most cases seen in Caucasians. Among the reported complications of this condition, chronic renal failure occurring in the setting of ureterocele has not been well documented. We report a case of a young girl with bilateral ureterocele presenting with chronic renal failure, whose management presented a diagnostic failure and inadequate treatment. PMID:26108593

  12. Clinical diagnosis of bilateral vestibular loss: three simple bedside tests

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jens A.; Straumann, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) may present with or without vertigo and hearing loss. Amongst the causes of BVL are vestibulotoxic antibiotics, autoimmune ear diseases, Menière’s disease and meningitis. Clinical diagnosis of BVL is based on the result of three simple bedside tests: a positive head impulse test, reduced dynamic visual acuity and a positive Romberg test on foam rubber. With these signs, diagnosis of severe BVL is usually straightforward to establish. PMID:23277792

  13. [Rare case of bilateral pulmonary agenesis and prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Veluppillai, C; Jossic, F; Quéré, M-P; Philippe, H-J; Le Vaillant, C

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral pulmonary agenesis (BPA) is a rare congenital lung malformation. The prognosis is severe as it is incompatible with extra-uterine life. Although multiple prenatal imaging modalities are developed, the prenatal diagnosis of BPA remains problematic. We report a case of BPA observed in our unity and for which the diagnosis was not clearly identified during the evaluation. This report illustrates the need to consider all the imaging aspects and particularly during US examination suspecting BPA. PMID:24934770

  14. Bilateral Wünderlich Syndrome Caused by Spontaneous Rupture of Renal Angiomyolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Sotošek, Stanislav; Marki?, Dean; Španjol, Josip; Krpina, Kristian; Kneževi?, Siniša; Mari?i?, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Wünderlich syndrome (WS) is a urological emergency characterized by retroperitoneal hemorrhage. In most cases, bleeding occurs from a renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and may be the first manifestation of the disease. We report a female patient with bilateral WS due to the metachronous rupture of renal AMLs. Because the patient was stable and the tumor was not malignant, treatment was conservative. Follow-up revealed the full recovery of kidney function and the resolution of the hematoma. PMID:25793141

  15. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Kuban, Daniel P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Perkins, Gerald S. (Altadena, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences therebetween. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed.

  16. Bilateral arm power imbalance in swim bench exercise to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Potts, A D; Charlton, J E; Smith, H M

    2002-12-01

    We examined the supposition that swimmers may exhibit an imbalance in bilateral arm power output during simulated swimming exercise. Ten competitive front crawl swimmers (5 males, 5 females; age 20.5+/-2.3 years; height 1.74+/-0.09 m; body mass 72.0+/-16.7 kg; 400 m freestyle swim time 278+/-20.5 s; mean +/- s) performed four incremental (10 W x min(-1)) swim ramp tests on a computer-interfaced biokinetic swim bench ergometer. External power output from each arm was measured continuously to exhaustion. The results showed that, throughout the course of the simulated swim, external power output clearly favoured the left arm (F1,9 = 12.5, P= 0.006). This was especially evident in the final 30 s to exhaustion, when 54.0+/-3.87% of external power output was derived from the left arm versus 46.0+/-3.87% from the right arm. The disparity in external power output was further highlighted when the participants were grouped into unilateral and bilateral breathers. Unilateral breathers (n = 5) produced 57.1+/-2.62% of external power output from the left armversus 42.9+/-2.62% from the right arm (P= 0.001). Bilateral breathers (n = 5) exhibited a more balanced external power output of 51.0+/-1.82% from the left arm and 49.0+/-1.82% from the right arm (P = 0.177). Evidence of power imbalance in the simulated swimming stroke may have important implications for optimizing swim performance. The observed power imbalance may be reduced when a bilateral breathing technique is adopted. PMID:12477007

  17. Bilateral breast enlargement in a male toddler: an unusual cause.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajni; Jain, Vandana

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of a two and a half yr old boy who presented with complaint of bilateral asymmetrical breast enlargement since infancy. On examination, he had features of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Complete endocrinological evaluation was normal. Trucut biopsy of the breast revealed overgrowth of fibrocollagenous and adipose tissue without hyperplasia of breast parenchyma. Thus a diagnosis of NF1 with pseudogynecomastia was made. PMID:20072859

  18. Regulator Circuit For Bilateral Source/Load Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, George; Kimball, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Circuit regulates output voltage whether current flows from left source/load to right load/source or vice versa. Overall system characterized as voltage-controlled current source with bilateral current capability. Additional feature of control circuit is that maximum current in either direction limited by limiting excursion of output voltage from zero-current value. Thus, external current-limiting circuitry not necessary.

  19. Contribution of an SFK-Mediated Signaling Pathway in the Dorsal Hippocampus to Cocaine-Memory Reconsolidation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wells, Audrey M; Xie, Xiaohu; Higginbotham, Jessica A; Arguello, Amy A; Healey, Kati L; Blanton, Megan; Fuchs, Rita A

    2016-02-01

    Environmentally induced relapse to cocaine seeking requires the retrieval of context-response-cocaine associative memories. These memories become labile when retrieved and must undergo reconsolidation into long-term memory storage to be maintained. Identification of the molecular underpinnings of cocaine-memory reconsolidation will likely facilitate the development of treatments that mitigate the impact of cocaine memories on relapse vulnerability. Here, we used the rat extinction-reinstatement procedure to test the hypothesis that the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFK) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) critically controls contextual cocaine-memory reconsolidation. To this end, we evaluated the effects of bilateral intra-DH microinfusions of the SFK inhibitor, PP2 (62.5?ng per 0.5??l per hemisphere), following re-exposure to a cocaine-associated (cocaine-memory reactivation) or an unpaired context (no memory reactivation) on subsequent drug context-induced instrumental cocaine-seeking behavior. We also assessed alterations in the phosphorylation state of SFK targets, including GluN2A and GluN2B N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and GluA2 ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunits at the putative time of memory restabilization and following PP2 treatment. Finally, we evaluated the effects of intra-DH PEAQX (2.5??g per 0.5??l per hemisphere), a GluN2A-subunit-selective NMDAR antagonist, following, or in the absence of, cocaine-memory reactivation on subsequent drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. GluN2A phosphorylation increased in the DH during putative memory restabilization, and intra-DH PP2 treatment inhibited this effect. Furthermore, PP2-as well as PEAQX-attenuated subsequent drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior, in a memory reactivation-dependent manner, relative to VEH. These findings suggest that hippocampal SFKs contribute to the long-term stability of cocaine-related memories that underlie contextual stimulus control over cocaine-seeking behavior. PMID:26202103

  20. Giant Bilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bahri, S.; Tariq, A.; Lowentritt, B.; Nasrallah, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    Myelolipomas are rare and benign neoplasms, predominant of the adrenal glands, consisting of adipose and mature hematopoietic tissue, commonly discovered incidentally with increased use of radiologic imaging. Few cases of giant bilateral adrenal masses are reported, especially in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report the case of a 39-year-old male with a history of CAH secondary to 21-? hydroxylase deficiency on steroids since childhood, self-discontinued during adolescence, presenting with abdominal distension, fatigue, decreased libido, and easy bruising. Imaging revealed giant bilateral adrenal masses. He subsequently underwent bilateral adrenalectomy found to be myelolipomas measuring 30 × 25 × 20?cm on the left and weighing 4.1?kg and 25 × 20 × 13?cm on the right and weighing 2.7?kg. Adrenal myelolipomas are found to coexist with many other conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and CAH. We discuss the association with high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) states and review the studies involving ACTH as proponent leading to myelolipomas. Massive growth of these tumors, as in our case, can produce compression and hemorrhagic symptoms. We believe it is possible that self-discontinuation of steroids, in the setting of CAH, may have resulted in the growth of his adrenal masses. PMID:25140269

  1. A powered prosthetic intervention for bilateral transfemoral amputees.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Brian E; Ruhe, Brian; Shultz, Amanda; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the design and validation of a control system for a pair of powered knee and ankle prostheses to be used as a prosthetic intervention for bilateral transfemoral amputees. The control system leverages communication between the prostheses for enhanced awareness and stability, along with power generation at the knee and ankle joints to better restore biomechanical functionality in level ground walking. The control methodology employed is a combination of an impedance-based framework for weight-bearing portions of gait and a trajectory-based approach for the nonweight-bearing portions. The control system was implemented on a pair of self-contained powered knee and ankle prostheses, and the ability of the prostheses and control approach to provide walking functionality was assessed in a set of experimental trials with a bilateral transfemoral amputee subject. Specifically, experimental data from these trials indicate that the powered prostheses and bilateral control architecture provide gait kinematics that reproduce healthy gait kinematics to a greater extent than the subject's daily-use passive prostheses. PMID:25014950

  2. Bilateral vision loss in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhardt, Ladina; Wernick, Morena B; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2010-09-01

    The following case report describes a 1-year-old female cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with bilateral blindness and unresponsive pupils. For comparison, a second healthy 2.5-year-old male cheetah without visual deficits was also examined. Clinical examination of both animals included biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, and electroretinography. The young female cheetah showed no menace response, no direct or indirect pupillary light reflex, and no dazzle reflex in either eye. Fundus lesions, as detected by indirect ophthalmoscopy, are described for the female animal. In both eyes, the fundus color was green/turquoise/yellow with multiple hyperpigmented linear lesions in the tapetal area around the optic nerve. The optic nerve head was dark gray and about half the normal size suggesting bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia and retinal dysplasia or differentially optic nerve atrophy and chorioretinal scarring. The ERG had low amplitudes in the right eye but appeared normal in the left eye compared with the male cheetah. Blood levels did not suggest current taurine deficiency. This is addressed to some degree in the discussion. Bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia or optic nerve atrophy is a rare anomaly in cats and has not yet been described in a cheetah. PMID:20840102

  3. Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahri, S; Tariq, A; Lowentritt, B; Nasrallah, D V

    2014-01-01

    Myelolipomas are rare and benign neoplasms, predominant of the adrenal glands, consisting of adipose and mature hematopoietic tissue, commonly discovered incidentally with increased use of radiologic imaging. Few cases of giant bilateral adrenal masses are reported, especially in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report the case of a 39-year-old male with a history of CAH secondary to 21-? hydroxylase deficiency on steroids since childhood, self-discontinued during adolescence, presenting with abdominal distension, fatigue, decreased libido, and easy bruising. Imaging revealed giant bilateral adrenal masses. He subsequently underwent bilateral adrenalectomy found to be myelolipomas measuring 30 × 25 × 20?cm on the left and weighing 4.1?kg and 25 × 20 × 13?cm on the right and weighing 2.7?kg. Adrenal myelolipomas are found to coexist with many other conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and CAH. We discuss the association with high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) states and review the studies involving ACTH as proponent leading to myelolipomas. Massive growth of these tumors, as in our case, can produce compression and hemorrhagic symptoms. We believe it is possible that self-discontinuation of steroids, in the setting of CAH, may have resulted in the growth of his adrenal masses. PMID:25140269

  4. Phonological Repetition-Suppression in Bilateral Superior Temporal Sulci

    PubMed Central

    Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions. PMID:19651222

  5. Auditory plasticity in deaf children with bilateral cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2005-04-01

    Human children with cochlear implants represent a unique population of individuals who have undergone variable amounts of auditory deprivation prior to being able to hear. Even more unique are children who received bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs), in sequential surgical procedures, several years apart. Auditory deprivation in these individuals consists of a two-stage process, whereby complete deafness is experienced initially, followed by deafness in one ear. We studied the effects of post-implant experience on the ability of deaf children to localize sounds and to understand speech in noise. These are two of the most important functions that are known to depend on binaural hearing. Children were tested at time intervals ranging from 3-months to 24-months following implantation of the second ear, while listening with either implant alone or bilaterally. Our findings suggest that the period during which plasticity occurs in human binaural system is protracted, extending into middle-to-late childhood. The rate at which benefits from bilateral hearing abilities are attained following deprivation is faster for speech intelligibility in noise compared with sound localization. Finally, the age at which the second implant was received may play an important role in the acquisition of binaural abilities. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD.

  6. RETURN TO DIVISION IA FOOTBALL FOLLOWING A 1ST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT DORSAL DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Zarzour, Hap; Moorman, Claude T.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Although rare in occurrence, a dorsal dislocation of the 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint has been successfully treated using surgical and/or non-operative treatment. No descriptions of conservative intervention following a dorsal dislocation of the MTP joint in an athlete participating in a high contact sport are present in the literature. Objectives. The purpose of this case report is to describe the intervention and clinical reasoning during the rehabilitative process of a collegiate football player diagnosed with a 1st MTP joint dorsal dislocation. The plan of care and return to play criteria used for this athlete are presented. Case Description. The case involved a 19-year-old male Division IA football player, who suffered a traumatic dorsal dislocation of the 1st MTP joint during practice. The dislocation was initially treated on-site by closed reduction. Non-operative management included immobilization, therapeutic exercises, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, manual treatment, modalities, prophylactic athletic taping, gait training, and a sport specific progression program for full return to Division IA football. Outcomes. Discharge from physical therapy occurred after six weeks of treatment. At discharge, no significant deviations existed during running, burst, and agility related drills. At a six-month follow-up, the patient reported full return to all football activities including contact drills without restrictions. Discussion. This case describes an effective six-week rehabilitation intervention for a collegiate football player who sustained a traumatic great toe dorsal dislocation. Further study is suggested to evaluate the intervention strategies and timeframe for return to contact sports. PMID:21589669

  7. Long-term and room temperature operable bioactuator powered by insect dorsal vessel tissue.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitake; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Furukawa, Yuji; Morishima, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    We present a bioactuator powered by insect dorsal vessel tissue which can work for a long time at room temperature without maintenance. Previously reported bioactuators which exploit contracting ability of mammalian heart muscle cell have required precise environmental control to keep the cell alive and contracting. To overcome this problem, we propose a bioactuator using dorsal vessel tissue. The insect tissue which can grow at room temperature is generally robust over a range of culture conditions compared to mammalian tissues and cells. First, we confirm that a dorsal vessel tissue of lepidoptera larva Ctenoplusia agnata contracts spontaneously for at least 30 days without medium replacement at 25 degrees C. Using the dorsal vessel tissue cultured under the same conditions, we succeed in driving micropillars 100 microm in diameter and 1000 microm in height for more than 90 days. The strongest displacement of the micropillar top occurs on the 42(nd) day and is 23 microm. Based on these results, the contracting force is roughly estimated as 4.7 microN which is larger than that by a few mammalian cardiomyocytes (3.4 microN). Definite displacements of more than 10 microm are observed for 58 days from the 15(th) to the 72(nd) days. The number of life cycles can be roughly calculated as 7.5 x 10(5) times for the average frequency of about 0.15 Hz, which is no less than that of conventional mechanical actuators. These results suggest that the insect dorsal vessel tissue is a more promising material for bioactuators used at room temperature than other biological cell-based materials. PMID:19209346

  8. Simultaneous Loss of Bilateral Voluntary Eyelid Opening and Sustained Winking Response Following Bilateral Posterior Cerebral Artery Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon Yeop; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous opening and closing of both eyes usually occurs in the normal awake state, unless a deliberate and voluntary attempt is made to open only one eye. We present a rare case of a male patient who was unable to open both eyes simultaneously after bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction. He was able to close both eyes voluntarily. However, he was unable to keep both eyes open simultaneously and either the right or left eye remained closed. Upon a verbal command to open both eyes, the opened eye closed and the contralateral eye opened. When the closed eye was forced open, the opened eye closed. We thus presented a case of right-left dissociation of voluntary eyelid opening following bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction, which was treated with botulinum toxin type A injection. Differential diagnosis to other movement disorders of the eyelids was discussed. PMID:25932428

  9. Antiallodynic effects of alpha lipoic acid in an optimized RR-EAE mouse model of MS-neuropathic pain are accompanied by attenuation of upregulated BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nemat; Gordon, Richard; Woodruff, Trent M; Smith, Maree T

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain may affect patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early disease. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-mouse model of MS, chronic alpha lipoic acid (ALA) treatment reduced clinical disease severity, but MS-neuropathic pain was not assessed. Hence, we investigated the pain-relieving efficacy and mode of action of ALA using our optimized relapsing-remitting (RR)-EAE mouse model of MS-associated neuropathic pain. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35-55 and adjuvants (Quil A and pertussis toxin) to induce RR-EAE; sham-mice received adjuvants only. RR-EAE mice received subcutaneous ALA (3 or 10 mg kg?1 day?1) or vehicle for 21 days (15–35 d.p.i.; [days postimmunization]); sham-mice received vehicle. Hindpaw hypersensitivity was assessed blinded using von Frey filaments. Following euthanasia (day 35 d.p.i.), lumbar spinal cords were removed for immunohistochemical and molecular biological assessments. Fully developed mechanical allodynia in the bilateral hindpaws of vehicle-treated RR-EAE mice was accompanied by marked CD3+ T-cell infiltration, microglia activation, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) signaling in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Consequently, phospho-ERK, a marker of central sensitization in neuropathic pain, was upregulated in the spinal dorsal horn. Importantly, hindpaw hypersensitivity was completely attenuated in RR-EAE mice administered ALA at 10 mg kg?1 day?1 but not 3 mg kg?1 day?1. The antiallodynic effect of ALA (10 mg kg?1 day?1) was associated with a marked reduction in the aforementioned spinal dorsal horn markers to match their respective levels in the vehicle-treated sham-mice. Our findings suggest that ALA at 10 mg kg?1 day?1 produced its antiallodynic effects in RR-EAE mice by reducing augmented CD3+ T-cell infiltration and BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:26171221

  10. Antiallodynic effects of alpha lipoic acid in an optimized RR-EAE mouse model of MS-neuropathic pain are accompanied by attenuation of upregulated BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nemat; Gordon, Richard; Woodruff, Trent M; Smith, Maree T

    2015-06-01

    Neuropathic pain may affect patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early disease. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-mouse model of MS, chronic alpha lipoic acid (ALA) treatment reduced clinical disease severity, but MS-neuropathic pain was not assessed. Hence, we investigated the pain-relieving efficacy and mode of action of ALA using our optimized relapsing-remitting (RR)-EAE mouse model of MS-associated neuropathic pain. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35-55 and adjuvants (Quil A and pertussis toxin) to induce RR-EAE; sham-mice received adjuvants only. RR-EAE mice received subcutaneous ALA (3 or 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or vehicle for 21 days (15-35 d.p.i.; [days postimmunization]); sham-mice received vehicle. Hindpaw hypersensitivity was assessed blinded using von Frey filaments. Following euthanasia (day 35 d.p.i.), lumbar spinal cords were removed for immunohistochemical and molecular biological assessments. Fully developed mechanical allodynia in the bilateral hindpaws of vehicle-treated RR-EAE mice was accompanied by marked CD3(+) T-cell infiltration, microglia activation, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) signaling in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Consequently, phospho-ERK, a marker of central sensitization in neuropathic pain, was upregulated in the spinal dorsal horn. Importantly, hindpaw hypersensitivity was completely attenuated in RR-EAE mice administered ALA at 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) but not 3 mg kg(-1) day(-1). The antiallodynic effect of ALA (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was associated with a marked reduction in the aforementioned spinal dorsal horn markers to match their respective levels in the vehicle-treated sham-mice. Our findings suggest that ALA at 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) produced its antiallodynic effects in RR-EAE mice by reducing augmented CD3(+) T-cell infiltration and BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:26171221

  11. Somatostatin and its 2A receptor in dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn of mouse and human: expression, trafficking and possible role in pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Somatostatin (SST) and some of its receptor subtypes have been implicated in pain signaling at the spinal level. In this study we have investigated the role of SST and its sst2A receptor (sst2A) in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord. Results SST and sst2A protein and sst2 transcript were found in both mouse and human DRGs, sst2A-immunoreactive (IR) cell bodies and processes in lamina II in mouse and human spinal dorsal horn, and sst2A-IR nerve terminals in mouse skin. The receptor protein was associated with the cell membrane. Following peripheral nerve injury sst2A-like immunoreactivity (LI) was decreased, and SST-LI increased in DRGs. sst2A-LI accumulated on the proximal and, more strongly, on the distal side of a sciatic nerve ligation. Fluorescence-labeled SST administered to a hind paw was internalized and retrogradely transported, indicating that a SST-sst2A complex may represent a retrograde signal. Internalization of sst2A was seen in DRG neurons after systemic treatment with the sst2 agonist octreotide (Oct), and in dorsal horn and DRG neurons after intrathecal administration. Some DRG neurons co-expressed sst2A and the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor on the cell membrane, and systemic Oct caused co-internalization, hypothetically a sign of receptor heterodimerization. Oct treatment attenuated the reduction of pain threshold in a neuropathic pain model, in parallel suppressing the activation of p38 MAPK in the DRGs Conclusions The findings highlight a significant and complex role of the SST system in pain signaling. The fact that the sst2A system is found also in human DRGs and spinal cord, suggests that sst2A may represent a potential pharmacologic target for treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:24521084

  12. Establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity of the Drosophila egg requires capicua action in ovarian follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Goff, D J; Nilson, L A; Morisato, D

    2001-11-01

    The dorsal-ventral pattern of the Drosophila egg is established during oogenesis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) signaling within the follicular epithelium is spatially regulated by the dorsally restricted distribution of its presumptive ligand, Gurken. As a consequence, pipe is transcribed in a broad ventral domain to initiate the Toll signaling pathway in the embryo, resulting in a gradient of Dorsal nuclear translocation. We show that expression of pipe RNA requires the action of fettucine (fet) in ovarian follicle cells. Loss of maternal fet activity produces a dorsalized eggshell and embryo. Although similar mutant phenotypes are observed with regulators of Egfr signaling, genetic analysis suggests that fet acts downstream of this event. The fet mutant phenotype is rescued by a transgene of capicua (cic), which encodes an HMG-box transcription factor. We show that Cic protein is initially expressed uniformly in ovarian follicle cell nuclei, and is subsequently downregulated on the dorsal side. Earlier studies described a requirement for cic in repressing zygotic target genes of both the torso and Toll pathways in the embryo. Our experiments reveal that cic controls dorsal-ventral patterning by regulating pipe expression in ovarian follicle cells, before its previously described role in interpreting the Dorsal gradient. PMID:11714680

  13. 5-hydroxytrptamine 2C receptors in the dorsal striatum mediate stress-induced interference with negatively-reinforced instrumental escape behavior

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Paul V.; Christianson, John P.; Loughridge, Alice B.; Amat, Jose; Maier, Steven F.; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Uncontrollable stress can interfere with instrumental learning and induce anxiety in humans and rodents. While evidence supports a role for serotonin (5-HT) and serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT2CR) in the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress, the specific sites of action are unknown. These experiments sought to delineate the role of 5-HT and 5-HT2CR in the dorsal striatum (DS) and the lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the expression of stress-induced instrumental escape deficits and exaggerated fear, as these structures are critical to instrumental learning and fear behaviors. Using in vivo microdialysis, we first demonstrate that prior uncontrollable, but not controllable, stress sensitizes extracellular 5-HT in the dorsal striatum, a result that parallels prior work in the BLA. Additionally, rats were implanted with bilateral cannula in either the DS or the BLA and exposed to uncontrollable tail shock stress. One day later, rats were with injected 5-HT2CR antagonist (SB242084) and fear and instrumental learning behaviors were assessed in a shuttle box. Separately, groups of non-stressed rats received an intra-DS or an intra-BLA injection of the 5-HT2CR agonist (CP809101) and behavior was observed. Intra-DS injections of the 5-HT2CR antagonist prior to fear/escape tests completely blocked the stress-induced interference with instrumental escape learning; a partial block was observed when injections were in the BLA. Antagonist administration in either region did not influence stress-induced fear behavior. In the absence of prior stress, intra-DS administration of the 5-HT2CR agonist was sufficient to interfere with escape behavior without enhancing fear, while intra-BLA administration of the 5-HT2CR agonist increased fear behavior but had no effect on escape learning. Results reveal a novel role of the 5-HT2CR in the DS in the expression of instrumental escape deficits produced by uncontrollable stress and demonstrate that the involvement of 5-HT2CR activation in stress-induced behaviors is regionally specific. PMID:21958863

  14. An Investigation of Bilateral Symmetry During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Soltau, Shelby L.; Slowik, Jonathan S.; Requejo, Philip S.; Mulroy, Sara J.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of manual wheelchair propulsion often assume bilateral symmetry to simplify data collection, processing, and analysis. However, the validity of this assumption is unclear. Most investigations of wheelchair propulsion symmetry have been limited by a relatively small sample size and a focus on a single propulsion condition (e.g., level propulsion at self-selected speed). The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion in a large group of subjects across different propulsion conditions. Three-dimensional kinematics and handrim kinetics along with spatiotemporal variables were collected and processed from 80 subjects with paraplegia while propelling their wheelchairs on a stationary ergometer during three different conditions: level propulsion at their self-selected speed (free), level propulsion at their fastest comfortable speed (fast), and propulsion on an 8% grade at their level, self-selected speed (graded). All kinematic variables had significant side-to-side differences, primarily in the graded condition. Push angle was the only spatiotemporal variable with a significant side-to-side difference, and only during the graded condition. No kinetic variables had significant side-to-side differences. The magnitudes of the kinematic differences were low, with only one difference exceeding 5°. With differences of such small magnitude, the bilateral symmetry assumption appears to be reasonable during manual wheelchair propulsion in subjects without significant upper-extremity pain or impairment. However, larger asymmetries may exist in individuals with secondary injuries and pain in their upper extremity and different etiologies of their neurological impairment. PMID:26125019

  15. An Investigation of Bilateral Symmetry During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion.

    PubMed

    Soltau, Shelby L; Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    Studies of manual wheelchair propulsion often assume bilateral symmetry to simplify data collection, processing, and analysis. However, the validity of this assumption is unclear. Most investigations of wheelchair propulsion symmetry have been limited by a relatively small sample size and a focus on a single propulsion condition (e.g., level propulsion at self-selected speed). The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion in a large group of subjects across different propulsion conditions. Three-dimensional kinematics and handrim kinetics along with spatiotemporal variables were collected and processed from 80 subjects with paraplegia while propelling their wheelchairs on a stationary ergometer during three different conditions: level propulsion at their self-selected speed (free), level propulsion at their fastest comfortable speed (fast), and propulsion on an 8% grade at their level, self-selected speed (graded). All kinematic variables had significant side-to-side differences, primarily in the graded condition. Push angle was the only spatiotemporal variable with a significant side-to-side difference, and only during the graded condition. No kinetic variables had significant side-to-side differences. The magnitudes of the kinematic differences were low, with only one difference exceeding 5°. With differences of such small magnitude, the bilateral symmetry assumption appears to be reasonable during manual wheelchair propulsion in subjects without significant upper-extremity pain or impairment. However, larger asymmetries may exist in individuals with secondary injuries and pain in their upper extremity and different etiologies of their neurological impairment. PMID:26125019

  16. Simultaneous bilateral robotic-assisted laparoscopic procedures in children.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Victor; Elder, Jack S

    2015-12-01

    Our main objective is to report the feasibility of performing simultaneous robotic-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) heminephrectomy with contralateral ureteroureterostomy in children with bilateral duplicated systems. Three female children with bilateral congenital renal/ureteral anomalies underwent concurrent RAL simultaneous unilateral partial nephrectomy with ureterectomy and contralateral ureteroureterostomy with redundant ureterectomy using a four/five-port approach. Mean age at repair was 32.9 months (range 7-46 months) and mean weight was 13.7 kg (range 10.4-13.6 kg). The RAL heminephroureterectomy and contralateral ureteroureterostomy were performed via a four-port approach (five ports in one patient), and the patients were repositioned and draped when moving to the other side. Mean operative time was 446 min (range 356-503 min). Mean estimated blood loss was 23.3 cc (range 10-50 cc). Postoperative length of stay for two patients was 2 days and 1 day for one patient (mean = 1.7 days). Mean length of follow-up was 18.3 months (range 7-36 months). No significant intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred for any of the three patients. Two children had no hydronephrosis on postoperative imaging in follow-up, and one child had a small stable, residual pararenal fluid collection on the side of heminephrectomy. Two patients underwent postoperative ureteral stent removal under general anesthesia. In children with bilateral duplicated urinary tract with ureterocele, ectopic ureter, and/or vesicoureteral reflux, laparoscopic repair with robotic assistance can be accomplished safely in a single operative procedure with a short hospital stay. PMID:26530838

  17. Bilateral Vitreous Hemorrhage in Children: Clinical Features and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sudhalkar, Aditya; Chhablani, Jay; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Jalali, Subhadra; Balakrishnan, Divya; Tyagi, Mudit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the etiology, clinical features and outcomes of bilateral vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in children. Methods: This retrospective chart review was performed on patients with bilateral VH under the age of 18 at a tertiary eye care center in India. Data included demographics, details of history and ocular examination, reports of investigations, surgeries or other interventions performed, and final anatomical and visual outcomes. Patients were divided into two groups i.e., traumatic and non-traumatic (spontaneous). Results: The traumatic group was comprised of 37 patients including 27 male and 10 female subjects with mean age of 13.47 ± 5.31 years, the most common complaint was decreased vision (96.45%) and the most prevalent etiology was firecracker injury in 16 (43.2%) patients. Mean baseline visual acuity (VA) was 2.34 ± 1.31 logMAR which was significantly improved to 1.08 ± 0.23 logMAR (P = 0.042). The mean number of surgeries was 2.72 ± 1.43 in the traumatic VH and mean follow up period was 23.14 ± 6.54 months. The spontaneous group included 48 subjects comprised of 27 male and 21 female cases with mean age of 14.48 ± 2.03 years. The most common cause was vasculitis in 21 (43.75%) subjects including four patients with tuberculosis. Mean baseline VA was 1.97 ± 1.13 logMAR which showed a significant improvement to 0.82 ± 0.24 logMAR (P = 0.012) after mean follow up of 34.2 ± 11.2 months. Eleven patients required at least one major surgery. Conclusion: Vasculitis was the most common cause of spontaneous bilateral VH; traumatic VH most prevalently occurred due to firecracker injury. Final VA was better in the spontaneous group. PMID:26425315

  18. Bilateral Systematized Epidermolytic Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vivek; Saha, Abanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Das, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are congenital, noninflammatory cutaneous hamartomas composed of keratinocytes. They follow the lines of Blaschko and show hyperkeratosis without cellular atypia. The routine histology shows variable amount of hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and papillomatosis and rarely epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We saw a 3-year-old boy with bilaterally symmetrical, systematized verrucous plaques along the lines of Blaschko extensively involving the trunk and extremities but sparing the face and palmoplantar skin. Histopathology showed features of epidermal nevi with prominent epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We report here the case for the rarity of this entity. PMID:26288413

  19. Linear Darier's disease: A case with bilateral presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bordoloi, Anal Jyoti; Barua, Khagendra Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Darier's disease is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by a persistent eruption of hyperkeratotic greasy papules mainly over the seborrheic sites of the body, usually associated with nail abnormalities and sometimes with mucous membrane lesions. The lesions typically occur in the younger age group and are associated with pruritus. We report here an atypical case of Linear Darier's disease with bilateral presentation in a middle-aged adult that could be confused with conditions such as lichen planus, inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus, and wart. PMID:26500868

  20. Bilateral Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Giaconi, JoAnn; Pham, Randal; Ta, Christopher N

    2002-05-01

    A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with Mycobacterium abscessus keratitis in the left eye 3 weeks after bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Infection in the right eye developed 6 weeks after surgery. Despite aggressive treatment with topical amikacin and clarithromycin and oral clarithromycin, the infection progressed in both eyes. To improve antibiotic penetration, the LASIK flap was removed in both eyes. Culture positivity was prolonged; however, after 8 weeks of intensive topical antibiotics, the infection was eradicated. The final best corrected visual acuity was 20/30 in both eyes. PMID:11978473

  1. Precedence based speech segregation in bilateral cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shaikat; Montazeri, Vahid; Assmann, Peter F.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2015-01-01

    The precedence effect (PE) enables the perceptual dominance by a source (lead) over an echo (lag) in reverberant environments. In addition to facilitating sound localization, the PE can play an important role in spatial unmasking of speech. Listeners attending to binaural vocoder simulations with identical channel center frequencies and phase demonstrated PE-based benefits in a closed-set speech segregation task. When presented with the same stimuli, bilateral cochlear implant users did not derive such benefits. These findings suggest that envelope extraction in itself may not lead to a breakdown of the PE benefits, and that other factors may play a role. PMID:26723365

  2. Bilateral and multiple cavitation sounds during upper cervical thrust manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The popping produced during high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation is a common sound; however to our knowledge, no study has previously investigated the location of cavitation sounds during manipulation of the upper cervical spine. The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during C1-2 rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of pops, the duration of upper cervical thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Methods Nineteen asymptomatic participants received two upper cervical thrust manipulations targeting the right and left C1-2 articulation, respectively. Skin mounted microphones were secured bilaterally over the transverse process of C1, and sound wave signals were recorded. Identification of the side, duration, and number of popping sounds were determined by simultaneous analysis of spectrograms with audio feedback using custom software developed in Matlab. Results Bilateral popping sounds were detected in 34 (91.9%) of 37 manipulations while unilateral popping sounds were detected in just 3 (8.1%) manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (P < 0.001) more likely to occur bilaterally than unilaterally. Of the 132 total cavitations, 72 occurred ipsilateral and 60 occurred contralateral to the targeted C1-2 articulation. In other words, cavitation was no more likely to occur on the ipsilateral than the contralateral side (P = 0.294). The mean number of pops per C1-2 rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation was 3.57 (95% CI: 3.19, 3.94) and the mean number of pops per subject following both right and left C1-2 thrust manipulations was 6.95 (95% CI: 6.11, 7.79). The mean duration of a single audible pop was 5.66?ms (95% CI: 5.36, 5.96) and the mean duration of a single manipulation was 96.95?ms (95% CI: 57.20, 136.71). Conclusions Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur bilaterally than unilaterally during upper cervical HVLA thrust manipulation. Most subjects produced 3–4 pops during a single rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation targeting the right or left C1-2 articulation; therefore, practitioners of spinal manipulative therapy should expect multiple popping sounds when performing upper cervical thrust manipulation to the atlanto-axial joint. Furthermore, the traditional manual therapy approach of targeting a single ipsilateral or contralateral facet joint in the upper cervical spine may not be realistic. PMID:23320608

  3. Bilateral Blindness Following Chemoradiation for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, K. Liang; Kuruvilla, Sara; Sanatani, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a life-threatening neurologic complication of thiamine deficiency. Though the presentation of symptoms can vary widely, the classical triad is founded on ophthalmoplegia, alteration of mental status, and gait disturbance. We describe a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in an oncology patient shortly after concurrent 5-fluorouracil, carboplatin, and radiotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer, presenting as complete bilateral blindness, ataxia, nystagmus, and confusion. Thiamine was given based on clinical suspicion and rapid improvement of clinical findings occurred. An MRI performed later supported the diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy. A multifactorial etiology of thiamine deficiency from nutritional deficits and neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy are hypothesized. PMID:26623207

  4. Pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax following near drowning in shallow water

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraj, Santhiya; Viswanathan, Stalin

    2011-01-01

    We report pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax and acute respiratory distress syndrome in a victim of near drowning who was intoxicated and did not have thoracic or neck trauma. Chest radiograph revealed the above findings, later confirmed by computed tomography. He was in shock and also had gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and renal dysfunction. With adequate resuscitative measures including fluids, blood transfusions, intercostal tube drainage and mechanical ventilation he made a complete recovery. Good prognostic indicators in near drowning patients include higher Glasgow Coma Scale, short submersion time and quick resuscitative measures even in the presence of serious cardiorespiratory or hemodynamic compromise. PMID:24765331

  5. Bilateral hippocampal stroke secondary to acute cocaine intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Kathryn L.; Chen, Xiao; Kwan, Pei Fun

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal infarction is a rare complication of cocaine use, with only two cases previously reporting this association. We present a 44-year-old male who developed a persistent amnesic syndrome following cocaine intoxication. Examination identified no other neurological deficits. Subsequent MRI brain revealed high FLAIR signals and diffusion restriction in the hippocampus and centrum semiovale bilaterally, consistent with infarction. These findings were in keeping with the results of formal neuropsychological testing where deficits in both verbal and visual episodic memory and learning capacity were identified, consistent with hippocampal dysfunction. In contrast to previous reports, this presentation occurred in the absence of other vascular risk factors or hypoxic insults. PMID:26634127

  6. Object-Coordinate-Based Bilateral Control System Using Visual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yu; Nozaki, Takahiro; Oyamada, Yuji; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In the field of teleoperation, visual or tactile information obtained by the operators is restricted (e. g., limited or delayed sight) because of communication constraints. Therefore, it is difficult for the operators to operate the system. In this paper, a bilateral control system using the environmental information about the position and posture of a target as obtained by a camera is proposed. The proposed method reduces the workload of the operators by taking some of their tasks. An experiment is conducted to prove the benefit of the proposed method by using a 1-DOF master robot and a 2-DOF slave robot.

  7. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis After Initiation of Chemotherapy for Bilateral Adrenal Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Fábio A; Nery, Juliane; Trennepohl, Joanna; Pianovski, Mara A D

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and aggressive syndrome characterized by overactivation of the immune system. Although secondary HLH has been frequently associated with malignancies, this entity is rarely triggered by solid tumors, such as neuroblastomas. Herein, we describe a 14-month-old girl with a late diagnosis of bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma who developed HLH 6 days after the initiation of chemotherapy. On the basis of the large tumoral mass and the time of onset of her symptoms suggestive of HLH, we hypothesize that tumor cell destruction induced by chemotherapy drugs was the trigger to the development of hematophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome. PMID:26583611

  8. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy Versus Bilateral Neck Exploration for Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Laird, Amanda M; Libutti, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disease that is caused by excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from 1 or more of the parathyroid glands. Surgery is the only cure. Traditional surgical management consists of a 4-gland cervical exploration. Development of imaging specific to identification of parathyroid glands and application of the rapid PTH assay to operative management have made more minimal exploration possible. There are distinct advantages and disadvantages of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) and bilateral neck exploration (BNE). The advantages of MIP seem to outweigh those of BNE, and MIP has replaced BNE as the operation of choice by many surgeons. PMID:26610777

  9. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia with Bilateral Renal Masses Masquerading as Nephroblastomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Thakore, Poonam; Aljabari, Salim; Turner, Curtis; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L.

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in the pediatric patient population. However, renal involvement as the primary manifestation of ALL is rare. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy with bilateral renal lesions resembling nephroblastic rests as the first finding of early stage ALL preceding hematological changes and subsequent classic clinical findings by two weeks. These renal hypodensities completely resolved after one week of induction chemotherapy. This case demonstrates that renal involvement can be the only initial presenting finding of leukemia. Children with lesions resembling nephroblastic rests need appropriate surveillance due to the risk of malignant disease. PMID:26613060

  10. Complete bilateral gemination of maxillary incisors with separate root canals.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, Lodd; Govindarajan, Sujatha; Jayanandan, Muruganandhan; Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohammed; Kumar, Nalin; Madasamy, Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Developmental anomalies in the hard tissue are seen frequently in dental practice. Gemination and fusion are the most commonly encountered anomalies, and distinction between the two is always challenging. Gemination, also called double tooth, is an anomaly exhibiting two joined crowns and usually a single root. It represents an incomplete attempt of a single tooth germ to split. It is considered multifactorial in etiology, with genetic and environmental causes. This paper discusses a rare example of bilateral gemination (prevalence 0.04%) of maxillary central incisors with completely separated roots. Multidisciplinary care ensured a successful esthetic and functional outcome. PMID:25254121

  11. Lithium Battery Ingestion: An Unusual Cause of Bilateral Cord Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gautam Bir; Chauhan, Ravinder; Kumar, Deepak; Arora, Rubeena; Ranjan, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral vocal cord palsy is a rare but life threatening complication of lithium battery ingestion in children. This complication is mostly missed by otorhinolaryngologists due to lack of awareness on the cited subject. We present one such rare case in an infant, where the clinical presentation was found to be unique but hitherto unreported in the medical literature. This clinical record discusses this case in light of the scant current medical literature on the subject and highlights the importance of cautious monitoring of patients presenting with signs of respiratory distress after lithium battery removal. PMID:26457218

  12. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-11-28

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  13. Bilateral horizontal Vogt’s striae in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, ?nci Ulu; Beden, Ümit; Sönmez, Bari?

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To report a keratoconus case with bilateral horizontal Vogt’s striae. Method The clinical findings of the patient and the development of the direction of striae are discussed. Results Vogt’s striae, defined as vertical stress lines, are rarely horizontal. One patient with unilateral horizontal stress lines on his left eye has been reported in the literature. Our patient has horizontal Vogt’s striae in both eyes. Conclusion Horizontal Vogt’s striae may be seen in keratoconus as a rare slit-lamp biomicroscopic finding. PMID:19668769

  14. Selective cognitive patterns resulting from bilateral hippocampal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Cachia, David; Swearer, Joan; Ferguson, Warren; Moonis, Majaz

    2011-01-01

    A 54-year-old diabetic, hypertensive man with poorly controlled moderate-severe sleep apnea presented with acute onset of severe anterograde amnesia and well preserved remote memory without additional cognitive impairment. Investigations, including a lumbar puncture, electroencephalogram (EEG) and serology testing ruled out infectious, neoplastic and epilleptogenic causes. MRI taken 10 days after symptom onset, was suggestive of sequential ischemic damage to both hippocampal formations. Neuropyschological evaluation suggested a focal and dense amnestic syndrome with little improvement over time. The bilateral nature of hippocampal ischemia though has been reported, is rare. PMID:22291752

  15. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  16. Bilateral dens invaginatus in the mandibular premolars – Diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kharangate, Nupur; Figueiredo, Nigel R.; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a developmental anomaly that results from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development and simulates the appearance of a tooth within another tooth. It shows a wide spectrum of variations in morphology and usually affects the maxillary lateral incisors. This study presents an unusual case of an Oehlers’ Type I DI involving the bilateral mandibular first and second premolars, which presented as an incidental radiographic finding in the first premolars and was associated with a periapical lesion in the second premolars which was successfully treated using nonsurgical endodontics. PMID:26321850

  17. Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex contributes to conditioned taste aversion memory consolidation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Villar, Maria Eugenia; Igaz, Lionel M; Viola, Haydée; Medina, Jorge H

    2015-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known for its role in decision making and memory processing, including the participation in the formation of extinction memories. However, little is known regarding its contribution to aversive memory consolidation. Here we demonstrate that neural activity and protein synthesis are required in the dorsal mPFC for memory formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task and that this region is involved in the retrieval of recent and remote long-term CTA memory. In addition, both NMDA receptor and CaMKII activity in dorsal mPFC are needed for CTA memory consolidation, highlighting the complexity of mPFC functions. PMID:26493441

  18. Discrete coding of stimulus value, reward expectation, and reward prediction error in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kei; Tateyama, Yukina; Hernádi, István; Tobler, Philippe N; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    To investigate how the striatum integrates sensory information with reward information for behavioral guidance, we recorded single-unit activity in the dorsal striatum of head-fixed rats participating in a probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning task with auditory conditioned stimuli (CSs) in which reward probability was fixed for each CS but parametrically varied across CSs. We found that the activity of many neurons was linearly correlated with the reward probability indicated by the CSs. The recorded neurons could be classified according to their firing patterns into functional subtypes coding reward probability in different forms such as stimulus value, reward expectation, and reward prediction error. These results suggest that several functional subgroups of dorsal striatal neurons represent different kinds of information formed through extensive prior exposure to CS-reward contingencies. PMID:26378201

  19. Dissociation and Convergence of the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Streams in the Human Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Emi; Ohki, Kenichi; Kim, Dae-Shik

    2012-01-01

    Visual information is largely processed through two pathways in the primate brain: an object pathway from the primary visual cortex to the temporal cortex (ventral stream) and a spatial pathway to the parietal cortex (dorsal stream). Whether and to what extent dissociation exists in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) has long been debated. We examined anatomical connections from functionally defined areas in the temporal and parietal cortices to the PFC, using noninvasive functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) received converging input from both streams, while the right superior frontal gyrus received input only from the dorsal stream. Interstream functional connectivity to the IFG was dynamically recruited only when both object and spatial information were processed. These results suggest that the human PFC receives dissociated and converging visual pathways, and that the right IFG region serves as an integrator of the two types of information. PMID:23063444

  20. Isolated dorsal approach for the treatment of neglected volar metacarpophalangeal joint dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Ba?ar, Hakan; ?nanmaz, Mustafa Erkan; Köse, Kamil Ça?r?; Tetik, Cihangir

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present the clinical and radiological results of three neglected volar metacarpophalangeal dislocations in 2 patients, which were treated with open reductions 10 and 24 mo after the dislocations. There was a mean of a 20° (range 10°-30°) limitation of extension and a 53.3° (range 30°-70°) limitation of flexion preoperatively. Postoperatively, there was no limitation of extension (at 8 and 12 mo) in any of the fingers. In terms of flexion, one finger had full function, one had a 10° and the last one had a 30° limitation of flexion. Two of the fingers presented anesthesia preoperatively, which improved to hypesthesia postoperatively. One finger had hypesthesia, which improved postoperatively. During surgery, a ruptured dorsal capsule was found to have interposed into the joint, making closed reduction impossible. Our experience with these two patients demonstrated that, even in neglected cases, open reduction using an isolated dorsal approach may result in satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes. PMID:24649416

  1. Intravital Imaging of Axonal Interactions with Microglia and Macrophages in a Mouse Dorsal Column Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Teresa A.; Barkauskas, Deborah S.; Myers, Jay T.; Huang, Alex Y.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury causes an inflammatory reaction involving blood-derived macrophages and central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia. Intra-vital two-photon microscopy enables the study of macrophages and microglia in the spinal cord lesion in the living animal. This can be performed in adult animals with a traumatic injury to the dorsal column. Here, we describe methods for distinguishing macrophages from microglia in the CNS using an irradiation bone marrow chimera to obtain animals in which only macrophages or microglia are labeled with a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein. We also describe a injury model that crushes the dorsal column of the spinal cord, thereby producing a simple, easily accessible, rectangular lesion that is easily visualized in an animal through a laminectomy. Furthermore, we will outline procedures to sequentially image the animals at the anatomical site of injury for the study of cellular interactions during the first few days to weeks after injury. PMID:25489963

  2. Total dorsal pancreatectomy for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in a patient with pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Talbot, M L; Foulis, A K; Imrie, C W

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm confined to the dorsal (Santorini) pancreatic duct. A 51-year-old woman presented with a cystic lesion in the head of her pancreas and pancreas divisum. A biopsy taken during cyst-enteric drainage revealed dysplastic epithelium so the patient was scheduled for resection. At operation, excision of the entire dorsal pancreas was performed with preservation of the unaffected ventral pancreas and the spleen and its vessels. Over 6 years later she remains well with stable weight and a good quality of life. This case illustrates the benefits of anatomical preservation in pancreatic resection, and was performed some years prior to the only other reported similar case. PMID:15855827

  3. Seperation of dorsal vein complex from the urethra by blunt finger dissection during radical retropubic prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Atan, Ali; Tuncel, Altu?; Polat, Fazl?; Balc?, Melih; Ye?il, Süleyman; Köseo?lu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    We present our initial experience on the isolation of dorsal vein complex by blunt finger dissection in 26 patients with localised prostate cancer who underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy. Loss of blood was between 300 and 500 mL (mean 350 mL). Two of 26 patients (7.6%) required blood transfusion. There was no positive surgical margin at prostatic apex in the patients. Twenty four of our patients (92.4%) were continent on the 3rd month. Control of dorsal vein complex is very important to decrease blood loss and to improve intraoperative exposure of retropubic area in order to get negative margin of prostatic apex and to provide the urethra long enough for a nice urethrovesical anastomosis. According to our initial experience, this technique seems to provide these aims. PMID:26328213

  4. A study of the causes of bilateral optic disc swelling in Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Kei; Shimizu, Kimiya; Ichibe, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the etiology of bilateral disc swelling in Japanese. Methods Using Kitasato University’s Department of Neuro-Ophthalmology medical records and fundus photographs of the period December 1977 through November 2010, we retrospectively identified 121 outpatients who had been initially confirmed with bilateral disc swelling. Results The most common cause of the bilateral disc swelling was increased intracranial pressure (ICP) (59%); followed by pseudopapillitis (16%); uveitis (8%); hypertensive retinopathy (5%); bilateral optic neuritis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and optic disc drusen (all at 2% each); and leukemia (1%). Unknown etiology accounted for 6% of the cases. Conclusion Although increased ICP is the most common etiology for bilateral disc swelling, it can also be triggered by a variety of other causes. Pseudopapillitis is the most important progenitor of bilateral disc swelling in Japanese. PMID:25031527

  5. Overexpression of the dopamine D3 receptor in the rat dorsal striatum induces dyskinetic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cote, Samantha R; Chitravanshi, Vineet C; Bleickardt, Carina; Sapru, Hreday N; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2014-04-15

    L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) are motor side effects associated with treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The etiology of LID is not clear; however, studies have shown that the dopamine D3 receptor is upregulated in the basal ganglia of mice, rats and non-human primate models of LID. It is not known if the upregulation of D3 receptor is a cause or result of LID. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that overexpression of the dopamine D3 receptor in dorsal striatum, in the absence of dopamine depletion, will elicit LID. Replication-deficient recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 expressing the D3 receptor or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were stereotaxically injected, unilaterally, into the dorsal striatum of adult rats. Post-hoc immunohistochemical analysis revealed that ectopic expression of the D3 receptor was limited to neurons near the injection sites in the dorsal striatum. Following a 3-week recovery period, rats were administered saline, 6 mg/kg L-DOPA, 0.1 mg/kg PD128907 or 10 mg/kg ES609, i.p., and motor behaviors scored. Rats overexpressing the D3 receptor specifically exhibited contralateral axial abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) following administration of L-DOPA and PD128907 but not saline or the novel agonist ES609. Daily injection of 6 mg/kg L-DOPA to the rats overexpressing the D3 receptor also caused increased vacuous chewing behavior. These results suggest that overexpression of the D3 receptor in the dorsal striatum results in the acute expression of agonist-induced axial AIMs and chronic L-DOPA-induced vacuous chewing behavior. Agonists such as ES609 might provide a novel therapeutic approach to treat dyskinesia. PMID:24462727

  6. Projections of the paraventricular and paratenial nuclei of the dorsal midline thalamus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vertes, Robert P; Hoover, Walter B

    2008-05-10

    The paraventricular (PV) and paratenial (PT) nuclei are prominent cell groups of the midline thalamus. To our knowledge, only a single early report has examined PV projections and no previous study has comprehensively analyzed PT projections. By using the anterograde anatomical tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, and the retrograde tracer, FluoroGold, we examined the efferent projections of PV and PT. We showed that the output of PV is virtually directed to a discrete set of limbic forebrain structures, including 'limbic' regions of the cortex. These include the infralimbic, prelimbic, dorsal agranular insular, and entorhinal cortices, the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, dorsal tenia tecta, claustrum, lateral septum, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (core and shell), olfactory tubercle, bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), medial, central, cortical, and basal nuclei of amygdala, and the suprachiasmatic, arcuate, and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. The posterior PV distributes more heavily than the anterior PV to the dorsal striatum and to the central and basal nuclei of amygdala. PT projections significantly overlap with those of PV, with some important differences. PT distributes less heavily than PV to BST and to the amygdala, but much more densely to the medial prefrontal and entorhinal cortices and to the ventral subiculum of hippocampus. As described herein, PV/PT receive a vast array of afferents from the brainstem, hypothalamus, and limbic forebrain, related to arousal and attentive states of the animal, and would appear to channel that information to structures of the limbic forebrain in the selection of appropriate responses to changing environmental conditions. Depending on the specific complement of emotionally associated information reaching PV/PT at any one time, PV/PT would appear positioned, by actions on the limbic forebrain, to direct behavior toward a particular outcome over a range of outcomes. PMID:18311787

  7. Increased functional connectivity between dorsal posterior parietal and ventral occipitotemporal cortex during uncertain memory decisions.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Uncapher, Melina R; Wagner, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Retrieval of episodic memories is a multi-component act that relies on numerous operations ranging from processing the retrieval cue, evaluating retrieved information, and selecting the appropriate response given the demands of the task. Motivated by a rich functional neuroimaging literature, recent theorizing about various computations at retrieval has focused on the role of posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In a potentially promising line of research, recent neuroimaging findings suggest that different subregions of dorsal PPC respond distinctly to different aspects of retrieval decisions, suggesting that better understanding of their contributions might shed light on the component processes of retrieval. In an attempt to understand the basic operations performed by dorsal PPC, we used functional MRI and functional connectivity analyses to examine how activation in, and connectivity between, dorsal PPC and ventral temporal regions representing retrieval cues varies as a function of retrieval decision uncertainty. Specifically, participants made a five-point recognition confidence judgment for a series of old and new visually presented words. Consistent with prior studies, memory-related activity patterns dissociated across left dorsal PPC subregions, with activity in the lateral IPS tracking the degree to which participants perceived an item to be old, whereas activity in the SPL increased as a function of decision uncertainty. Importantly, whole-brain functional connectivity analyses further revealed that SPL activity was more strongly correlated with that in the visual word-form area during uncertain relative to certain decisions. These data suggest that the involvement of SPL during episodic retrieval reflects, at least in part, the processing of the retrieval cue, perhaps in service of attempts to increase the mnemonic evidence elicited by the cue. PMID:24825621

  8. Receptor-mediated uptake of labeled transferrin by embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture.

    PubMed

    Markelonis, G J; Oh, T H; Park, L P; Azari, P; Max, S R

    1985-01-01

    Transferrin is a growth-promoting plasma protein which is known to occur within developing neurons. Since little information exists on the process by which transferrin is internalized by neurons, we studied this process using dissociated embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. Cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons were incubated in the presence of 3.75 nM (125)I-transferrin at 37°C, the cultures were extensively washed, the neurons were solubilized in a Triton-containing buffer and internalized (125)I-transferrin was quantified with a gamma counter. (125)I-transferrin was internalized in a linear fashion for at least 60 min, and this uptake was abolished by the presence of 1.25 ?M unlabeled transferrin. No competition for the uptake of (125)I-transferrin was observed in the presence of 1.25 ?M ovalbumin, cytochrome c, hemoglobin, insulin, horseradish peroxidase, aldolase or the carboxyl-terminal fragment ('half-site') of transferrin. By contrast, uptake was inhibited by approximately 50% in the presence of the ammo-terminal fragment ('half-site') of transferrin (1.25 ?M) or in the presence of concanavalin A (1.25 ?M). The binding of transferrin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate to neurons at 4°C and its subsequent internalization at 37°C was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy of unfixed cells following incubation of the neurons in the presence of the fluorescently labeled protein. Furthermore, the transferrin receptors were visualized immunocytochemically on the surface membranes of dorsal root ganglion neurons using rabbit antibodies directed against transferrin receptors from chicken reticulocytes. From these data, we conclude that transferrin is internalized by neurons via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and suggest that this protein may serve an important role in the development and survival of dorsal root ganglion neurons. PMID:24874753

  9. Palmar arch reconstruction using dorsal venous arch of foot for revascularisation of multiple digits

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, K. S.; Petkar, Kiran; Lateef, Sameer; Rasalkar, Jyoti; Arun, T. J.; Suresh, V.

    2014-01-01

    A case of trauma causing total loss of superficial and deep palmar arches of hand with ischemia of all the digits was managed using dorsal venous arch of the foot to reconstruct the palmar arch. The ends of the venous arch were anastomosed to radial and ulnar arteries and the tributaries to the arch were coapted to the cut ends of the common digital vessels and princeps pollicis. The surgery yielded gratifying results, successfully revascularising all the digits. PMID:24987216

  10. BMPs Regulate msx Gene Expression in the Dorsal Neuroectoderm of Drosophila and Vertebrates by Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Francisco F.; Taylor, Erika; Pyrowolakis, George; Fisher, Shannon; Bier, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS) derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of “neural identity” gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio) msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS). Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages. PMID:25210771

  11. Mini dorsal incision to the triangular fibrocartilage complex: a new surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Murray, David; Javed, Saqib; Hayton, Mike

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a mini dorsal approach to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). We describe a mini incision approach which aims to preserve the structure and proprioception of the primary and secondary stabilisers of the wrist joint. This approach requires less dissection and provides adequate exposure to the distal aspect of the TFCC and allows visualisation of the distal radial ulna joint (DRUJ) with complete TFCC lesions. PMID:26568729

  12. Comprehensive identification of Drosophila dorsal–ventral patterning genes using a whole-genome tiling array

    PubMed Central

    Biemar, Frédéric; Nix, David A.; Piel, Jessica; Peterson, Brant; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Sementchenko, Victor; Bell, Ian; Manak, J. Robert; Levine, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    Dorsal–ventral (DV) patterning of the Drosophila embryo is initiated by Dorsal, a sequence-specific transcription factor distributed in a broad nuclear gradient in the precellular embryo. Previous studies have identified as many as 70 protein-coding genes and one microRNA (miRNA) gene that are directly or indirectly regulated by this gradient. A gene regulation network, or circuit diagram, including the functional interconnections among 40 Dorsal target genes and 20 associated tissue-specific enhancers, has been determined for the initial stages of gastrulation. Here, we attempt to extend this analysis by identifying additional DV patterning genes using a recently developed whole-genome tiling array. This analysis led to the identification of another 30 protein-coding genes, including the Drosophila homolog of Idax, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling. In addition, remote 5? exons were identified for at least 10 of the ?100 protein-coding genes that were missed in earlier annotations. As many as nine intergenic uncharacterized transcription units were identified, including two that contain known microRNAs, miR-1 and -9a. We discuss the potential functions of these recently identified genes and suggest that intronic enhancers are a common feature of the DV gene network. PMID:16908844

  13. Dissociation between Dorsal and Ventral Posterior Parietal Cortical Responses to Incidental Changes in Natural Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Lorelei R.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Ólafsdóttir, H. Freyja; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is thought to interact with the medial temporal lobe (MTL) to support spatial cognition and topographical memory. While the response of medial temporal lobe regions to topographical stimuli has been intensively studied, much less research has focused on the role of PPC and its functional connectivity with the medial temporal lobe. Methodology/Principle Findings Here we report a dissociation between dorsal and ventral regions of PPC in response to different types of change in natural scenes using an fMRI adaptation paradigm. During scanning subjects performed an incidental target detection task whilst viewing trial unique sequentially presented pairs of natural scenes, each containing a single prominent object. We observed a dissociation between the superior parietal gyrus and the angular gyrus, with the former showing greater sensitivity to spatial change, and the latter showing greater sensitivity to scene novelty. In addition, we observed that the parahippocampal cortex has increased functional connectivity with the angular gyrus, but not superior parietal gyrus, when subjects view change to the scene content. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide support for proposed dissociations between dorsal and ventral regions of PPC and suggest that the dorsal PPC may support the spatial coding of the visual environment even when this information is incidental to the task at hand. Further, through revealing the differential functional interactions of the SPG and AG with the MTL our results help advance our understanding of how the MTL and PPC cooperate to update representations of the world around us. PMID:23874482

  14. Characterization of muscles associated with the articular membrane in the dorsal surface of the crayfish abdomen.

    PubMed

    Sohn, J; Mykles, D L; Cooper, R L

    2000-10-01

    The anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the dorsal membrane muscle (DMA) and the superficial extensor muscle accessory head (SEAcc) in the abdomen of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii and lobster, Homarus americanus, are reported. These muscles have not been previously characterized physiologically or biochemically. The anatomy was originally described by Pilgrim and Wiersma (1963. J Morph 113:453-587). The arrangement of these muscles varies depending on the abdominal segment. The function of the dorsal membrane muscle is to retract the thin articulating membrane joining the cuticular segments so that the dorsal membrane does not evert during extension of the abdomen. Consequently, the articular membrane does not protrude, and thus potential damage to the membrane is minimized. Examination of nerve terminal morphology revealed strings of varicosities, usually only associated with tonic terminals. The electrophysiological data indicate that there are at least four tonic excitatory and one inhibitory motor neuron innervating these muscles. Facilitation indices and fatigue-resistance indicate physiologically the tonic nature of innervation. Anti-GABA antibodies demonstrate the anatomical presence of an inhibitor motor neuron. The SDS electrophoretic analysis of myofibrillar proteins and Western blots of key protein isoforms for these muscles in crayfish and lobsters also indicate that the DMA and SEAcc muscles are tonic phenotype. J. Exp. Zool. 287:353-377, 2000. PMID:10980494

  15. Dorsal–Ventral Gradient for Neuronal Plasticity in the Embryonic Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Ricardo H.; Ribera, Angeles B.

    2008-01-01

    Within the developing Xenopus spinal cord, voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel genes display different expression patterns, many of which occur in opposing dorsal–ventral gradients. Regional differences in Kv gene expression would predict different patterns of potassium current (IKv) regulation. However, during the first 24 h of postmitotic differentiation, all primary spinal neurons undergo a temporally coordinated upregulation of IKv density that shortens the duration of the action potential. Here, we tested whether spinal neurons demonstrate regional differences in IKv regulation subsequent to action potential maturation. We show that two types of neurons, I and II, can be identified in culture on the basis of biophysical and pharmacological properties of IKv and different firing patterns. Chronic increases in extracellular potassium, a signature of high neuronal activity, do not alter excitability properties of either neuron type. However, elevating extracellular potassium acutely after the period of action potential maturation leads to different changes in membrane properties of the two types of neurons. IKv of type I neurons gains sensitivity to the blocker XE991, whereas type II neurons increase IKv density and fire fewer action potentials. Moreover, by recording from neurons in vivo, we found that primary spinal neurons can be identified as either type I or type II. Type I neurons predominate in dorsal regions, whereas type II neurons localize to ventral regions. The findings reveal a dorsal–ventral gradient for IKv regulation and a novel form of neuronal plasticity in spinal cord neurons. PMID:18385340

  16. Finding and recognizing objects in natural scenes: complementary computations in the dorsal and ventral visual systems

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Edmund T.; Webb, Tristan J.

    2014-01-01

    Searching for and recognizing objects in complex natural scenes is implemented by multiple saccades until the eyes reach within the reduced receptive field sizes of inferior temporal cortex (IT) neurons. We analyze and model how the dorsal and ventral visual streams both contribute to this. Saliency detection in the dorsal visual system including area LIP is modeled by graph-based visual saliency, and allows the eyes to fixate potential objects within several degrees. Visual information at the fixated location subtending approximately 9° corresponding to the receptive fields of IT neurons is then passed through a four layer hierarchical model of the ventral cortical visual system, VisNet. We show that VisNet can be trained using a synaptic modification rule with a short-term memory trace of recent neuronal activity to capture both the required view and translation invariances to allow in the model approximately 90% correct object recognition for 4 objects shown in any view across a range of 135° anywhere in a scene. The model was able to generalize correctly within the four trained views and the 25 trained translations. This approach analyses the principles by which complementary computations in the dorsal and ventral visual cortical streams enable objects to be located and recognized in complex natural scenes. PMID:25161619

  17. Dopamine receptor 1 neurons in the dorsal striatum regulate food anticipatory circadian activity rhythms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Christian M; Darvas, Martin; Oviatt, Mia; Chang, Chris H; Michalik, Mateusz; Huddy, Timothy F; Meyer, Emily E; Shuster, Scott A; Aguayo, Antonio; Hill, Elizabeth M; Kiani, Karun; Ikpeazu, Jonathan; Martinez, Johan S; Purpura, Mari; Smit, Andrea N; Patton, Danica F; Mistlberger, Ralph E; Palmiter, Richard D; Steele, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Daily rhythms of food anticipatory activity (FAA) are regulated independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which mediates entrainment of rhythms to light, but the neural circuits that establish FAA remain elusive. In this study, we show that mice lacking the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R KO mice) manifest greatly reduced FAA, whereas mice lacking the dopamine D2 receptor have normal FAA. To determine where dopamine exerts its effect, we limited expression of dopamine signaling to the dorsal striatum of dopamine-deficient mice; these mice developed FAA. Within the dorsal striatum, the daily rhythm of clock gene period2 expression was markedly suppressed in D1R KO mice. Pharmacological activation of D1R at the same time daily was sufficient to establish anticipatory activity in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that dopamine signaling to D1R-expressing neurons in the dorsal striatum plays an important role in manifestation of FAA, possibly by synchronizing circadian oscillators that modulate motivational processes and behavioral output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03781.001 PMID:25217530

  18. The evolution and refinements of the distally based dorsal metacarpal artery (DMCA) flaps.

    PubMed

    Gregory, H; Heitmann, C; Germann, G

    2007-01-01

    Distally based DMCA flaps are well established in reconstructive hand surgery. They comprise the dorsal flap described by Quaba and the DMCA flaps described by Earley, Milner and others. The most frequent indications for these flaps are soft tissue defects of the dorsum of the proximal phalanx and the total length of the finger. Since its introduction several modifications have been developed to match specific defect requirements; these include: the development of pure fascial DMCA flaps, the use of DMCA flaps in dorsally grafted burned hands and modifications in design to avoid 'tunnelling' and to permit skin-skin defect closure. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the evolution and refinements of the DMCA flaps based on the experience of a single centre. The DMCA flaps provide one stage coverage of excellent quality with independent vascularisation and permit primary closure of the recipient site without sacrificing relevant arteries (e.g. proper digital artery). However, the DMCA flaps also possess drawbacks, for example, apart from the fact that this technique is quite demanding, possible hair growth and a visible scar on the exposed dorsal part of the hand present aesthetic problems for some patients. Despite these limitations, DMCA flaps are considered to be extremely useful. PMID:17512811

  19. Differential roles of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Melissa E; Fraize, Nicolas P; Yin, Linda; Yuan, Robin K; Petsagourakis, Despina; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2013-06-01

    The study of fear memory is important for understanding various anxiety disorders in which patients experience persistent recollections of traumatic events. These memories often involve associations of contextual cues with aversive events; consequently, Pavlovian classical conditioning is commonly used to study contextual fear learning. The use of predator odor as a fearful stimulus in contextual fear conditioning has become increasingly important as an animal model of anxiety disorders. Innate fear responses to predator odors are well characterized and reliable; however, attempts to use these odors as unconditioned stimuli in fear conditioning paradigms have proven inconsistent. Here we characterize a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using coyote urine as the unconditioned stimulus. We found that contextual conditioning induced by exposure to coyote urine produces long-term freezing, a stereotypic response to fear observed in mice. This paradigm is context-specific and parallels shock-induced contextual conditioning in that it is responsive to extinction training and manipulations of predator odor intensity. Region-specific lesions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus indicate that both areas are independently required for the long-term expression of learned fear. These results in conjunction with c-fos immunostaining data suggest that while both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are required for forming a contextual representation, the ventral region also modulates defensive behaviors associated with predators. This study provides information about the individual contributions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to ethologically relevant fear learning. PMID:23460388

  20. Generation of New Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia in Adult Rats after Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The evidence of neurons generated ex novo in sensory ganglia of adult animals is still debated. In the present study, we investigated, using high resolution light microscopy and stereological analysis, the changes in the number of neurons in dorsal root ganglia after 30 days from a crush lesion of the rat brachial plexus terminal branches. Results showed, as expected, a relevant hypertrophy of dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we reported, for the first time in the literature, that neuronal hypertrophy was accompanied by massive neuronal hyperplasia leading to a 42% increase of the number of primary sensory neurons. Moreover, ultrastructural analyses on sensory neurons showed that there was not a relevant neuronal loss as a consequence of the nerve injury. The evidence of BrdU-immunopositive neurons and neural progenitors labeled with Ki67, nanog, nestin, and sox-2 confirmed the stereological evidence of posttraumatic neurogenesis in dorsal root ganglia. Analysis of morphological changes following axonal damage in addition to immunofluorescence characterization of cell phenotype suggested that the neuronal precursors which give rise to the newly generated neurons could be represented by satellite glial cells that actively proliferate after the lesion and are able to differentiate toward the neuronal lineage. PMID:25722894

  1. Juxtaposition between two cell types is necessary for dorsal appendage tube formation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ellen J; Berg, Celeste A

    2005-02-01

    The Drosophila egg chamber provides an excellent model for studying the link between patterning and morphogenesis. Late in oogenesis, a portion of the flat follicular epithelium remodels to form two tubes; secretion of eggshell proteins into the tube lumens creates the dorsal appendages. Two distinct cell types contribute to dorsal appendage formation: cells expressing the rhomboid-lacZ (rho-lacZ) marker form the ventral floor of the tube and cells expressing high levels of the transcription factor Broad form a roof over the rho-lacZ cells. In mutants that produce defective dorsal appendages (K10, Ras and ectopic decapentaplegic) both cell types are specified and reorganize to occupy their stereotypical locations within the otherwise defective tubes. Although the rho-lacZ and Broad cells rearrange to form a tube in wild type and mutant egg chambers, they never intermingle, suggesting that a boundary exists that prevents mixing between these two cell types. Consistent with this hypothesis, the Broad and rho-lacZ cells express different levels of the homophilic adhesion molecule Fasciclin 3. Furthermore, in the anterior of the egg, ectopic rhomboid is sufficient to induce both cell types, which reorganize appropriately to form an ectopic tube. We propose that signaling across a boundary separating the rho-lacZ and Broad cells choreographs the cell shape-changes and rearrangements necessary to transform an initially flat epithelium into a tube. PMID:15652711

  2. Dorsal root ganglion neurons promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei-xun; Jiang, Xiao-rui; Wang, Lei; Chen, Fang-min; Xu, Lin; Huang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary animal experiments have confirmed that sensory nerve fibers promote osteoblast differentiation, but motor nerve fibers have no promotion effect. Whether sensory neurons promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains unclear. No results at the cellular level have been reported. In this study, dorsal root ganglion neurons (sensory neurons) from Sprague-Dawley fetal rats were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with green fluorescent protein 3 weeks after osteogenic differentiation in vitro, while osteoblasts derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells served as the control group. The rat dorsal root ganglion neurons promoted the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts at 3 and 5 days of co-culture, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. The levels of mRNAs for osteogenic differentiation-related factors (including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2) in the co-culture group were higher than those in the control group, as detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Our findings indicate that dorsal root ganglion neurons promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which provides a theoretical basis for in vitro experiments aimed at constructing tissue-engineered bone. PMID:25788931

  3. Drosophila morphogenesis: tissue force laws and the modeling of dorsal closure

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Anita T.; Toyama, Yusuke; Yang, Guo-Qiang; Edwards, Glenn S.; Kiehart, Daniel P.; Venakides, Stephanos

    2009-01-01

    Dorsal closure, a stage of Drosophila development, is a model system for cell sheet morphogenesis and wound healing. During closure, two flanks of epidermal tissue progressively advance to reduce the area of the eye-shaped opening in the dorsal surface, which contains amnioserosa tissue. To simulate the time evolution of the overall shape of the dorsal opening, we developed a mathematical model, in which contractility and elasticity are manifest in model force-producing elements that satisfy force-velocity relationships similar to muscle. The action of the elements is consistent with the force-producing behavior of actin and myosin in cells. The parameters that characterize the simulated embryos were optimized by reference to experimental observations on wild-type embryos and, to a lesser extent, on embryos whose amnioserosa was removed by laser surgery and on myospheroid mutant embryos. Simulations failed to reproduce the amnioserosa-removal protocol in either the elastic or the contractile limit, indicating that both elastic and contractile dynamics are essential components of the biological force-producing elements. We found it was necessary to actively upregulate forces to recapitulate both the double and single-canthus nick protocols, which did not participate in the optimization of parameters, suggesting the existence of additional key feedback mechanisms. PMID:20514134

  4. Maternal care differentially affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy-Binh; Bagot, Rosemary C; Diorio, Josie; Wong, Tak Pan; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in early life maternal care modulate hippocampal development to program distinct emotional-cognitive phenotypes that persist into adulthood. Adult rat offspring that received low compared with high levels of maternal licking and grooming (low LG offspring) in early postnatal life show reduced long term potentiation (LTP) and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory, suggesting a 'detrimental' maternal effect on neural development. However, these studies focused uniquely on the dorsal hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests a distinct role of the ventral hippocampus in mediating aggression, anxiety, and fear-memory formation, which are enhanced in low LG offspring. We report that variations in maternal care in the rat associate with opposing effects on hippocampal function in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Reduced pup licking associated with suppressed LTP formation in the dorsal hippocampus, but enhanced ventral hippocampal LTP. Ventral hippocampal neurons in low LG offspring fired action potentials at lower threshold voltages that were of larger amplitude and faster rise rate in comparison with those in high LG offspring. Furthermore, recordings of excitatory postsynaptic potential-to-spike coupling (E-S coupling) revealed an increase in excitability of ventral hippocampal CA1 neurons in low LG offspring. These effects do not associate with changes in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents or paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting a specific effect of maternal care on intrinsic excitability. These findings suggest region-specific influences of maternal care in shaping neural development and synaptic plasticity. PMID:25598429

  5. Cellular and Behavioral Outcomes of Dorsal Striatonigral Neuron Ablation: New Insights into Striatal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Révy, Delphine; Jaouen, Florence; Salin, Pascal; Melon, Christophe; Chabbert, Dorian; Tafi, Elisiana; Concetta, Lena; Langa, Francina; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Marie, Hélène; Beurrier, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    The striatum is the input structure of the basal ganglia network that contains heterogeneous neuronal populations, including two populations of projecting neurons called the medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and different types of interneurons. We developed a transgenic mouse model enabling inducible ablation of the striatonigral MSNs constituting the direct pathway by expressing the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor under the control of the Slc35d3 gene promoter, a gene enriched in striatonigral MSNs. DT injection into the striatum triggered selective elimination of the majority of striatonigral MSNs. DT-mediated ablation of striatonigral MSNs caused selective loss of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum but not in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), suggesting a region-specific critical role of the direct pathway in striatal cholinergic neuron homeostasis. Mice with DT injection into the dorsal striatum showed altered basal and cocaine-induced locomotion and dramatic reduction of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the parkinsonian condition. In addition, these mice exhibited reduced anxiety, revealing a role of the dorsal striatum in the modulation of behaviors involving an emotional component, behaviors generally associated with limbic structures. Altogether, these results highlight the implication of the direct striatonigral pathway in the regulation of heterogeneous functions from cell survival to regulation of motor and emotion-associated behaviors. PMID:24903652

  6. Supersensitive detection and discrimination of enantiomers by dorsal olfactory receptors: evidence for hierarchical odour coding

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takaaki; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko; Emura, Makoto; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Kizumi, Miwako; Hamana, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Akio; Hirono, Junzo

    2015-01-01

    Enantiomeric pairs of mirror-image molecular structures are difficult to resolve by instrumental analyses. The human olfactory system, however, discriminates (?)-wine lactone from its (+)-form rapidly within seconds. To gain insight into receptor coding of enantiomers, we compared behavioural detection and discrimination thresholds of wild-type mice with those of ?D mice in which all dorsal olfactory receptors are genetically ablated. Surprisingly, wild-type mice displayed an exquisite “supersensitivity” to enantiomeric pairs of wine lactones and carvones. They were capable of supersensitive discrimination of enantiomers, consistent with their high detection sensitivity. In contrast, ?D mice showed selective major loss of sensitivity to the (+)-enantiomers. The resulting 108-fold differential sensitivity of ?D mice to (?)- vs. (+)-wine lactone matched that observed in humans. This suggests that humans lack highly sensitive orthologous dorsal receptors for the (+)-enantiomer, similarly to ?D mice. Moreover, ?D mice showed >1010-fold reductions in enantiomer discrimination sensitivity compared to wild-type mice. ?D mice detected one or both of the (?)- and (+)-enantiomers over a wide concentration range, but were unable to discriminate them. This “enantiomer odour discrimination paradox” indicates that the most sensitive dorsal receptors play a critical role in hierarchical odour coding for enantiomer identification. PMID:26361056

  7. Transcutaneous induction of stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity in dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Calvin; Martel, David T.; Shore, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The cochlear nucleus (CN) is the first site of multisensory integration in the ascending auditory pathway. The principal output neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), fusiform cells, receive somatosensory information relayed by the CN granule cells from the trigeminal and dorsal column pathways. Integration of somatosensory and auditory inputs results in long-term enhancement or suppression in a stimulus-timing-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate that stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be induced in DCN fusiform cells using paired auditory and transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the face and neck to activate trigeminal and dorsal column pathways to the CN, respectively. Long-lasting changes in fusiform cell firing rates persisted for up to 2 h after this bimodal stimulation, and followed Hebbian or anti-Hebbian rules, depending on tone duration, but not somatosensory stimulation location: 50 ms paired tones evoked predominantly Hebbian, while 10 ms paired tones evoked predominantly anti-Hebbian plasticity. The tone-duration-dependent STDP was strongly correlated with first inter-spike intervals, implicating intrinsic cellular properties as determinants of STDP. This study demonstrates that transcutaneous stimulation with precise auditory–somatosensory timing parameters can non-invasively induce fusiform cell long-term modulation, which could be harnessed in the future to moderate tinnitus-related hyperactivity in DCN. PMID:26321928

  8. Supersensitive detection and discrimination of enantiomers by dorsal olfactory receptors: evidence for hierarchical odour coding.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko; Emura, Makoto; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Kizumi, Miwako; Hamana, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Akio; Hirono, Junzo

    2015-01-01

    Enantiomeric pairs of mirror-image molecular structures are difficult to resolve by instrumental analyses. The human olfactory system, however, discriminates (-)-wine lactone from its (+)-form rapidly within seconds. To gain insight into receptor coding of enantiomers, we compared behavioural detection and discrimination thresholds of wild-type mice with those of ?D mice in which all dorsal olfactory receptors are genetically ablated. Surprisingly, wild-type mice displayed an exquisite "supersensitivity" to enantiomeric pairs of wine lactones and carvones. They were capable of supersensitive discrimination of enantiomers, consistent with their high detection sensitivity. In contrast, ?D mice showed selective major loss of sensitivity to the (+)-enantiomers. The resulting 10(8)-fold differential sensitivity of ?D mice to (-)- vs. (+)-wine lactone matched that observed in humans. This suggests that humans lack highly sensitive orthologous dorsal receptors for the (+)-enantiomer, similarly to ?D mice. Moreover, ?D mice showed >10(10)-fold reductions in enantiomer discrimination sensitivity compared to wild-type mice. ?D mice detected one or both of the (-)- and (+)-enantiomers over a wide concentration range, but were unable to discriminate them. This "enantiomer odour discrimination paradox" indicates that the most sensitive dorsal receptors play a critical role in hierarchical odour coding for enantiomer identification. PMID:26361056

  9. Time-limited involvement of dorsal hippocampus in unimodal discriminative contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Teresa Camille; Otto, Tim

    2010-11-01

    Converging evidence examining the effects of post-training manipulations of the hippocampus suggests that the hippocampus may play a time-limited role in the maintenance of a variety of forms of memory. In particular, either lesions or inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus results in many cases in a time-limited retrograde impairment in nondiscriminative contextual conditioning paradigms. However, the extent to which hippocampal manipulations result in a time-limited retrograde amnesia for a variety of forms of learning has recently been called into question (reviewed in Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann (2010)). The present study examined the effect of inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus either 7, 28, or 42 days following training in an explicitly nonspatial, discriminative contextual conditioning paradigm (Otto & Poon, 2006; Parsons & Otto, 2008). Inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus resulted in a significant deficit in the expression of contextual conditioning at 7 and 28 days, but not 42 days, following training. Importantly, inactivation of the hippocampus did not affect either baseline freezing levels or conditioning to an explicit CS. Together with previous data exploring hippocampal contributions to discriminative unimodal contextual conditioning, these data suggest that the hippocampus may play a particularly prominent role in the temporary maintenance of memory in discriminative contextual paradigms. PMID:20816992

  10. 5-Fluorouracil-induced bilateral persistent serpentine supravenous hyperpigmented eruption, bilateral mottling of palms and diffuse hyperpigmentation of soles.

    PubMed

    Suvirya, Swastika; Agrawal, Avinash; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman being treated with 5-fluorouracil for carcinoma of the sigmoid colon developed persistent serpentine supravenous hyperpigmented eruption (PSSHE), bilateral mottling of the palms and diffuse hyperpigmentation of the soles. To the best of our knowledge, such a combination of findings has not been reported earlier. Recognition and knowledge of this side effect are important as the dose of the drug need not be altered nor is there a need to replace the drug on worries about a serious adverse effect. However, changing the peripheral venous route to the central line can be useful in management of PSSHE. PMID:25336557

  11. Rethinking airbag safety: airbag injury causing bilateral blindness.

    PubMed

    Ogun, Olufunmilola Abimbola; Ikyaa, Sewuese Yangi; Ogun, Gabriel Olabiyi

    2014-01-01

    A healthy 40-year-old man, restrained in the front passenger seat, suffered visually disabling blunt ocular trauma following spontaneous release of the passenger side air-bag module, during vehicular deceleration, without an automobile crash. Though the driver-side airbag was also released, the driver was unharmed. The passenger suffered bilateral hyphema, bilateral vitreous hemorrhage and suspected posterior scleral rupture in the left eye and also had an eyebrow laceration, from impact with the dashboard panel covering the air-bag module, which was detached by the force of airbag deployment. This is the first reported case from West Africa and the first case in which part of the airbag module detached to cause additional trauma. This report adds to the growing burden of evidence world-wide, for a review of the safety aspects of the automobile airbag. This case clearly illustrates that although airbags reduce mortality, they carry a high risk of ocular morbidity, even with seat belt restraint. PMID:24791116

  12. The asymmetric impact of natural disasters on China's bilateral trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y.; Shi, P.; Yang, S.; Jeager, C. C.

    2015-03-01

    Globalization and technological revolutions are making the world more interconnected. International trade is one of the major approaches linking the world. Since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan shocked the global supply chain, more attention has been paid to the global impact of large-scale disasters. China is the second largest trader in the world and faces the most frequent natural disasters. Therefore, this study proposes a gravity model for China's bilateral trade tailored to national circumstances, and estimates the impact of natural disasters in China and trading partner countries on Chinese imports and exports. We analyzed Chinese and trading partner statistical data from 1980 to 2012. Study results show that: (1) China's natural disasters have a positive impact on imports, but have no significant impact on exports, (2) trading partner countries' natural disasters reduce Chinese imports and exports, (3) both development level and land area of the partners are important in determining the intensity of natural disaster impacts on China's bilateral trade. The above findings suggest that the impact of natural disasters on trade is asymmetric and significantly affected by other factors, which demand further study.

  13. Bilateral sacrospinous fixation without hysterectomy: 18-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    ?entürk, Mehmet Baki; Güraslan, Hakan; Çakmak, Yusuf; Ekin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of bilateral sacrospinous fixation (SSF), which was performed with surgical mesh interposition and bilateral vaginal repair. Material and Methods Twenty-two patients underwent SSF between 2010 and 2012, and the results were evaluated retrospectively. The results at preoperative and postoperative 6th, 12th, and 18th months of the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system (POP-Q) and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-12 (PISQ-12) were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests. Values of p<0.05 and <0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results According to the POP-Q, significant healing was observed on all vaginal vault points (p=0.001), and no prolapse was observed until the 18-month follow-up stage. There were also prominent patients who felt satisfactory with respect to their sexual life according to PISQ-12 (p=0.001). Conclusion This technique appears to provide an adequate clinical resolution, and it may be the primary surgical option for women with pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:26097393

  14. A case of multiple sclerosis with bilateral intermediate uveitis.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroto; Sakajiri, Kenichi; Nitta, Eishun; Nagata, Atsushi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2015-10-16

    We describe a case of 20-year-old woman with visual impairment in her left eye. Her left visual acuity was 0.07 and an ophthalmoscopic examination demonstrated bilateral intermediate uveitis (IU). A neurological examination on admission revealed lower nasal quadrantanopsia in her left eye and an exaggerated right patellar tendon reflex. A T2-weighted MRI showed multiple high-intensity lesions in the bilateral periventricular region, corpus callosum, medulla. A short T1 inversion recovery MRI also showed a swollen left retrobulbar optic nerve and posterior thoracic cord lesion at Th 9 level. The latter longitudinal length was approximately 20?mm. Laboratory investigation demonstrated no abnormalities including an anti-aquaporin-4 antibody. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed an increased IgG-index (1.21) with oligoclonal IgG babds. Initially, a diagnosis of retrobulbar optic neuritis with IU was made. She received subtenon corticosteroid injection with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse and oral prednisolone therapy. An immediate improvement of her visual symptoms and MRI abnormalities was observed. Approximately 1 year later, a new high-intensity lesion in the right internal capsule was present on a follow-up T2-weighted brain MRI, established a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) based on the McDonald criteria in 2010. Previous reports in Japan demonstrated few cases of uveitis in patients with MS and this is the first report of MS with IU in Japan. PMID:26289756

  15. Bilateral breast cancer, synchronous and metachronous; differences and outcome.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; van der Palen, J; Ong, F; Riemersma, S; Struikmans, H

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: to analyze the incidence of patients having synchronous or metachronous bilateral invasive breast cancer (SBBC and MBBC) and to assess the characteristics and outcome compared to those having unilateral breast cancer (UBC). The used data were obtained from our prospective population-based cohort study which had been started in 1983. Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) was categorized as SBBC (?3 months of the first primary) or MBBC (>3 months after the first primary). The incidence of SBBC was 1% and that of MBBC 7.0 %. Patients with UBC showed more ductal carcinoma compared to patients with BBC. MBBC status was an independent significant predictor of local failure (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.7). SBBC status was an independent predictor of distant metastases (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.5). Overall survival (OS) was better for MBBC (HR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.8) and worse for SBBC (HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.6) compared to UBC. We noted: (1) MBBC showed a significant higher local failure compared to UBC, (2) SBBC, compared to MBBC and UBC had a significant higher distant metastases rate, (3) disease-specific survival and OS were significantly worse for SBBC compared to UBC and MBBC, and (4) that the OS for MBBC compared to UBC, was significantly better. PMID:26268697

  16. Bilateral pial synangiosis in a child with PHACE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jack, Andrew S; Chow, Michael M; Fiorillo, Loretta; Chibuk, Thea; Yager, Jerome Y; Mehta, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The acronym PHACE has been used to denote a constellation of abnormalities: posterior fossa anomalies, facial hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, and eye abnormalities. Approximately 30% of patients with large facial hemangiomas have PHACE syndrome, with the vast majority having intracranial arteriopathy. Few reports characterize neurological deterioration from this intracranial arteriopathy, and even fewer report successful treatment thereof. The authors report on a case of a child with PHACE syndrome who presented with an ischemic stroke from a progressive intracranial arteriopathy and describe her successful treatment with bilateral pial synangiosis. An 8-month old girl diagnosed with PHACE syndrome was found to have bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. Although initially asymptomatic, a few months after diagnosis she suffered a right frontal and parietal stroke. MRI and cerebral angiography investigations demonstrated progressive intracranial arterial stenosis and occlusion. The patient then underwent indirect cerebral revascularization surgery. At 2-year follow-up, she exhibited clinical improvement with persistent speech and motor developmental delay. Follow-up MRI and cerebral angiography showed no new ischemic events and robust extensive vascular collateralization from surgery. PHACE syndrome is an uncommon disease, and affected patients often have cerebral arteriopathy. Although the underlying natural history of cerebral arteriopathy in PHACE remains unclear, cerebral revascularization may represent a potential therapy for symptomatic patients. PMID:26405843

  17. Rethinking Airbag Safety: Airbag Injury Causing Bilateral Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Ogun, Olufunmilola Abimbola; Ikyaa, Sewuese Yangi; Ogun, Gabriel Olabiyi

    2014-01-01

    A healthy 40-year-old man, restrained in the front passenger seat, suffered visually disabling blunt ocular trauma following spontaneous release of the passenger side air-bag module, during vehicular deceleration, without an automobile crash. Though the driver-side airbag was also released, the driver was unharmed. The passenger suffered bilateral hyphema, bilateral vitreous hemorrhage and suspected posterior scleral rupture in the left eye and also had an eyebrow laceration, from impact with the dashboard panel covering the air-bag module, which was detached by the force of airbag deployment. This is the first reported case from West Africa and the first case in which part of the airbag module detached to cause additional trauma. This report adds to the growing burden of evidence world-wide, for a review of the safety aspects of the automobile airbag. This case clearly illustrates that although airbags reduce mortality, they carry a high risk of ocular morbidity, even with seat belt restraint. PMID:24791116

  18. The asymmetric impact of natural disasters on China's bilateral trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y.; Yang, S.; Shi, P.; Jeager, C. C.

    2015-10-01

    Globalization and technological revolutions are making the world more interconnected. International trade is an important approach linking the world. Since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan shocked the global supply chain, more attention has been paid to the global impact of large-scale disasters. China is the second largest trader in the world and faces frequent natural disasters. Therefore, this study proposes a gravity model for China's bilateral trade tailored to national circumstances and estimates the impact of natural disasters in China and trading partner countries on Chinese imports and exports. We analyzed Chinese and trading partner statistical data from 1980 to 2012. Study results show the following: (1) China's natural disasters have a positive impact on exports but have no significant impact on imports; (2) trading partner countries' natural disasters reduce Chinese imports and exports; (3) both development level and land area of the partners are important in determining the intensity of natural disaster impacts on China's bilateral trade. The above findings suggest that the impact of natural disasters on trade is asymmetric and significantly affected by other factors, which demand further study.

  19. Bilateral asynchronous acute epidural hematoma : a case report

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Ketabchi, Ebrahim; Ghodsi, Mohammad; Esmaeeli, Babak

    2003-01-01

    Background Bilateral extradural hematomas have only rarely been reported in the literature. Even rarer are cases where the hematomas develop sequentially, one after removal of the other. Among 187 cases of operated epidural hematomas during past 4 years in our hospital, we found one case of sequentially developed bilateral epidural hematoma. Case Presentation An 18-year-old conscious male worker was admitted to our hospital after a fall. After deterioration of his consciousness, an emergency brain CT scan showed a right temporoparietal epidural hematoma. The hematoma was evacuated, but the patient did not improve afterwards. Another CT scan showed contralateral epidural hematoma and the patient was reoperated. Postoperatively, the patient recovered completely. Conclusions This case underlines the need for monitoring after an operation for an epidural hematoma and the need for repeat brain CT scans if the patient does not recover quickly after removal of the hematoma, especially if the first CT scan has been done less than 6 hours after the trauma. Intraoperative brain swelling can be considered as a clue for the development of contralateral hematoma. PMID:14697100

  20. Spontaneous Bilateral Femoral Fractures After High-Dose Zoledronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Brin, Yaron S; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Heler, Ziv; Kish, Benyamin Josef; Nyska, Meir; Bismuth, Henry; Coughlin, Ryan; Zehavi, Tanya; Rotman, Pnina

    2015-11-01

    The authors report a case of spontaneous bilateral diaphyseal femoral fractures believed to be caused by oversuppression of bone remodeling as a result of long-term, high-dose treatment with bisphosphonate. The patient reported pain in both thighs before the fractures. Typical pathologic changes appeared on both femoral radiograph and bone scan before the fractures. Several hours after admission to the emergency department of the authors' institution, the patient underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary nails for the bilateral femoral diaphyseal fractures. Treatment with zoledronic acid was immediately discontinued. In recent years, low-energy femoral diaphyseal fractures in patients undergoing long-term bisphosphonate treatment have been reported. It is believed that the prolonged treatment causes long-term suppression of bone remodeling and accumulation of microdamage. It is important to observe patients who are undergoing bisphosphonate treatment carefully. In this case study, the authors report the patient's unique medical history. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(11):e1051-e1054.]. PMID:26558671

  1. Bilateral Kidney Infarction Due to Primary AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Mihout, Fabrice; Joseph, Laure; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Leblond, Véronique; Varnous, Shaïda; Ronco, Pierre; Plaisier, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary Amyloid Light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare form of plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain. Kidney involvement is the most frequent manifestation, and patients usually present with glomerular disease. We report an exceptional case of bilateral kidney infarcts caused by AL amyloidosis. A 34-years-old man presented with progressive dyspnea, loin pain, recurrent macroscopic hematuria, and acute kidney injury. Computed tomography showed bilateral kidney infarcts. The diagnosis of AL amyloidosis was established on the kidney biopsy with the characterization of major vascular amyloid deposits that selectively stained with antilambda light chain antibody. An amyloid restrictive cardiomyopathy was also present, responsible for the life-threatening conduction disturbance, but without patent cardioembolic disease. The patient then underwent emergency heart transplantation, followed by a conventional chemotherapy with bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone. More than 3 years later, the patient has subnormal renal function, a well-functioning heart transplant, and a sustained hematologic response. In addition to the very uncommon presentation, this case illustrates the tremendous progress that has occurred in the management of severe forms of AL amyloidosis. PMID:25929920

  2. Bilateral lung and liver hydatid cysts. Case report.

    PubMed

    Geraci, G; Sciuto, A; Lo Nigro, C; Sciumè, C; Li Volsi, F; Cupido, F; Calbo, E; Modica, G

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Synchronous occurrence of pulmonary and hepatic hydatid cysts is an uncommon manifestation of hydatid disease that is observed in less than 10% of cases. We report a rare case of bilateral lung (with bronchial fistula) and liver cyst, surgically treated after medical therapy. Case report. A 44-year-old housewife reporting fever, anorexia and fatigue that had been present for the previous 20 days received diagnosis of bilateral lung and liver hydatid cyst. Because of the dimensions of right lung cyst and the successive bronchial fistolization, we proceeded to three-stage operation of two thoracotomies and a laparotomy to control the risk of further rupture. After surgery, all post-operatives were uneventful. Complete resolution of the therapy with no evidence of recurrence at 2 years follow-up. Conclusion. We emphasize the need to search for additional hydatids in patients who present with either pulmonary or liver hydatids. The simultaneous treatment of liver and lung should be reserved to patients in good conditions; in all other cases, especially when one cyst is more symptomatic than the others or has more risk of rupture, we prefer to treat single cyst. PMID:22958805

  3. Comparison of Interaural Electrode Pairing Methods for Bilateral Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongmei; Dietz, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    In patients with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs), pairing matched interaural electrodes and stimulating them with the same frequency band is expected to facilitate binaural functions such as binaural fusion, localization, and spatial release from masking. Because clinical procedures typically do not include patient-specific interaural electrode pairing, it remains the case that each electrode is allocated to a generic frequency range, based simply on the electrode number. Two psychoacoustic techniques for determining interaurally paired electrodes have been demonstrated in several studies: interaural pitch comparison and interaural time difference (ITD) sensitivity. However, these two methods are rarely, if ever, compared directly. A third, more objective method is to assess the amplitude of the binaural interaction component (BIC) derived from electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses for different electrode pairings; a method has been demonstrated to be a potential candidate for bilateral CI users. Here, we tested all three measures in the same eight CI users. We found good correspondence between the electrode pair producing the largest BIC and the electrode pair producing the maximum ITD sensitivity. The correspondence between the pairs producing the largest BIC and the pitch-matched electrode pairs was considerably weaker, supporting the previously proposed hypothesis that whilst place pitch might adapt over time to accommodate mismatched inputs, sensitivity to ITDs does not adapt to the same degree. PMID:26631108

  4. A Genetic Analysis of Pannier, a Gene Necessary for Viability of Dorsal Tissues and Bristle Positioning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, P.; Haenlin, M.; Ramain, P.; Calleja, M.; Simpson, P.

    1996-01-01

    A genetic and phenotypic analysis of the gene pannier is described. Animals mutant for strong alleles die as embryos in which the cells of the amnioserosa are prematurely lost. This leads to a dorsal cuticular hole. The dorsal-most cells of the imagos are also affected: viable mutants exhibit a cleft along the dorsal midline. pannier mRNA accumulates specifically in the dorsal-most regions of the embryo and the imaginal discs. Viable mutants and mutant combinations also affect the thoracic and head bristle patterns in a complex fashion. Only those bristles within the area of expression of pannier are affected. A large number of alleles have been studied and reveal that pannier may have opposing effects on the expression of achaete and scute leading to a loss or a gain of bristles. PMID:8807299

  5. AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRANSMISSION LOSS ALLOCATION FOR BILATERAL CONTRACTS

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRANSMISSION LOSS ALLOCATION FOR BILATERAL CONTRACTS Rezaul to allocate transmission loss to respective transactions. An artificial neural network based transmission loss

  6. A rare cause of anuria: Bilateral synchronous isolated mid-ureteric tubercular lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dangi, Anuj D.; Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; Kumar, Santosh; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    A young female presenting with right flank pain, fever, raised creatinine and bilateral hydronephrosis was treated with antibiotics elsewhere, with presumptive diagnosis of bilateral pyelonephritis. She had partial relief in symptoms and her creatinine level showed an improvement. Three months later during evaluation at our center she had anuria, hypertensive crisis and pulmonary edema which were managed with emergency bilateral percutaneous nephrostomies. Cross-sectional imaging and ureteroscopy suggested bilateral synchronous intramural mid-ureteric lesions as underlying pathology. Histopathology of the ureteric segments during laparotomy revealed caseating granulomas suggestive of tuberculosis. This clinical presentation has not been previously described in urinary tuberculosis.

  7. Bilateral Simultaneous Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Patient-Matched Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim; Mehta, Vikas; Mbubaegbu, Chima; Qamar, Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral total knee arthroplasty can be performed either as a staged or simultaneous procedure. We conducted a retrospective comparative study to compare the need for transfusion, the length of procedure, the length of stay, and complications of bilateral simultaneous knee arthroplasty with those of unilateral knee arthroplasty. Sixty-nine patients who underwent bilateral simultaneous knee arthroplasty procedures were compared with a matched control group of 69 patients who underwent unilateral knee arthroplasty. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine optimum cut-off values. Both groups of patients had a similar age and gender distribution, preoperative haemoglobin and ASA scores. Cumulative transfusion episodes were lower in the bilateral group than twice that of the unilateral group. In multivariate analysis the preoperative haemoglobin level and bilateral procedures were independent factors predicting the need for transfusion. The average length of procedure and length of hospital stay in the bilateral group was less than twice than that of the unilateral group. Advanced age and bilateral procedures were independent predictors of prolonged length of stay. A haemoglobin level of 12.5 g/dL and age of 70 were most suitable cut-off points to predict need for transfusion and occurrence of medical complications respectively. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous knee arthroplasties are safe and cost effective in appropriately selected patients. We recommend avoiding bilateral simultaneous procedures in patients over the age of 70 years and with significant comorbidities. PMID:26587069

  8. Bilateral renal artery thrombosis in inherited thrombophilia: a rare cause of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, Kate S; Hastings, Laura; Muthuppalaniappan, Vasantha Muthu; Hanif, Muhammad; Abeygunasekara, Sumith

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 47-year-old man who developed significant acute, and subsequently chronic, kidney injury due to bilateral renal infarction. This occurred in the context of a combined inherited thrombophilia including antithrombin III deficiency and a prothrombin gene mutation. Bilateral renal artery thrombosis developed despite prophylactic treatment for thromboembolism. Arterial thrombosis is rare in the context of inherited thrombophilia and bilateral renal infarction is an unusual cause of acute kidney injury. Bilateral renal infarction due to primary renal artery thrombosis has not been previously described in antithrombin III deficiency, either as an isolated defect or in combination with other hereditary thrombophilia. PMID:24465133

  9. Patterns of bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars and agenesis of other teeth.

    PubMed

    Sanpei, Sugako; Ishida, Rieko; Sanpei, Shinya; Endo, Saori; Tanaka, Satoshi; Endo, Toshiya; Sekimoto, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns of bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars and other tooth agenesis in Japanese orthodontic patients. A group of 262 subjects with bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars (group A) was divided into three subgroups: group 1A consisting of 114 subjects without agenesis of mandibular third molars; group 2A, 31 subjects with unilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars; and group 3A, 117 subjects with agenesis of all third molars. As controls, 926 other subjects without third molar agenesis were selected (group C). Panoramic radiographs were mainly used to examine for tooth agenesis. The Chi square test and odds ratio were used to make statistical comparisons. The prevalence rates of agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular incisors and maxillary and mandibular second premolars, and bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors and second premolars were significantly higher in any one of the third molar agenesis groups than in the control group. Characteristically, no significant increase in occurrence of bilateral agenesis of mandibular second premolars was demonstrated by the subjects with bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars. Irrespective of whether unilateral or bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars is present or not, the Japanese orthodontic patients with bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars exhibited a significantly increased occurrence of unilateral or bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors, mandibular incisors and maxillary and mandibular second premolars, except for bilateral agenesis of mandibular incisors and second premolars. PMID:25636272

  10. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor blockade in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex or lateral dorsal striatum on frontostriatal function in Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Jamie M.; Tassin, David H.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with dysfunctional prefrontal and striatal circuitry and dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a heuristically useful animal model of ADHD, were evaluated against normotensive Wistar (WIS) controls to determine whether dopamine D1 receptor blockade of either prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC) or lateral dorsal striatum (lDST) altered learning functions of both interconnected sites. A strategy set shifting task measured plPFC function (behavioral flexibility/executive function) and a reward devaluation task measured lDST function (habitual responding). Prior to tests, rats received bilateral infusions of SCH 23390 (1.0 ?g/side) or vehicle into plPFC or lDST. Following vehicle, SHR exhibited longer lever press reaction times, more trial omissions, and fewer completed trials during the set shift test compared to WIS, indicating slower decision-making and attentional/motivational impairment in SHR. After reward devaluation, vehicle-treated SHR responded less than WIS, indicating relatively less habitual responding in SHR. After SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC, WIS expressed the same behavioral phenotype as vehicle-treated SHR during set shift and reward devaluation tests. In SHR, SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC exacerbated behavioral deficits in the set shift test and maintained the lower rate of responding in the reward devaluation test. SCH 23390 infusions into lDST did not modify set shifting in either strain, but produced lower rates of responding than vehicle infusions after reward devaluation in WIS. This research provides pharmacological evidence for unidirectional interactions between prefrontal and striatal brain regions, which has implications for the neurological basis of ADHD and its treatment. PMID:24755309

  11. Photoreceptor projections and receptive fields in the dorsal rim area and main retina of the locust eye.

    PubMed

    Schmeling, Fabian; Tegtmeier, Jennifer; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Homberg, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    In many insect species, photoreceptors of a small dorsal rim area of the eye are specialized for sensitivity to the oscillation plane of polarized skylight and, thus, serve a role in sky compass orientation. To further understand peripheral mechanisms of polarized-light processing in the optic lobe, we have studied the projections of photoreceptors and their receptive fields in the main eye and dorsal rim area of the desert locust, a model system for polarization vision analysis. In both eye regions, one photoreceptor per ommatidium, R7, has a long visual fiber projecting through the lamina to the medulla. Axonal fibers from R7 receptors of the dorsal rim area have short side branches throughout the depth of the dorsal lamina and maintain retinotopic projections to the dorsal medulla following the first optic chiasma. Receptive fields of dorsal rim photoreceptors are considerably larger (average acceptance angle 33°) than those of the main eye (average acceptance angle 2.04°) and, taken together, cover almost the entire sky. The data challenge previous reports of two long visual fibers per ommatidium in the main eye of the locust and provide data for future analysis of peripheral networks underlying polarization opponency in the locust brain. PMID:25715758

  12. Coordination of sonic hedgehog and Wnt signaling determines ventral and dorsal telencephalic neuron types from human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Johnson, M. Austin; Wang, Zhi-Bo; LaVaute, Timothy; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The directed differentiation of forebrain neuronal types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has not been achieved. Here, we show that hESCs differentiate to telencephalic progenitors with a predominantly dorsal identity in a chemically defined medium without known morphogens. This is attributed to endogenous Wnt signaling, which upregulates the truncated form of GLI3, a repressor of sonic hedgehog (SHH). A high concentration of SHH, or the inhibition of Wnt by dickkopf 1 (DKK1) together with a low concentration of SHH, almost completely converts the primitive dorsal precursors to ventral progenitors, which is partially achieved through both downregulation of the truncated GLI3 and upregulation of full-length GLI3 expression. These dorsal and ventral telencephalic progenitors differentiate to functional glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, respectively. Thus, although hESCs generate dorsal telencephalic cells, as opposed to ventral progenitors in other vertebrates, in the absence of exogenous morphogens, human cells use a similar molecular mechanism to control the dorsal versus ventral fate. The coordination of Wnt and SHH signaling through GLI3 represents a novel mechanism that regulates ventral-dorsal patterning in the development of forebrain neuronal subtypes. PMID:19906872

  13. Bcl11a is required for neuronal morphogenesis and sensory circuit formation in dorsal spinal cord development

    PubMed Central

    John, Anita; Brylka, Heike; Wiegreffe, Christoph; Simon, Ruth; Liu, Pentao; Jüttner, René; Crenshaw, E. Bryan; Luyten, Frank P.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Birchmeier, Carmen; Britsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dorsal spinal cord neurons receive and integrate somatosensory information provided by neurons located in dorsal root ganglia. Here we demonstrate that dorsal spinal neurons require the Krüppel-C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor Bcl11a for terminal differentiation and morphogenesis. The disrupted differentiation of dorsal spinal neurons observed in Bcl11a mutant mice interferes with their correct innervation by cutaneous sensory neurons. To understand the mechanism underlying the innervation deficit, we characterized changes in gene expression in the dorsal horn of Bcl11a mutants and identified dysregulated expression of the gene encoding secreted frizzled-related protein 3 (sFRP3, or Frzb). Frzb mutant mice show a deficit in the innervation of the spinal cord, suggesting that the dysregulated expression of Frzb can account in part for the phenotype of Bcl11a mutants. Thus, our genetic analysis of Bcl11a reveals essential functions of this transcription factor in neuronal morphogenesis and sensory wiring of the dorsal spinal cord and identifies Frzb, a component of the Wnt pathway, as a downstream acting molecule involved in this process. PMID:22491945

  14. Setdb2 restricts dorsal organizer territory and regulates left–right asymmetry through suppressing fgf8 activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Kang-Yong; Jin, Yi; Sun, Xiao-Jian; Deng, Min; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ting Xi

    2010-01-01

    Dorsal organizer formation is one of the most critical steps in early embryonic development. Several genes and signaling pathways that positively regulate the dorsal organizer development have been identified; however, little is known about the factor(s) that negatively regulates the organizer formation. Here, we show that Setdb2, a SET domain-containing protein possessing potential histone H3K9 methyltransferase activity, restricts dorsal organizer development and regulates left–right asymmetry by suppressing fibroblast growth factor 8 (fgf8) expression. Knockdown of Setdb2 results in a massive expansion of dorsal organizer markers floating head (flh), goosecoid (gsc), and chordin (chd), as well as a significant increase of fgf8, but not fgf4 mRNAs. Consequently, disrupted midline patterning and resultant randomization of left–right asymmetry are observed in Setdb2-deficient embryos. These characteristic changes induced by Setdb2 deficiency can be nearly corrected by either overexpression of a dominant-negative fgf receptor or knockdown of fgf8, suggesting an essential role for Setdb2–Fgf8 signaling in restricting dorsal organizer territory and regulating left–right asymmetry. These results provide unique evidence that a SET domain-containing protein potentially involved in the epigenetic control negatively regulates dorsal organizer formation during early embryonic development. PMID:20133783

  15. Hoxb8 intersection defines a role for Lmx1b in excitatory dorsal horn neuron development, spinofugal connectivity, and nociception.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Nora E; da Silva, Ronan V; Sotocinal, Susana G; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Kania, Artur

    2015-04-01

    Spinal cord neurons respond to peripheral noxious stimuli and relay this information to higher brain centers, but the molecules controlling the assembly of such pathways are poorly known. In this study, we use the intersection of Lmx1b and Hoxb8::Cre expression in the spinal cord to genetically define nociceptive circuits. Specifically, we show that Lmx1b, previously shown to be expressed in glutamatergic dorsal horn neurons and critical for dorsal horn development, is expressed in nociceptive dorsal horn neurons and that its deletion results in the specific loss of excitatory dorsal horn neurons by apoptosis, without any effect on inhibitory neuron numbers. To assess the behavioral consequences of Lmx1b deletion in the spinal cord, we used the brain-sparing driver Hoxb8::Cre. We show that such a deletion of Lmxb1 leads to a robust reduction in sensitivity to mechanical and thermal noxious stimulation. Furthermore, such conditional mutant mice show a loss of a subpopulation of glutamatergic dorsal horn neurons, abnormal sensory afferent innervations, and reduced spinofugal innervation of the parabrachial nucleus and the periaqueductal gray, important nociceptive structures. Together, our results demonstrate an important role for the intersection of Lmx1b and Hoxb8::cre expression in the development of nociceptive dorsal horn circuits critical for mechanical and thermal pain processing. PMID:25834049

  16. Unpredictable chronic mild stress exerts anxiogenic-like effects and activates neurons in the dorsal and caudal region and in the lateral wings of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Danielle A; Lemes, Jéssica A; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Schor, Herbert; de Andrade, José S; Machado, Carla M; Horta-Júnior, José A C; Céspedes, Isabel C; Viana, Milena B

    2016-01-15

    In previous studies, we verified that exposure to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) facilitates avoidance responses in the elevated T-maze (ETM) and increased Fos-immunoreactivity in different brain structures involved in the regulation of anxiety, including the dorsal raphe (DR). Since, it has been shown that the DR is composed of distinct subpopulations of serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons, the present study investigated the pattern of activation of these different subnuclei of the region in response to this stress protocol. Male Wistar rats were either unstressed or exposed to the UCMS procedure for two weeks and, subsequently, analyzed for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in serotonergic cells of the DR. To verify if the anxiogenic effects observed in the ETM could be generalized to other anxiety models, a group of animals was also tested in the light/dark transition test after UCMS exposure. Results showed that the UCMS procedure decreased the number of transitions and increased the number of stretched attend postures in the model, an anxiogenic effect. UCMS exposure also increased Fos-ir and the number of double-labeled neurons in the mid-rostral subdivision of the dorsal part of the DR and in the mid-caudal region of the lateral wings. In the caudal region of the DR there was a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir. No significant effects were found in the other DR subnuclei. These results corroborate the idea that neurons of specific subnuclei of the DR regulate anxiety responses and are differently activated by chronic stress exposure. PMID:26462572

  17. [Two siblings with bilateral congenital knee dislocations: case report].

    PubMed

    Kubinec, V; Polakovi?ová, L; Kantarská, D

    2015-01-01

    Congenital dislocation of the knee and congenital permanent dislocation of the patella are rare disorders usually associated with complex syndromes. Two cases of siblings, girl and boy, who had the same clinical phenotype of this disorder are presented. The diagnosis of Desbuquois dysplasia was made and its autosomal recessive heredity was confirmed by genetic analysis. DNA samples were sent for a molecular genetic analysis of the skeletal dysplasia. The girl was surgically treated for a complete (grade 3) anterior dislocation of the tibia on the femur in the first year of life. Redressing casts had not previously been applied to avoid the risk of damaging the epiphysis. The left knee was operated on by the method, as described by Curtis and Fisher, at the age of six months. The Kirschner wire was removed after one month and a plaster cast was applied to maintain the flexion required. At seven post-operative weeks physiotherapy was started with temporary use of a knee brace. The right knee was managed by a similar procedure at four months after the first surgery. Normal walking was achieved at the age of 21 months. Knee motion was symmetrically restricted, with 5 to 90 degrees of flexion. The boy was first seen at our out-patient department after his sister had achieved full walking ability. He was 10 years old at that time and presented with walking problems due to nearly 30 degrees of bilateral knee contractures. Permanent dislocation of both patellae was treated by the surgical technique described by Stanisavljevic. Revision surgery of the right knee due to patellar lateralization was required two years after the primary surgery; it was performed using the Campbell's technique. A corrective osteotomy of the left proximal tibia because of progressive genu valgum was carried out at four years following the first operation. At the last follow-up, the boy was 16 years old and the knee range of motion bilaterally was 0 to 120 degrees with good alignment of both knees. As a result of surgical treatment the two patients gained ability to walk without problems. Key words: bilateral congenital knee dislocation, patella, Desbuquois dysplasia, siblings, skeletal dysplasia, case report. PMID:26317189

  18. Greater arch injuries.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Deepak; Manjunath, Dayanand; Amaravathi, Rajkumar

    2014-12-01

    Dislocations and fracture dislocations of carpal bones are uncommon injuries which invariably poses challenges in the management. Perilunate fracture dislocations are the combination of ligamentous and osseous injury that involve the "greater arc" of the perilunate associated instability. Despite their severity, these injuries often go unrecognized in the emergency department leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. A Prospective study was done from June 2008 to December 2013 in 15 cases of complex wrist injuries which included of greater arch injuries, perilunate fracture dislocation and one dorsal dislocation of Scaphoid. 10 cases of perilunate fracture dislocation underwent open reduction and internal fixation with Herbert screw and k-wire, 4 cases of greater arch injury underwent closed reduction and kwire fixation and one case of neglected dorsal dislocation underwent proximal row carpectomy. One patient had Sudecks osteodystrophy 1 had Scaphoid nonunion and 6 had median nerve compression. Overall outcome according to Mayo wrist score was 53 % excellent, 33 % good and 14 % fair. Greater arch injuries are difficult to treat because injuries to many ligaments are involved and failure to recognize early leads to persistent pain, disability and early onset of arthritis. Prompt recognition requires CT scan and MRI. Management requires reduction and multiple K-Wiring according to merits of the case. PMID:25414554

  19. Bilateral Endoscopic Endonasal Marsupialization of Nasopalatine Duct Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Honkura, Yohei; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Takata, Yusuke; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Nasopalatine duct cysts are the most common non-odontogenic cysts in the maxilla, and are conventionally treated through a sublabial or palatine approach. Recently, the endoscopic approach has been used, but experience is extremely limited. We treated a 29-year-old male with nasopalatine duct cyst by endoscopic marsupialization, but paresthesia of the incisor region occurred after surgery. This paresthesia gradually remitted within 6 months. The nasopalatine nerve, which innervates the upper incisor region, enters two lateral canals separately at the nasal floor and exits the central main canal at the palate. Damage to the bilateral nasopalatine nerves might lead to paresthesia, so we recommend careful examination for nerve fibers during endoscopic surgery, especially if fenestration is performed on both sides. PMID:25918636

  20. Bilateral endoscopic endonasal marsupialization of nasopalatine duct cyst.

    PubMed

    Honkura, Yohei; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Takata, Yusuke; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-28

    Nasopalatine duct cysts are the most common non-odontogenic cysts in the maxilla, and are conventionally treated through a sublabial or palatine approach. Recently, the endoscopic approach has been used, but experience is extremely limited. We treated a 29-year-old male with nasopalatine duct cyst by endoscopic marsupialization, but paresthesia of the incisor region occurred after surgery. This paresthesia gradually remitted within 6 months. The nasopalatine nerve, which innervates the upper incisor region, enters two lateral canals separately at the nasal floor and exits the central main canal at the palate. Damage to the bilateral nasopalatine nerves might lead to paresthesia, so we recommend careful examination for nerve fibers during endoscopic surgery, especially if fenestration is performed on both sides. PMID:25918636

  1. Symphysis Pubis Osteomyelitis with Bilateral Adductor Muscles Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Saad M.; Gdalevitch, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis of the pubis symphysis is a rare condition. There have been various reports in the literature of inflammation and osteomyelitis as well as septic arthritis of pubic symphysis. However, due to the fact that these conditions are rare and that the usual presenting symptoms are very nonspecific, osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis is often misdiagnosed, thus delaying definitive treatment. We present a case that to our knowledge is the first case in literature of osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis in a 17-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), which was initially misdiagnosed and progressed to bilateral adductor abscesses. A high suspicion of such condition should be considered in a JIA patient who presents with symphysis or thigh pain. PMID:25580335

  2. Bilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis in a Patient With Critical Illness Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chen; Lin, Meng-Chih; Liaw, Mei-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (BDP) manifests as respiratory muscle weakness, and its association with critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) was rarely reported. Here, we present a patient with BDP related to CIP, who successfully avoided tracheostomy after diagnosis and management. A 71-year-old male presented with acute respiratory failure after sepsis adequately treated. Repeated intubation occurred because of carbon dioxide retention after each extubation. After eliminating possible factors, septic shock-induced respiratory muscle weakness was suspected. Physical examination, a nerve conduction study, and chest ultrasound confirmed our impression. Pulmonary rehabilitation and reconditioning exercises were arranged, and the patient was discharged with a diagnosis of BDP. The diagnosis of BDP is usually delayed, and there are only sporadic reports on its association with polyneuropathy, especially in patients with preserved limb muscle function. Therefore, when physicians encounter patients that are difficult to wean from mechanical ventilation, CIP associated with BDP should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26252301

  3. Cherubism With Bilateral Mandible and Maxilla Involvement: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaoyang; Zhai, Miao; Gan, Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Yuxia; Wen, Haixia

    2015-12-01

    Cherubism is a rare, nonneoplastic, self-limiting fibro-osseous that occurs in children. Affected children usually appear normal at birth. Lesions are characterized by the replacement of bone with fibrovascular tissue containing many multinucleated giant cells. Most studies have reported cherubism to be familial and with bilateral involvement of the mandibles. The authors describe a nonfamilial case of cherubism, involving both the mandible and the maxilla, in a 4-year-old female child with slowly enlarging, painless, symmetrical swelling of both cheeks.Cherubism is a rare disease that is usually limited to the mandible, but the maxilla may be involved. Computed tomography scan and biopsy are helpful for early diagnosis. PMID:26656340

  4. Tooth agenesis patterns in bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Bartzela, Theodosia N; Carels, Carine E L; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Rønning, Elisabeth; Rizell, Sara; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2010-02-01

    Individuals with cleft lip and palate present significantly more dental anomalies, even outside the cleft area, than do individuals without clefts. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of tooth agenesis and patterns of hypodontia in a large sample of patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP). Serial panoramic radiographs (the first radiograph was taken at 10.5-13.5 yr of age) of 240 patients with BCLP (172 male patients, 68 female patients) were examined. Third molars were not included in the evaluation. Agenesis of at least one tooth was present in 59.8% of patients. Upper laterals and upper and lower second premolars were missing most frequently. Using the tooth agenesis code (TAC), 52 different agenesis patterns were identified, of which simultaneous agenesis of 12, 22, 15, 25, 35, and 45 was the most frequent pattern. Nine of the 240 patients showed combined BCLP and oligodontia. PMID:20156264

  5. Coblator Arytenoidectomy in the Treatment of Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Googe, Benjamin; Nida, Andrew; Schweinfurth, John

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old female with bilateral vocal cord paralysis and dependent tracheostomy status after total thyroidectomy presented to clinic for evaluation of decannulation via arytenoidectomy. Preliminary data suggests coblation versus standard CO2 laser ablation in arytenoidectomy may provide benefits in terms of decreased tissue necrosis and patient outcome. The patient elected to proceed with arytenoidectomy by coblation. The initial procedure went well but postoperative bleeding required a return trip to the operating room for hemostasis. In the coming months the patient's tracheostomy tube was gradually downsized and eventually capped. She was decannulated eight months after surgery, speaking well and without complaints. Details of the surgical procedure and outcome will be discussed. PMID:26457217

  6. Bilateral Multifocal Hamartoma of the Chest Wall in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Erdem; Erol, Oguz Bulent; Pekcan, Melih; Gundogdu, Gokcen; Bilgic, Bilge; Gun, Feryal; Yekeler, Ensar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hamartoma of the thoracic wall is a rare benign tumor that occurs in infancy and can be mistaken for a malignancy due to its clinical and imaging features. Hamartomas are extrapleural soft tissue lesions that cause rib expansion and destruction and appear on imaging as cystic areas with fluid levels and calcification. They can cause scoliosis, pressure on the neighboring lung parenchyma and mediastinal displacement. While conservative treatment is recommended in asymptomatic cases, growing lesions require surgical excision. Case Report In this report, we present the imaging findings in a 3-month-old infant that presented with a firm swelling in the chest wall and was histopathologically confirmed to have a bilateral multifocal hamartoma. Conclusions Radiological imaging methods are important for accurate diagnosis of this very rare condition that can be confused with a malignancy. PMID:26082822

  7. Magnetic resonance sialography of bilateral Stafne bone cavities.

    PubMed

    Mauprivez, Cédric; Sahli Amor, Melika; Khonsari, Roman Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Stafne bone cavities (SBCs) are mandibular radiolucent lesions with challenging differential diagnoses. Many radiologic methods have been proposed to visualize the presence of salivary gland tissues inside the cavities. This report describes a case of bilateral angular mandibular radiolucent cavities located below the mandibular nerve canal. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed continuity between the submandibular glands and the tissue herniated into the cavities. The ductal system of the 2 submandibular glands was evaluated using MR sialography. MR sialography depicted opacification of the glandular ductal system distinct from the contents of the cavities up to its primary branches, confirming the diagnosis of SBC. MR sialography visualized the submandibular gland ducts and the presence of salivary gland tissue inside the mandibular cavities with precise topographic information. This technique does not involve cannulation or injection of contrast agents and does not expose a patient to radiation. MR sialography is a valuable addition to the common imaging procedures used in the investigation of SBCs. PMID:25883008

  8. Bilateral Emphysematous Pyelonephritis with Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Mao Li; NORDING, Hasnizal; LIM, Chen Hong

    2015-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare life-threatening condition caused by a severe acute necrotising infection of the renal parenchyma and its perinephric tissues, and it is commonly seen in diabetic patients. There is a rare association between emphysematous pyelonephritis and hepatic portal venous gas. Hepatic portal venous gas is an uncommon radiological finding, which implies a significant underlying abdominal disease. The management of emphysematous pyelonephritis has evolved from prompt nephrectomy to medical therapy. In the present report, we present a case of a diabetic woman diagnosed with bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis with hepatic portal venous gas that was successfully managed medically despite the presence of poor prognostic factors, such as acute renal failure and thrombocytopenia. PMID:26715900

  9. Bilateral tarsometatarsal joint injuries: An unusual mechanism producing unusual variants.

    PubMed

    Young, P S; Clement, V L; Lomax, A; Badhesha, J; Miller, R J; Mahendra, A

    2015-06-01

    Tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint injuries are rare but potentially devastating conditions requiring anatomical reduction and internal fixation or arthrodesis. We describe an unusual mechanism involving forced eversion and dorsiflexion on both fully supinated feet resulting in bilateral tarsometatarsal joint injury. The injury pattern involved incongruity between the medial and middle columns extending between the cuneiform bones with associated fracture of the cuboid on the right and the cuboid, os calcis and talus on the left. Operative fixation is discussed and the clinical outcome was good at 4 years post-operatively. We believe this introduces an additional and potentially serious mechanism of injury and pattern of ligamentous and osseous disruption into the pantheon of injuries classed as Lisfranc, which surgeons should be aware of. Furthermore, we recommend attention to the mechanism of injury in consideration with classification to aid in operative reduction and fixation. PMID:25510168

  10. Bilateral Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Caused by Eye Rubbing

    PubMed Central

    Savastano, Alfonso; Savastano, Maria Cristina; Carlomusto, Laura; Savastano, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a particular condition of a 52-year-old man who showed advanced bilateral glaucomatous-like optic disc damage, even though the intraocular pressure resulted normal during all examinations performed. Visual field test, steady-state pattern electroretinogram, retinal nerve fiber layer and retinal tomographic evaluations were performed to evaluate the optic disc damage. Over a 4-year observational period, his visual acuity decreased to 12/20 in the right eye and counting fingers in the left eye. Visual fields were severely compromised, and intraocular pressure values were not superior to 14 mm Hg during routine examinations. An accurate anamnesis and the suspicion of this disease represent a crucial aspect to establish the correct diagnosis. In fact, our patient strongly rubbed his eyes for more than 10 h per day. Recurrent and continuous eye rubbing can induce progressive optic neuropathy, causing severe visual field damage similar to the pathology of advanced glaucoma. PMID:26483667

  11. Gait apraxia after bilateral supplementary motor area lesion

    PubMed Central

    Della, S; Francescani, A; Spinnler, H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed at addressing the issue of the precise nature of gait apraxia and the cerebral dysfunction responsible for it. Methods: The case of a patient, affected by a bilateral infarction limited to a portion of the anterior cerebral artery territory is reported. The patient's ability to walk was formally assessed by means of a new standardised test. Results: Due to an anomaly within the anterior cerebral artery system, the patient's lesion was centred on the supplementary motor regions of both hemispheres. He presented with clear signs of gait apraxia that could not be accounted for by paresis or other neurological deficits. No signs of any other form of apraxia were detected. Conclusions: The clinical profile of the patient and the analysis of 49 cases from previous literature suggest that gait apraxia should be considered a clinical entity in its own right and lesions to the supplementary motor areas are responsible for it. PMID:11784830

  12. Bilateral total hip replacement in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David Michael; Magill, Paul; Mulhall, Kevin James

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a case of bilateral total hip replacements (THRs) in a 56-year-old patient with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). The considerations for the perioperative period and the outcome are discussed. Preoperative planning included an anaesthetic review and availability of fiberoptic intubation due to poor mouth opening. Perioperatively, contractures can make positioning and exposure difficult but in this case a standard posterior approach was taken. Particular attention was given to soft tissue balancing given the theoretical risk of dislocation. There were no perioperative complications. Postoperatively there has been improvement in pain and hip scores but the patient has failed to return to work. Objective improvements in range of motion (ROM) have not been made. This experience suggests THR is a safe and effective treatment for osteoarthritic hip pain in patients with AMC but patients should be informed that ROM is unlikely to improve. PMID:26607193

  13. Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome in a HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Donald James; Shaukat, Yasir Mehmood; Jenabzadeh, Reza; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome is a very rare condition but one which requires swift diagnosis and urgent surgical decompression by fasciotomies in order to achieve the best outcome. We present the case of a 31-year-old HIV-positive man. The case highlights the perils of being sidetracked by an atypical clinical history instead of acting on the classical clinical examination findings. We will discuss the presentation and management of this patient, review the literature and highlight the key learning points. The most important learning point being that no matter how atypical the history, if a patient presents with limb pain out of proportion to the injury (with or without pain on passive stretch), sensory changes and a loss of motor power, then a diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome must be considered. PMID:24347455

  14. Impaired threat prioritisation after selective bilateral amygdala lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Dominik R.; Hurlemann, Rene; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala is proposed to process threat-related information in non-human animals. In humans, empirical evidence from lesion studies has provided the strongest evidence for a role in emotional face recognition and social judgement. Here we use a face-in-the-crowd (FITC) task which in healthy control individuals reveals prioritised threat processing, evident in faster serial search for angry compared to happy target faces. We investigate AM and BG, two individuals with bilateral amygdala lesions due to Urbach–Wiethe syndrome, and 16 control individuals. In lesion patients we show a reversal of a threat detection advantage indicating a profound impairment in prioritising threat information. This is the first direct demonstration that human amygdala lesions impair prioritisation of threatening faces, providing evidence that this structure has a causal role in responding to imminent danger. PMID:25282058

  15. Bilateral carpal contracture in a neonatal addax (Addax nasomaculatus).

    PubMed

    Watson, Megan K; Langan, Jennifer; Adkesson, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    A neonate male addax calf displayed an inability to extend its forelimbs bilaterally (range of motion restricted to 45 degrees-50 degrees on full extension) with resultant inability to stand. Based on examination and radiographs, the congenital defect was attributed to contracted soft tissue structures (joint capsule and/or intercarpal ligaments). Splinting, support of the limbs, and physical therapy resulted in moderate improvement of the angle of contraction (full flexion to approximately 120 degrees on extension at day 10). The animal was able to walk with splints but died at 10 days from acute head trauma, presumably related to a traumatic fall caused by challenges with ambulation. Postmortem examination confirmed soft-tissue contracture of the forelimbs. Malposition of the calf in utero was considered a possible cause of the defect. PMID:24063116

  16. Symphysis pubis osteomyelitis with bilateral adductor muscles abscess.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saad M; Jiang, Fan; Barimani, Bardia; Gdalevitch, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis of the pubis symphysis is a rare condition. There have been various reports in the literature of inflammation and osteomyelitis as well as septic arthritis of pubic symphysis. However, due to the fact that these conditions are rare and that the usual presenting symptoms are very nonspecific, osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis is often misdiagnosed, thus delaying definitive treatment. We present a case that to our knowledge is the first case in literature of osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis in a 17-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), which was initially misdiagnosed and progressed to bilateral adductor abscesses. A high suspicion of such condition should be considered in a JIA patient who presents with symphysis or thigh pain. PMID:25580335

  17. A Unique Case of Bilateral Synchronous Testicular Tumor with Concomitant Bilateral Diffuse Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia: Testis Sparing Surgery and Local Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Mehmet B.; Gumus, Bilal; Özbek, Erdem; Nese, Nalan

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous bilateral testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are seen in exteremely rare cases. Although there is still no standard therapy for bilateral TGCTs, bilateral orchiectomy is recommended as the gold standard treatment. Nevertheless, it has some long-term problems, such as infertility and psychosocial difficulties, and thus some clinicians prefer to perform testis-sparing surgery in appropriate cases. We reviewed the first case of bilateral synchronous TGCT with concomittant bilateral diffuse intratubular germ cell neoplasia in a young single patient, who was treated by a left radical orchiectomy and right testis sparing-surgery with following local radiotherapy to the right residual testicular tissue with previous semen cryopreservation to maintain the ability to father children. We supposed that testis-sparing surgery can be a feasible therapeutic alternative to radical orchiectomy in patients with bilateral TGCTs in terms of improving the quality of life and continuing fertility and normal hormonal status with no medications. However, while the long-term effects are not yet known, this type of treatment should be perpormed in carefully selected cases with longlife expectancy. PMID:24917737

  18. Multisensory Training Improves Auditory Spatial Processing following Bilateral Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Isaiah, Amal; Vongpaisal, Tara; King, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore hearing to the deaf by directly stimulating the inner ear. In individuals fitted with CIs, lack of auditory experience due to loss of hearing before language acquisition can adversely impact outcomes. For example, adults with early-onset hearing loss generally do not integrate inputs from both ears effectively when fitted with bilateral CIs (BiCIs). Here, we used an animal model to investigate the effects of long-term deafness on auditory localization with BiCIs and approaches for promoting the use of binaural spatial cues. Ferrets were deafened either at the age of hearing onset or as adults. All animals were implanted in adulthood, either unilaterally or bilaterally, and were subsequently assessed for their ability to localize sound in the horizontal plane. The unilaterally implanted animals were unable to perform this task, regardless of the duration of deafness. Among animals with BiCIs, early-onset hearing loss was associated with poor auditory localization performance, compared with late-onset hearing loss. However, performance in the early-deafened group with BiCIs improved significantly after multisensory training with interleaved auditory and visual stimuli. We demonstrate a possible neural substrate for this by showing a training-induced improvement in the responsiveness of auditory cortical neurons and in their sensitivity to interaural level differences, the principal localization cue available to BiCI users. Importantly, our behavioral and physiological evidence demonstrates a facilitative role for vision in restoring auditory spatial processing following potential cross-modal reorganization. These findings support investigation of a similar training paradigm in human CI users. PMID:25122908

  19. Sensory substitution in bilateral vestibular a-reflexic patients

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Bart B G T; Selen, Luc P J; Verhagen, Wim I M; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss have balance problems in darkness, but maintain spatial orientation rather effectively in the light. It has been suggested that these patients compensate for vestibular cues by relying on extravestibular signals, including visual and somatosensory cues, and integrating them with internal beliefs. How this integration comes about is unknown, but recent literature suggests the healthy brain remaps the various signals into a task-dependent reference frame, thereby weighting them according to their reliability. In this paper, we examined this account in six patients with bilateral vestibular a-reflexia, and compared them to six age-matched healthy controls. Subjects had to report the orientation of their body relative to a reference orientation or the orientation of a flashed luminous line relative to the gravitational vertical, by means of a two-alternative-forced-choice response. We tested both groups psychometrically in upright position (0°) and 90° sideways roll tilt. Perception of body tilt was unbiased in both patients and controls. Response variability, which was larger for 90° tilt, did not differ between groups, indicating that body somatosensory cues have tilt-dependent uncertainty. Perception of the visual vertical was unbiased when upright, but showed systematic undercompensation at 90° tilt. Variability, which was larger for 90° tilt than upright, did not differ between patients and controls. Our results suggest that extravestibular signals substitute for vestibular input in patients’ perception of spatial orientation. This is in line with the current status of rehabilitation programs in acute vestibular patients, targeting at recognizing body somatosensory signals as a reliable replacement for vestibular loss. PMID:25975644

  20. Motor and cognitive integration: Effect of bilateral behaviors on judgment.

    PubMed

    Cretenet, Joël; Mullet, Etienne; Dru, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Performing approach vs. avoidance behaviors (arm flexion vs. arm extension) on the one hand, and lateralized peripheral activations (left side vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach vs. avoidance, on the other hand, have been shown to impact on cognitive functioning (Cretenet, & Dru, 2009), mainly in judgment tasks. When a unilateral motor congruent behavior; that is, a behavior that activates the same motivational system (e.g., flexion of the right arm) was performed during a judgment task, participants' use of complex, interactive information integration rules was facilitated. No effect was, however, found when simpler, additive rules were involved (Mullet, Cretenet, & Dru, 2014). Three experiments are reported here that examined the effect of bilateral motor behaviors (e.g., flexion of the right arm and extension of the left arm) on the implementation of information integration rules. In Studies 1 and 2, two judgment tasks similar to the ones used by Mullet et al. (2014) were used: (a) a complex task in which participants judged a person's attractiveness from personality information, and (b) a simpler task in which they attributed blame according to bad deeds. It was found that similar motor behaviors performed by the two arms (e.g., flexion of both arms), in contrast to dissimilar ones, facilitated the use of complex, interactive information integration rules. No effect was found in the case of simpler integration rules. In Study 3, these results were replicated in a judgment task in which the complexity of the integration rule varied depending on the instructions given. Overall, when bilateral motor behaviors were performed during judgment, facilitation in the use of complex integration rules no longer depended on motivational congruence as in the case of unilateral motor behavior. It depended on symmetry/similarity of behaviors. PMID:26333127

  1. Radioimmunoassay of inhibin: serum responses to unilateral and bilateral orchidectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schanbacher, B.

    1988-11-01

    An overnight double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum to porcine inhibin alpha-chain (Tyr30) (1-30) NH2 (pI alpha(1-30)), radioiodinated pI alpha(1-30), and a preprecipitated second antibody complex has been developed to measure inhibin concentrations in sera and other biological fluids. The assay is accurate, precise (intraassay coefficient of variation, 4.8%), sensitive (25 pM; 2.5 fmol/tube), and specific for inhibin. The synthetic reference standard pI alpha(1-30) produced a displacement curve that paralleled intact male ovine and bovine sera, crude bovine follicular fluid, and a partially purified porcine follicular fluid reference preparation (WHO/NIH 86/690). Bilateral castration of prepubertal and postpubertal ram lambs resulted in a rapid decrease in serum inhibin concentrations and a subsequent increase in serum FSH. Inhibin levels were high in prepubertal lambs (approximately 375 pM), but these levels were not sustained near the time of puberty (approximately 180 pM). Intensive sampling by jugular venipuncture after castration indicated a 50% drop in circulating inhibin levels within 2 h of testes removal with chronic castrate levels (approximately 75 pM) achieved by 6 h postcastration. A rapid fall in circulating levels of inhibin was also observed after unilateral castration, but these values stabilized within hours to levels intermediate (i.e. approximately 200 pM) to those of intact and bilateral castrate rams. Hemicastrates exhibited a more subtle rise in serum FSH after testis removal, with FSH and inhibin levels of prepubertal hemicastrates returning to mature intact ram values by 15 weeks of age. Serum inhibin levels remained low and FSH levels high at 14 days in unilateral castrate postpubertal rams. Inhibin immunoreactivity increased abruptly in castrate ewes and rams injected iv with 5 ml bovine follicular fluid.

  2. Post-operative bilateral adrenal haemorrhage: A case report

    PubMed Central

    McNicol, R.E.; Bradley, A.; Griffin, J.; Duncan, G.; Eriksen, C.A.; Guthrie, G.J.K.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is a rare, but serious, illness carrying an estimated 15% mortality.1,2 The majority of cases occur in patients with acute, stressful illness, however the exact mechanism underlying adrenal haemorrhage remains unclear. This medical emergency carries significant diagnostic difficulty4 with non-specific clinical symptoms and variations in electrolyte abnormalities. Timely treatment is important as it prevents both the acute and long-term sequelae of adrenal failure. PRESENTATION OF CASE This report describes a medical emergency in a surgical patient following emergency surgery for intra-abdominal sepsis. The patient reported non-specific symptoms of confusion, mild pyrexia and vague abdominal pain during the post-operative phase, with subtle electrolyte abnormalities and a low serum cortisol suggestive of adrenal crisis. Timely medical treatment, with intravenous hydrocortisone and intensive monitoring, and appropriate medical follow-up with addition of long-term fludrocortisone resulted in a satisfactory outcome. DISCUSSION This report describes a potentially life-threatening complication of intra-abdominal sepsis with adrenal crisis secondary to bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. In particular, this case highlights the diagnostic difficulty in such surgical patients due to vague symptoms and, in this case, the presence of a presentation variant with acute hyponatraemia and normal potassium. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of awareness of both the symptoms and signs and variation in electrolyte profile when assessing surgical patients post-operatively. In addition, this case highlights the benefit of early recognition and initiation of treatment and the importance of follow-up as long-term medical management is often required to prevent further relapse. PMID:25437659

  3. Multisensory training improves auditory spatial processing following bilateral cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Isaiah, Amal; Vongpaisal, Tara; King, Andrew J; Hartley, Douglas E H

    2014-08-13

    Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore hearing to the deaf by directly stimulating the inner ear. In individuals fitted with CIs, lack of auditory experience due to loss of hearing before language acquisition can adversely impact outcomes. For example, adults with early-onset hearing loss generally do not integrate inputs from both ears effectively when fitted with bilateral CIs (BiCIs). Here, we used an animal model to investigate the effects of long-term deafness on auditory localization with BiCIs and approaches for promoting the use of binaural spatial cues. Ferrets were deafened either at the age of hearing onset or as adults. All animals were implanted in adulthood, either unilaterally or bilaterally, and were subsequently assessed for their ability to localize sound in the horizontal plane. The unilaterally implanted animals were unable to perform this task, regardless of the duration of deafness. Among animals with BiCIs, early-onset hearing loss was associated with poor auditory localization performance, compared with late-onset hearing loss. However, performance in the early-deafened group with BiCIs improved significantly after multisensory training with interleaved auditory and visual stimuli. We demonstrate a possible neural substrate for this by showing a training-induced improvement in the responsiveness of auditory cortical neurons and in their sensitivity to interaural level differences, the principal localization cue available to BiCI users. Importantly, our behavioral and physiological evidence demonstrates a facilitative role for vision in restoring auditory spatial processing following potential cross-modal reorganization. These findings support investigation of a similar training paradigm in human CI users. PMID:25122908

  4. Orthodontic spring guidance of bilateral mandibular distraction in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yen, S L; Shang, W; Shuler, C; Yamashita, D D

    2001-10-01

    Although distraction osteogenesis can lengthen congenitally small mandibles, the distraction procedure can be difficult to control. To study the efficacy and safety of orthodontic spring guidance on bilateral mandibular distraction, an 8-mm anterior open bite was experimentally produced and corrected during bilateral mandibular distraction in rabbits. Orthodontic springs were attached to the anterior maxilla and mandible to redirect an ongoing distraction procedure. Sixteen rabbits underwent mandibular distraction: 6 rabbits received heavy springs (8 oz), 6 rabbits received light force springs (2 oz), and 4 rabbits served as control animals with anterior open bites without spring guidance. Nickel-titanium springs were applied during the last week of osseous distraction and the first week of consolidation. Distractors were left in place throughout a 2-month consolidation period. None of the animals developed fibrous union as a result of spring guidance. The 8-mm open bite did not close in the control group or in the light spring group after 2 weeks of spring wear or during the consolidation period. Heavy springs completely closed the experimental open bites within 2 weeks (P <.01, analysis of variance). Bite corrections did not change during the consolidation period. This study indicated that the addition of an orthodontic spring to a mandibular distraction procedure did not impair bone healing. With the distraction device in place, heavy spring forces redirected an ongoing mandibular distraction procedure and corrected an open bite, distraction side effect. Direct measurements, radiographic measurements, and tissue histologic factors described changes in segment position and shape of the distraction site. PMID:11606970

  5. Bilateral heel pain in a patient with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia.

    PubMed

    Charles, Loren T R; Mehdi, Adil M S; Baker, Dennis; Edwards, Max R

    2015-06-01

    A rare case of bilateral calcaneal stress fractures in a patient with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia is described. This has not been previously reported in the literature. A calcaneal stress fracture is an important differential diagnosis in a patient presenting with heel pain. Bilaterality of symptoms should not exclude this diagnosis and clinicians should be especially vigilant with predisposed patients. PMID:26004126

  6. Simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder fracture dislocation following a seizure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Luke F; Dewing, Christopher B; McDonald, Lucas S; Provencher, Matthew T

    2013-03-01

    Simultaneous, bilateral, anterior dislocations of the glenohumeral joint are rare, most attributable to major trauma. Seizure disorders and electrocution are a common cause of glenohumeral and fracture dislocations although these are most commonly posterior injuries. We present an interesting case report of diagnosis and treatment of an active duty sailor with bilateral anterior shoulder fracture dislocations following a seizure. PMID:23707135

  7. Effects of Bilateral Eye Movements on Gist Based False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on gist based false recognition was investigated. Following exposure to lists of words related to a critical but non-studied word participants were asked to engage in 30s of bilateral vs. vertical vs. no eye movements. Subsequent testing of recognition memory revealed that those who…

  8. Bilateral sexual tetraploidization in red clover I w. A. PARROlT

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Wayne

    64 Bilateral sexual tetraploidization in red clover I w. A. PARROlT Department of Agronomy. R. SMITH,andM. M. SMITH. 1985. Bilateral sexual tetraploidization in red clover. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 27: 64-68. Twenty-four diploid red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) plants, from the cultivars

  9. The Experiences of Deaf Young People with Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Julie; Gregory, Sue; Archbold, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen young people who had received sequential bilateral cochlear implants were interviewed about their experiences. The majority had become full-time users, and all found improvements in listening with the second implant, including those who did not continue to wear it. All would recommend sequential bilateral implantation to their peers. For…

  10. A rare case of bilateral cystic nephroma associated with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the penile urethra

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Jujju Jacob; Sen, Sudipta; Joseph, Reju Thomas; Bindra, Mandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral cystic nephroma is an extremely rare benign renal neoplasm. Here we present a case of bilateral cystic nephroma in a four month old boy who subsequently developed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the urethra. Both tumors were successfully treated. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of this association which could be related to Dicer-1 mutation. PMID:25829672

  11. Effects of Movement Velocity and Maximal Concentric and Eccentric Actions on the Bilateral Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickin, D. Clark; Too, Danny

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effects of movement velocity and maximal concentric and eccentric actions on the bilateral deficit. Eighteen female participants performed maximal unilateral and bilateral knee extensions concentrically and eccentrically across six movement velocities (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180[degrees]/s). Repeated…

  12. A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Sensorimotor Activity Differences during Unilateral and Bilateral Forearm Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Kei

    2010-01-01

    This study compared activation of the sensorimotor area using magnetoencephalography after unilateral and bilateral movements. Thirteen healthy individuals and a patient with mild hemiplegia performed unilateral and bilateral forearm pronation movements. Among healthy participants, there were no significant differences in motor-evoked field during…

  13. Bilateral Input Protects the Cortex from Unilaterally-Driven Reorganization in Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Karen A.; Wong, Daniel D. E.; Papsin, Blake C.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to…

  14. The Contribution of Matched Envelope Dynamic Range to the Binaural Benefits in Simulated Bilateral Electric Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Qiu, Jianxin; Liu, Yehai; Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of envelope dynamic-range mismatch on the intelligibility of Mandarin speech in noise by simulated bilateral electric hearing. Method: Noise-vocoded Mandarin speech, corrupted by speech-shaped noise at 5 and 0 dB signal-to-noise ratios, was presented unilaterally or bilaterally to 10 normal-hearing…

  15. Variance Stabilizing Transformations in Patch-based Bilateral Filters for Poisson Noise Image Denoising

    E-print Network

    Verleysen, Michel

    Variance Stabilizing Transformations in Patch-based Bilateral Filters for Poisson Noise Image, with uniform variance. In contrast, noise in medical images often has more complex properties. This paper considers images with Poissonian noise and the patch-based bilateral filters, that is, filters that involve

  16. Speech intelligibility improvements with hearing aids using bilateral and binaural adaptive multichannel Wiener filtering

    E-print Network

    considered for hearing aids, e.g., directional microphones, delay-and-sum beamformers, and superdirectiveSpeech intelligibility improvements with hearing aids using bilateral and binaural adaptive noise reduction techniques in bilateral and binaural hearing aids. Adaptive implementations (on a real

  17. Effects of Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Memory in Children and Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on true and false memory in adults and children were investigated. Both adults and children encoded lists of associated words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm followed by a test of recognition memory. Just prior to retrieval, participants were asked to engage in 30 s of bilateral

  18. Emergence of bilateral abilities in children who transition from using one to two cochlear implants

    E-print Network

    Litovsky, Ruth

    References Acknowledgments 190P Recent findings indicate that children with bilateral cochlear implants (CI followed longitudinally during their transition from 1 to 2 cochlear implants (see Table 1 below, 117(5):3091-9. Litovsky, R.Y. et al., (2006b). Benefits of bilateral cochlear implants and/or hearing

  19. Characterization of A-425619 at native TRPV1 receptors: a comparison between dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Heath A; Neelands, Torben R; Kort, Michael; Han, Ping; Vos, Melissa H; Faltynek, Connie R; Moreland, Robert B; Puttfarcken, Pamela S

    2008-10-31

    1-isoquinolin-5-yl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-urea (A-425619), a novel, potent, and selective transient receptor potential type V1 (TRPV1) antagonist, attenuates pain associated with inflammation and tissue injury in rats. The purpose of this study was to extend the in vitro characterization of A-425619 to native TRPV1 receptors and to compare the pharmacological properties of TRPV1 receptors in the dorsal root ganglion with trigeminal ganglion neurons. A robust increase in intracellular Ca(2+) was elicited by a variety of TRPV1 agonists with similar rank order of potency between both cultures: resiniferatoxin>tinyatoxin>capsaicin>N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA). A-425619 blocked the 500 nM capsaicin response in both dorsal root ganglion with trigeminal ganglion cultures with IC(50) values of 78 nM and 115 nM, respectively, whereas capsazepine was significantly less potent (dorsal root ganglia: IC(50)=2.63 microM; trigeminal ganglia: IC(50)=6.31 microM). Furthermore, A-425619 was more potent in blocking the 3 microM NADA-evoked response in both dorsal root ganglia (IC(50)=36 nM) and trigeminal ganglia (IC(50)=37 nM) than capsazepine (dorsal root ganglia, IC(50)=741 nM; trigeminal ganglia, IC(50)=708 nM). Electrophysiology studies showed that 100 nM A-425619 completely inhibited TRPV1-mediated acid activated currents in dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglia neurons. In addition, A-425619 blocked capsaicin- and NADA-evoked calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release in both cultures more effectively than capsazepine. These data show that A-425619 is a potent TRPV1 antagonist at the native TRPV1 receptors, and suggest that the pharmacological profile for TRPV1 receptors on dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglia is very similar. PMID:18755179

  20. Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 and 2 receptors in the dorsal raphé differentially affect serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lukkes, Jodi L.; Forster, Gina L.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Summers, Cliff H.

    2008-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone that mediates stress, anxiety, and affects serotonergic activity. Studies have shown that CRF has dose-dependent opposing effects on serotonergic activity. This effect has been hypothesized to be differentially mediated by CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the dorsal raphé nucleus. We directly tested this hypothesis by using in vivo microdialysis to determine the effects of CRF and CRF antagonists in the dorsal raphé nucleus on serotonin (5-HT) release in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region implicated in the neuropathology of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Male urethane-anesthetized rats were implanted with a microdialysis probe into the nucleus accumbens, and CRF (0, 100 or 500 ng) was infused into the dorsal raphé. Infusion of CRF into the dorsal raphé nucleus had dose-dependent opposite effects, with 100 ng of CRF significantly decreasing 5-HT levels in the nucleus accumbens and 500 ng CRF significantly increasing accumbal 5-HT levels. In subsequent experiments, the raphé was pre-treated with the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin (0.25 µg) or the CRF2 receptor antagonist antisauvigine-30 (ASV-30; 2 µg) prior to CRF infusion. Antagonism of CRF1 receptors in the dorsal raphé nucleus abolished the decrease in accumbal 5-HT levels elicited by 100 ng CRF, and CRF2 receptor antagonism in the raphé blocked the increase in accumbal 5-HT levels elicited by 500 ng CRF. These results suggest that the opposing effects of dorsal raphé CRF on 5-HT release in the nucleus accumbens are dependent on differential activation of CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the dorsal raphé nucleus. PMID:17945210