A 43-year-old healthy man presented with bilateral hypertrophy of the first dorsal interosseus muscles of both hands. Neurophysiologic\\u000a and laboratory examinations revealed no pathologic findings. Doubled muscle width was found by ultrasound. Myopathic changes\\u000a were present in muscle biopsy with varying fiber sizes but without inflammatory features. The clinical impression of massive\\u000a bilateral symmetric enlargement of the first dorsal interosseus
Ursula Mirastschijski; Hans-Georg Damert; Christian Mawrin; Wolfgang Schneider
Exercise-related lower limb pain represents one of the most common presentations in sports medicine practice. This is usually caused by musculoskeletal overuse injuries but not uncommonly, a neuropathic cause may be suspected. A review of the literature revealed that peripheral neuropathic pain has never been documented in a child. It is possible that peripheral neuropathic pain of spinal origin may be more prevalent in children than previously recognized. This case report describes the presentation of a 12 year old tennis player with bilateral dorsal foot pain, who presented with positive findings of peripheral nerve sensitization which was successfully managed using neurodynamic treatment techniques. Differential diagnoses are considered and treatment and management described. A discussion of the clinical reasoning which led to the patient's diagnosis is included. This case report suggests the effectiveness of neurodynamic treatment in a child with bilateral foot pain who fulfilled published criteria for peripheral nerve sensitization. However, the single case methodology employed in this study limits generalization of its findings. Further studies are warranted to investigate the role of neurodynamics in musculoskeletal pain disorders in children. PMID:21376654
Nelson, Rebecca; Hall, Toby
There are two pathways known to mediate optic signals to the rabbit flocculus through the dorsal cap of the inferior olive; one (I) projects from the contralateral and the other (II) from the ipsilateral eye, both to the contralateral flocculus. The present study on anesthetized rabbits revealed that the two pathways are relayed at different loci of the dorsal cap,
T. Takeda; K. Maekawa
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a neurodegenerative disease that involves cognitive decline and dementia. To model the hippocampal neurodegeneration and memory-related behavioral impairment that occurs in FTLD and other tau and TDP-43 proteinopathy diseases, we used an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vector to induce bilateral expression of either microtubule-associated protein tau or transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) in adult rat dorsal hippocampus. Human wild-type forms of tau or TDP-43 were expressed. The vectors/doses were designed for moderate expression levels within neurons. Rats were evaluated for acquisition and retention in the Morris water task over 12 weeks after gene transfer. Neither vector altered acquisition performance compared to controls. In measurements of retention, there was impairment in the TDP-43 group. Histological examination revealed specific loss of dentate gyrus granule cells and concomitant gliosis proximal to the injection site in the TDP-43 group, with shrinkage of the dorsal hippocampus. Despite specific tau pathology, the tau gene transfer surprisingly did not cause obvious neuronal loss or behavioral impairment. The data demonstrate that TDP-43 produced mild behavioral impairment and hippocampal neurodegeneration in rats, whereas tau did not. The models could be of value for studying mechanisms of FTLD and other diseases with tau and TDP-43 pathology in the hippocampus including Alzheimer's disease, with relevance to early stage mild impairment.
Dayton, Robert D.; Wang, David B.; Cain, Cooper D.; Schrott, Lisa M.; Ramirez, Julio J.; King, Michael A.; Klein, Ronald L.
The authors report about chronic Fenton's syndrome. This rare injury of the wrist is characterized by scapho-capitate fracture accompanied by 180° rotation of the head of capitate and associated perilunate dislocation. Two patients suffering from chronic Fenton's syndrome were treated with pyrocarbon capitate resurfacing prosthesis. Patients were evaluated according to the wrist range of motion, Mayo modified wrist and DASH scores. In conclusion, prosthetic surgery may achieve satisfactory results for this rare and diagnostically challenging syndrome. PMID:23499268
Marcuzzi, A; Ozben, H; Russomando, A; Petit, A
OBJECTIVE Low back pain is one of the most inextricable problems encountered in clinics. Animal models that imitate symptoms in humans are valuable tools for investigating low back pain mechanisms and the possible therapeutic applications. With the development of genetic technology in pain field, the possibility of mutating specific genes in mice has provided a potent tool for investigating the specific mechanisms of pain. The aim of the present study was to develop a mouse model of chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD), in which gene mutation can be applied to facilitate the studies of chronic pain. METHODS Chronic compression of L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia was conducted in mice by inserting ?ne stainless steel rods into the intervertebral foramina, one at L4 and the other at L5. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were examined with von Frey filaments and radiating heat stimulator, respectively. RESULTS The CCD mice displayed dramatic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as tactile allodynia in the hindpaw ipsilateral to CCD. In addition, this mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as tactile allodynia was also found to spread to the contralateral hindpaw. CONCLUSION This model, combined with the possible genetic modification, will strengthen our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of low back pain. It also favors the development of new treatment strategies for pain and hyperalgesia after spinal injury and other disorders which affect the dorsal root ganglion in humans. PMID:21788994
Chen, Rong-Gui; Kong, Wei-Wei; Ge, Da-Long; Luo, Ceng; Hu, San-Jue
Background Current research implicates interleukin (IL)-6 as a key component of the nervous-system response to injury with various effects. Methods We used unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of rat sciatic nerve as a model for neuropathic pain. Immunofluorescence, ELISA, western blotting and in situ hybridization were used to investigate bilateral changes in IL-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar (L4-L5) and cervical (C7-C8) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following CCI. The operated (CCI) and sham-operated (sham) rats were assessed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Withdrawal thresholds for mechanical hyperalgesia and latencies for thermal hyperalgesia were measured in both ipsilateral and contralateral hind and fore paws. Results The ipsilateral hind paws of all CCI rats displayed a decreased threshold of mechanical hyperalgesia and withdrawal latency of thermal hyperalgesia, while the contralateral hind and fore paws of both sides exhibited no significant changes in mechanical or thermal sensitivity. No significant behavioral changes were found in the hind and fore paws on either side of the sham rats, except for thermal hypersensitivity, which was present bilaterally at 3 days. Unilateral CCI of the sciatic nerve induced a bilateral increase in IL-6 immunostaining in the neuronal bodies and satellite glial cells (SGC) surrounding neurons of both lumbar and cervical DRG, compared with those of naive control rats. This bilateral increase in IL-6 protein levels was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. More intense staining for IL-6 mRNA was detected in lumbar and cervical DRG from both sides of rats following CCI. The DRG removed from sham rats displayed a similar pattern of staining for IL-6 protein and mRNA as found in naive DRG, but there was a higher staining intensity in SGC. Conclusions Bilateral elevation of IL-6 protein and mRNA is not limited to DRG homonymous to the injured nerve, but also extended to DRG that are heteronymous to the injured nerve. The results for IL-6 suggest that the neuroinflammatory reaction of DRG to nerve injury is propagated alongside the neuroaxis from the lumbar to the remote cervical segments. This is probably related to conditioning of cervical DRG neurons to injury.
The clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings of a case of bilateral dacryops is reported in a 49-year-old man. The patient presented with cystic masses located in superior lateral orbits and underwent bilateral excisions of these without any postoperative complications. PMID:3178080
Monica, M; Long, D A; Karcioglu, Z A
Acute dacryoadenitis is an uncommon condition that involves inflammation of the lacrimal gland. In rare instances, dacryoadenitis may be bilateral. A delay in proper treatment of an otherwise simple case of dacryoadenitis may lead to significant soft tissue morbidity such as cellulitis, lacrimal gland abscess, or orbital abscess. We report the case of a 24-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with acute bilateral dacryoadenitis. The patient's symptoms did not respond to oral antibiotics and he subsequently required admission for intravenous antibiotics. During his hospitalization the patient had diagnostic testing to try to determine the etiology for his symptoms. The unique aspects of managing a case of bilateral dacryoadenitis as well as treatment recommendations are discussed in this case report.
Derr, Charlotte; Shah, Ankit
To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures. PMID:23830781
Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A
This FlashTM animation is the first of a seven part series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the dorsal view, which provides an overview of elongation and regression. Epiblast is seen migrating medially, towards and into the streak. The appearance of the neural tube and somites demonstrates that morphogenesis commences before the streak recedes away.
PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether GABAA receptors in the dorsal striatum regulate basal or stimulant-induced behaviors. Correspondingly, the question of possible GABAA receptor control of neuropeptide mRNA expression in nigrostriatal neurons was addressed. The GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, was unilaterally or bilaterally microinjected into the dorsal striatum of rats in a series of 3 studies. In
Elizabeth A Jones; John Q Wang; Denise C Mayer; Jacqueline F McGinty
The therapeutic benefits of bilateral capsulotomy for the treatment of refractory obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are probably attributed to interruption of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry. We evaluated resting brain metabolism and treatment response in OCD patients using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose PET was performed in eight OCD patients precapsulotomy and postcapsulotomy. We determined metabolic differences between preoperative images in patients and those in eight age-matched healthy volunteers, and postoperative changes and clinical correlations in the patients. The OCD patients showed widespread metabolic increases in normalized glucose metabolism in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and bilateral pons/cerebellum, and metabolic decreases bilaterally in the precentral and lingual gyri. Bilateral capsulotomy resulted in significant metabolic decreases bilaterally in the prefrontal cortical regions, especially in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the medial dorsal thalamus and caudate nucleus. In contrast, metabolism increased bilaterally in the precentral and lingual gyri. Clinical improvement in patients correlated with metabolic changes in the bilateral dorsal ACC and in the right middle occipital gyrus after capsulotomy. This study underscores the importance of the internal capsule in modulating ventral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate neuronal activity in the neurosurgical management of OCD patients. PMID:23443174
Zuo, ChuanTao; Ma, Yilong; Sun, BoMin; Peng, Shichun; Zhang, HuiWei; Eidelberg, David; Guan, YiHui
Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians.
Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damian
Developmental anomalies of the pancreas have been reported but dorsal pancreatic agenesis is an extremely rare entity. We report an asymptomatic 62-year-old woman with complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a normal pancreatic head, but pancreatic body and tail were not visualized. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were similar to CT. At magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), the major pancreatic duct was short and the dorsal pancreatic duct was not visualized. The final diagnosis was dorsal pancreatic agenesis.
Pasaoglu, Lale; Vural, Murat; Hatipoglu, Hatice Gul; Tereklioglu, Gokce; Koparal, Suha
Ganglion cysts usually arise from the tissues around the facet joints. It is usually associated with degenerative cahanges in facet joints. Bilateral thoracic ganglion cysts are very rare and there is no previous case that located in bilateral intervertebral foramen compressing the L1 nerve root associated with severe radiculopathy. We report a 53 years old woman who presented with bilateral groin pain and severe numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cystic mass in the intervertebral foramen between 12th thoracal and 1st lumbar vertebrae. The cystic lesions were removed after bilateral exposure of Th12-L1 foramens. The result of hystopathology confirmed the diagnosis as ganglion cyst. The ganglion cyst may compromise lumbar dorsal ganglion when it located in the intervertebral foramen. The surgeon should keep this rare entity in their mind for differential diagnosis.
Kazanci, Burak; Tehli, Ozkan; Guclu, Bulent
Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side. Prompt closed reduction followed by immobilization in arm sling and subsequent rehabilitation ensured a good outcome.
Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek
This FlashTM animation is the second of a seven part series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays a dorsal view with a transparent epiblast. This vantage is conducive to observing the mesenchymal mesoderm spreading from streak. Endoderm formation is also depicted, as is notochord morphogenesis. To open the animation using Internet Explorer follow these steps. (1.) Click the link for the animation. (2.) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file:" If this box does not appear proceed to step four. If it does choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK. (3.) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK. (4.) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window a yellow bar will appear that reads "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this webpage from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options..." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button. (5.) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content." (6.) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes." (7.) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window. (8.) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation.
PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)
The effects of bilateral focal cooling of dorsolateral thoracic spinal cord on segmental reflex pathways to the triceps surae muscles were assessed in decerebrate cats from the reflex forces produced by single shocks or trains of electrical stimuli applied to the ipsilateral caudal cutaneous sural and the contralateral tibial nerves. The validity of the dorsal cold block technique as a
J. F. Miller; K. D. Paul; B. Jiang; W. Z. Rymer; C. J. Heckman
Abstract Central neuropathic pain occurs with multiple sclerosis, stroke, and spinal cord injury (SCI). Models of SCI are commonly used to study central neuropathic pain and are excellent at modeling gross physiological changes. Our goal was to develop a rat model of central neuropathic pain by traumatizing a discrete region of the dorsal spinal cord, thereby avoiding issues including paralysis, urinary tract infection, and autotomy. To this end, dorsal root avulsion was pursued. The model was developed by first determining the number of avulsed dorsal roots sufficient to induce below-level hindpaw mechanical allodynia. This was optimally achieved by unilateral T13 and L1 avulsion, which resulted in tissue damage confined to Lissauer's tract, dorsal horn, and dorsal columns, at the site of avulsion, with no gross physical changes at other spinal levels. Behavior following avulsion was compared to that following rhizotomy of the T13 and L1 dorsal roots, a commonly used model of neuropathic pain. Avulsion induced below-level allodynia that was more robust and enduring than that seen after rhizotomy. This, plus the lack of direct spinal cord damage associated with rhizotomy, suggests that avulsion is not synonymous with rhizotomy, and that avulsion (but not rhizotomy) is a model of central neuropathic pain. The new model described here is the first to use discrete dorsal horn damage by dorsal root avulsion to create below-level bilateral central neuropathic pain.
Ellis, Amanda L.; McFadden, Andrew; Brown, Kimberley; Starnes, Charlotte; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.; Falci, Scott
Studies in monkeys have shown substantial neuronal reorganization and behavioral recovery during the months following a cervical dorsal root lesion (DRL; Darian-Smith  J. Comp. Neurol. 470:134–150; Darian-Smith and Ciferri  J. Comp. Neurol. 491:27–45,  J. Comp. Neurol. 498:552–565). The goal of the present study was to identify ultrastructural synaptic changes post-DRL within the dorsal horn (DH). Two monkeys received a unilateral DRL, as described previously (Darian-Smith and Brown  Nat. Neurosci. 3:476–481), which removed cutaneous and proprioceptive input from the thumb, index finger, and middle finger. Six weeks before terminating the experiment at 4 post-DRL months, hand representation was mapped electrophysiologically within the somatosensory cortex, and anterograde tracers were injected into reactivated cortex to label corticospinal terminals. Sections were collected through the spinal lesion zone. Corticospinal terminals and inhibitory profiles were visualized by using preembedding immunohistochemistry and postembedding ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunostaining, respectively. Synaptic elements were systematically counted through the superficial DH and included synaptic profiles with round vesicles (R), pleomorphic flattened vesicles (F; presumed inhibitory synapses), similar synapses immunolabeled for GABA (F-GABA), primary afferent synapses (C-type), synapses with dense-cored vesicles (D, mostly primary afferents), and presynaptic dendrites of interneurons (PSD). Synapse types were compared bilaterally via ANOVAs. As expected, we found a significant drop in C-type profiles on the lesioned side (~16% of contralateral), and R profiles did not differ bilaterally. More surprising was a significant increase in the number of F profiles (~170% of contralateral) and F-GABA profiles (~315% of contralateral) on the side of the lesion. Our results demonstrate a striking increase in the inhibitory circuitry within the deafferented DH.
Darian-Smith, Corinna; Hopkins, Stephanie; Ralston, Henry J.
Bilateral facial paralysis is an unusual clinical entity that occurs in less than 1% of patients with facial paralysis. In children bilateral facial paralysis is even more rare, and establishing its etiology can be challenging. Four pediatric patients ranging in age from 3 to 17 years are presented who developed bilateral facial paralysis as a result of acute otitis media, Lyme disease, recurrent central nervous system leukemia, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bilateral facial paralysis are reviewed, as well as the pertinent literature. PMID:9546263
Smith, V; Traquina, D N
With the increase in incidence of ectopic pregnancy over the decades, bilateral ectopic pregnancy is also increasing. It is usually associated with assisted reproductive techniques (ART) but in recent years few cases of spontaneous bilateral ectopic pregnancy have been reported. Gynaecologists should be aware of this and that ultrasonography has limitations in diagnosis. In cases of ectopic pregnancy where contralateral
Aisha Syed Wali; Rozilla Sadia Khan
Bilateral congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare birth defect, with a poor prognosis. We describe a case of bilateral CDH discovered while repairing the right sided CDH. Diaphragmatic defect was repaired and a silo was applied on the abdominal wound to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome. The patient however died postoperatively due to severe pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23061036
Dhua, Anjan Kumar; Aggarwal, Satish K; Mathur, Nb; Sethi, Gr
Endomorphin 2 (EM2) plays essential roles in regulating nociceptive transmission within the spinal dorsal horn, where EM2-immunopositive (EM2-IP) fibers and terminals are densely encountered. However, the origins of these EM2-IP structures are still obscure. Unilateral primary sensory afferents disruption (lumbar 3-6 dorsal roots rhizotomy) significantly decreased the density of EM2-IP fibers and terminals in the superficial laminae (laminae I and II) on the ipsilateral but not contralateral lumbar dorsal horn (LDH). Spinal hemisection at the 7th thoracic (T7) segment down-regulated bilateral EM2 expression, with a higher influence on the ipsilateral side of the LDH. Unilateral L3-6 dorsal roots rhizotomy combined with spinal transection but not with hemisection at T7 level completely obliterated EM2-IP fibers and terminals on the rhizotomized-side of the LDH. Disruption of bilateral (exposure to the primary afferent neurotoxin, capsaicin) primary sensory afferents combined with spinal hemisection at T7 decreased the EM2-IP density bilaterally but could obliterate it on neither side of the LDH. While in capsaicin plus transection rats, EM2 was depleted symmetrically and completely. In the colchicine treated rats, no EM2-IP neuronal cell bodies could be detected in the spinal gray matter. After injecting tetramethyl rhodamine dextran-amine (TMR) into the LDH, some of the TMR retrogradely labeled neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) showed EM2-immunoreactivities. The present results indicate that EM2-IP fibers and terminals in the spinal dorsal horn originate from the ipsilateral primary afferents and bilateral descending fibers from NTS. PMID:20457220
Hui, R; Wang, W; Chen, T; Lü, B C; Li, H; Zhang, T; Wu, S X; Li, Y Q
With the increase in incidence of ectopic pregnancy over the decades, bilateral ectopic pregnancy is also increasing. It is usually associated with assisted reproductive techniques (ART) but in recent years few cases of spontaneous bilateral ectopic pregnancy have been reported. Gynaecologists should be aware of this and that ultrasonography has limitations in diagnosis. In cases of ectopic pregnancy where contralateral adnexa is not clearly identified on ultrasound and fertility needs to be conserved, patient should be managed by experts in well equipped centres. A case of spontaneous bilateral tubal pregnancy that remained undiagnosed till laparotomy, is described. PMID:22313653
Wali, Aisha Syed; Khan, Rozilla Sadia
Agenesis of dorsal pancreas is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that occurs due to failure of the dorsal pancreatic bud to form the body and tail of the pancreas. We report the sonographic appearance of this condition in six cases.
Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Gouru, Swapna; Senthil, Sathiya
Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present.
Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao
The responses in respiratory outflow resulting from microstimulation and successive microlesions of the dorsal (DRG) and ventral (VRG) respiratory groups of neurons in the brainstem were studied in anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cats. Microstimulation (2 to 120 Hz; 5 to 50 PA; 100 pet pulse duration) at almost every point within the DRG or VRG produced a bilateral short latency
DEXTER F. SPECK; JACK L. FELDMAN
|Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Nineteen children (four females, 15 males; mean age 4y 7mo, SD 1y 7mo) with bilateral spastic CP, were prospectively assessed at baseline and 18 months, 3 years, and 10 years after SDR. Assessments…
Tedroff, Kristina; Lowing, Kristina; Jacobson, Dan N. O.; Astrom, Eva
Following a hypoxic-ischemic insult, the globus pallidus is selectively spared from ischemic injury in contrast to the caudate and putamen. The known causes for hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions selective for injuring the globus pallidus are varied but few. The most widely known etiology is in fatal cases of carbon monoxide poisoning. Additionally reported associations include fatalities involving 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; cocaine; opiates; and cyanide poisoning. These bilateral globus palladus necrotic lesions have been reported to occur in 5-10% of opiate addicts. In this article, we present a striking photo of selective symmetrical bilateral globus pallidus necrosis following cocaine and opiate abuse. PMID:22866355
Alquist, Caroline Raasch; McGoey, Robin; Bastian, Frank; Newman, William
Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is rare and may present unilaterally or bilaterally. Variable combinations with masseteric hypertrophy are also reported. It may be associated with a parafunctional habit or occur as an idiopathic entity. A host of modalities including CT, MRI, ultrasonography and muscle biopsy may be utilized for diagnosis. While surgical reduction remains an option, medical therapy with boutlinum type A toxin is the treatment of choice. A case of bilateral temporalis hypertrophy in a 38-year-old female is reported. PMID:19836926
Ali, K; Sittampalam, G; Malik, M A
The cerebellum plays a major role in not only modulating motor activity, but also contributing to other functions, including nociception. The intermediate hemisphere of the cerebellum receives sensory input from the limbs. With the extensive connection between the cerebellum to brain-stem structures and cerebral cortex, it is possible that the cerebellum may facilitate the descending system to modulate spinal dorsal horn activity. This study provided the first evidence to support this hypothesis. Thirty-one wide-dynamic-range neurons from the left lumbar and 27 from the right lumbar spinal dorsal horn were recorded in response to graded mechanical stimulation (brush, pressure, and pinch) at the hind paws. Electrical stimulation of the cerebellar cortex of the left intermediate hemisphere significantly reduced spinal cord dorsal horn neuron-evoked responses bilaterally in response to peripheral high-intensity mechanical stimuli. It is concluded that the cerebellum may play a potential antinociceptive role, probably through activating descending inhibitory pathways indirectly. PMID:21832034
Hagains, Christopher E; Senapati, Arun K; Huntington, Paula J; He, Ji-Wei; Peng, Yuan B
Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B. PMID:23640266
Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki
Case reports detailing diagnosis and effective treatment of pisotriquetral loose bodies are scarce. This article describes an even rarer case of bilateral pisotriquetral joint loose bodies, explores the relative diagnostic roles of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography, and outlines effective strategies used for the management of this condition drawn from the literature and our own experience.
Williams, GR; Holland, P; Beazley, J; Hyder, N
Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm
Chengcheng Ji; Liang Wu; Wenchan Zhao; Sishuo Wang; Jianhao Lv
Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is rare and may present unilaterally or bilaterally. Variable combinations with masseteric hypertrophy are also reported. It may be associated with a parafunctional habit or occur as an idiopathic entity. A host of modalities including CT, MRI, ultrasonography and muscle biopsy may be utilized for diagnosis. While surgical reduction remains an option, medical therapy with boutlinum type
K. Ali; G. Sittampalam; M. A. Malik
Bilateral hermaphroditism was diagnosed in a 6-monthold Beagle. Histologically, bilateral ovotestes, epididymides, and fallopian tubes were identified. The dog also had a vagina, phallus, and bicornuate uterus. The dog was genetically a female as determin...
N. W. King C. H. Garvin
The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has previously been implicated in processes that influence action initiation. In humans however, there has been little direct evidence connecting dACC to the temporal onset of actions. We studied reactive behavior in patients undergoing therapeutic bilateral cingulotomy to determine the immediate effects of dACC ablation on action initiation. In a simple reaction task, three patients were instructed to respond to a specific visual cue with the movement of a joystick. Within minutes of dACC ablation, the frequency of false starts increased, where movements occurred prior to presentation of the visual cue. In a decision making task with three separate patients, the ablation effect on action initiation persisted even when action selection was intact. These findings suggest that human dACC influences action initiation, apart from its role in action selection. PMID:23460783
Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan; Asaad, Wael F; Ginat, Daniel T; Gale, John T; Dougherty, Darin D; Williams, Ziv M; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Eskandar, Emad N
Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor.
Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.
To understand whether tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) contribute to the failure of regenerating sensory axons to enter the spinal cord, we used in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to examine the expression of TIMP1, TIMP2, and TIMP3 in the dorsal root, dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), and dorsal column after dorsal root injury in adult rats. We found that the three TIMPs and their mRNAs were up-regulated in a time-, region-, and cell-type-specific manner. Strong up-regulation of all three TIMPs was seen in the injured dorsal roots. TIMP2 was also significantly up-regulated in the DREZ and degenerating dorsal column, where TIMP1 and TIMP3 showed only moderate up-regulation. Most cells up-regulating the TIMPs in the DREZ and degenerating dorsal column were reactive astrocytes, but TIMP2 was also up-regulated by microglia/macrophages, especially at long postoperative survival times. These results suggest that TIMPs may be involved in controlling tissue remodelling following dorsal root injury and that manipulation of the expression of TIMPs may provide a means of promoting axonal regeneration into and within the injured spinal cord. PMID:16683235
Zhang, Xinyu; Bo, Xuenong; Anderson, Patrick N; Lieberman, A Robert; Zhang, Yi
\\u000a For some B2C or B2B market places, such as electronic shopping malls, agents representing the buyers could ”go shopping” and\\u000a negotiate with several stores looking for the best deal. To develop agents capable to act in a scenario like this one, it\\u000a is necessary to deal with several issues that go beyond the bilateral negotiation or auction. In the agent
Orlando Pinho Jr.; Geber Ramalho; Gustavo De Paula; Patricia Azevedo Tedesco
Dorsal vein rupture of the penis is a rare condition, and few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we report a 41-year-old man who presented with mildly painful and acute swollen penis, which initially imitated a penile fracture but was surgically explored and shown to be a superficial dorsal vein rupture.
Topsakal, Medih; Kavukcu, Ender; Karadeniz, Tahir
Ganglion cysts are the most common tumor in the wrist. Dorsal carpal ganglion cysts represent 60 to 70% of all ganglion cysts in the hand and wrist. Standard treatment has been limited to observation, rest, immobilization, aspiration with or without injection, and surgical excision. Arthroscopic resection of dorsal carpal ganglion cyst have been done since the late 1980s. It has
Thomas Wiedrich; A. Lee Osterman
The clinical syndrome of a 65-year-old patient with a slit-shaped right-sided meso-diencephalic lesion was analysed. A cerebellar syndrome with limb-kinetic ataxia, intention tremor and hypotonicity in all extremities as well as ataxic dysarthria was found. The disruption of the two cerebello-(rubro)-thalamic pathways probably explained the signs of bilateral cerebellar dysfunction. The uncrossed ascending limb of the right, and the crossed one of the left brachium conjunctivum may have been damaged by the unilateral lesion extending between caudal midbrain and dorsal thalamus. Images
von Cramon, D
Stability and procured instability characterize two opposing types of swimming, steady and maneuvering, respectively. Fins can be used to manipulate flow to adjust stability during swimming maneuvers either actively using muscle control or passively by structural control. The function of the dorsal fins during turning maneuvering in two shark species with different swimming modes is investigated here using musculoskeletal anatomy and muscle function. White-spotted bamboo sharks are a benthic species that inhabits complex reef habitats and thus have high requirements for maneuverability. Spiny dogfish occupy a variety of coastal and continental shelf habitats and spend relatively more time cruising in open water. These species differ in dorsal fin morphology and fin position along the body. Bamboo sharks have a larger second dorsal fin area and proportionally more muscle insertion into both dorsal fins. The basal and radial pterygiophores are plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another. In contrast, bamboo sharks lack basal pterygiophores, while the radial pterygiophores form two rows of elongated rectangular elements that articulate with one another. The dorsal fin muscles are composed of a large muscle mass that extends over the ceratotrichia overlying the radials in spiny dogfish. However, in bamboo sharks, the muscle mass is divided into multiple distinct muscles that insert onto the ceratotrichia. During turning maneuvers, the dorsal fin muscles are active in both species with no differences in onset between fin sides. Spiny dogfish have longer burst durations on the outer fin side, which is consistent with opposing resistance to the medium. In bamboo sharks, bilateral activation of the dorsal in muscles could also be stiffening the fin throughout the turn. Thus, dogfish sharks passively stiffen the dorsal fin structurally and functionally, while bamboo sharks have more flexible dorsal fins, which result from a steady swimming trade off. J. Morphol. 274:1288-1298, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23907951
Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl D
Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis. PMID:21904415
Zurutuza, A; Andonegui, J; Berástegui, L; Arruti, N
The recent increased use of steriods, immunosuppressive agents and cytotoxic drugs has been associated with a rise in the incidence of significant fungal disease. The first case of bilateral renal aspergillosis without disseminated involvement is reported. A multitherapeutic approach, including surgical evacuation of masses of hyphae, parenteral antimycotic chemotherapy and topical instillations of amphotericin B, were necessary to clear the kidneys. Newer systemic agents such as 5-fluorocytosine and rifampicin were also used. Treatment of fungal infections of the urinary tract is discussed. PMID:1113403
Warshawsky, A B; Keiller, D; Gittes, R F
Testicular epidermoid cysts are the most common benign tumors of the testes, but account for only 1-2% of all testicular tumors. In a young man presenting with a testicular mass, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for the malignant testicular germ cell tumor, which is 50-times more common than testicular epidermoid cyst. Bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts are a very rare condition, with only a few reports in the literature. It is extremely important in this condition to make a correct pre-operative diagnosis on imaging to enable a testis-sparing surgery.
Loberant, Norman; Bhatt, Shweta; Messing, Edward; Dogra, Vikram S.
Opercular syndrome, also known as Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, is a paralysis of the facial, pharyngeal, masticatory, tongue, laryngeal, and brachial muscles. It is a rare cortical form of pseudobulbar palsies caused by vascular insults to bilateral operculum. Its clinical presentations include anarthria, weakness of voluntary muscles involving face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, and masticatory muscles. However, autonomic reflexes and emotional activities of these structures are preserved. In the present case, an 81-year-old male presented with acute onset of anarthria with difficulties in chewing, speaking, and swallowing that was diagnosed with opercular syndrome.
Milanlioglu, Aysel; Ayd?n, Mehmet Nuri; Gokgul, Alper; Hamamc?, Mehmet; Erkuzu, Mehmet Atilla; Tombul, Temel
Bilateral elbow dislocation is a rare injury, with only a small number of case reports in the literature. The majority of\\u000a these reports describe associated ligamentous injuries only. Simultaneous bilateral radial head fracture in association with\\u000a bilateral elbow dislocation has only been described on one occasion previously. We present the case of a 54-year-old woman\\u000a who dislocated both elbows and
M. Leonard; D. Reidy
Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. Recently, we identified a role of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons in stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking in male rats. It is unknown whether endogenous neural activity in dorsal mPFC drives stress-induced reinstatement in female rats. Here, we used an optogenetic approach, in which female rats received bilateral dorsal mPFC microinjections of viral constructs coding light-sensitive eNpHR3.0-eYFP or control eYFP protein and intracranial fiber optic implants. Rats were food restricted and trained to lever press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, pellets were removed, and lever pressing was extinguished; then the effect of bilateral dorsal mPFC light delivery on reinstatement of food seeking was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (an ?-2 andrenoceptor antagonist) or pellet priming, a manipulation known to provoke food seeking in hungry rats. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected rats. This optical manipulation had no effect on pellet-priming-induced reinstatement or ongoing food-reinforced responding. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced Fos immunoreactivity and disrupted neural activity during in vivo electrophysiological recording in awake rats. Optical stimulation caused significant outward currents and blocked electrically evoked action potentials in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected mPFC hemispheres. Light delivery alone caused no significant inflammatory response in mPFC. These findings indicate that intracranial light delivery in eNpHR3.0 rats disrupts endogenous dorsal mPFC neural activity that plays a role in stress-induced relapse to food seeking in female rats. PMID:23283335
Calu, Donna J; Kawa, Alex B; Marchant, Nathan J; Navarre, Brittany M; Henderson, Mark J; Chen, Billy; Yau, Hau-Jie; Bossert, Jennifer M; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Deisseroth, Karl; Harvey, Brandon K; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin
Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. Recently, we identified a role of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons in stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking in male rats. It is unknown whether endogenous neural activity in dorsal mPFC drives stress-induced reinstatement in female rats. Here, we used an optogenetic approach, in which female rats received bilateral dorsal mPFC microinjections of viral constructs coding light-sensitive eNpHR3.0 – eYFP or control eYFP protein and intracranial fiber optic implants. Rats were food restricted and trained to lever press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, pellets were removed, and lever pressing was extinguished; then the effect of bilateral dorsal mPFC light delivery on reinstatement of food seeking was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (an ?-2 andrenoceptor antagonist) or pellet priming, a manipulation known to provoke food seeking in hungry rats. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected rats. This optical manipulation had no effect on pellet-priming-induced reinstatement or ongoing food-reinforced responding. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced Fos immuno-reactivity and disrupted neural activity during in vivo electrophysiological recording in awake rats. Optical stimulation caused significant outward currents and blocked electrically evoked action potentials in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected mPFC hemispheres. Light delivery alone caused no significant inflammatory response in mPFC. These findings indicate that intracranial light delivery in eNpHR3.0 rats disrupts endogenous dorsal mPFC neural activity that plays a role in stress-induced relapse to food seeking in female rats.
Calu, Donna J.; Kawa, Alex B.; Marchant, Nathan J.; Navarre, Brittany M.; Henderson, Mark J.; Chen, Billy; Yau, Hau-Jie; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Deisseroth, Karl; Harvey, Brandon K.; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin
Bilateral injuries of the sensory branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) usually occur as a result of tight-handcuff neuropathy. In this case we aimed to present bilateral isolated cut of SBRN resulting an injury mechanism that has not been reported in the literature previously. A male twenty-four years old, a worker in a glass factory, presented to our clinic. The dorsolateral skin of his wrists were cut by breaking of the glass as a result of occupational accident and was primarily sutured in a healthcare center. The patient sought additional care after a month because of lingering numbness and pain, and surgery was planned. During surgery, scar tissue and neuroma at the cut ends of SBRN were excised, and bilateral SBRN cuts were repaired. Four weeks after operation, mild sensory deficit on the dorsal side of bilateral thumbs, and left first web space and flexion limitation on the right wrist were detected. At the 3rd month postoperative, right wrist joint range of motion was full, and sensory deficits, and hyperesthesia were decreased. The SBRN elicits the sensory innervation of the thumb dorsum and its injury does not cause important functional deficit. However because of susceptibility of SBRN to develop painful neuroma, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of isolated SBRN injury would be worthwhile for prevention of possible painful neuropathy disturbing quality of life. PMID:23599208
Akkaya, Nuray; Özcan, Hakan Ramazan; Gökalan Kara, Inci; Sahin, Füsun
The stretch reflex responses evoked by unilateral limb displacement in distal (first dorsal interosseus (FDI)) and in proximal (biceps brachii (Bb)) arm muscles were studied during matched bilateral contractions in a patient with congenital mirror movements. In this patient unilateral transcortical magnetic stimulation (TMS) elicited not only the normal contralateral EMG response but also a clear ipsilateral component in the
S. J. Fellows; R. Töpper; M. Schwarz; A. F. Thilmann; J. Noth
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function including gait and stability in people with PD, but differences in DBS contact locations within the STN may contribute to variability in the degree of improvement. Based on anatomic connectivity, dorsal STN may be preferentially involved in motor function and ventral STN in cognitive function. To determine whether dorsal DBS affects gait and balance more than ventral DBS, we conducted a double-blind evaluation of 23 PD patients with bilateral STN DBS. Each participant underwent gait analysis and balance testing off Parkinson medication in three DBS conditions (unilateral DBS in dorsal STN region, unilateral DBS in ventral STN region, and both stimulators off) on one day. For UPDRS-III scores and velocity for Fast and Pref gait, as well as stride length for Fast and Pref gait, dorsal and ventral stimulation improved gait, compared to the off condition (post hoc tests, p<0.05). However, there were no differences with dorsal compared to ventral stimulation. Balance, assessed using a multi-item clinical balance test (mini-BESTest), was similar across conditions. Absence of differences in gait and balance between dorsal and ventral conditions suggests motor connections involved in gait and balance may be more diffusely distributed in STN than previously thought, as opposed to neural connections involved in cognitive processes, such as response inhibition, which are more affected by ventral stimulation.
McNeely, ME; Hershey, T; Campbell, MC; Tabbal, SD; Karimi, M; Hartlein, JM; Lugar, HM; Revilla, FJ; Perlmutter, JS; Earhart, GM
A 52-year-old Mexican man presented with asymptomatic, bilaterally symmetrical lipid infiltrates of the cornea and adjacent limbus. No evidence of previous ocular disease or systemic disorder of lipid metabolism could be detected. Penetrating keratoplasty of the right eye was required. The cornea was rigid and thick, with posterior bulging into the anterior chamber. Light microscopy revealed deep corneal lipid granules, foamy histiocytes, vascularisation, and chronic non-granulomatous inflammation. Transmission electron microscopy showed extracellular lipid spaces and numerous intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles in histiocytes, keratocytes, conjunctival epithelium, and the endothelium of blood vessels in the corneal stroma and adjacent limbal conjunctiva. Histochemical analysis revealed the presence of neutral fats, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Images
Alfonso, E.; Arrellanes, L.; Boruchoff, S. A.; Ormerod, L. D.; Albert, D. M.
Drawing on recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, Hickok and Poeppel (2000) have proposed a new model of the functional anatomy of speech perception. The model posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventrolaterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex which serves as an interface between sound and meaning. The dorsal stream projects dorsoposteriorly toward the parietal lobe and ultimately to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of ``parity'' between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the dorsal stream represents a tight connection between speech perception and speech production, it is not a critical component of the speech perception process under ecologically natural listening conditions. Some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways is also proposed. A variety of recent empirical tests of this model have provided further support for the proposal.
Oxytocin (OT) secreted by the hypothalamo-spinal projection exerts antinociceptive effects in the dorsal horn. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that OT could exert these effects by activating OT receptors (OTR) directly on dorsal horn neurons and/or primary nociceptive afferents in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, little is known about the identity of the dorsal horn and DRG neurons that express the OTR. In the dorsal horn, we found that the OTR is expressed principally in neurons cell bodies. However, neither spino-thalamic dorsal horn neurons projecting to the contralateral thalamic ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) and posterior nuclear group (Po) nor GABaergic dorsal horn neurons express the OTR. The OTR is not expressed in skin nociceptive terminals or in dorsal horn nociceptive fibers. In the DRG, however, the OTR is expressed predominantly in non-peptidergic C-fiber cell bodies, but not in peptidergic or mechanoreceptor afferents or in skin nociceptive terminals. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effects of OT are mediated by direct activation of dorsal horn neurons and peripheral actions on nociceptive, non-peptidergic C-afferents in the DRG. PMID:23102456
Moreno-López, Y; Martínez-Lorenzana, G; Condés-Lara, M; Rojas-Piloni, G
Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.
Fotedar, Sanjay; Chaudhary, Dhruva; Singhla, Vikas; Narang, Rajat
c-fos gene expression in the cervical spinal cord and amygdala was examined in anaesthetized rats following muscle fatigue caused\\u000a by intermittent high-rate (100 s?1) electrical stimulation of the dorsal neck muscles (m. trapezius and m. splenius). Fatigue-related increases in c-fos expression were observed on the stimulated muscle side in the cervical C2–C4 (layers 1, 3–5, 7 and 10) spinal segments, bilaterally
Andrey V. Maznychenko; Alexander I. Pilyavskii; Alexander I. Kostyukov; Eugene Lyskov; Oleh V. Vlasenko; Vladimir A. Maisky
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the nerve conduction study (NCS) parameters of the most distal sensory nerves of the lower extremities—namely, the medial dorsal cutaneous (MDC), dorsal sural (DS), and medial plantar (MP) nerves—in diabetic (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients who displayed normal findings on their routine NCSs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Standard NCSs were performed on healthy control (HC), DM, and IGT groups (N = 147). The bilateral NCS parameters of the MDC, DS, and MP nerves were investigated. The Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) was assessed for the DM and IGT groups. RESULTS The mean TCSS scores of the IGT and DM groups were 2.5 ± 2.3 and 2.8 ± 2.2, respectively. No significant differences between the two groups were observed. After adjustment of age and BMI, the DM group showed significant NCS differences in DS and MDC nerves compared with the HC group (P < 0.05). These differences were also exhibited in the left DS of the IGT group (P = 0.0003). More advanced NCS findings were observed in the DM group. Bilateral abnormal NCS responses in these distal sensory nerves were found in 40 and 16% of DM and IGT patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These results showed that the simultaneous assessment of the most distal sensory nerves allowed the detection of early NCS changes in the IGT and DM groups, even when the routine NCS showed normal findings.
Im, Sun; Kim, Sung-Rae; Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yang Soo; Park, Geun-Young
Recent pieces of evidence suggest that the dorsal hippocampus may mediate adaptation to severe and inescapable stress, possibly by the facilitation of serotonergic and/or noradrenergic neurotransmission. Chronic social stress and high corticosteroid levels would impair this coping mechanism, predisposing animals to learned helplessness. To test the hypothesis that increasing serotonin or noradrenaline levels in the dorsal hippocampus would attenuate the development of learned helplessness (LH), rats received inescapable foot shock (IS) and were tested in a shuttle box 24 h latter. Prestressed animals showed impairment of escape responses. This effect was prevented by bilateral intrahippocampal injections of zimelidine (100 nmol/0.5 microl), a serotonin reuptake blocker, immediately after IS. This effect was not observed when zimelidine was administered before or 2 h after IS. Bilateral intrahippocampal injections of desipramine (3 or 30 nmol/0.5 microl), a noradrenaline reuptake blocker, before IS or immediately after it did not prevent LH development. Desipramine (30 nmol) enhanced LH development when injected before IS. These data suggest that poststress facilitation of hippocampal serotonergic, but not noradrenergic, neurotransmission in the dorsal hippocampus facilitates adaptation to severe inescapable stress. Antidepressant effects of noradrenaline-selective drugs seem to depend on other structures than the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:16624257
Joca, Sâmia Regiane Lourenço; Zanelati, Tatiane; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira
This article presents the clinical features of crystal arthropathy after knee replacement. The current literature on pseudogout and gout after both total and partial knee replacement is summarized. A case of bilateral pseudogout 8 years after initial total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is used to highlight the clinical characteristics and treatment options for this underrecognized condition. Presentation mimicked a late septic joint arthroplasty with sudden onset of pain and effusion. The patient was treated successfully with an arthrotomy, debridement, synovectomy, polyethylene insert exchange, oral steroids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. There are no other reported cases of bilateral pseudogout after bilateral TKA. PMID:23102423
Levi, Gabriel S; Sadr, Kamran; Scuderi, Giles R
The arrangement within the midbrain oculomotor nerve complex and crossed innervation of the superior rectus muscle are not elucidated in humans. A 65-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of difficulty opening her eyes. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and impaired supraduction. The pupils prompty constricted to light. Results of CT and MRI demonstrated that there was a hematoma located in the dorsal midbrain tegmentum that spared the rostral mid-brain. It was presumed that the nerves of the superior rectus and levator palpebrae lie in the midbrain tegmentum more dorsally and medially than the others. Furthermore, crossed innervation of the superior rectus muscle can explain that lesions located in the dorsal midbrain tegmentum cause more often impaired supraduction. PMID:16277236
Takeuchi, Satoru; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Nakatani, Mitsuru; Ootani, Naoki; Ishihara, Hideaki; Uozumi, Yoichi; Miyazawa, Ryuji; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsuzuki, Shinsuke; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Shima, Katsuji
We report the case of a 73-year-old male patient who was suffered trauma after a syncopal fall onto a railway track in the form of an atlanto-occipital dislocation. The diagnostic revealed a bilateral fracture of the occipital condyles coupled with a ventral atlanto-occipital dislocation (Jeanneret type 4) and also an odontoid fracture (Anderson type 2). The patient underwent dorsal spondylodesis of C0-C2 in combination with Magerl's C1-C2 screw fixation. Pre-operatively and postoperatively no neurological abnormalities were found. This rarely occurring and survived traumatological situation is described using the present case as an example. PMID:19557377
John-Puthenveettil, B S; Neff, A; Kröber, M
Stimulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) alters arterial pressure, heart rate and cerebral blood flow, yet projections from the DRN to medullary autonomic nuclei have not been described. We examined whether serotonergic (5-HT) projections from the DRN terminate in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) and if so, whether the projection mediates cardiovascular responses to DRN stimulation. Studies were performed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Horseradish peroxidase or choleratoxin B was injected unilaterally or bilaterally into the RVL. Levels of 5-HT, its precursors L-tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan and the metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid were measured in the ventral medulla by HPLC three weeks following placement of electrolytic lesions in DRN. Serotonin transporter (3H-cyanoimipramine binding) was quantified by autoradiography in DRN-lesioned animals. Horseradish peroxidase or choleratoxin B injections into the medulla at the level of the RVL resulted in retrogradely labeled neurons bilaterally, with ipsilateral predominance, in the DRN. Labeled cells were preponderant in rostral ventrolateral portions of the DRN, but were also observed in the dorsal, lateral and interfascicular DRN subnuclei; fewer neurons were observed in caudal portions of the DRN. Three weeks following placement of electrolytic lesions in the DRN, the concentrations of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, but not L-tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan, were reduced in the medulla by 45 and 48%, respectively, compared to sham-operated or unoperated controls. DRN lesions reduced binding to the 5-HT transporter in the RVL by approximately 30% compared to unlesioned controls. Unilateral lesions of the RVL reduced the evoked blood pressure response by 53+/-15%; bilateral RVL lesions reduced the response by 86+/-9%. The increase in cortical blood flow elicited by DRN stimulation was unchanged after unilateral or bilateral RVL lesions. These studies demonstrate that there is a descending serotonergic projection from the DRN to the RVL. This projection may mediate autonomic changes elicited by DRN stimulation. PMID:10095041
Underwood, M D; Arango, V; Bakalian, M J; Ruggiero, D A; Mann, J J
Diplomatic relations between the United States and China, established in 1979, opened the door for development of 1985 bilateral environmental research and technology transfer between the USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, Oklahoma, and China's Beijing...
Laryngocele is an air-filled, abnormal dilation of the laryngeal saccule that extends upward within the false vocal fold, in communication with the laryngeal lumen. A case of 43-year-old male with bilateral internal laryngoceles, who has been treated as asthma for 4 years, is presented. The patient had dyspnea, cough, and excessive phlegm for a month and a late onset stridor. Flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy showed bilateral cystic enlargements of the false vocal folds and true vocal folds could not be visualized. Laryngeal CT without contrast enhancement showed bilateral internal laryngoceles. Submucosal total excision of bilateral cystic masses including parts of false vocal folds was performed. The symptoms resolved immediately after surgery. Although the incidence of internal laryngocele is rare, it should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of upper airway problems and diagnostic flexible nasopharnygolaryngoscopy is routinely indicated for airway evaluation in at-risk patients.
Aksoy, Elif A.; Elsurer, Cagdas; Serin, Gediz M.; Unal, O. Faruk
Podiatric physicians often encounter patients with dorsal foot pain related to either an exostosis or a ganglion arising at the junction of the first metatarsal and the cuneiform. Removal of the exostosis or ganglion is routine but may not relieve the pain. Exostosis surgery can result in worsening of pain owing to injury of the deep peroneal nerve. In this retrospective series, ten patients with dorsal foot pain-related exostosis or ganglion underwent measurement of the cutaneous pressure threshold of the skin of the dorsal first web space to determine whether compression of the deep peroneal nerve was related to their symptoms. The Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (Sensory Management Services LLC, Baltimore, Maryland) was used for this measurement bilaterally, and the results were compared with age-related normative data. Ninety percent of the patients had abnormal sensibility in the first dorsal web space. During surgery, each patient was noted to have a site of compression of the deep peroneal nerve by the extensor hallucis brevis tendon at the metatarsocuneiform exostosis. Patients with compression of the deep peroneal nerve had pain relief in the immediate postoperative period and have remained pain-free for a mean of 14 months (range, 1-22 months). Neurosensory testing can identify pain related to the deep peroneal nerve in patients with a dorsal exostosis or ganglion in this region. PMID:16166463
Parker, Robert G
Cervical spondylosis is a result of degenerative changes of the cervical spine. Neurological symptoms of myelopathy result from the narrowing of the spinal canal, causing spinal cord compression. Surgical management of cervical stenosis requires an understanding of the interplay between multiple pathological and biomechanical factors contributing to this disease process. Surgical decompression can be addressed from a ventral, dorsal, or combined approach. The authors discuss the technical aspects of the surgical decision making process regarding the decision to approach the spine from a ventral or dorsal orientation. PMID:17204873
Witwer, Brian P; Trost, Gregory R
Experimental evidence and computational modeling suggest that target selection for reaching is associated with the parallel encoding of multiple movement plans in the dorsomedial posterior parietal cortex (dmPPC) and the caudal part of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMdc). We tested the hypothesis that a similar mechanism also accounts for arm selection for unimanual reaching, with simultaneous and separate motor goal representations for the left and right arms existing in the right and left parietofrontal cortex, respectively. We recorded simultaneous electroencephalograms and functional MRI and studied a condition in which subjects had to select the appropriate arm for reaching based on the color of an appearing visuospatial target, contrasting it to a condition in which they had full knowledge of the arm to be used before target onset. We showed that irrespective of whether subjects had to select the arm or not, activity in dmPPC and PMdc was only observed contralateral to the reaching arm after target onset. Furthermore, the latency of activation in these regions was significantly delayed when arm selection had to be achieved during movement planning. Together, these results demonstrate that effector selection is not achieved through the simultaneous specification of motor goals tied to the two arms in bilateral parietofrontal cortex, but suggest that a motor goal is formed in these regions only after an arm is selected for action.
Cieslak, Matthew; Grafton, Scott T.
We investigated the consequences of premature birth on the functional neuroanatomy of the dorsal stream of visual processing. fMRI was recorded while sixteen healthy participants, 8 (two men) adults (19 years 6 months old, SD 10 months) born premature (mean gestational age 30 weeks), referred to as Premas, and 8 (two men) matched controls (20 years 1 month old, SD 13 months), performed a 1-back memory task of Object or Grip information using a hand grasping a drinking vessel as stimulus. While history of prematurity did not significantly affect task performance, Group by Task analysis of variance in regions of interest spanning the occipital, temporal and parietal lobes revealed main effects of Task and interactions between the two factors. Object processing activated the left inferior occipital cortex and bilateral ventral temporal regions, belonging to the ventral stream, with no effect of Group. Grip processing across groups activated the early visual cortex and the left supramarginal gyrus belonging to the dorsal stream. Group effect on the brain activity during Grip suggested that Controls represented the actions' goal while Premas relied more on low-level visual information. This shift from higher- to lower-order visual processing between Controls and Premas may reflect a more general trend, in which Premas inadequately recruit higher-order visual functions for dorsal stream task performance, and rely more on lower-level functions. PMID:23174430
Chaminade, Thierry; Leutcher, Russia Ha-Vinh; Millet, Véronique; Deruelle, Christine
Contexts associated with the availability of alcohol can induce craving in humans and alcohol seeking in rats. The opioid antagonist naltrexone attenuates context-induced reinstatement (renewal) of alcohol seeking and suppresses neuronal activation in the basolateral amygdaloid complex and dorsal hippocampus induced by such reinstatement. The objective of this study was to determine whether pharmacological blockade of opioid receptors in the basolateral amygdala or dorsal hippocampus would attenuate the context-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Rats were trained to self-administer alcohol in one context (Context A), extinguished in a distinct context (Context B) and then tested for reinstatement of alcohol seeking in A and B contexts. Prior to the test session, rats were bilaterally microinjected with 0, 333 or 1000ng (total) naloxone methiodide into the basolateral amygdala or dorsal hippocampus. Naloxone methiodide in the amygdala, but not the hippocampus, dose dependently suppressed context-induced reinstatement. This suggests that opioid transmission in the basolateral amygdaloid complex is an important mediator of context-induced alcohol seeking. PMID:20214927
Marinelli, Peter W; Funk, Douglas; Juzytsch, Walter; Lê, A D
Contexts associated with the availability of alcohol can induce craving in humans and alcohol seeking in rats. The opioid antagonist naltrexone attenuates context-induced reinstatement (renewal) of alcohol seeking and suppresses neuronal activation in the basolateral amygdaloid complex and dorsal hippocampus induced by such reinstatement. The objective of this study was to determine whether pharmacological blockade of opioid receptors in the basolateral amygdala or dorsal hippocampus would attenuate the context-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Rats were trained to self-administer alcohol in one context (Context A), extinguished in a distinct context (Context B) and then tested for reinstatement of alcohol seeking in A and B contexts. Prior to the test session, rats were bilaterally microinjected with 0, 333 or 1000 ng (total) naloxone methiodide into the basolateral amygdala or dorsal hippocampus. Naloxone methiodide in the amygdala, but not the hippocampus, dose-dependently suppressed context-induced reinstatement. This suggests that opioid transmission in the basolateral amygdaloid complex is an important mediator of context-induced alcohol seeking.
Marinelli, Peter W.; Funk, Douglas.; Juzytsch, Walter.; Le, A.D.
Attentional orientation to a spatial cue and reorientation – after invalid cueing – are mediated by two distinct networks in the human brain: a bilateral dorsal frontoparietal network, comprising the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the frontal eye fields (FEF), controls the voluntary deployment of attention and may modulate visual cortex in preparation for upcoming stimulation. In contrast, reorienting attention to invalidly cued targets engages a right-lateralized ventral frontoparietal network comprising the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and ventral frontal cortex. The present fMRI study investigated the functional architecture of these two attentional systems by characterizing effective connectivity during lateralized orienting and reorienting of attention, respectively. Subjects performed a modified version of Posner’s location-cueing paradigm. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of regional responses in the dorsal and ventral network, identified in a conventional (SPM) whole-brain analysis, was used to compare different functional architectures. Bayesian model selection showed that top-down connections from left and right IPS to left and right visual cortex, respectively, were modulated by the direction of attention. Moreover, model evidence was highest for a model with directed influences from bilateral IPS to FEF, and reciprocal coupling between right and left FEF. Invalid cueing enhanced forward connections from visual areas to right TPJ, and directed influences from right TPJ to right IPS and IFG. These findings shed further light on the functional organization of the dorsal and ventral attentional network and support a context-sensitive lateralisation in the top-down (backward) mediation of attentional orienting and the bottom-up (forward) effects of invalid cueing.
Vossel, Simone; Weidner, Ralph; Driver, Jon; Friston, Karl J.; Fink, Gereon R.
This article discusses the possible mechanisms of unilateral ischemic strokes arising in hippocampal field CA1 and the anterior\\u000a dorsal nuclei of the thalamus after bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries in rats with different types of behavior.
N. I. Artyukhina; K. Yu. Sarkisova
Marine biologists use a measurement called the “Dorsal Ratio” in the process of manual identification of bottlenose dolphins. The dorsal ratio denotes the relative distances of the two largest notches from the tip on the dorsal fin. The manual computation of this ratio is time consuming, labor intensive, and user dependent. This paper presents a computer-assisted system to extract the
A. Kreho; N. Kehtarnavaz; B. Araabi; G. Hillman; B. Würsig; D. Weller
A 30-year-old female patient presented with complaints of backache, weakness in both lower limbs and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Imaging showed an osteolytic lesion at tenth dorsal (D10) vertebra with anterior compression on the spinal cord. Complete intralesional tumor excision with reconstruction was carried out using the anterolateral extrapleural approach. Histopathological examination was suggestive of giant cell tumor (GCT). Because of complete intralesional tumor excision and fear of post-radiation osteonecrosis of bone used for delayed bony union, a conservative approach was used, and radiation therapy was not given. After one year of follow-up patient is doing well without any recurrence of the tumor and is ambulant with support. GCT of dorsal vertebral body is an uncommon entity and total en bloc excision is difficult. Therefore, the treatment strategy is not well-defined. We discuss in brief about incidence, presentation and various treatment modalities available for spinal GCT.
Redhu, Rakesh; Poonia, Rajpal
It is generally known that peripheral nerve injury causes changes in expression of some growth factors in the dorsal root ganglion. Altered expression of ErbB receptors, a well-known growth factor in somatic cells, reportedly follows peripheral nerve injury in the spinal dorsal horn; however, it remains unknown whether the expression of these receptors is altered in the dorsal root ganglion after nerve injury. Therefore, this study examined the gene expression profiles of ErbB receptors in bilateral lumbar (L)4/L5 dorsal root ganglia, using L5-selective spinal nerve ligation in model rats as a peripheral nerve injury model. The expression of ErbB2 and ErbB3 was observed in the dorsal root ganglia of the mature rat, despite ErbB1 and ErbB4 showing only subtle expression. We also demonstrated that peripheral nerve injury induced significant increases in ErbB2 and ErbB3 in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion as compared with uninjured nerve. Expression changes in ErbB receptors appear to play important roles in nerve injury and subsequent nerve regeneration.
Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Kanzaki, Hirotaka; Omiya, Hiroki; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Obata, Norihiko; Kaku, Ryuji; Nakajima, Hirochika; Ouchida, Mamoru; Morita, Kiyoshi
Dorsal column stimulation (DCS) is described as a therapy for persistent deterioration of consciousness. The mechanism of\\u000a its effect has not yet been elucidated. Various other methods, such as deep brain stimulation of the CM-p f complex, vagus\\u000a nerve stimulation, and musical functional therapy, are being investigated as potential treatments of this problem. We present\\u000a our series of DCS for
Isao Morita; M. W. Keith; T. Kanno
Based on a March 1984 address to the Canadian-American Committee, Schlesinger notes that the American natural gas producer has been the main beneficiary of Canadian export policy, which has impeded Canadian exports. He reviews the history of bilateral gas exchanges and the 1954 Phillips decision, which set up conditions that were the inverse of a normal competitive market that no
This survey addresses the subject of bilateral teleoperation, a research stream with more than 50 years of history and one that continues to be a fertile ground for theoretical exploration and many applications. We focus on the control theoretic approaches that have been developed to address inherent control problems such as delays and information loss. Exposure to several concurrent applications
Peter F. Hokayem; Mark W. Spong
BACKGROUND: The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old male presented with acute
Dimitrios G Balatsouras; Panayotis Dimitropoulos; Alexandros Fassolis; Georgios Kloutsos; Nicolas C Economou; Stavros Korres; Antonis Kaberos
Summary Hand burns in children, whether isolated or part of massive burns, require special attention. A crucial element in this respect is the preservation and full restoration of hand function. Most cases of severe sequelae after burns are associated with hand burns. From January 2002 to November 2004, 125 children with hand burns and other body burns were treated at the Centre of Burns and Plastic Surgery in Sofia, Bulgaria. This review presents our experience with 71 children with 89 burned hands in the region of the dorsal surface of the hand. Forty-nine hands had isolated dorsal surface burns, and 40 had combined burns, i.e. both dorsal and volar. Of all the hands treated, 69 had superficial burns, which epithelialized spontaneously. Twenty hands with deep dermal and full-thickness burns were subjected to sheet autografting. The review includes many details of the systematic approach to this type of burns. Optimal recovery of hand function can be achieved by accurate planning of treatment. Tracking of long-term results is also included in the general plan of behaviour in this type of burn. Our approach is conservative for superficial burns and active - with early excision and prompt closure with sheet autograft or, in extensive burns, allografting followed by covering with an autograft.
Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.
Dorsal dimelia (appearance of dorsal structures on the palmar aspect of the hand) and ventral dimelia (appearance of palmar structures on the dorsal aspect of the hand) are rare congenital hand malformations that occur due to errors of the dorso-ventral axis of development of the limb. The current literature includes numerous cases and there is now sufficient basic science/genetics research on the topic so that a classification of dorsal/ventral dimelia could be proposed. Dorsal dimelia is subclassified into two types: distal (dorsalization of the digits ± distal palm) and proximal (dorsalization of the proximal palm only) types. Ventral dimelia is classified into three types (mild, moderate, and severe) according to the degree of ventralization. The classification is supported by the genetic basis of each subtype. PMID:23592534
Al-Qattan, M M
Unilateral intraplantar injections (1\\/day for 3 days) of 4 ?g nerve growth factor (NGF) into the rat hindpaw increased the expression of prepro-tachykinin (PPT)- and prepro-calcitonin gene-related peptide (ppCGRP)-mRNA in bilateral L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). This was accompanied by an increase of CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the ipsi- and contralateral sciatic nerve but by no detectable change of CGRP-IR in
R. Amann; D. J. S. Sirinathsinghji; J. Donnerer; I. Liebmann; R. Schuligoi
Stimulation of ?-opioid receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNPR) increases the locomotor activity of young rats: an effect blocked by systemic administration of a D2-like receptor agonist. Based on these initial findings, we proposed that: (a) D2-like receptors in the dorsal striatum are responsible for attenuating ?-opioid-induced locomotor activity, and (b) the effects of D2-like receptor stimulation are mediated by the indirect pathway, which extends from the dorsal striatum to the SNPR via the globus pallidus (GP) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). To test the first hypothesis, young rats were given a systemic injection (IP) of saline or the ?-opioid receptor agonist U50,488 on postnatal day (PD) 18. Later in the testing session, rats received bilateral infusions of vehicle or the D2-like receptor agonist R(-)-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) into the dorsal striatum, and the ability of NPA to block U50,488-induced locomotor activity was determined. To test the second hypothesis, rats were given sham or bilateral electrolytic lesions of the GP or STN on PD 16. Two days later, saline- and U50,488-induced locomotor activity was measured after systemic (IP) administration of vehicle or NPA. As predicted, dorsal striatal infusions of NPA attenuated the U50,488-induced locomotor activity of young rats. Contrary to our expectations, bilateral lesions of the GP or STN did not impair NPA’s ability to block U50,488-induced locomotor activity. When considered together, these results suggest that: (a) stimulation of D2-like receptors in the dorsal striatum is sufficient to attenuate the ?-opioid-mediated locomotor activity of young rats; and (b) the indirect pathway does not mediate the effects of D2-like receptor stimulation in this behavioral model.
Charntikov, S.; Halladay, L. R.; Herbert, M. S.; Marquez, E. M.; McDougall, S. A.
Background The fracture of clavicle is the most frequently observed bone fracture as birth trauma and it is usually unilateral. It is seen following shoulder dystocia deliveries or breech presentation of macrosomic newborns. Case Presentation We report two macrosomic newborns with bilateral clavicle fracture and brachial plexus palsy due to birth trauma. Chest X-rays confirmed bilateral fracture of clavicles. Both patients were recovered without any sequel. Conclusion Bilateral clavicular fracture should be considered in any neonate with bilateral absent Moro reflexes.
Kanik, Ali; Sutcuoglu, Sumer; Aydinlioglu, Halil; Erdemir, Aydin; Arun Ozer, Esra
We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK.
Xavier Valldeperas; Martina Angi; Vito Romano; Mario R. Romano
We report a case of complete bilateral cerebellar infarction diagnosed in utero by routine prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in a 26-week-old fetus. This posterior fossa ischemic stroke with secondary hemorrhage caused transient obstructive hydrocephalus and likely occurred subsequent to vertebrobasilar artery thrombosis. Such posterior fossa ischemic insults diagnosed in utero are rare with scarce clinical reports. The serial imaging characteristics, clinical, and developmental implications of this case are reviewed. PMID:21266324
Ansari, Safdar A; Hunter, Jill V; Nassif, Lisa M; Clark, Gary D; Ramocki, Melissa B
Traumatic vertebral artery dissection is not often seen by forensic pathologists, and cases investigated are scarce in the forensic literature. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman cyclist who was struck by a car while wearing a helmet, and was neurologically near normal immediately thereafter at Emergency. She presented 48 h later with acute right hemiparesis, decreasing level of consciousness, and unsteadiness. CT revealed massive cerebellar infarction. CT angiography was normal. The patient died in coma 7 days after injury and autopsy revealed bilateral edematous cerebellar infarction and bilateral vertebral artery dissection. Rotational neck injury and mural tear in the wall of the Atlantic parts of both vertebral arteries is suggested as the possible mechanism of the arterial injury. Head and neck injuries are reported as a precipitating cause of vertebral artery injury. The possible influence of trauma may be further underestimated if longer intervals between vessel dissection and ischemia occur. The current case illustrates that "talk-and-die" syndrome may be due to occult vertebral artery dissection, possibly bilateral. In forensic cases of delayed death after mild trauma to the head and neck, the vertebral arteries should be examined for the cause of death. PMID:21798679
Galtés, Ignasi; Borondo, Juan Carlos; Cos, Mònica; Subirana, Mercè; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martín, Carles; Castellà, Josep; Medallo, Jordi
THE DORSAL COMPARTMENT OF THE FOREARM CONTAINS NINE MUSCLES: four belong to the superficial group (extensor digitorum communis, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris and anconeus) and five to the deep group (supinator, abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor indices). Of these nine muscles the following details are considered: origin, course, distal insertion and their anatomical connection with those structures which are most often affected by pathologies. The radiologist must have a thorough knowledge of this complex topographic anatomy in order to perform ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations and correctly interpret the images. PMID:23396199
Precerutti, M; Garioni, E; Ferrozzi, G
Plasticity of dorsal root (DR) and descending serotoninergic (5-HT) projections following dorsal rhizotomy from L2 to S1 sparing L5 was studied by means of an intra-animal comparison in the adult rat spinal cord. Projections of the chronically and acutely spared root were compared by cholera-toxin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP) injected into the sciatic nerves as the transganglionic tracer. Projections in unoperated controls, operated controls (acute bilateral spared root), and in experimental animals (chronic spared root on one side and acute spared root on the other) were mapped and the density was measured with an image analysis system. Labeled DRG cells and motor neurons were counted to determine if there were differences in the delivery of the label between the two sides. Measurements of the area of the dorsal horn and, separately, of the superficial laminae were made to control for shrinkage. DR projections were symmetrical in operated and unoperated controls, but a significant increase in DR projection density was found from L6 to L3 in the dorsal horn and Clarke's nucleus at L1 on the chronic spared root side in animals in which an equal number of DRG cells was labeled on the two sides. Density of 5-HT immunoreactivity was symmetrical in controls. Ipsilateral to chronic spared root rhizotomy, the area fraction occupied by 5-HT projections increased in Clarke's nucleus and in the superficial dorsal horn of all partially deafferented segments except L5, the spared root segment. Partial deafferentation of the adult rat lumbosacral spinal cord may therefore elicit sprouting from the spared dorsal root and, outside of the dorsal root projection zone, sprouting from the spared descending 5-HT system. Plasticity of dorsal root projections and of 5-HT projections occur in different regions; in regions of the increased spared root projection, no increase in seen in 5-HT projections, suggesting that sprouting in the adult rat spinal cord is regulated, perhaps by competitive or hierarchical mechanisms. PMID:2172329
Polistina, D C; Murray, M; Goldberger, M E
The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique. An important issue with the application of the bilateral filter is the selection of the filter parameters, which affect the results significantly. There are two main contributions of this paper. The first contribution is an empirical study of the optimal bilateral filter parameter selection in image denoising applications. The second contribution is an extension of the bilateral filter: multiresolution bilateral filter, where bilateral filtering is applied to the approximation (low-frequency) subbands of a signal decomposed using a wavelet filter bank. The multiresolution bilateral filter is combined with wavelet thresholding to form a new image denoising framework, which turns out to be very effective in eliminating noise in real noisy images. Experimental results with both simulated and real data are provided.
Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K.
Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM) too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it's management both at the time of cleft lip repair and also secondarily, at a later date. It also discusses the practices followed at our centre.
Singh, Arun Kumar; Nandini, R.
Pituitary apoplexy followed by cerebral infarction is rare. We report a 59-year-old male with a known pituitary macroadenoma who was admitted to our emergency department for treatment of an acute myocardial infarction. He underwent coronary angioplasty and was subsequently treated with aspirin, clopidogrel and full-dose enoxaparin. He developed pituitary apoplexy with bilateral compression of both internal carotid arteries, and infarction of both anterior and middle hemispheres; consequently, he died. This patient illustrates the difficulties of administering aggressive anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapy to patients who have a known pituitary adenoma. PMID:19800239
Lill, C M; Hoch, H; Dieste, F-J; Vogel, H-P; Zipp, F; Paul, F
: In a 48-year-old otherwise healthy man, a bilateral common peroneal palsy was diagnosed clinically and neurophysiologically. He reported on strength training with weights in both arms, lifting the weights and his upper body from a deep squatting position with broadly positioned legs akimbo in a hitherto unusual intensity. Regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms, 2 options are considered: first, stretching of the nerve at the fascia of the peroneal longus muscle and along the fibula neck, and second, compression of the nerve during squatting with weights loaded and with strongly activated anterior tibial and peroneal muscles. PMID:23615488
Kyavar, Leila; Heckmann, Josef G
A 12-year-old patient presented with a severe delay of eruption in permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors. On examination, there was over-retained primary teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth. Retained primary teeth showed light yellow discolouration whereas permanent teeth were distinct yellow with thin or little enamel. Subsequent imaging revealed all the premolars except maxillary left first premolar showed signs of intra-alveolar coronal resorption, nephrocalcinosis with bilateral multiple calculi and small papillary tip calcifications, marked increase in alkaline phosphatase. Subsequent dental treatment for restoring the functional and aesthetic requirement followed by appropriate treatment for renal problem was undertaken. PMID:23709541
Poornima, P; Katkade, Shashikant; Mohamed, Roshan Noor; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa
A 28-year-old woman presented at eight weeks and four days of gestation, according to her menstrual dates, complaining of painless vaginal bleeding for three days. Her urinary pregnancy test was positive. Initial transvaginal ultrasound demonstrated an irregular complex structure with a fluid filled centre in the right adnexum. Despite the diagnosis of a possible underlying unruptured right tubal ectopic pregnancy, she declined surgical intervention and was managed expectantly as an inpatient. When she complained of increasing abdominal pain with haemodynamic instability, an emergency laparotomy was performed and a diagnosis of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy was made. PMID:19391453
Marasinghe, Jeevan P; Condous, George; Amarasinghe, W I
The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated bilaterally from 14 to 18 weeks old rats, and a primary culture was prepared. Calcium activity was measured ratiometrically using the fluorescent Ca2+-indicator Fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester. All neurons were stimulated twice with 20?mM?K+, followed by stimulation with either 0.3 or 0.5??M Capsaicin, alone or in combination with algogenic chemicals (bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2 (all 10?5?M), and adenosine (10?3?M)) at pH 7.4 and 6.0. Neurons from diabetic animals exhibited an overall increased response to stimulation with 20?mM?K+ compared to neurons from control. Stimulation with Capsaicin alone caused an augmented response in neurons from diabetic animals compared to control animals. When stimulated with a combination of Capsaicin and algogenic chemicals, no differences between the two groups of neurons were measured, neither at pH 7.4 nor 6.0. In conclusion, diabetes-induced alterations in calcium activity of the DRG neurons were found, potentially indicating altered neuronal responses during myocardial ischemia.
Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C. B.; Fjalland, Bjarne; Sheykhzade, Majid
The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years.
Agenesis of the dorsal pancreatic anlage is a very unusual congenital anomaly. The case reported appears to be accompanied by hypertrophy of the ventral gland. Atrophy of the pancreas following an episode of acute pancreatitis is also very unusual. When the atrophy spares the uncinate process, it may also resemble agenesis of the dorsal gland.
Richard Palmer Gold
Cytoskeletal alterations in the cytoplasm of chromatolytic neurons of the dorsal root ganglia were studied in chickens after transection of the sciatic nerves. These studies were carried out using cryofixation with a nitrogencooled propane jet. By this method, the morphological complexity of the cytoskeleton in normal perikarya and cell processes can be visualized. The cytoskeleton of the dorsal root ganglion
From 1995 to 1998, 30 patients with dorsal wrist ganglia and four with recurrent dorsal ganglia underwent arthroscopic resection. At a mean follow-up of 16 months, no complications were seen, but minimal pain persisted in three patients. Two recurrences were seen after arthroscopic resection of primary ganglia.
R. LUCHETTI; A. BADIA; M. ALFARANO; J. ORBAY; I. INDRIAGO; B. MUSTAPHA
Background. Since skin of the dorsal hands is a known site for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an epidemiologic investigation was needed to determine if beachgoers apply sunscreen to the dorsal aspect of their hands as frequently as they apply it to other skin sites. Aim. The aim of the current study was to compare the use of sunscreen on the dorsal hands to other areas of the body during subtropical late spring and summer sunlight exposure at the beach. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of beachgoers was designed to evaluate respondent understanding and protective measures concerning skin cancer on the dorsal hands in an environment with high natural UVR exposure. Results. A total of 214 surveys were completed and analyzed. Less than half of subjects (105, 49%) applied sunscreen to their dorsal hands. Women applied sunscreen to the dorsal hands more than men (55% women versus 40% men, P = 0.04). Higher Fitzpatrick Skin Type respondents were less likely to protect their dorsal hands from ultraviolet radiation (P = 0.001). Conclusions. More public education focused on dorsal hand protection from ultraviolet radiation damage is necessary to reduce the risk for squamous cell carcinomas of the hands.
Warren, Donald B.; Riahi, Ryan R.; Hobbs, Jason B.; Wagner, Richard F.
Hand vein patterns are among the biometric traits being investigated today for identification purposes, attracting interest from both the research community and industry. This paper presents a multimodal system that combines hand-palm vein and hand-dorsal vein biometrics information at the score level. The palm and dorsal veins are considered as texture samples being automatically extracted from the user's hand image.
Sanchit; Mauricio Ramalho; Paulo Lobato Correia; Luis Ducla Soares
PURPOSE: To describe a patient who developed bilateral subconjunctival and orbital emphysema after an automobile tire explosion.METHOD: Case report.RESULTS: A 60-year-old man sustained bilateral ocular injury after a tire explosion. Ophthalmic examination disclosed bilateral subconjunctival air, with no visible conjunctival laceration. Computed tomography showed orbital emphysema, with no evidence of orbital fracture. Follow-up examination 2 weeks after the injury disclosed
Tina Li; Mahmood F Mafee; Deepak P Edward
The nature of dorsal root reflexes (DRRs) and their possible role in peripheral inflammation and the consequent hyperalgesia\\u000a are reviewed. The history of DRRs and the relationship of DRRs to primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition\\u000a in pathways formed by both large and fine afferents are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms underlying primary\\u000a afferent depolarization, including the anatomical
W. D. Willis Jr.
Brachial neuritis with bilateral hemidiaphragmatic paralysis has been reported in two previous cases in the literature. We report a patient who experienced severe right shoulder discomfort three weeks prior to hospital admission which evolved to include both shoulders. Two weeks prior to admission he noticed the onset of discomfort in breathing in the supine position and shortness of breath with minor exertion. The admitting diagnoses were myocardial infarction due to significant ECG changes and idiopathic elevated bilateral hemidiaphragms. The patient had findings significant for tachypnea, dyspnea, decreased breath sounds at the bases bilaterally, impaired motion of the bilateral lung bases on inspiration and paradoxical respirations. Comprehensive medical testing and evaluation revealed bilateral elevated hemidiaphragms and vital capacity 40% of normal. Weakness of the proximal shoulder girdle and bicep musculature bilaterally was noted. Electromyography was significant for reduced recruitment pattern in the bilateral shoulder girdle musculature. Nerve conduction studies suggested bilateral phrenic neuropathy. This case is an unusual presentation of brachial neuritis affecting the bilateral shoulder girdle with phrenic nerve involvement. The differential diagnosis of acute shoulder pain associated with respiratory symptomatology should therefore include brachial neuritis. PMID:3800625
Walsh, N E; Dumitru, D; Kalantri, A; Roman, A M
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare and potentially life threatening situation in adults. The clinical presentation is non-specific, and the diagnosis is based on imaging. The purpose of this report is to provide an illustrative case of spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage that occurred during pregnancy. The sonographic and computed tomographic findings included large bilateral adrenal hematomas with no evidence of underlying malignancy. Since bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life threatening situation, prompt laboratory and imaging evaluation are essential and may reduce both morbidity and mortality. PMID:15205660
Kably, M I; Zamiati, W; Benkirane, H; Kadiri, R
Successful treatment of dorsal foot burns is a challenge. By extrapolating from various treatments of dorsal hand burns the design of a static progressive splint was applied to the treatment of dorsal foot burns to prevent contracture deformities. The splint is composed of a base, dorsal thermoplastic piece, and Velcro strap. Soft hook and loop Velcro encircles the ankle and midfoot providing a base for the attachment of a Velcro strap. A thermoplastic piece is conformed to the dorsum of the toes and then affixed to the Velcro strap. The Velcro strap is then attached to the plantar surface of the base to create an adjustable static progressive stretch. This splint is designed to prevent dorsal foot contractures during the scar maturation phase of wound healing. PMID:11761399
intracellular recording techniques have been used to pro- vide information on the identity of excitatory sensory trans- mitters released at synapses formed between dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and dorsal horn neurons maintained in cell culture. Explants of embryonic rat DRG were added to dis- sociated cultures of embryonic dorsal horn neurons and synaptic potentials were recorded intracellularly from dorsal horn
C. E. JAHR; T. M. JESSELL
Localized neurodevelopmental defects provide an opportunity to study structure-function correlations in the human nervous system. This unique multimodal case report of epileptogenic dysplasia in the visual cortex allowed exploring visual function across distinct pathways in retinotopic regions and the dorsal stream, in relation to fMRI retinotopic mapping and spike triggered BOLD responses. Pre-surgical EEG/video monitoring, MRI/DTI, EEG/fMRI, PET and SPECT were performed to characterize structure/function correlations in this patient with a very early lesion onset. In addition, we included psychophysical methods (assessing parvo/konio and magnocellular pathways) and retinotopic mapping. We could identify dorsal stream impairment (with extended contrast sensitivity deficits within the input magno system contrasting with more confined parvocellular deficits) with disrupted active visual field input representations in regions neighboring the lesion. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI identified perilesional and retinotopic bilaterally symmetric BOLD deactivation triggered by interictal spikes, which matched the contralateral spread of magnocellular dysfunction revealed in the psychophysical tests. Topographic changes in retinotopic organization further suggested long term functional effects of abnormal electrical discharges during brain development. We conclude that fMRI based visual field cortical mapping shows evidence for retinotopic dissociation between magno and parvocellular function well beyond striate cortex, identifiable in high level dorsal visual representations around visual area V3A which is consistent with the effects of epileptic spike triggered negative BOLD. PMID:23933589
Duarte, Isabel Catarina; Cunha, Gil; Castelhano, João; Sales, Francisco; Reis, Aldina; Cunha, João Paulo Silva; Castelo-Branco, Miguel
Activation of post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in the dorsal hippocampus is proposed to mediate stress adaptation. Chronic social stress and high corticosteroid levels would impair this coping mechanism, predisposing animals to learned helplessness. To test the hypothesis that increasing serotonin levels in the dorsal hippocampus would attenuate the development of learned helplessness, rats received inescapable foot-shock (pre-test session) and were tested in a shuttle box 24-h later. Pre-stressed animals showed impairment of escape responses. This effect was prevented by chronic (21 days) treatment with imipramine (15 mg/kg). Similar results were obtained when the animals received bilateral intra-hippocampal injections, immediately after pre-test, of zimelidine (100 nmol/0.5 microl), a serotonin reuptake blocker, or 8-OH-DPAT (10 nmol), a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist. The zimelidine effect was prevented by pre-treatment with WAY-100635 (30 nmol), a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist. These data suggest that facilitation of serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal hippocampus mediates adaptation to severe inescapable stress, probably through the activation of post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. PMID:12834912
Joca, Sâmia Regiane Lourenço; Padovan, Cláudia Maria; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira
Intravascular migration of bullets and other foreign bodies is a rare but known complication of penetrating trauma. Missile embolization can represent a diagnostic challenge because it may present in various and unexpected ways. We present the case of a 54-year-old female who sustained shotgun pellet emboli to the pulmonary arteries following a left upper extremity gunshot wound and related vascular surgery. The case illustrates bilateral embolization, and the embolic events occurred following surgery. Embolization should be considered in evaluating patients with gunshot wounds, particularly if there are anomalous symptoms or the projectile is not found in the original, or expected, location. Close attention to the location of the foreign bodies on serial radiographs may reveal the diagnosis of intravascular embolization.
Huebner, Stephen; Ali, Sayed
The compound action potential of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia, as recorded in cat skin nerves after conduction of simultaneously initiated impulses, shows among its components a temporal dispersion corresponding to velocities between 2.3 and 0.7 M.P.S. The maximum representation of the component velocities is at about 1.2 M.P.S. On both sides of the maximum the representation falls off irregularly, in such a way that groupings in the distribution produce in the action potential a configuration in which successive features appear always in the same positions at a given conduction distance. Through this demonstration of a characteristic configuration the system of the unmedullated fibers is brought into analogy with that of the medullated fibers. The unmedullated fibers originating in the dorsal root ganglia have distinctive physiological properties, among which is a large positive potential which reaches its maximum immediately after the spike and decrements to half relaxation in about 50 msec., at 37°C. The positive phases of the unit potentials in the compound action potential, owing to their duration, sum to a much greater extent than the temporally dispersed spikes; and, since they have sizes such that one equivalent to 25 per cent of the spike height would not be at the limit, in the summation process the major portion of the compound action potential is caused to be written at a potential level positive to the starting base line. The position of the spikes in the sequence can be seen in the analyses in Section III. The course of the activity in unit fibers is subject to variation in ways affecting the positive potential. Preliminary descriptions, based on orienting experiments, of how these variations are conditioned are given in Section I. Two of the findings are particularly noteworthy. One is the high sensitivity of the dimensions of the postspike positivity to temperature in the range of temperatures at which skin nerves may be expected to function, even when the environmental temperatures of an animal are moderate. The other is the high sensitivity to conditioning by previous activity. The positivity is first decreased, then replaced by a negative potential of similar duration. Reasons have been given why it is inadvisable at the present time to call the postspike potential an after-potential. A comparison has been made of the properties of the unmedullated fibers arising from dorsal root ganglia with those of fibers arising from sympathetic ganglia. The differences are so great that, in the interest of precision in designation, a division of the C group of fibers into two subgroups is indicated. It is suggested that the two subgroups be named respectively d.r.C and s.C. Measurements have been made of the diameters of the d.r.C fibers in a saphenous nerve stained with silver. Graphs showing the number of fibers at each diameter are presented in Section II. In Section III there are shown constructions, from histological data, of the action potential as it would appear, after 3 cm. of conduction, with the correlation between diameter and velocity in strict linearity. The degree of fit between the constructed and recorded potentials can be seen in Fig. 18.
Gasser, Herbert S.
|Thirty-six participants performed bilateral and unilateral isometric elbow flexion trials at what they perceived to be 100, 75, 50, and 25% of maximal effort. Absolute bilateral deficits ranged from -16% at 25% effort to -10% at 100% effort. The deficit included a component independent of consciousness and a component inversely related to…
McLean, Scott P.; Vint, Peter F.; Stember, Amanda J.
Bilateral serous retinal detachments are rare complications of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We report the case of a 28-year-old woman with chronic relapsing TTP with bilateral serous retinal detachments, which resolved after prompt aggressive medical therapy. Unlike serveral previous reports, the retinal detachments in our patient were unrelated to systemic hypertension.
Richard E. Wyszynski; K. Ellen Frank; Hans E. Grossniklaus
Breast cancer in males is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cases. Bilateral male breast cancer is reported to occur in fewer than 2% of all the diagnosed cases of male breast cancer, and synchronous tumors are exceedingly rare. The authors report a case of male breast cancer that is bilateral and syn- chronous, and review the literature
PETER B. KAHLA; SEBASTIANO CASSARO; FELIX G. VLADIMIR; MICHAEL G. WAYNE; ANGELO CAMMARATA
In this paper, we will consider the current role of simultaneous-bilateral TKA. Based on available evidence, it is our opinion that simultaneous bilateral TKA carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality and should be reserved for select few. PMID:23118391
Parvizi, J; Rasouli, M R
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.
Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.
Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age <50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used
J. Kollias; S. Man; M. Marafie; K. Carpenter; S. Pinder; I. O. Ellis; R. W. Blamey; G. Cross; J. D. Brook
Bilateral parotid swelling is not an uncommon occurrence and may pose a challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Numerous causes of bilateral parotid swellings have been identified. The purpose of this pictorial review is to display this wide array with a focus on multimodality approach.
Gadodia, A; Bhalla, A S; Sharma, R; Thakar, A; Parshad, R
Background A 56-year-old male with bilateral flank pain was admitted following diagnosis of bilateral kidney stone disease. He had previously undergone four separate pyelolithotomy sessions (two per kidney), the latest being 14 years prior. At presentation the patient had two stones in the right kidney and seven in the left kidney. The right renal pelvis was dilated, indicating obstruction of
Yahya Murat U?ra?; Ali Güne?; Can Baydinç; Ahmet Soylu
This paper presents a new approach for hyperspectral image visualization. A bilateral filtering-based approach is presented for hyperspectral image fusion to generate an appropriate resultant image. The proposed approach retains even the minor details that exist in individual image bands, by exploiting the edge-preserving characteristics of a bilateral filter. It does not introduce visible artifacts in the fused image. A
Ketan Kotwal; Subhasis Chaudhuri
Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS), described by Kuzniecky et al.  in 1993, consists of developmental delay from childhood, mild to moderate mental retardation, particularly manifest as delays of language acquisition, tonic or atonic seizures and atypical absence seizures beginning in childhood, pseudobulbar palsy, manifest as dysarthria and a poor gag reflex, and bilateral perisylvian malformations on imaging. The most
Takamasa Kishi; Makoto Moriya; Yasuo Kimoto; Yohsuke Nishio; Takeo Tanaka
The NF-?B-related transcription factor, Dorsal, forms a nuclear concentration gradient in the early Drosophila embryo, patterning the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis to specify mesoderm, neurogenic ectoderm, and dorsal ectoderm cell fates. The concentration of nuclear Dorsal is thought to determine these patterning events; however, the levels of nuclear Dorsal have not been quantified previously. Furthermore, existing models of Dorsal-dependent germ layer specification and patterning consider steady-state levels of Dorsal relative to target gene expression patterns, yet both Dorsal gradient formation and gene expression are dynamic. We devised a quantitative imaging method to measure the Dorsal nuclear gradient while simultaneously examining Dorsal target gene expression along the DV axis. Unlike observations from other insects such as Tribolium, we find the Dorsal gradient maintains a constant bell-shaped distribution during embryogenesis. We also find that some classical Dorsal target genes are located outside the region of graded Dorsal nuclear localization, raising the question of whether these genes are direct Dorsal targets. Additionally, we show that Dorsal levels change in time during embryogenesis such that a steady state is not reached. These results suggest that the multiple gene expression outputs observed along the DV axis do not simply reflect a steady-state Dorsal nuclear gradient. Instead, we propose that the Dorsal gradient supplies positional information throughout nuclear cycles 10-14, providing additional evidence for the idea that compensatory combinatorial interactions between Dorsal and other factors effect differential gene expression along the DV axis.
Liberman, Louisa M.; Reeves, Gregory T.; Stathopoulos, Angelike
One literature treats the hippocampus as a purely cognitive structure involved in memory; another treats it as a regulator of emotion whose dysfunction leads to psychopathology. We review behavioral, anatomical, and gene expression studies that together support a functional segmentation into 3 hippocampal compartments dorsal, intermediate and ventral. The dorsal hippocampus, which corresponds to the posterior hippocampus in primates, performs primarily cognitive functions. The ventral (anterior in primates) relates to stress, emotion and affect. Strikingly, gene expression in the dorsal hippocampus correlates with cortical regions involved in information processing, while genes expressed in the ventral hippocampus correlate with regions involved in emotion and stress (amygdala and hypothalamus).
Fanselow, Michael S.; Dong, Hong-Wei
OBJECTIVES:: The aim of the study was to investigate whether children with bilateral conductive hearing loss benefit from their second device (i.e., the bilateral bone conduction device [BCD]). DESIGN:: Speech recognition in noise was assessed in 10 children fitted with bilateral BCDs during childhood. Speech recognition was measured in 2 conditions with both BCDs active. Spatial resolution was tested with the Minimum Audible Angle test in the bilateral and monaural listening conditions. RESULTS:: Children demonstrated an improvement in speech recognition when speech was presented from the front and noise was presented from the right-hand side as compared with both speech and noise being presented from the front. The minimum audible angle decreased from 57° in the best monaural condition to 13° in the bilateral condition. CONCLUSIONS:: The audiological outcomes demonstrate the advantage of bilateral BCD fitting in children with bilateral conductive hearing loss. PMID:23698625
Dun, Catharina A J; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Hol, Myrthe K S; Snik, Ad F M
This study tested the effect of lower limb muscle fatigue induced by series of high-level isometric contractions (IC) on postural adjustments and maintenance of erect posture. Subjects (N=7) displaced a bar (grasp-bar) forward with both hands at maximal velocity towards a target (“bilateral forward-reach” task, BFR), before and after a procedure designed to induce fatigue in dorsal leg muscles. This
E. Yiou; A. M. Heugas; M. Mezaour; S. Le Bozec
BACKGROUND: Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI) is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI) model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat
Sukdeb Datta; Koel Chatterjee; Robert H Kline; Ronald G Wiley
In this paper, we propose a simple but effective shadow removal method using a single input image. We first derive a 2-D intrinsic image from a single RGB camera image based solely on colors, particularly chromaticity. We next present a method to recover a 3-D intrinsic image based on bilateral filtering and the 2-D intrinsic image. The luminance contrast in regions with similar surface reflectance due to geometry and illumination variances is effectively reduced in the derived 3-D intrinsic image, while the contrast in regions with different surface reflectance is preserved. However, the intrinsic image contains incorrect luminance values. To obtain the correct luminance, we decompose the input RGB image and the intrinsic image. Each image is decomposed into a base layer and a detail layer. We obtain a shadow-free image by combining the base layer from the input RGB image and the detail layer from the intrinsic image such that the details of the intrinsic image are transferred to the input RGB image from which the correct luminance values can be obtained. Unlike previous methods, the presented technique is fully automatic and does not require shadow detection. PMID:22829402
Yang, Qingxiong; Tan, Kar-Han; Ahuja, Narendra
Among complications in orthognathic surgery, the insurgence of pneumothorax is very rare. Pneumothorax is the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity and it is rare complications in the postoperative oral and maxillofacial surgery patient. The clinical results are dependent on the degree of collapse of the lung on the affected side. Pneumothorax can impair oxygenation and/or ventilation. If the pneumothorax is significant, it can cause a shift of the mediastinum and compromise haemodynamic stability. While 10% of pneumothoraces are asymptomatic, patients often complain of acute chest pain and difficulty breathing. There is a reduction in vital capacity, tachycardia, tachypnoea and a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen with an inability to maintain oxygen saturations. We observed this unusual surgical consequence in a 28-year-old female with negative clinical history and instrumental evaluation after Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). No further consequences, no neurological sequelae, no infections and no other osteotomies sequelae were seen. Sudden post-surgical dispnea associated to sub-cutaneous emphysema of the neck and of the thorax must be adequately observed with the aim of monitoring further severe sequelae. The anaesthetic management of the emergency difficult airway in any post-surgical orthognatic treatment can be extremely difficult requiring a multi-disciplinary approach.
Bertossi, Dario; Malchiodi, Luciano; Turra, Matteo; Bondi, Vincenzo; Albanese, Massimo; Lucchese, Alessandra; Carinci, Francesco; Nocini, Pierfrancesco
Among complications in orthognathic surgery, the insurgence of pneumothorax is very rare. Pneumothorax is the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity and it is rare complications in the postoperative oral and maxillofacial surgery patient. The clinical results are dependent on the degree of collapse of the lung on the affected side. Pneumothorax can impair oxygenation and/or ventilation. If the pneumothorax is significant, it can cause a shift of the mediastinum and compromise haemodynamic stability. While 10% of pneumothoraces are asymptomatic, patients often complain of acute chest pain and difficulty breathing. There is a reduction in vital capacity, tachycardia, tachypnoea and a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen with an inability to maintain oxygen saturations. We observed this unusual surgical consequence in a 28-year-old female with negative clinical history and instrumental evaluation after Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). No further consequences, no neurological sequelae, no infections and no other osteotomies sequelae were seen. Sudden post-surgical dispnea associated to sub-cutaneous emphysema of the neck and of the thorax must be adequately observed with the aim of monitoring further severe sequelae. The anaesthetic management of the emergency difficult airway in any post-surgical orthognatic treatment can be extremely difficult requiring a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:23814593
Bertossi, Dario; Malchiodi, Luciano; Turra, Matteo; Bondi, Vincenzo; Albanese, Massimo; Lucchese, Alessandra; Carinci, Francesco; Nocini, Pierfrancesco
Congenital lacrimal fistulae are rare in Down syndrome and bilateral presentation is very unusual. It can be associated with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We report a 3-year-old female with Down syndrome who presented with watering and discharge from both eyes and bilateral fistulous openings present inferonasal to the medial canthus. Upon examination, the lacrimal sac regurgitation test was positive on both sides. Our case report documents a distinctive case of bilateral congenital lacrimal fistulae in association with Down syndrome. It was managed successfully by primary fistulectomy and nasolacrimal duct probing.
Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Usha
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report a rare case of bilateral segmental renal infarction secondary to FMD in a young male patient. His initial presentation with loin pain and pyrexia resulted in a delay in the definitive diagnosis of FMD. He was successfully treated with bilateral balloon angioplasty. The delayed diagnosis in this patient until the condition had progressed to bilateral renal infarcts highlights the need for prompt investigation and diagnosis of suspected cases of FMD.
Doody, O., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Alfred Hospital, Department of Radiology (Australia); Adam, W. R. [University of Melbourne and Goulburn Valley Health, School of Rural Health (Australia); Foley, P. T.; Lyon, S. M. [Alfred Hospital, Department of Radiology (Australia)
Background Earlier functional imaging studies on visually induced self-motion perception (vection) disclosed a bilateral network of activations within primary and secondary visual cortex areas which was combined with signal decreases, i.e., deactivations, in multisensory vestibular cortex areas. This finding led to the concept of a reciprocal inhibitory interaction between the visual and vestibular systems. In order to define areas involved in special aspects of self-motion perception such as intensity and duration of the perceived circular vection (CV) or the amount of head tilt, correlation analyses of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism, rCGM (measured by fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography, FDG-PET) and these perceptual covariates were performed in 14 healthy volunteers. For analyses of the visual-vestibular interaction, the CV data were compared to a random dot motion stimulation condition (not inducing vection) and a control group at rest (no stimulation at all). Results Group subtraction analyses showed that the visual-vestibular interaction was modified during CV, i.e., the activations within the cerebellar vermis and parieto-occipital areas were enhanced. The correlation analysis between the rCGM and the intensity of visually induced vection, experienced as body tilt, showed a relationship for areas of the multisensory vestibular cortical network (inferior parietal lobule bilaterally, anterior cingulate gyrus), the medial parieto-occipital cortex, the frontal eye fields and the cerebellar vermis. The “earlier” multisensory vestibular areas like the parieto-insular vestibular cortex and the superior temporal gyrus did not appear in the latter analysis. The duration of perceived vection after stimulus stop was positively correlated with rCGM in medial temporal lobe areas bilaterally, which included the (para-)hippocampus, known to be involved in various aspects of memory processing. The amount of head tilt was found to be positively correlated with the rCGM of bilateral basal ganglia regions responsible for the control of motor function of the head. Conclusions Our data gave further insights into subfunctions within the complex cortical network involved in the processing of visual-vestibular interaction during CV. Specific areas of this cortical network could be attributed to the ventral stream (“what” pathway) responsible for the duration after stimulus stop and to the dorsal stream (“where/how” pathway) responsible for intensity aspects.
The hippocampus has long been known to be important for memory, with the right hippocampus particularly implicated in nonverbal/visuo-spatial memory and the left in verbal/narrative or episodic memory. Despite this hypothesized lateralized functional difference, there has not been a single task that has been shown to activate both the right and left hippocampi differentially, dissociating the two, using neuroimaging. The transverse patterning (TP) task is a strong candidate for this purpose, as it has been shown in human and nonhuman animal studies to theoretically and empirically depend on the hippocampus. In TP, participants choose between stimuli presented in pairs, with the correct choice being a function of the specific pairing. In this project, TP was used to assess lateralized hippocampal function by varying its dependence on verbal material, with the goal of dissociating the two hippocampi. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data were collected while controls performed verbal and nonverbal versions of TP in order to verify and validate lateralized activation within the hippocampi. Schizophrenia patients were evaluated to determine whether they exhibited a lateralized hippocampal deficit. As hypothesized, patients' mean level of behavioral performance was poorer than controls' on both verbal and nonverbal TP. In contrast, patients had no decrement in performance on a verbal and nonverbal non-hippocampal-dependent matched control task. Also, controls but not patients showed more right hippocampal activation during nonverbal TP and more left hippocampal activation during verbal TP. These data demonstrate the capacity to assess lateralized hippocampal function and suggest a bilateral hippocampal behavioral and activation deficit in schizophrenia. PMID:21763438
Hanlon, Faith M; Houck, Jon M; Pyeatt, Clinton J; Lundy, S Laura; Euler, Matthew J; Weisend, Michael P; Thoma, Robert J; Bustillo, Juan R; Miller, Gregory A; Tesche, Claudia D
Paravertebral nerve blocks (PVBs) can provide excellent intraoperative anaesthetic and postoperative analgesic conditions with less adverse effects and fewer contraindications than central neural blocks. Most published data are related to unilateral PVB, but its potential as a bilateral technique has been demonstrated. Bilateral PVB has been used successfully in the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic regions, sometimes obviating the need for general anaesthesia. We have reviewed the use of bilateral PVB in association with surgery and chronic pain therapy. This covers 12 published studies with a total of 538 patients, and with varied methods and outcome measures. Despite the need for relatively large doses of local anaesthetics, there are no reports of systemic toxicity. The incidence of complications such as pneumothorax and hypotension is low. More studies on the use of bilateral PVB are required. PMID:21233114
Richardson, J; Lönnqvist, P A; Naja, Z
Bilateral total renal dysplasia is an extremely rare congenital anomaly associated with Potter's facies. We report an autopsy case of a stillborn male child. Histopathology is showing persistence of structures not seen in normal development. PMID:15471131
Zawar, M P; Kurdukar, M D; Mashal, S N; Inamdar, J S
A bilateral nuclear-weapons freeze to stop the arms race is, next to the economy, the major public issue. The author feels that a freeze would lessen the risk of launch-on-warning errors that could lead to nuclear war. Further, a bilateral freeze would preserve the parity of existing US-Soviet arms, but prevent the destabilization of a new counterforce capability. It must
Choriocarcinoma is the most malignant tumor of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. It grows rapidly and metastasizes to the lung, liver, and less frequently, the brain. Metastases to the kidney are rare in the literature, and bilateral involvement is even more scarce. Renal involvement of choriocarcinoma is highly exceptional and may mimic renal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of bilateral renal choriocarcinoma presenting 5 years after a history of a total anterior hysterectomy because of a hydatidiform mole.
Karadeniz, Tahir; Ozkaptan, Orkunt; Cak?r, Caglar
We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 mum in the right eye and of 710 mum in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 mum in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus. PMID:20737056
Valldeperas, Xavier; Angi, Martina; Romano, Vito; Romano, Mario R
We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 ?m in the right eye and of 710 ?m in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 ?m in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus.
Valldeperas, Xavier; Angi, Martina; Romano, Vito; Romano, Mario R.
In studies aimed at local treatment of experimental osteoarthritis (OA) it is optimal to have an internal (untreated) OA control. Such an approach excludes interanimal variation, and allows paired statistical evaluation of treatment efficacy. For this purpose, we developed and characterized a bilateral version of the canine Groove model. We hypothesized that the bilateral version of the canine Groove model would show consistent and clear development of features of OA similar to those found in the unilateral version. In six Beagle dogs, grooves were surgically made in the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles of both knee joints. Six additional dogs underwent bilateral sham surgery. The degree of OA was quantified 20 weeks after surgery and was compared in retrospect to 23 animals that undergone the same procedure in a single knee joint with the contralateral knee serving as a non-OA control. Bilateral groove surgery resulted in OA. This was based on the observed ineffective repair response in which an increase in proteoglycan synthesis, a diminished retention of these newly formed proteoglycans, and an enhanced loss of resident proteoglycans resulted in a decreased cartilage proteoglycan content. These biochemical effects were corroborated by clear histological features of OA. All these effects were found in femor as well as in the (surgically untouched) tibia. Interestingly, features of OA were slightly more severe in the bilateral model than in the unilateral variant. The bilateral canine Groove model showed consistent and clear development of features of OA, comparable to the unilateral model. PMID:18473386
Intema, Femke; DeGroot, Jeroen; Elshof, Bram; Vianen, Marieke E; Yocum, Sue; Zuurmond, Annemarie; Mastbergen, Simon C; Lafeber, Floris P
We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in a paired pulse protocol to investigate interhemispheric interactions between the right dorsal premotor (dPM) and left primary motor cortex (M1) using interstimulus intervals of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 20 ms in ten healthy subjects. A conditioning stimulus over right dPM at an intensity of either 90 or 110% resting motor threshold (RMT) suppressed motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle by stimulation of left M1. Maximum effects occurred for interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 8–10 ms. There was no effect if the conditioning stimulus was applied 2.5 cm lateral, anterior or medial to dPM. The effect differed from previously described M1 interhemispheric inhibition in that the threshold for the latter was greater than 90% RMT, whereas stimulation of the dPM at the same intensity led to significant inhibition. In addition, voluntary contraction of the left FDI (i.e. contralateral to the conditioning TMS) enhanced interhemispheric inhibition from right M1 but had no effect on the inhibition from right dPM. Finally, conditioning to right dPM at 90% RMT reduced short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI; at ISI = 2 ms) in left M1 whilst there was no effect if the conditioning stimulus was applied to right M1. We conclude that conditioning TMS over dPM has effects that differ from the previous pattern of interhemispheric inhibition described between bilateral M1s. This may reflect the existence of commissural fibres between dPM and contralateral M1 that may play a role in bimanual coordination.
Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Huang, Ying-Zu; Rothwell, John C
In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.
Nehete, Rajendra; Nehete, Anita; Singla, Sandeep; Adhav, Harshad
The advantages of sequential bilateral cochlear implantation were assessed in 29 children with a severe to profound hearing loss. The effect of age at second implantation and the effect of duration of bilateral implant use on the outcomes in speech perception and directional hearing were investigated. The children received their second cochlear implant at an age ranging from 2.8 to 8.5 years. Measurements were carried out preoperatively and postoperatively after 6, 12 and 24 months of bilateral implant use. A matched control group of 9 children with a unilateral implant were also measured over time and were compared with the study group after 12 and 24 months. Speech reception in both quiet and in noise and lateralization were measured. After 24 months, a minimum audible angle task was carried out. Bilateral advantages with regard to speech reception in quiet and in noise were already present after 6 months of bilateral implant use and improved thereafter. After 24 months, speech reception in noise had significantly improved with bilateral implants compared to that of children with a unilateral implant. The percentage of children that could accurately lateralize increased from 57% after 6 months to 83% after 24 months. With regard to the minimum audible angle task, loudspeakers were placed on average at ±42°. Age at second implantation did not have an influence on all outcomes. From the results it can be concluded that the advantages of bilateral hearing occur after sequential bilateral implantation and that age at second implantation does not influence the amount of bilateral advantage. Furthermore, it can be concluded that longer periods of bilateral implant use lead to greater bilateral advantages. PMID:20980740
Sparreboom, Marloes; Snik, Ad F M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M
During waking behavior, animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states, and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However, there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. After a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context. PMID:23100441
Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C; Burgess, Harold A
During waking behavior animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. Following a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context.
Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C.; Burgess, Harold A.
Platycampus larvae are highly cryptic leaf feeders characterised by a dorso-ventrally flattened body, the dorsal integument resembling a shield. Dorsal and ventral cuticles from Platycampus luridiventris were compared by histology and gel electrophoresis. By Azan-staining, a red and a blue layer were distinguished in the dorsal cuticle, while the ventral cuticle showed one, almost uniform blue layer, as in both cuticles of control species. The two cuticles from P. luridiventris had similar amounts and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of soluble proteins, but not insoluble proteins. One insoluble protein (MW approximately 41 kDa) was visible as a large band in the ventral cuticle only. It is likely that this protein renders the cuticle elastic, and that the dorsal, red layer is the exocuticle, mainly composed of insoluble proteins. We discuss eco-physiological implications of the exocuticle in insects. Further, data from the literature indicate that the defence strategy in P. luridiventris larvae relies on being visually cryptic towards avian predators and tactically cryptic towards arthropod predators and parasitoids. Crypsis in both senses is favoured by the shield effect, itself based on an abnormally thick dorsal exocuticle. Although the larvae are external feeders, they may be considered as hidden from an ecological perspective. PMID:20396863
Boevé, Jean-Luc; Angeli, Sergio
Penetrating limb injuries are common and usually heal without long-lasting effects, even when nerves are cut. However, rare nerve-injury patients develop prolonged and disabling chronic pain (neuralgia). When pain severity is disproportionate to severity of the inciting injury, physicians and insurers may suspect exaggeration and limit care or benefits, although the nature of the relationship between lesion-size and the development and persistence of neuralgia remains largely unknown. We compared cellular changes in the spinal dorsal-horn (the initial CNS pain-processing area) after partial or total tibial-nerve axotomies in male Sprague-Dawley rats to determine if these changes are proportional to the numbers of peripheral axons cut. Unoperated rats provided controls. Plantar hind-paw responses to touch, pin, and cold were quantitated bilaterally to identify hyperalgesic rats. We also compared data from nerve-injured rats with or without hyperalgesic responses to mechanical hind-paw stimulation to evaluate concordance between pain behaviors and dorsal-horn cellular changes. Hyperalgesia was no less prevalent or severe after partial than after total axotomy. L(5) spinal-cord sections from rats killed 7 days postoperatively were labeled for markers of primary afferents (substance P calcitonin gene-related peptide isolectin B4, gamma aminobutyric acid, and glial fibrillary acidic protein), then labeled cells were stereologically quantitated in somatotopically defined dorsal-horn regions. Total axotomy reduced markers of primary afferents more than partial axotomy. In contrast, GABA-immunoreactive profiles were similarly reduced after both lesions, and in rats with sensory loss versus hyperalgesia. Numbers of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes increased independently of lesion size and pain status. Small nerve injuries can thus have magnified and disproportionate effects on dorsal-horn neurons and glia, perhaps providing a biological correlate for the disproportionate pain of post-traumatic neuralgias (including complex regional pain syndrome-I) that follow seemingly minor nerve injuries. However, the presence of similar dorsal-horn changes in rats without pain behaviors suggests that not all transcellular responses to axotomy are pain-specific. PMID:18992304
Lee, J W; Siegel, S M; Oaklander, A L
Twenty-four flexor carpi radialis (FCR) tendon interposition arthroplasties of the trapezium for bilateral trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis were reviewed. Pain was reduced in all cases. Function was improved in all right hands and in 92% of the left hands. FCR tendon interposition arthroplasty for bilateral trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis yields satisfactory long-term results on both sides.
A. Damen; B. Van Der Lei; P. H. Robinson
A recent trend has been the implantation of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) for children with severe to profound hearing loss. A review of available research on bilateral CIs was conducted to determine the support for this trend. A replicable review was undertaken to evaluate published research studies that examined the effectiveness of bilateral paediatric cochlear implantation. Databases, reference lists, and journals were searched for relevant documents using a pre-determined search protocol. Twenty-nine articles met the review's inclusion criteria and were retrieved and reviewed. This review adds to the previously published reviews on the topic by identifying additional paediatric studies. Sound localization and speech recognition in noise appear to be improved with bilateral compared to unilateral cochlear implants. Similarly, evoked potential measures suggest improved morphology when the second CI is implanted early. Well-designed and controlled studies that explore a variety of outcomes including cost-effectiveness, quality of life, speech, language, and psycho-educational measures should be further explored in order to provide additional support for parents and clinicians confronted with the bilateral cochlear implant decision. PMID:19382017
Johnston, J Cyne; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Angus, Douglas; O'Connor, Annette; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth
Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is widely accepted as a safe and minimally-invasive procedure. Although it is a standard procedure for the surgical treatment of adrenal tumors, its simultaneous use with bilateral adrenalectomy is relatively rare. A 21-year-old woman was referred to Hamamatsu University School of Medicine University Hospital complaining of a deepening voice, hirsutism and secondary amenorrhea. Abdominal computed tomography showed bilateral adrenal tumors, and hormonal examinations showed that the tumors secreted excessive testosterone, resulting in virilizing symptoms. Laparoscopic simultaneous bilateral adrenalectomy was carried out. Postoperatively, serum testosterone levels immediately recovered to within the normal range. Menstruation began the month after the operation, and the hirsutism gradually regressed. This is the third reported case of bilateral virilizing adrenal tumors, and the first to be successfully treated with laparoscopic simultaneous bilateral adrenalectomy. PMID:23601096
Suzuki, Takahisa; Furuse, Hiroshi; Kurita, Yutaka; Ushiyama, Tomomi; Mugiya, Soichi; Ozono, Seiichiro; Oki, Yutaka
A 47-year-old woman with postural headache, episodic stupor, and vertical gaze palsy had brain imaging findings consistent with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH), including severe descent of the mesodiencephalic structures and diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. The source of the cerebrospinal fluid leakage was a ruptured dorsal perineural cyst. Clinical symptoms improved after a targeted epidural blood patch was performed. Dorsal midbrain syndrome has not been reported previously as a manifestation of SIH. Perhaps distortion of structures in this brain region can occur in SIH as it does in obstructive hydrocephalus. PMID:19145127
Fedi, Marco; Cantello, Roberto; Shuey, Neil H; Mitchell, L Anne; Comi, Cristoforo; Monaco, Francesco; Versino, Maurizio
The extensor medii proprius (EMP) is anomalous extensor muscle of the hand. During the routine dissection of a 78-year-old Chinese male cadaver, bilateral EMP and extensor indicis proprius (EIP) were observed in the upper limbs. The EMP originated from the distal third of the ulna and its tendon was inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger on both hands. The tendon of EIP was split into two slips on the dorsum of hand and inserted to the radial and ulnar side of the extensor digitorium communis (EDC)-index, respectively. Awareness of such anatomical variations in the extensor compartment of the forearm could help in the identification and repair of these structures. PMID:24068417
Li, Jing; Ren, Zhen Feng
Introduction. Bilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a rare condition, representing less than 2% of all cases of FNP. Majority of these patients have underlying medical conditions, ranging from neurologic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, or metabolic disorders. Objective. The differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive and hence can present as a diagnostic challenge. Emergency physicians should be aware of these various diagnostic possibilities, some of which are potentially fatal. Case Report. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with sequential bilateral facial nerve paralysis which could not be attributed to any particular etiology and, hence, presented a diagnostic dilemma. Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant. PMID:23326715
Pothiawala, Sohil; Lateef, Fatimah
A 39-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of headache, dizziness, nausea, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus, and hearing loss in both ears for 3 weeks. Physical examination revealed edema in the tympanic membrane and external ear canal, and pain by palpation in the mastoid area bilaterally. There was no nystagmus, and the rest of the physical examination was otherwise normal. Temporal bone high resolution computed tomography (CT) showed a lesion causing erosion in the mastoid cortex, tegmen tympani, ossicles, and in the bone covering the sigmoid sinus bilaterally. There was also erosion in the superior semicircular canal and petrous bone on the left side. Cortical mastoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic examination of the tissue revealed Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). In this paper a case with LCH, presenting with bilateral mastoid involvement which has been rarely reported in the literature, is discussed with the existing literature. PMID:23841005
Bozdemir, Kaz?m; Tarlak, Behçet; Cakar, Hasan; Doblan, Ahmet; Kutluhan, Ahmet; Dilek, Imdat; Ad?yaman Süngü, Nuran
Fatal bronchial asthma is classically characterized in pathology textbooks and journal articles as associated with lung hyperinflation at autopsy. The following is a report of a case of fatal bronchial asthma associated instead with bilateral lung collapse. This manifestation of asthma at autopsy has not been previously reported, to my knowledge. A 31-year-old man with a history of recurrent asthma was found in an unresponsive state in his automobile after a low-speed collision. Medical personnel during the resuscitation noted a decrease in breath sounds bilaterally and some wheezing. There was no escaping air with needle thoracostomies at the outset. Cardiac monitoring demonstrated pulseless electrical activity during most of the 30-minute resuscitation attempt. An autopsy disclosed collapsed lungs bilaterally. Microscopic examination of the lungs disclosed the characteristic histopathologic features of bronchial asthma. PMID:21030852
Young, Thomas W
A 58-year-old-man presented with painful rapidly progressive bilateral proptosis with restricted ocular movements of 15 days duration. There was history of significant weight loss in the recent past. Computed tomography scan of the head and orbit revealed bilateral multiple, well-defined, round, soft tissue masses, isointense with muscles in intraconal and extraconal space. Fine needle aspiration cytology and incision biopsy from the lesion, urine for Bence-Jones proteins and immunofixation clinched the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Skeletal survey did not reveal any bony involvement. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma should be kept in mind in cases of bilateral proptosis. Bony involvement is not universal in cases of orbital myeloma. Early diagnosis can be established with extensive biochemical and histopathological investigations and timely treatment is life saving for these patients.
Malik, Archana; Narang, Subina; Handa, Uma; Sood, Sunandan
Acupuncture at some specific acupoints of Foot Yangming can regulate gastric activity. However, its precise mechanism remains unknown. In our study, the effects and mechanism of electro-acupuncture (EA) at Tsusanli (ST 36), Shangchuhsu (ST 37) on the regulation of gastric activity were observed. EA at Tsusanli showed that gastric electric change had a significantly higher frequency and wave amplitude as compared to that of the Shangchuhsu group and other groups. EA at Shangchuhsu demonstrated the change of gastric electric was greater than that of the non-acupoint group and the control group. After bilateral vagotomy, the change of electro gastric graph (EGG) of EA at Tsusanlis was not significant compared to the control group. In the mean time, we have observed the electric discharge of the neurons in NTS and DMV. The frequency of electro-physiological activity in nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) in Tsusanli group and Shangchuhsu group were markedly increased compared with that in other groups. The results have indicated that EA at Tsusanli and Shangchuhsu not only regulate gastric activity, but also activate neurons in NTS and DMV significantly. Our study suggests that the effect of EA at Tsusanli and Shangchuhsu on the gastric activity may partially depend upon integrated nerve pathway and related central neurons in dorsal vagal complex. PMID:17597504
Wang, Jing-Jie; Ming, Qin; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Yu-Xin; Chen, Liang-Wei; Qiu, Jian-Yong; Duan, Li; Cao, Rong; Rao, Zhi-Ren
The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been consistently implicated in cognitive control processes. Many studies have found higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left anterior cingulum bundle (aCB) than in the right. However, the asymmetry of gray matter density (GMD) is not clear. Using multiple modalities of MRI, we investigated both FA and GMD in the dACC in two independent groups of healthy participants (50 per group, 18-24 years old, half males and half females). Consistent with previous findings, the mean FA of the left aCB was significantly higher than that of the right. Males showed higher FA in the bilateral aCB than females. Voxel-based analysis of GMD in the dACC presented a region-specific significant asymmetry: right > left in the lower part (around callosal sulcus) but left > right in the upper part (around cingulate sulcus). No significant sex effect was found for GMD in the dACC. All these results were almost the same across the two independent groups. The complex pattern of asymmetry in GMD may imply highly differentiated functions of the dACC. Future fine-scale structural and diffusion MRI studies and a battery of cognitive behavioral measurements are needed to fully elucidate the asymmetry of the dACC. PMID:23055047
Wang, Jue; Liu, Dong-Qiang; Zhang, Han; Zhu, Wei-Xuan; Dong, Zhang-Ye; Zang, Yu-Feng
Hypertrophic olivary degeneration resulting from lesions of the dento-rubro-olivary pathway, also called Guillain-Mollaret-triangle, has been described previously in a number of cases. Reports about bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration of the inferior olivary nuclei are very limited, and the magnetic resonance imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease have not yet been described to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we present the first report of bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging in a patient suffering from Wilson disease.
Guenther, Peter; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus
Recent publications have alerted clinicians to a syndrome of uveitic transilluminating iris depigmentation associated with systemic fluoroquinolones and other antibiotics. Bilateral acute iris transillumination, which is associated with loss of the iris pigment epithelium and results in iris transillumination, differs from the previously described bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris, which is associated with atrophy of the iris stroma without transillumination. We present a case of fluoroquinolone-associated uveitis with anterior segment optical coherence tomography imaging to highlight some observations about this syndrome. We interpret pharmacokinetic data to help explain why oral, but not topical, moxifloxacin may cause fluoroquinolone-associated uveitis.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant lethal tumour with high potential of metastasis. However, metastasis from RCC to the skin is much less common. It is virtually a sign of poor prognosis. We represent a 42 years old man with bilateral RCC of clear cell type followed by metastasis to the scalp one month later. In this case the relatively young age of the patient, bilaterality of RCC and occurance of skin metastasis in the absence of recurrent kidney tumour are interesting. PMID:23865145
Abbasi, Fariba; Alizadeh, Mansur; Noroozinia, Farahnaz; Moradi, Amin
Dissection of a renal artery is rare and is usually associated with underlying arterial disease. Bilateral renal artery dissection following extreme exertion is exceptionally uncommon, and thus presents a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a middle-aged, otherwise healthy man who presented to the hospital with left flank pain after a long bicycling trip. Initial laboratory tests and urinalysis were normal. Careful review of a contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiogram (CTA) with 3D reconstruction revealed bilateral segmental renal artery dissection and thrombosis with corresponding renal infarcts. He was treated medically and rapidly recovered. PMID:21955870
Baroudi, S; Bastani, B; Balci, N; Bieneman, B K; Sobti, P; Kudva, G C
The dorsal hippocampus is crucial for mammalian spatial memory, but its exact role in item memory is still hotly debated. Recent evidence in humans suggested that the hippocampus might be selectively involved in item short-term memory to deal with an increasing memory load. In this study, we sought to test this hypothesis. To this aim we developed…
Sannino, Sara; Russo, Fabio; Torromino, Giulia; Pendolino, Valentina; Calabresi, Paolo; De Leonibus, Elvira
Effect's of Danazol use on the viability of dorsal rat flap Repaire of large skin defects is one of the most challenging problem on reconstructive surgery. As known that, the most suitable functional and aesthetic way for flaps are preferrable for aesthetic and functional results. But flaps which used for large skin defects lenght are limited. When the flap's height
Altan Yüceta; Mehmet Bozkurt; Emin Kapõ; Nihal Kõlõnç
Compulsive overconsumption of reward characterizes disorders ranging from binge eating to drug addiction. Here, we provide evidence that enkephalin surges in an anteromedial quadrant of dorsal neostriatum contribute to generating intense consumption of palatable food. In ventral striatum, mu opioid circuitry contributes an important component of motivation to consume reward. In dorsal neostriatum, mu opioid receptors are concentrated within striosomes that receive inputs from limbic regions of prefrontal cortex. We employed advanced opioid microdialysis techniques that allow detection of extracellular enkephalin levels. Endogenous >150% enkephalin surges in anterior dorsomedial neostriatum were triggered as rats began to consume palatable chocolates. In contrast, dynorphin levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, a causal role for mu opioid stimulation in overconsumption was demonstrated by observations that microinjection in the same anterior dorsomedial quadrant of a mu receptor agonist ([D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin; DAMGO) generated intense >250% increases in intake of palatable sweet food (without altering hedonic impact of sweet tastes). Mapping by "Fos plume" methods confirmed the hyperphagic effect to be anatomically localized to the anteromedial quadrant of the dorsal neostriatum, whereas other quadrants were relatively ineffective. These findings reveal that opioid signals in anteromedial dorsal neostriatum are able to code and cause motivation to consume sensory reward. PMID:23000149
DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G; Mabrouk, Omar S; Kennedy, Robert T; Berridge, Kent C
Excitation of dorsal neck motoneurones evoked by electrical stimulation of primary trigeminal afferents in the Gasserian ganglion has been investigated with intracellular recording from a-motoneurones in the cat. Single stimulation in the Gasserian ganglion ipsi-and contralateral to the recording side evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurones innervating the lateral head flexor muscle splenius (SPL) and the head elevator muscles
B. Alstermark; M. J. Pinter; S. Sasaki; B. Tantisira
Summary Compulsive over-consumption of rewards characterizes disorders ranging from binge eating to drug addiction. Here, we provide evidence that enkephalin surges in an anteromedial quadrant of dorsal neostriatum contribute to generating intense consumption of palatable food. In ventral striatum, mu opioid circuitry contributes an important component of motivation to consume rewards [1–4]. In dorsal neostriatum, mu opioid receptors are concentrated within striosomes that receive inputs from limbic regions of prefrontal cortex [5–13]. We employed advanced opioid microdialysis techniques that allow detection of extracellular enkephalin levels. Endogenous >150% enkephalin surges in anterior dorsomedial neostriatum were triggered as rats began to consume palatable chocolates. By contrast, dynorphin levels remained unchanged. Further, a causal role for mu opioid stimulation in over-consumption was demonstrated by observations that microinjection in the same anterior dorsomedial quadrant of a mu receptor agonist (DAMGO) generated intense >250% increases in intake of palatable sweet food (without altering hedonic impact of sweet tastes). Mapping by “Fos plume” methods confirmed the hyperphagic effect to be anatomically localized to the anterior medial quadrant of the dorsal neostriatum, whereas other quadrants were relatively ineffective. These findings reveal that opioid signals in anteromedial dorsal neostriatum are able to code and cause motivation to consume sensory rewards.
DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kennedy, Robert T.; C. Berridge, Kent
Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging facial aesthetic procedures. Achieving a desirable result depends on correct planning and execution and the tissue characteristics of the patient. Dorsal augmentation has been performed extensively using cartilage grafts harvested from the septum, alar cartilage, conchal artilage and costal cartilages as well as from bone harvested from the ilium or tibia. Carved or
S. Richardson; N. A. Agni; Z. Pasha
|The dorsal hippocampus is crucial for mammalian spatial memory, but its exact role in item memory is still hotly debated. Recent evidence in humans suggested that the hippocampus might be selectively involved in item short-term memory to deal with an increasing memory load. In this study, we sought to test this hypothesis. To this aim we…
Sannino, Sara; Russo, Fabio; Torromino, Giulia; Pendolino, Valentina; Calabresi, Paolo; De Leonibus, Elvira
The living members of the clade Archosauria, crocodilians and birds, differ markedly in the morphology of their deep dorsal thigh muscles. To investigate whether this diversity is accompanied by differences in motor pattern and muscle function, the hindlimbs of representative archosaurs were studied by electromyography and cineradiography during terrestrial locomotion. In a crocodilian, Alligator, the iliofemoralis and pubo-ischio-femoralis internus part 2 are both active during the swing phase of the stride cycle. This appears to be the primitive motor pattern for archosaurs. There are four avian homologues of these muscles in the helmeted guineafowl, Numida. These are primarily active in the propulsive phase (iliotrochantericus caudalis and iliotrochantericus medius), the swing phase (iliotrochantericus cranialis) and a speed-dependent combination of the propulsive and/or swing phases (iliofemoralis externus). Differences between Alligator and Numida in the number and attachment of deep dorsal muscles are associated with dissimilar motor patterns and functions. Evolutionary modifications of neuromuscular control must be recognized when evaluating avian locomotor history, but are rarely considered by paleontologists. Even within the deep dorsal thigh muscles of Numida, developmentally and anatomically similar muscles are active out-of-phase. Therefore, although the actions of two adjacent muscles appear equivalent, their functions may differ dramatically. The diversity of deep dorsal thigh muscles in modern birds may be a good model for studying the relationship between activity pattern and peripheral morphology. PMID:8306187
Gatesy, S M
Soft tissue defects of hand with exposed tendons, joints, nerves and bone represent a challenge to plastic surgeons. Such defects necessitate early flap coverage to protect underlying vital structures, preserve hand functions and to allow for early rehabilitation. Becker and Gilbert described flap based on the dorsal branch of the ulnar artery for defects around the wrist. We evaluated the use of a dorsal ulnar artery island flap in patients with soft tissue defects of hand. Twelve patients of soft tissue defects of hand underwent dorsal ulnar artery island flap between August 2006 and May 2008. In 10 male and 2 female patients this flap was used to reconstruct defects of the palm, dorsum of hand and first web space. Ten flaps survived completely. Marginal necrosis occurred in two flaps. In one patient suturing was required after debridement and in other patient wound healed by secondary intention. The final outcome was satisfactory. Donor areas which were skin grafted, healed with acceptable cosmetic results. The dorsal ulnar artery island flap is convenient, reliable, and easy to manage and is a single-stage technique for reconstructing soft tissue defects of the palm, dorsum of hand and first web space. Donor site morbidity is minimal, either closed primarily or covered with split thickness skin graft.
Khan, Manal M.; Yaseen, Mohd.; Bariar, L. M.; Khan, Sheeraz M.
Portal hypertension secondary to cirrhosis of the liver is the main factor leading to the formation of portosystemic collaterals. The sites of such collateral circulation are well known. We describe a case of haemoptysis from dorsal tongue base varices, which are not recognised as portosystemic anastomosis, in a cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension. PMID:11822098
Castiglione, U; Curcio, M; Salvaggio, S; Vancheri, F
Release of serotonin (5-HT) from dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neurons projecting to the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) has a modulatory effect on the neural pathway involved in feeding, hunger, and satiety. The obese Zucker rat, an animal model of genetic obesity, exhibits differences in serotonin signaling as well as a mutated leptin receptor. To evaluate possible mechanisms underlying this difference in
P Ohliger-Frerking; B. A Horwitz; J. M Horowitz
A pleural window communicating between bilateral pleural cavities is a serious condition in patients with pneumothorax, allowing air to leak from the affected lung into the contralateral pleural cavity and resulting in bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. We treated a patient with a history of right-sided bullectomy for simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax that subsequently recurred. A pleural window (1 cm long) was detected in the mid-mediastinum, and direct suture closure with localized pleural abrasion using argon beam coagulation on the circumference of the lesion was performed at video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:18355546
Yamada, Shunsuke; Yoshino, Kazuho; Inoue, Hiroshi
Following the injection of a retrograde tracer, gold-conjugated and inactivated wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-apo-HRP-gold), into the dorsal tier of substantia nigra compacta (SNCD), histamine immunostaining was performed for the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) in order to investigate the projection from the TMN to the SNCD. At the rostral pole of the TMN, the retrograde labeling in the dorsomedial subdivision following medial SNCD injections was predominantly ipsilateral (78%), whereas only a few cells were located bilaterally following lateral SNCD injections. Following tracer injections along the medio-lateral location along the SNCD, the labeling at the ventrolateral TMN was bilateral with slightly ipsilateral (58-61%) dominance. At rostral and caudal TMN levels, clusters of labeled neurons were localized within two discrete columns of the ventrolateral TMN. At rostral TMN level, a lateral column of cells was located at the lateral tip of the ventrolateral TMN just medial to the internal capsule, while the medial column was close to the protruded region along the ventral, pial border. At the caudal TMN level, two columns were located on either side of the lateral mammillary nucleus. Taken together, the present study suggests that ventrolateral as well as dorsomedial TMN might provide arousal-related information to medial, intermediate, and lateral regions of the SNCD, which in turn influence extrapyramidal, behavioral functions performed by the substantia nigra compacta. PMID:18313648
Lee, Sat-Byol; Chang, Byung J; Lee, Hyun S
Sialoadenitis is a non-inflammatory condition that affects mainly the parotid, and is characterised by bilateral, painless swelling, which is an appreciable problem in young women. A 28-year-old woman presented with parotid sialoadenitis with masseteric hypertrophy. She was treated by superficial parotidectomy and ostectomy of the mandibular angle and made an uncomplicated recovery. PMID:14649690
Kosaka, Masaaki; Enjo, Mitsuhiro; Kamiishi, Hiroshi
Adrenal infarction is an uncommon cause of adrenal insufficiency. We herein present unique occurrence of bilateral adrenal infarction detected on imaging in a young female with known history of Crohn's disease. The patient responded well to steroids and is on follow up. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in English literature of adrenal infarct associated with Crohn's disease as extraintestinal manifestation.
Khandelwal, Ashish; Krishna, J. Sateesh; Khandelwal, Kanika; Virmani, Vivek; Ryan, John
On November 2006, a bilateral hand allotransplantation was performed for a 47-year-old female who had suffered radiocarpal amputations 28 years before. Technical aspects of the operation are detailed. Alemtuzumab induction, and triple therapy of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone were used to control rejection. The evolution of the result and functioning at 20 months are presented in detail. Two acute
P. C. CAVADAS; L. LANDIN; J. IBAÑEZ
In this technical note, the use of desmopressin to stimulate pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in place of the commercially available corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling is described. Although the use of CRH is the standard of practice, it is currently unavailable in the USA and desmopressin provides reliable results with no additional observed side effects. PMID:22735860
Deipolyi, Amy R; Hirsch, Joshua A; Oklu, Rahmi
We present a patient with bilateral scalp necrosis caused by giant cell arteritis (temporal arteritis). A 67-year-old woman, who had been treated with 5 mg of oral prednisolone every other day for polymyalgia rheumatica, developed painful egg-sized regions of necrosis on both of her temples. Doppler pulsemetory revealed bilateral obstruction of the temporal arteries. Biopsy revealed ischemic necrosis of the skin and necrotic angiitis of the temporal arteries with giant cell infiltration. Bilateral stenosis of the internal carotid arteries and moderate retinal bleeding were revealed by angiography. Daily administration of prednisolone (20 mg/day) with intravenous and topical limaprost alphadex markedly improved her condition. The ulcers reepithelized without surgical treatment. There are few reports of bilateral scalp necrosis. Rapid and complete obstruction of the temporal artery may result in this condition. Simultaneous development of two ulcerative lesions in the ventro-parietal cranial regions is thought to correspond to systemic arterial involvement, including involvement of the internal carotid arteries. PMID:12692357
Matsushima, Midori; Yamanaka, Keiichi; Mori, Hitoshi; Murakami, Takaaki; Hakamada, Arata; Isoda, Ken-ichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi
Thoracic bilateral paravertebral block is a technique commonly used in the ambulatory setting for numerous plastic surgery procedures. Paravertebral block has not been reported with abdominoplasty surgery. This case series explores this anesthetic technique in the inpatient and day patient setting. PMID:18346612
Rudkin, Glenda E; Gardiner, Sarah E; Cooter, Rodney D
We report here a case study of a rare neurological patient with bilateral brain damage encompassing a substantial portion of the so-called “limbic system.” The patient, Roger, has been studied in our laboratory for over 14 years, and the current article presents his complete neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profiles. The brain damage occurred in 1980 following an episode of herpes simplex
Justin S. Feinstein; David Rudrauf; Sahib S. Khalsa; Martin D. Cassell; Joel Bruss; Thomas J. Grabowski; Daniel Tranel
For most of the past half-century, Western Pacific countries largely eschewed preferential trade agreements. Their preferred form of trade liberalisation was unilateral action on a non-discriminatory basis. In the past four years, however, more than 20 preferential schemes involving two or more Western Pacific countries have been put forward. The new interest in bilateralism is explained by: an increasing awareness
Agenesis and hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare congenital anomalies, occurring in less than 0.01% of the population. We report a rare case of bilateral hypoplasia of the ICA in a patient with post-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe the embryological development of the cerebral vasculature and present a review of literature. PMID:22223934
Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Somanna, Sampath; Kovoor, Jerry Me
Botulinum toxin is a new and innovative method of treating bilateral masseteric hypertrophy which offers many advantages over conventional surgical treatment. Experience gained through the successful use of this drug when given as an intramuscular injection is reported. No significant side-effects have occurred and this technique is recommended for the routine treatment of masseteric hypertrophy. PMID:8136335
Smyth, A G
Vascular anomalies and variants are common in patients undergoing imaging studies, and patients with these anomalies are generally asymptomatic. Remnants of fetal carotid-basilar circulation are rarely identified. We report a rare case of persistent type 2 bilateral proatlantal arteries, in which the patient presented with dizziness.
Zarghouni, Mehrzad; Marichal, Daniel
The computed tomographic (CT) features of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis are reported in two cases that demonstrate two typical different clinical and morphological manifestations of the disease. The incidence and CT appearance of adrenal tuberculosis are discussed, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
Wilms, G.E. (Katholicke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium); Baert, A.L.; Kint, E.J.; Pringot, J.H.; Goddeeris, P.G.
A 64-year-old patient experienced palsy of the right spinal accessory nerve after rhytidectomy. She was evaluated 6 months after surgery for unexplained shoulder pain and weakness since the procedure. Electrophysiological testing showed bilateral spinal nerve palsy without abnormalities in the other shoulder nerves. The electrophysiological findings supported entrapment as the mechanism, rather than nerve section or pure axonal disease due to
Paul Seror; Henri Lellouche
In human decision making behaviors, people rely on random selection processes, such as flipping a coin, to handle a situation that involves so much uncertainty that it subsequently becomes difficult for them to rationally judge a decision. For bilateral multi-issue negotiations, given even bargaining power and two-sided uncertainty, negotiators are often faced with difficult decisions that cannot be handled through
Raymund J. Lin; Seng-cho Timothy Chou
Lemierre syndrome is an uncommon septic thrombophlebitis of the veins of the head and the neck usually occurring after a severe oropharyngeal infection. Although subsequent septic emboli most commonly affect distant sites, such as the lungs and joints, the authors present a case of Lemierre syndrome causing bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome. PMID:22868639
Miller, Brooke; Khalifa, Yousuf; Feldon, Steven E; Friedman, Deborah I
Supernumerary teeth are defined as the teeth developed in excess of the number found in a normal dentition. Supernumerary canine is an extremely rare finding particularly in the mandible. This case report presents a 25-year-old female patient with the unique feature of bilateral mandibular supplemental supernumerary canines. The patient was non-syndromic without any other supernumerary teeth.
Abouei Mehrizi, Ehsan; Semyari, Hassan; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza
Several types of learning and memory processes are regulated by the hippocampus which is an important subcortical structure in the mammalians' brain. Previous investigations have shown that different receptor systems in the CA1 region of hippocampus are involved in learning and memory functions. Investigating the possible influence of dorsal hippocampal GABA-A receptors on histamine-induced spatial facilitation in adult male Wistar rats was the focus of the current study. Rats were bilaterally implanted with dorsal hippocampal (CA1) cannulae, recovered from surgery and then trained in Morris water maze (MWM) for 4 consecutive days. A block of four trials was given each day. All drugs were injected into CA1 regions, 5min before training. Pre-training intra-CA1 microinjection of muscimol, a GABA-A receptor agonist, at the dose of 0.01 or 0.02?g/rat, increased the traveled distance or the escape latency and traveled distance to the hidden platform, respectively, indicating a water maze spatial acquisition impairment. Intra-CA1 administration of bicuculline, a GABA-A receptor antagonist however, significantly decreased the escape latency and traveled distance to the hidden platform, suggesting a spatial learning facilitation. On the other hand, pre-training intra-CA1 microinjection of the subthreshold dose of muscimol plus different doses of histamine (0.025, 0.05 and 0.1?g/rat) did not alter the histamine response. Meanwhile, the co-administration of the ineffective dose of bicuculline together with histamine potentiated the spatial learning. Moreover, bilateral infusion of histamine (0.025, 0.05 and 0.1?g/rat) by itself, facilitated the spatial learning. Notably, the drug injections had no effect on swimming speed during the MWM training sessions. Our results suggest that the dorsal hippocampal (CA1) GABA-A mechanism(s) may influence the histamine-induced facilitation of spatial acquisition. PMID:23438692
Torkaman-Boutorabi, Anahita; Soltani, Sara; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza
Expression of bradykinin receptors was analyzed in freshly isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons of the ipsi- and contralateral segments L4/L5, L2/L3, and T12/T13 two to twenty days after unilateral injury of the adult rat sciatic nerve using gold labeled bradykinin. The number of infiltrating leucocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Sciatic nerve injury transiently increased the proportion of neurons expressing bradykinin receptors not only in the ipsilateral ganglia L4/L5, but also in the homonymous contralateral ganglia and also bilaterally in the adjacent ganglia L2/L3. Neurons of the ganglia T12/T13 were not affected. The time course of upregulation was different between neurons of the injured nerve and uninjured ones. Furthermore, the proportion of neurons expressing a high density of receptors increased also bilaterally in ganglia L4/L5 and L2/L3. As on the ipsilateral side, the increase in neurons expressing bradykinin receptors in the contralateral homonymous ganglia was due to an induction of the B1 receptor subtype and an upregulation of the B2 subtype. As a possible source for stimulating factors for induction of bradykinin receptors the number of macrophages and lymphocytes was investigated two to twenty days after nerve ligation. No increase was observed prior to day ten and only in ipsilateral ganglia L4/L5, not contralaterally and not in adjacent ganglia L2/L3 and T12/T13. The experiments show that the induction of bradykinin receptors following a unilateral nerve lesion is not restricted to neurons projecting into the damaged nerve but is (i) bilateral, (ii) different in time course between injured and uninjured neurons, and (iii) locally confined to neurons of the adjacent ganglia. Macrophages and lymphocytes are increased after ten day ligation only in the affected ganglia and are probably not involved in the induction of bradykinin receptors. PMID:10568857
Eckert, A; Segond von Banchet, G; Sopper, S; Petersen, M
There is concern about safety of bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA).This study aims to compare in-hospital complication rates between unilateral, simultaneous and staged bilateral THAs. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002-2010 was used. Patients and complications were identified using ICD-9-CM codes. In multivariate analysis, bilateral THA had higher risk of systemic complications (Odds ratio (OR): 2.1, P<0.001) compared to unilateral procedure, whereas no significant difference existed between simultaneous and staged bilateral THAs. The rate of local complications was higher in bilateral versus unilateral (4.96% versus 4.54%, P=0.009) and in staged versus simultaneous bilateral THAs (OR: 1.75, P=0.05). Bilateral THA increases risk of systemic complications compared to unilateral surgery and simultaneous bilateral THA appears to be safer than staging during one hospitalization. PMID:23664280
Rasouli, Mohammad R; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Ross, David; Hozack, William J; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Parvizi, Javad
The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old girl who presented with bilateral hydronephrosis and renal failure secondary to bilateral renal pelvic botryoid Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma). The term 'botryoid' describes an intrapelvic polypoid renal Wilms tumour, either extending from the renal parenchyma or primarily pelvis-based tumour. Both tumours filled the renal pelvis and extended down the proximal ureter, with no intraparenchymal tumour seen. Bilateral intralobar nephrogenic rests were present. Histological examination demonstrated triphasic nephroblastoma, with focal rhabdomyomatous differentiation of the stromal element bilaterally. Postchemotherapy, the patient underwent bilateral nephrectomy. Post complete resection of her bilateral disease, this patient has had an excellent outcome. This is only the third reported case of bilateral botryoid Wilms' tumour. While the condition is extremely rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of a young child with bilateral renal pelvic masses. PMID:22962373
Conlon, Niamh; Teoh, Chia Wei; Pears, Jane; O'Sullivan, Maureen
Five patients aged 55 to 73 years (mean 63 years) underwent one-stage clipping for unruptured aneurysms in the bilateral middle cerebral arteries (mean size 4.5 mm, range 2 to 7 mm) via the bilateral pterional keyhole approach in our institute. Important points are as follows: the head is affixed with no rotation; one side manipulation is started 5 minutes after the other side to avoid conflict of surgical instruments; a 5-cm curvilinear skin incision is made inside the hairline and pterional keyhole craniotomy is made bilaterally using 2 burr holes; the whole operating table is rotated 15 degrees to one side to facilitate the microsurgical trans-sylvian approach and aneurysm clipping; the operating table is rotated to the other side for the contralateral procedure; and particular care is taken to avoid bilateral brain injury. This approach provided minimum but sufficient working space required for trans-sylvian dissection. Aneurysm neck clipping was safely performed in a mean operation time of 5 hours 17 minutes. No complications occurred and satisfactory cosmetic results were obtained in all patients. Postoperative neuroimaging studies exhibited bilateral complete clipping with minimal intracranial air content and minimum consequences of brain retraction. One-stage clipping via the pterional keyhole approach is a safe and effective therapeutic option for small bilateral aneurysms. PMID:23524497
Maruyama, Keisuke; Kurita, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Ryuichi; Noguchi, Akio; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki
This case study describes a 45 year old female with bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss due to Meniere’s disease. She received her first cochlear implant in the right ear in 2008 and the second cochlear implant in the left ear in 2010. The case study examines the enhancement to speech recognition, particularly in noise, provided by bilateral cochlear implants. Speech recognition tests were administered prior to obtaining the second implant and at a number of test intervals following activation of the second device. Speech recognition in quiet and noise as well as localization abilities were assessed in several conditions to determine bilateral benefit and performance differences between ears. The results of the speech recognition testing indicated a substantial improvement in the patient’s ability to understand speech in noise and her ability to localize sound when using bilateral cochlear implants compared to using a unilateral implant or an implant and a hearing aid. In addition, the patient reported considerable improvement in her ability to communicate in daily life when using bilateral implants versus a unilateral implant. This case suggests that cochlear implantation is a viable option for patients who have lost their hearing to Meniere’s disease even when a number of medical treatments and surgical interventions have been performed to control vertigo. In the case presented, bilateral cochlear implantation was necessary for this patient to communicate successfully at home and at work.
Holden, Laura K.; Neely, J. Gail; Gotter, Brenda D.; Mispagel, Karen M.; Firszt, Jill B.
The cellular interactions that control the differentiation of dorsal cell types from neural progenitors have been examined in neural plate explants. Certain genes that are expressed in the dorsal neural tube are initially expressed uniformly within the neural plate and appear to achieve their dorsal restriction through a Sonic hedgehog (SHH)-mediated repressive signal from the notochord. The acquisition of definitive
Karel F Liem; Gabi Tremml; Henk Roelink; Thomas M Jessell
Many developments have taken place in the area of distally based dorsal hand flaps since 1988. This paper reported these developments as well as our clinical experience and cadaveric studies. Thirty-three reverse dorsal metacarpal artery (RDMA) flaps, 11 reverse dorsal digital artery (RDDA) flaps and five extended RDMA flaps done in the Institute for Research and Rehabilitation of Hand, Stanley
Gunasekar Vuppalapati; C. Oberlin; G. Balakrishnan
We examined the fine structure of dorsal rim ommatidia of the compound eye of Pararge aegeria (Lepidoptera: Satyridae) and compared them with ommatidia of the large dorsal region described by Riesenberg (1983 Diploma, University of Munich). 1. The ommatidia of the dorsal rim show morphological specializations known to be typical of the perception of polarized light: (a) the dumb-bell-shaped rhabdoms
Barbara Hämmerle; Gertrud Kolb
Bilateral synchronous breast cancer appears to have a worse prognosis than comparable unilateral breast cancer. HER-2\\/neu expression in bilateral breast cancer has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to review the characteristics\\u000a of patients with bilateral synchronous breast cancer and to report the incidence of HER-2\\/neu overexpression. Between 1984 and 1998, 58 patients were diagnosed with bilateral
Malek Safa; Elyse E. Lower; P. O. Hasselgren; Eric S. Hungness; Paula Gazder; Bernard Aron; Elizabeth A. Shaughnessy; Rawia Yassin
Background Hydatid cyst disease is still a problem in many countries. Surgical removal is currently the generally accepted choice of treatment for lung hydatidosis. However, operating on bilateral widespread lung hydatidosis is still controversial. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment in bilateral multiple hydatid disease of the lung. Methods In this study, we reviewed our experience in the surgical treatment of 17 (3.7%) patients with bilateral, and at least three, lung hydatid cysts. These 17 patients (8 male, 9 female), with an average age of 34.6 years (range 12–58 years), underwent bilateral staged thoracotomy. Results In total 105 lung cysts were removed from 17 patients who underwent staged thoracotomies. The mean count of cysts was 6.7 (range 3–20 cysts). Most of the cysts (38.2%) were located in the right lower lobe. The mean interval between thoracotomies was 4.2 (range 3–5) days. Two patients (11.7%) had cysts associated with hepatic hydatidosis and one (5.8%) had cysts associated with the spleen; they were treated via phrenotomy during thoracotomies. All cysts were removed without lung resection. We observed some complications such as prolonged air leaks (n?=?2), atelectasis (n?=?3) and empyema (n?=?2). No further surgery was required for management of complications. The mean hospital stay was 9.3 days. (range 7–23 days). Oral albendazole was started on the 2nd post operative day after the first thoracotomy in the dose of 10–20 mg/kg and was continued for 3 months with a gap of 1 week after each 21 days. No recurrences or deaths occured during the follow-up period. Conclusions Although staged thoracotomy applied in 3–5 days after the initial thoracotomy increases the total hospital stay, it decreases the chance of possible complications can occur in cysts in the other lung when long intervals are preferred between the first and the second thoracotomy. In our experience, bilateral staged thoracotomy is an appropriate surgical option because morbidity rates are minimal and the hospital stay is acceptable for the treatment of bilateral widespread lung hydatidosis, even in patients who had a total of 20 hydatid cysts.
Spinal nociception can be facilitated by 5-HT2 receptors in neuropathic pain. We investigated the involvement of glutamate receptors in dorsal neuron hyperexcitation that is promoted by 5-HT2B receptor (5-HT2BR) after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in the rat. Augmentation of C-fiber-evoked potentials by spinal superfusion with 5-HT2BR agonist BW 723C86 in nerve-ligated rats was impeded by co-administration of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist D-AP5, but not by mGluR1/5 antagonist AIDA or mGluR2/3 antagonist LY 341495. Evoked potentials were increased by cis-ACPD in nerve-injured rats, irrespective of simultaneous 5-HT2BR blockade by SB204741. In uninjured rats, NMDAR agonist cis-ACPD enhanced evoked potentials in the presence of BW 723C86 but not if administered alone or during exposure to protein kinase C ? (PKC?) inhibitor peptide. Triple immunofluorescence labelings revealed co-localization of NMDAR and 5-HT2BR in PKC?-expressing perikarya in lamina II neurons. As a result of SNL, PKC? was transiently and bilaterally up-regulated in synaptic fraction from dorsal horn homogenates, peaking at day 2 and returning to basal levels by day 9. Chronic blockade of 5-HT2BR with selective antagonist SB 204741 after SNL bilaterally decreased the following: (i) PKC? up-regulation in synaptic fraction, (ii) phosphorylation of NMDAR subunit NR1 (serine 889) in synaptic fraction, and (iii) co-localization of both PKC? and phosphorylated NR1 with postsynaptic marker PSD-95. Chronic delivery of SB 204741 bilaterally attenuated thermal and mechanical allodynia occurring after SNL, particularly at day 2 post injury. These findings suggest that transient activation of the PKC?/NMDAR pathway is critically involved in 5-HT2BR-mediated facilitation in the SNL model of neuropathic pain. PMID:23769718
Aira, Zigor; Buesa, Itsaso; García Del Caño, Gontzal; Bilbao, Juan; Doñate, Francisco; Zimmermann, Manfred; Azkue, Jon Jatsu
Purpose and background: Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion is an extremely rare entity, therefore, studies of the natural history of this disease are lacking in the English literature. The purpose of this study is to analyze the natural history and surgical alternatives for patients with bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Patient population and methods: Twenty-one patients with bilateral internal carotid
A. F AbuRahma; S. E Copeland
A bilateral export demand function is used to estimate the effects on the Chinese bilateral exports of three real exchange rates: (1) bilateral real exchange rate capturing the price-competitiveness of the Chinese products in the market of the considered import country (traditional effect); (2) real effective exchange rate capturing the price-competitiveness of the goods of Chinese competitors in the same
Idiopathic bilateral vestibulopathy (IBV) is an acquired bilateral peripheral vestibular disorder of unknown cause. Three patients diagnosed as IBV by neuro-otological examination were reported. They underwent vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing which reflects the functionality of the sacculo-collic pathway. As a result, 2 of the 3 patients showed bilateral absence of VEMPs and one showed unilateral absence. The VEMPs
Masaki Matsuzaki; Toshihisa Murofushi
BackgroundVertebral artery dissecting aneurysm is now increasingly recognized as a cause of posterior circulation stroke in young adults. Here, we report a case of bilateral VADA with SAH, treated by bilateral coil occlusion using GDCs.
Akihiro Inoue; Kanehisa Kohno; Akihiko Takechi; Keiji Kohno; Toshinori Matsushige; Tetsuji Takeda
In the present study, the effects of bilateral intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) injections of ?2-adrenoceptor agonist and antagonist, on muscimol state-dependent memory were examined in mice. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male NMRI mice. Administration of muscimol (0.1 ?g/mouse, intra-CA1) 15 min before training or testing induced impairment of memory retention. Injection of the same dose of the drug 15 min before testing restored memory retention impaired under pre-training muscimol influence. Pre-test intra-CA1 administration of the ?2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (0.5 and 1 ?g/mouse) impaired memory retention, although the low dose of the drug (0.25 ?g/mouse) did not affect memory retention. Pre-test intra-CA1 administration of the ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 and 2 ?g/mouse) improved memory retention, although the low dose of the drug (0.5 ?g/mouse) did not affect memory retention. In other series of experiments, pre-test co-administration of certain doses of clonidine (0.125 and 0.25 ?g/mouse, intra-CA1), doses which were ineffective when given alone, and muscimol (0.1 ?g/mouse, intra-CA1) significantly inhibited muscimol state-dependent memory. Pre-test intra-CA1 administration of certain doses of yohimbine (0.25 and 0.5 ?g/mouse), doses which were ineffective when given alone, improved pre-training muscimol (0.1 ?g/mouse)-induced retrieval impairment. Moreover, pre-test co-administration of yohimbine (0.25 and 0.5 ?g/mouse, intra-CA1) and muscimol (0.025 ?g/mouse, intra-CA1), an ineffective dose, significantly restored the retrieval and induced muscimol state-dependent memory. It may be concluded that the ?2-adrenoceptors of the dorsal hippocampal area play an important role in muscimol state-dependent memory. PMID:23603244
Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Banafshe, Hamid R; Khodadadnejad, Mohammad-Amin
Severe bilateral cataract was found in a 7 year-old naïve female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) 3 months before necropsy. During macroscopic examination, severe opacity and thinning of the lens were observed in both eyes. Histopathology revealed that the lens nuclei and majority of cortex lens fibers had disappeared and become excavated, while the lens fibers in the subcapsular area were swollen and distorted. Other observations included atrophy and vacuolation in the lens epithelial cells and proliferation of spindle cells and collagen fiber beneath the anterior capsule of the right eye. Immunohistochemical staining of these spindle cells revealed the presence of vimentin, cytokeratin and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), which were considered to be derived from lens epithelial cells. This is a rare case of spontaneous, bilateral, hypermature cataract in a cynomolgus monkey.
Sasaki, Yuji; Kodama, Rinya; Iwashige, Shuichiro; Fujishima, Junko; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Kamimura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Hiroshi
Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a rare malformation consisting of aberrant lung tissue which is not affiliated with the normal bronchial system and is fed by an aberrant artery that derives from systemic arteries. However, PS is usually seen unilaterally but, only rarely, it is bilateral. Most patients with PS are diagnosed because of symptoms due to pulmonary infection or cardiac disease, while a small portion of patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. In this report, we present an extremely rare case of asymptomatic bilateral PS which was diagnosed at advanced age. To our knowledge, this case represents the oldest patient in the literature, and the second case that was diagnosed in a patient over the age of 50.
Breast masses have a variety of benign and malignant etiologies. We present the case of a 28-year-old woman with bilateral large painful breast masses that developed rapidly in the three weeks before first presentation. Further investigation revealed bilateral ovarian masses. Biopsies of both ovarian masses were taken, and the pathology reported Burkitt's lymphoma. Additional staging with a PET scan was suggestive of bone marrow involvement, but bone marrow biopsy was negative. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid did not identify malignant cells. The patient underwent CODOX-M/IVAC chemotherapy, and a complete response was demonstrated after one cycle of treatment. Six months after finishing chemotherapy the patient remained in complete remission. To our knowledge this is the first case reporting simultaneous involvement of breast, ovaries, and bones in Burkitt's lymphoma. Gynecologists and oncologists should be aware of this pattern. Polychemotherapy treatment must be initiated rapidly with curative intent.
Sartorius, Gideon; Kalf, Katrin; Heinzelmann, Viola
Breast masses have a variety of benign and malignant etiologies. We present the case of a 28-year-old woman with bilateral large painful breast masses that developed rapidly in the three weeks before first presentation. Further investigation revealed bilateral ovarian masses. Biopsies of both ovarian masses were taken, and the pathology reported Burkitt's lymphoma. Additional staging with a PET scan was suggestive of bone marrow involvement, but bone marrow biopsy was negative. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid did not identify malignant cells. The patient underwent CODOX-M/IVAC chemotherapy, and a complete response was demonstrated after one cycle of treatment. Six months after finishing chemotherapy the patient remained in complete remission. To our knowledge this is the first case reporting simultaneous involvement of breast, ovaries, and bones in Burkitt's lymphoma. Gynecologists and oncologists should be aware of this pattern. Polychemotherapy treatment must be initiated rapidly with curative intent. PMID:24066248
Thieringer, Friederike; Sartorius, Gideon; Kalf, Katrin; Heinzelmann, Viola; Vetter, Marcus
Unilateral and bilateral sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocations are rare injuries. The difficulty in assessing this condition often leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report a rare case of bilateral asymmetrical traumatic SCJ dislocations in a 45-year-old male. The right anterior SCJ dislocation was reduced in the emergency room (ER) and resulted in residual instability. The left posterior SCJ dislocation was asymptomatic and unnoticed for six months. It is important for ER physicians and orthopaedic surgeons to be able identify and treat this condition. All suspected SCJ dislocations should be evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan for confirmation of the diagnosis and evaluation of both SCJs. Posterior SCJ dislocation is a potentially fatal injury and should not be overlooked due to the presence of other injuries. Surgical intervention is often necessary in acute and old cases.
Albarrag, Mohammed K.
A 33-year-old primiparous woman at 31 weeks gestation with no prior history of ocular disease, autoimmune disease, or recent viral infection presented with rapidly decreasing visual acuity to 20/400 OD and counting fingers OS over 11 days. MRI demonstrated mild bilateral optic nerve enhancement. Humphrey 30-2 visual field testing showed bilateral seco-central scotomas. MR venogram, visual evoked potentials, preeclampsia workup, and serum blood tests for folate, B6, B12, Toxoplasmosis, Bartonella, Lyme disease, ACE levels, RPR, and LFTs were all within normal limits. After one-time treatment of IV 125?mg methylprednisolone and spinal tap, visual acuity improved to 20/20 OD and 20/20 OS. PMID:23305442
Liu, Tiffany S; Crow, Robert W
Three patients developed bilateral breast cancer at 10 to 24 years after mantle irradiation for locally or systemically advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD). Four of the six cancers in the three patients were detected only by mammography. Pathologically, five of the cancers were intraductal carcinomas (four with an invasive component) with one being a lobular carcinoma. Five of the six lesions were Stage I pathologically without evidence of axillary nodal involvement. It is recommended that female patients with Hodgkin's disease who have received mantle irradiation as part of the therapy for their Hodgkin's disease and who are observed for 10 or more years after completion of mantle irradiation be considered at risk for the development of breast cancer. Such patients should be monitored appropriately by routine bilateral mammograms to increase the early detection of early stage lesions.
Anderson, N.; Lokich, J. (New England Baptist Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))
Although single-incision laparoscopic surgery made an appearance on the surgical scene only recently, it is being increasingly applied in the treatment of a variety of disorders. We report single-incision bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy and salpingooophorectomy performed in two patients who had previously undergone breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer. Each procedure was undertaken using two 5-mm and one 3-mm ports inserted through a 2-cm transverse supraumbilical incision and standard laparoscopic instruments. The operative time was 50 and 65 min respectively and the blood loss negligible. The patients were discharged 36 and 24 h after surgery, required minimal postoperative analgesia and remain well at a follow up of 19 and 17 months, respectively. With the benefit of improved cosmesis, the single-incision approach holds the potential to replace the traditional bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy.
Bhandarkar, Deepraj; Katara, Avinash; Deshmane, Vinay; Mittal, Gaurav; Udwadia, Tehemton E
Studies on visually deprived individuals provide one of the most striking demonstrations that the brain is highly plastic and is able to rewire as a function of the sensory input it receives from the environment. In the current paper, we focus on spatial abilities that are typically related to the dorsal visual pathway (i.e., spatial/motion processing). Bringing together evidence from cataract-reversal individuals, early- and late-blind individuals and sight-recovery cases of long-standing blindness, we suggest that the dorsal “spatial” pathway is mostly plastic early in life and is then more resistant to subsequent experience once it is set, highlighting some limits of neuroplasticity.
Dormal, Giulia; Lepore, Franco; Collignon, Olivier
Hard metal pneumoconiosis, first described in 1964, is a diffuse disease caused by the inhalation of cobalt particles. The disease can manifest as occupational asthma, interstitial disease or allergic alveolitis. We report the case of a young male, working as a tool sharpener, who presented with dry cough and progressive dyspnea for one year, as well as with spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax at admission. The diagnosis was confirmed by open lung biopsy. PMID:20209319
Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora Carmo; Cardoso, Amanda da Rocha Oliveira; Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus; Queiroz, Maria Conceição de Castro Antonelli Monteiro de; Oliveira, Albino Alegro; Noleto, Tiago Marinho Almeida
Observation of a case of progressive bilateral parietal thinning within a period of 14 years induced us to study skull films of 3,636 consecutive patients. Parietal thinning was found in 86 patients (2.37%). It was more common in women, with a sex ratio of 1:1.9. The mean age of the females was 72 years, and that of the males 63
C.-G. Cederlund; L. Andrén; H. Olivecrona
Morgagni hernia is a rare type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia found in the anterior aspect of the diaphragm. It typically\\u000a presents in the pediatric population and rarely is diagnosed in adults. Only 3% of diaphragmatic hernias are the Morgagni\\u000a type, and only 4% of these are found to present bilaterally. Surgical repair of Morgagni hernia has been performed through\\u000a various
Saurabh Khandelwal; Brant K. Oelschlager
A 32-year-old male who had infective endocarditis complained of photophobia and blurred vision in both eyes. Biomicroscopic examination and fundus examination revealed anterior chamber reaction, vitritis, optic disc swelling, and Roth spots. He was diagnosed with bilateral nongranulomatous uveitis and treated with topical steroid eye drops and posterior sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone. His visual symptoms were resolved within 1 week, and inflammation resolved within 4 weeks after treatment.
Ha, Sang Won; Shin, Jae Pil; Kim, Si Yeol
Odontodysplasia is a rare clinicopathologic condition that has a variety of expressions, including a range of tooth coloration, formation of hypoplastic enamel affecting one or multiple teeth, bizarre radiographic appearance, and delayed eruption of teeth. An unusual case is presented of bilateral regional odontodysplasia associated with a vascular nevus of the face and neck. A review of the etiology with emphasis on the "local circulatory disease" theory is presented. PMID:1667684
Steiman, H R; Cullen, C L; Geist, J R
The human dorsal frontal cortex has been associated with the most sophisticated aspects of cognition, including those that are thought to be especially refined in humans. Here we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) in humans and macaques to infer and compare the organization of dorsal frontal cortex in the two species. Using DW-MRI tractography-based parcellation, we identified 10 dorsal frontal regions lying between the human inferior frontal sulcus and cingulate cortex. Patterns of functional coupling between each area and the rest of the brain were then estimated with fMRI and compared with functional coupling patterns in macaques. Areas in human medial frontal cortex, including areas associated with high-level social cognitive processes such as theory of mind, showed a surprising degree of similarity in their functional coupling patterns with the frontal pole, medial prefrontal, and dorsal prefrontal convexity in the macaque. We failed to find evidence for "new" regions in human medial frontal cortex. On the lateral surface, comparison of functional coupling patterns suggested correspondences in anatomical organization distinct from those that are widely assumed. A human region sometimes referred to as lateral frontal pole more closely resembled area 46, rather than the frontal pole, of the macaque. Overall the pattern of results suggest important similarities in frontal cortex organization in humans and other primates, even in the case of regions thought to carry out uniquely human functions. The patterns of interspecies correspondences are not, however, always those that are widely assumed. PMID:23884933
Sallet, Jérôme; Mars, Rogier B; Noonan, MaryAnn P; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Jbabdi, Saad; O'Reilly, Jill X; Filippini, Nicola; Thomas, Adam G; Rushworth, Matthew F
Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors. PMID:24068810
Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali
Thirty-four patients were operated for dorsal disk pathology by a postero-lateral approach. The first cases have been followed-up for over 4 years and have shown this method to be reliable. When associated with the "harpoon" marker technique, the surgical indications now include not only patients with progressive radiculo-medullary symptoms, but also cases of sudden decompensation and those limited to radicular symptoms. PMID:3434927
Lesoin, F; Kassiotis, P; Leys, D; Pruvo, J P; Clarisse, J; Jomin, M
Object: The purpose of this article was to review the published outcomes after selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for treatment of\\u000a spastic cerebral palsy. Methods: A literature search identified all articles related to outcomes after SDR. The outcomes were reviewed according to a paradigm\\u000a developed by the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR). The quality of the evidence for each
Unusual causes of acute penis, such as the rupture of a superficial vein of the penis, can mimic fractured penis. The diagnosis in such cases is mostly after exploration. The author describes a case where a high index of clinical suspicion led to the diagnosis of the rupture of a superficial dorsal vein of the penis without exploration. The patient had a successful recovery with conservative management. PMID:16409616
Sharma, Gyanendra R
Members of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules are thought to be crucial regulators of tissue patterning and organogenesis. During pancreatic ontogeny N-cadherin is initially expressed in the pancreatic mesenchyme and later in pancreatic endoderm. Analysis of N-cadherin-deficient mice revealed that these mice suffer from selective agenesis of the dorsal pancreas. Further analysis demonstrated that the mechanism for the
Farzad Esni; Bengt R. Johansson; Glenn L. Radice; Henrik Semb
Herpes zoster is a viral disease presenting with vesicular eruptions that are usually preceded by pain and erythema. Herpes zoster can be seen in any dermatome of the body but most commonly appears in the thoracic region. Herpes zoster virus is typically transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The virus remains dormant in the dorsal ganglion of the affected individual throughout his or her lifetime. Herpes zoster reactivation commonly occurs in elderly people due to normal age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication and is defined as persistent pain or dysesthesia 1 month after resolution of the herpetic rash. This article describes a healthy 51-year-old woman who experienced a burning sensation and shooting pain along the ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve. Ten days after the onset of pain, she developed cutaneous vesicular eruption and decreased light-touch sensation. Wrist and fourth and fifth finger range of motion were painful and slightly limited. Muscle strength was normal. Nerve conduction studies indicated an ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve lesion. She was treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and the use of a short-arm resting splint. At 5-month follow-up, she reported no residual pain, numbness, or weakness. Herpes zoster in the upper extremity may be mistaken for entrapment neuropathies and diseases characterized by skin eruptions; ulnar nerve zoster reactivation is rarely seen. The authors report an uncommon ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation. Clinicians should be aware of this virus during patients' initial evaluation. PMID:24025017
Kayipmaz, Murat; Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Kural, Cemal
We report here a case study of a rare neurological patient with bilateral brain damage encompassing a substantial portion of the so-called "limbic system." The patient, Roger, has been studied in our laboratory for over 14 years, and the current article presents his complete neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profiles. The brain damage occurred in 1980 following an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis. The amount of destroyed neural tissue is extensive and includes bilateral damage to core limbic and paralimbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal poles, orbitofrontal cortex, basal forebrain, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex. The right hemisphere is more extensively affected than the left, although the lesions are largely bilateral. Despite the magnitude of his brain damage, Roger has a normal IQ, average to above-average attention, working memory, and executive functioning skills, and very good speech and language abilities. In fact, his only obvious presenting deficits are a dense global amnesia and a severe anosmia and ageusia. Roger's case presents a rare opportunity to advance our understanding of the critical functions underlying the human limbic system, and the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data presented here provide a critical foundation for such investigations. PMID:19763994
Feinstein, Justin S; Rudrauf, David; Khalsa, Sahib S; Cassell, Martin D; Bruss, Joel; Grabowski, Thomas J; Tranel, Daniel
Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi , but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.
Bethel, E. Wes
We report here a case study of a rare neurological patient with bilateral brain damage encompassing a substantial portion of the so-called “limbic system.” The patient, Roger, has been studied in our laboratory for over 14 years and the current article presents his complete neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profiles. The brain damage occurred in 1980 following an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis. The amount of destroyed neural tissue is extensive and includes bilateral damage to core limbic and paralimbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal poles, orbitofrontal cortex, basal forebrain, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex. The right hemisphere is more extensively affected than the left, although the lesions are largely bilateral. Despite the magnitude of his brain damage, Roger has a normal IQ, average to above average attention, working memory, and executive functioning skills, and very good speech and language abilities. In fact, his only obvious presenting deficits are a dense global amnesia and a severe anosmia and ageusia. Roger's case presents a rare opportunity to advance our understanding of the critical functions underlying the human limbic system, and the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data presented here provide a critical foundation for such investigations.
Feinstein, Justin S.; Rudrauf, David; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cassell, Martin D.; Bruss, Joel; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Tranel, Daniel
Bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may offer deaf children a range of advantages compared to unilateral CIs. However, speech perception in noise is mainly facilitated by better-ear effects and much less by interaural comparisons or true 'binaural' hearing. Little is known about the development of the binaural auditory system with CIs provided at a young age. It is possible that, as with adults, binaural sensitivity exists but is not accessed due to technical limitations in electrical stimulation methods. In this paper, we present results on binaural hearing in children with bilateral CIs. Binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) were measured for a 180-degree phase shift in a 125-Hz sinusoid, presented in a 50-Hz-wide noise band and modulating a 1000-pps carrier pulse train. Stimuli were presented to a single electrode in the middle of the electrode array at both ears. Eight children between 6 and 15 years of age participated in this study. Six children had a significantly better detection threshold when the signal was out of phase (dichotic) between two ears than when it was in phase (diotic), with a mean difference (BMLD) of 6.4 dB. The present results show that children with bilateral CIs are sensitive to binaural cues in electrical stimuli, similar to adults, even when implants are provided at a later age and with a longer delay between implantations. PMID:19141992
Van Deun, Lieselot; van Wieringen, Astrid; Francart, Tom; Scherf, Fanny; Dhooge, Ingeborg J; Deggouj, Naïma; Desloovere, Christian; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Offeciers, F Erwin; De Raeve, Leo; Wouters, Jan
There are two highly interconnected clusters of visually responsive areas in the primate cortex. These two clusters have relatively few interconnections with each other, though those interconnections are undoubtedly important. One of the two main clusters (the dorsal stream) links the primary visual cortex (V1) to superior regions of the occipito-parietal cortex, while the other (the ventral stream) links V1 to inferior regions of the occipito-temporal cortex. According to our current understanding of the functional anatomy of these two systems, the dorsal stream's principal role is to provide real-time ‘bottom-up’ visual guidance of our movements online. In contrast, the ventral stream, in conjunction with top-down information from visual and semantic memory, provides perceptual representations that can serve recognition, visual thought, planning and memory offline. In recent years, this interpretation, initially based chiefly on studies of non-human primates and human neurological patients, has been well supported by functional MRI studies in humans. This perspective presents empirical evidence for the contention that the dorsal stream governs the visual control of movement without the intervention of visual awareness.
Milner, A. D.
During Drosophila embryogenesis, many cells and tissues undergo complex morphogenetic movements, such as ventral furrow formation, germ band extension and retraction, and dorsal closure. The best way to study and understand the cell behaviors during such tissue movements is to image them live using time course analysis. The Drosophila embryo lends itself perfectly to live imaging for several reasons: powerful genetics allow transgenic embryos expressing green fluorescent protein-fusion proteins to be quickly and easily generated and the expression domains of these reporters can be efficiently controlled using the GAL4-upstream activator sequence system. Embryos will survive for several hours mounted on a slide in a gas-permeable oil, such as Voltalef or Halocarbon, during which time they will undergo normal development and can be easily imaged using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Here, we describe in detail a protocol for live imaging of Drosophila embryos which, in our hands, is routinely used to study dorsal closure but is suitable for the live study of any process involving cell motility, be it a coordinated tissue movement such as dorsal closure or the movement of individual cells such as hemocytes within the embryo. PMID:15576914
Wood, William; Jacinto, Antonio
We recorded neuronal activity simultaneously in the medial and lateral regions of the dorsal striatum as rats learned an operant task. The task involved making head entries into a response port followed by movements to collect rewards at an adjacent reward port. The availability of sucrose reward was signaled by an acoustic stimulus. During training, animals showed increased rates of responding and came to move rapidly and selectively, following the stimulus, from the response port to the reward port. Behavioral "devaluation" studies, pairing sucrose with lithium chloride, established that entries into the response port were habitual (insensitive to devaluation of sucrose) from early in training and entries into the reward port remained goal-directed (sensitive to devaluation) throughout training. Learning-related changes in behavior were paralleled by changes in neuronal activity in the dorsal striatum, with an increasing number of neurons showing task-related firing over the training period. Throughout training, we observed more task-related neurons in the lateral striatum compared with those in the medial striatum. Many of these neurons fired at higher rates during initiation of movements in the presence of the stimulus, compared with similar movements in the absence of the stimulus. Learning was also accompanied by progressive increases in movement-related potentials and transiently increased theta-band oscillations (5-8 Hz) in simultaneously recorded field potentials. Together, these data suggest that representations of task-relevant stimuli and movements develop in the dorsal striatum during instrumental learning. PMID:19439679
Kimchi, Eyal Y; Torregrossa, Mary M; Taylor, Jane R; Laubach, Mark
Introduction: Female urethral stricture is an underdiagnosed and overlooked cause of female bladder outlet obstruction. The possible etiologies may be infection, prior dilation, difficult catheterization with subsequent fibrosis, urethral surgery, trauma, or idiopathic. We present our technique and results of dorsal onlay full thickness vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 16 female patients with mid-urethral stricture who underwent dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty from January 2007 to June 2011. Of these, 13 patients had previously undergone multiple Hegar dilatations, three had previous internal urethrotomies. The preoperative work up included detailed voiding history, local examination, uroflowmetry, calibration, and micturating cystourethrogram. Results: All patients had mid-urethral stricture. Mean age was 47.5 years. Mean Qmax improved from 6.2 to 27.6 ml/s. Mean residual volume decreased from 160 to 20 ml. Mean duration of follow-up was 24.5 months (6 months to 3 years). Only one patient required self-calibration for 6 months after which her stricture stabilized. None of the patient was incontinent. Conclusion: Dorsal vaginal onlay graft urethroplasty could be considered as an effective way to treat female urethral stricture.
Singh, Manmeet; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kapoor, Deepa; Kapoor, Rohit; Srivastav, Alok; Chipde, Saurabh
Dopaminergic compounds often affect the unlearned behaviors of preweanling and adult rats differently, although the brain regions underlying these age-dependent behavioral effects have not been specified. A candidate brain region is the dorsal caudate-putamen (CPu); thus, a goal of the present study was to determine whether D1 and D2 receptors in the dorsal CPu are capable of modulating the unlearned behaviors of preweanling rats. In Experiments 1 and 2, selective and nonselective dopamine agonists were bilaterally microinjected into the dorsal CPu on postnatal day (PD) 18 and both locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. In Experiment 3, the functional coupling of D1 and D2 receptors was assessed by microinjecting the D1 agonist SKF-82958 and the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole either alone or in combination. In Experiments 4 and 5, quinpirole and the D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390, or SKF-82958 and the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride, were co-administered into the dorsal CPu to further assess whether a functional D1 or D2 receptor system is necessary for the expression of quinpirole- or SKF-82958-induced behaviors. Results showed that selective stimulation of D1 or D2 receptors in the dorsal CPu increased both the locomotor activity and stereotypy of preweanling rats. Receptor coupling was evident on PD 18 because co-administration of a subthreshold dose of SKF-82958 and quinpirole produced more locomotor activity than either agonist alone. Lastly, the dopamine antagonist experiments showed that both D1 and D2 receptor systems must be functional for SKF-82958- or quinpirole-induced locomotor activity to be fully manifested. When the present data are compared to results from non-ontogenetic studies, it appears that pharmacological manipulation of D1 and D2 receptors in the dorsal CPu affects the behavior of preweanling and adult rats in a generally similar manner, although some important age-dependent differences are apparent. For example, D1 and/or D2 agonists preferentially induce locomotor activity, and not intense stereotypy, in younger animals.
CHARNTIKOV, S.; DER-GHAZARIAN, T.; HERBERT, M. S.; HORN, L. R.; WIDARMA, C. B.; GUTIERREZ, A.; VARELA, F. A.; MCDOUGALL, S. A.
During Drosophila melanogaster dorsal closure, lateral sheets of embryonic epidermis assemble an actomyosin cable at their leading edge and migrate dorsally over the amnioserosa, converging at the dorsal midline. We show that disappearance of the homophilic cell adhesion molecule Echinoid (Ed) from the amnioserosa just before dorsal closure eliminates homophilic interactions with the adjacent dorsal-most epidermal (DME) cells, which comprise the leading edge. The resulting planar polarized distribution of Ed in the DME cells is essential for the localized accumulation of actin regulators and for actomyosin cable formation at the leading edge and for the polarized localization of the scaffolding protein Bazooka/PAR-3. DME cells with uniform Ed fail to assemble a cable and protrude dorsally, suggesting that the cable restricts dorsal migration. The planar polarized distribution of Ed in the DME cells thus provides a spatial cue that polarizes the DME cell actin cytoskeleton, defining the epidermal leading edge and establishing its contractile properties. PMID:21263031
Laplante, Caroline; Nilson, Laura A
We and others have previously shown that the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) is involved in regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion. Many pancreatic preganglionic neurons within the DMV are inhibited by pancreatic secretagogues suggesting that an inhibitory pathway may participate in the control of pancreatic exocrine secretion. Accordingly, the present study examined whether chemical stimulation of the DMV activates the endocrine pancreas and whether an inhibitory pathway is involved in this response. All experiments were conducted in overnight fasted isoflurane/urethane-anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats. Activation of the DMV by bilateral microinjection of bicuculline methiodide (BIM, GABA(A) receptor antagonist, 100 pmol/25 nl; 4 mM) resulted in a significant and rapid increase in glucose-induced insulin secretion (9.2±0.1 ng/ml peak response) compared to control microinjection (4.0±0.6 ng/ml). Activation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by chemical stimulation of the DMV was inhibited (2.1±1.1 ng/ml and 1.6±0.1 ng/ml 5 min later) in the presence of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine methonitrate (100 ?g/kg/min, i.v.). On the other hand, the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor l-nitroarginine methyl ester (30 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly increased the excitatory effect of DMV stimulation on glucose-induced insulin secretion to 15.3±3.0 ng/ml and 16.1±3.1 ng/ml 5 min later. These findings suggest that NO may play an inhibitory role in the central regulation of insulin secretion. PMID:21530944
Mussa, Bashair M; Sartor, Daniela M; Rantzau, Christian; Verberne, Anthony J M
Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), a disease of spinal cord, brain, adrenal, and testis, mostly affects men with spastic paraparesis or ataxia beginning in their second or third decade. The spinal cord displays bilateral, usually symmetrical, long tract degeneration particularly of the gracile tract in a "dying-back" pattern. The available data strongly indicate that the fundamental lesion in AMN is an axonopathy or neuronopathy. We compared lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from 3 AMN patients to 6 age-matched controls histologically, morphometrically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally. There was no apparent neuronal loss, necrosis or apoptosis, nor obvious atrophy; nodules of Nageotte were sparse in both groups. The morphometric studies, however, did reveal neuronal atrophy with a decrease in the number of large neurons and a corresponding increase in neurons less than 2,000 microm2, especially in the 1,500-1,999 microm2 range. No consistent immunohistochemical differences were observed, and no specific cell type appeared to be lost. Many mitochondria in the AMN neurons demonstrated lipidic inclusions; this raises the possibility that, in addition to the well-known peroxisomal defect, impaired mitochondrial function may lead to a failure of ATP-dependent axoplasmic transport in AMN spinal tracts with consequent "dying-back" axonal degeneration. The observation that the DRG parent neurons of the degenerate gracile tracts in AMN undergo atrophy and do not display appreciable evidence of cell death, even at autopsy, provides a wide window of opportunity for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat or prevent this myeloneuropathy. PMID:11379824
Powers, J M; DeCiero, D P; Cox, C; Richfield, E K; Ito, M; Moser, A B; Moser, H W
Previous experiments have suggested that nitric oxide may play an important role in nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. To assess the possible roles of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in spinal sensitization after nerve injury, we examined the distribution of nNOS immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and dorsal horn of the corresponding spinal segments. NOS catalytic activity was
Dáša ???žková; Nadežda Luká?ová; Martin Maršala; Jozef Maršala
Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) activity has been implicated as a key regulator of multiple aspects of dorsal neural tube development. BMP signaling in the dorsalmost neuroepithelial cells presumably plays a critical role. We use tissue-specific gene ablation to probe the roles of BMPR1A, the type 1 BMP receptor that is seemingly the best candidate to mediate the activities of BMPs on early dorsal neural development. We use two different Cre lines expressed in the dorsal neural folds, one prior to spinal neurulation and one shortly afterward, together with a Bmpr1a conditional null mutation. Our findings indicate that BMPR1A signaling in the dorsal neural folds is important for hindbrain neural tube closure, but suggest it is dispensable for spinal neurulation. Our results also demonstrate a requirement for BMP signaling in patterning of dorsal neural tube cell fate and in neural crest cell formation, and imply a critical period shortly before neural tube closure.
Stottmann, Rolf W.; Klingensmith, John
Dorsal as a crucial component of Toll signaling pathway, played important roles in induction and regulation of innate immune responses. In this study, we cloned a NF-?B-like transcription factor Dorsal from Eriocheir sinensis and designated it as EsDorsal. The full-length cDNA of EsDorsal was 2493bp with a 2022-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 673-amino acid protein. This protein contained a 171-residue conserved Rel homology domain (RHD) and a 102-residue Ig-like, plexins and transcription factors domain (IPT). By phylogenetic analysis, EsDorsal was clustered into one group together with other invertebrate Dorsals or NF-?Bs, and then clustered with vertebrate NF-?Bs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis results showed that (a) EsDorsal had higher expression level in immune organs; (b) EsDorsal differentially induced after injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycan (PG) or zymosan (GLU). Importantly, EsDorsal was more responsive to LPS than GLU and PG. Collectively, EsDorsal was differentially inducibility in response to various PAMPs, suggesting its involvement in a specific innate immune regulation in E. sinensis. PMID:23981326
Yu, Ai-Qing; Jin, Xing-Kun; Li, Shuang; Guo, Xiao-Nv; Wu, Min-Hao; Li, Wei-Wei; Wang, Qun
Bilaterality is uncommon in Wilms' tumor, being present in 4% to 8% of the cases. We report the combined experience of two children's hospitals in one city over a 20-year period. We encountered nine cases of synchronous bilateral nephroblastoma (National Wilms' Tumor Study 3, stage V). Age at diagnosis ranged from 9 to 41 months (mean 23 months). There were five girls and four boys. Associated findings include nephroblastomatosis in three cases (33%), one of which also had a familial history; undescended testis in two cases; and minor anomalies in two other cases. Surgical treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy with contralateral partial nephrectomy or tumorectomy in six cases, nephrectomy with contralateral biopsy only in two cases, and the other patient had bilateral biopsies initially, followed at a later date by partial nephrectomy on one side. All patients received chemotherapy; actinomycin D (AMD) only was used in the oldest case, vincristine and AMD in five cases, to which was added cyclophosphamide in one case and adriamycin in two. Seven patients received radiation therapy. Seven out of the nine patients survived more than 2 years (77%); five are well, off chemotherapy, with no evidence of disease from 4 to 11 years after diagnosis. Two patients suffered from chronic renal failure and one died from complications after renal transplantation more than 19 years after diagnosis. The two patients who died from their disease presented with more advanced tumor. Therefore, the agressiveness of multimodal therapy can be tailored according to stage and histology, and effective chemotherapy allows maximal preservation of renal parenchyma in patients with stage I and II tumors.
Laberge, J.M.; Nguyen, L.T.; Homsy, Y.L.; Doody, D.P.
Gas-forming infection of the kidneys can affect either the parenchyma or the collecting system. They are known as emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) and emphysematous pyelitis (EP) respectively. Bilateral EPN is a fairly established entity and numerous articles about this condition have been published. However, much less is known about bilateral EP. We report a rare case of bilateral EP and a literature review of this disease. A 66-year-old woman with long-standing bilateral staghorn calculi presented with bilateral EP and severe sepsis. She was treated with antibiotics and bilateral double-J stents to drain the upper urinary tracts. She recovered after 1 month of intensive care and medical therapy. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) had been scheduled to treat her staghorn calculi. A literature search on MEDLINE and Google Scholar with the terms "bilateral emphysematous pyelitis" only found 1 case report in English and another 2 reports in the Korean language that discussed bilateral EP. The collective experience of these few cases, including the present case, suggests that bilateral EP runs a more benign course than bilateral EPN. It should be diagnosed as soon as possible with computed tomography (CT) scans of the renal system. Current evidence shows that can be treated successfully with timely antibiotics. Drainage of the collecting system either percutaneously or with placement of double-J stents might facilitate recovery. PMID:24045515
Tan C C K Ho, G H; Bahadzor, B; Praveen, S; Goh, E H; Syahril, A S; Zulkifli, M Z
Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the bilateral advantage). For example, reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented bilaterally rather than unilaterally, suggesting that independent resources enable tracking in the two visual fields. Motivated by similarities in the apparent capacity and neural substrates that mediate tracking and visual working memory (WM), the present work examined whether or not a bilateral advantage also arises during storage in visual WM. Using a recall procedure to assess working memory for orientation information, we found a reliable bilateral advantage; recall error was smaller with bilateral sample displays than with unilateral displays. To demonstrate that the bilateral advantage influenced storage per se rather than just encoding efficiency, we replicated the observed bilateral advantage using sequentially presented stimuli. Finally, to further characterize how bilateral presentations enhanced storage in working memory, we measured both the number and the resolution of the stored items and found that bilateral presentations lead to an increased probability of storage, rather than enhanced mnemonic resolution. Thus, the bilateral advantage extends beyond the initial selection and encoding of visual information to influence online maintenance in visual working memory.
Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward
Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendons is very rare and occurred in an 82-year-old man. This may be the fifth case to have been reported in the English literature. Only minor stress on extensor mechanisms preceded the ruptures. Interrupted mattress sutures restored muscle continuity and function. A "pull-out" wire system was not used for protection of healing muscles because adequate amount of tissue mass was available for approximation. Excellent results require intensive postoperative physical therapy. Old age of the patient should not be a deterrent to surgical treatment in carefully selected individuals. PMID:657630
Siwek, K W; Rao, J P
Patient. We report the case of a 20-year-old caucasian male with an Ewing's sarcoma in the left upper femur. After induction chemotherapy, he underwent resection of the left upper femur and insertion of a cemented proximal femoral replacement. Four years later, he presented with a solitary bone metastasis in the right upper femur. He underwent further chemotherapy followed by resection and endoprosthetic replacement of the other proximal femur. He remains disease free with excellent function almost a year after the second operation. Discussion. We believe this is the first reported case of bilateral proximal femoral endoprostheses.
Grimer, Robert J.
The etiology of congenital idiopathic talipes equinovarus deformity is unclear. Studies on populations, families, and twins have suggested a genetic component. However, the mode of inheritance does not fit classic patterns. The intrauterine posture and environmental and developmental causative factors have also been associated with the deformity. Neurologic, muscular, bony, connective tissue, and vascular structures can be affected. We present the case of monochorionic triplets with bilateral congenital idiopathic talipes equinovarus deformities. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation has not been previously described and supports a genetic etiology of congenital idiopathic talipes equinovarus deformity. PMID:21616690
Pagnotta, Gaetano; Boccanera, Francesca; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Agostino, Rocco; Gougoulias, Nikolaos; Maffulli, Nicola
Observation of a case of progressive bilateral parietal thinning within a period of 14 years induced us to study skull films of 3 636 consecutive patients. Parietal thinning was found in 86 patients (2.37%). It was more common in women, with a sex ratio of 1:1.9. The mean age of the females was 72 years, and that of the males 63 years. Previous skull films of 25 of these patients were available and showed progression in 10. It is concluded that parietal thinning is a slowly progressive disease of middle-aged and old patients and is not an anatomical variant or congenital dysplasia of the dipole.
Cederlund, C.G.; Andren, L.; Olivecrona, H.
The theory and numerical results are presented to the effective dielectric constant and characteristic impedance of bilateral and unilateral finlines with metallization thickness. The full wave analysis of the transverse transmission line — TTL method is used to determine the electromagnetic fields of the structure in Fourier transform domain — FTD. Applying the suitable boundary conditions and the moment method, a homogeneous matrix system is obtained and the effective dielectric constant is extracted. The characteristic impedance is obtained using the relation between the voltage in slot and the transmitted power. Computational programs are developed to obtain numerical results to the effective dielectric constant and characteristic impedance.
Fernandes, Humberto César Chaves; Martins de Souza, Eduardo Amorim; de Souza Queiroz Júnior, Idalmir
Many variations in the anatomy of the carotid artery are described in the literature. There are few case reports of hypoplasia or the retropharyngeal course of the internal carotid artery. We describe the unique case of a 72-year-old woman with bilateral complete retroesophageal common carotid arteries and concomitant hypoplasia of the right carotid system. Anatomical detection of such a variation is critical because the misidentification of a retroesophageal carotid artery carries the risk of potential injury during orotracheal intubation and oropharyngeal procedures. PMID:23601592
Virvilis, Dimitrios; Koullias, George; Labropoulos, Nicos
We report three cases showing body lateropulsion as the sole or predominant symptom of caudal lateral medullary infarction. All of them presented a small infarction on the lateral surface of the caudal medulla corresponding to the dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT). Disturbed unconscious proprioception of the lower trunk and the lower limb conveyed by the DSCT might have been responsible for the isolated lateropulsion. Although lateropulsion itself improved within two weeks, one patient's condition progressed to typical lateral medullary infarction. Lateropulsion caused by DSCT infarction could be a prodromal symptom of perfusion failure of a vertebral artery or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. PMID:16415553
Maeda, Kengo; Saikyo, Michiko; Mukose, Atsushi; Tomimatsu, Hirotaka; Yasuda, Hitoshi
Objective The purpose of this report is to review the historical development, current operative techniques, selection criteria, outcomes,\\u000a and complications of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for treatment of spastic cerebral palsy (CP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods This review is based on a review of literature and personal observations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results SDR has evolved from the 1960s onwards into a standard neurosurgical procedure for spastic CP.
The gene regulatory network (GRN) underpinning dorsal–ventral (DV) patterning of the Drosophila embryo is among the most thoroughly understood GRNs, making it an ideal system for comparative studies seeking to understand the evolution of development. With the emergence of widely applicable techniques for testing gene function, species with sequenced genomes, and multiple tractable species with diverse developmental modes, a phylogenetically broad and molecularly deep understanding of the evolution of DV axis formation in insects is feasible. Here, we review recent progress made in this field, compare our emerging molecular understanding to classical embryological experiments, and suggest future directions of inquiry.
Lynch, Jeremy A.; Roth, Siegfried
Several flaps have been described to treat severe soft tissue defects of the finger dorsal side. Many authors studied vascular organization of the hand on its dorsal side; most of them insisted on deep vascularization into the intermetacarpal spaces, which is formed by the dorsal metacarpal arteries. Those dorsal metacarpal arteries are the anatomical support of many flaps, which do not preserve the dorsal interosseous muscles fascias. Only few authors described dorsal vascular organization at the level of the proximal phalanx; however, using a rotation point of a flap distally to the metacarpal head with a donor site on the dorsal aspect of the hand could cover all distal soft tissue defect of long finger. In order to determine the technical limitations of dorsal digito-metacarpal flap procedures, we studied number and location of arterial anastomoses between the reticular subcutaneous dorsal network and the rest of the vascularization at this level, which was formed by the deeper dorsal metacarpal arteries, common palmar digital arteries and proper palmar digital arteries, and between the dorsal digital arteries. Twenty-four long fingers from embalmed cadavers were studied after a reverse flow injection of colored latex and dissected layer-by-layer preserving the digital-metacarpal arterial network. At the level of the hand, the dorsal metacarpal arteries of the third and fourth intermetacarpal spaces were inconstant. When present, two or three arteries anastomosed in star shape with the reticular network. No such arterial anastomosis was observed proximally to the level of the intertendinous connections (junctura tendinorum) that bridge the extensor digitorum communis tendons. When no dorsal metacarpal artery was present, some communicant arteries arose from the common palmar digital arteries. Moreover, all the nutrient branches were more numerous distally to the intertendinous connections (junctura tendinorum). At the level of the metacarpophalangeal joints, the hand cutaneous network was always anastomosed with the dorsal cutaneous network. At the level of fingers, the dorsal cutaneous network was always supplied by four branches arising from the proper digital artery. Our study supported the reliability of dorsal digitometacarpal flaps, supplied by numerous palmodorsal digital anastomoses and by a rich plexiforme network joining the hand skin supply and that of the dorsal finger skin. During the procedure, we recommend limiting the surgical dissection of the flap at the level of the middle phalanx. PMID:18404244
Beldame, Julien; Havet, Eric; Auquit-Auckbur, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Benjamin; Mure, Jean-Philippe; Duparc, Fabrice
Background. The risk of ovarian cancer is increased in the association of ovarian tumor, ascites, and hydrothorax with the significant elevated tumor marker CA-125. However, this association can be observed in a rare clinical and benign pathological entity, that is Demons-Meigs' syndrome. Objective. To describe a rare case of Demons-Meigs' syndrome observed in our department. Methods. A black African woman of 35 years old, seventh gravida and fourth parous, underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy for large bilateral ovarian masses associated with significant ascites, bilateral pleural effusion, and particular highly elevated tumor marker CA-125 (1835?UI/mL) in a pronounced general alteration condition. Results. The postoperative course was uneventful characterized by a complete remission of hydrothorax and ascites with normal level of CA-125 three months after tumor excision. Histology of both masses revealed a bilateral ovarian fibrothecoma, a benign tumor of the ovary, thus confirming the diagnosis of Demons-Meigs' syndrome. Conclusion. The Demons-Meigs syndrome, although it strongly mimics the clinical picture of malignant metastatic ovarian cancer, remains a disease with benign prognosis after surgical tumor resection. This is a rare condition that must be known and recognized by practitioners to avoid unnecessary practices.
Loue, Vedi Andre Serges; Gbary, Eleonore; Koui, Sylvanus; Akpa, Bedi; Kouassi, Adelaide
This study examined the projections from the rat insular cortex (Ins) to lower brainstem areas which are possibly involved in orofacial pain processing. We first examined distributions of Ins neurons projecting directly to the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc, medullary dorsal horn) and oral subnucleus (Vo) which are known to receive orofacial nociceptive inputs. After injections of a retrograde tracer, Fluorogold (FG), into the medial part and lateral part of laminae I/II of Vc, many neurons were labeled bilaterally with a contralateral predominance in the rostral level of granular Ins (GI) and dysgranular Ins (DI) and the caudal level of GI/DI, respectively, but none in the agranular Ins (AI). After FG injections into laminae III-V of Vc, no Ins neurons were labeled. After FG injections into the Vo, many neurons were labeled bilaterally with a contralateral predominance in the rostral and caudal GI/DI, but none in the AI. We then examined descending projections from the GI/DI to the lower brainstem. After injections of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextranamine (BDA), into the rostral GI/DI, many BDA-labeled axons and terminals were seen bilaterally with a contralateral predominance in the medial part of laminae I/II of Vc, dorsomedial Vo, juxtatrigeminal region, rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), and nucleus of the solitary tract, and with an ipsilateral predominance in the parabrachial nucleus (Pb), Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF) and trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. After BDA injections into the caudal GI/DI, they were seen bilaterally with a contralateral predominance in the lateral part of laminae I/II of Vc, ventrolateral Vo, juxtatrigeminal region and RVM, and with an ipsilateral dominance in the lateral zone (PAGl) of periaqueductal gray, Pb and KF. These results suggest that orofacial nociceptive processing of Vc and Vo neurons may be regulated by GI/DI directly or indirectly through brainstem nuclei such as PAGl, Pb, KF and RVM. PMID:23270856
Sato, F; Akhter, F; Haque, T; Kato, T; Takeda, R; Nagase, Y; Sessle, B J; Yoshida, A
Motivation is drawn from the need to determine the sensory cues that animals such as blue crabs and lobsters use to track chemical odor plumes to locate food or mates. Major steps forward with this difficult problem can only be achieved through an appreciation of the spatial and temporal variation of concentration fields and the information content available to a forager in the plume. Here we discuss the usefulness of bilateral comparison to an animal tracking a turbulent plume. Instantaneous concentration fields of a chemical plume diffusing in a fully-developed turbulent open channel flow are measured using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The plume is released iso-kinetically 25 mm above the smooth bed (z+ = 90), thus transport is mainly due to advection and ambient turbulence. A spatial correlation function in the spanwise direction is a dramatic indicator of the relative position of the centerline and distance from the source. The relative direction of the plume centerline can be estimated from an instantaneous bilateral comparison provided the sensors are separated by a distance that is relatively large compared to the spanwise integral length scale based on the spatial correlation function.
Webster, D. R.; Rahman, S.; Dasi, L. P.
Purpose. To report two unusual cases of idiopathic lipid keratopathy with symmetrical bilateral annular corneal lipid infiltration and describe confocal microscopy findings. Methods. Case reports. Results. We report two patients with bilateral peripheral deep stromal lipid deposits beginning in an arcuate pattern and progressing to a complete annular shape. Cholesterol crystals were observed in the paracentral area in both cases with characteristic crystalline-like structures in the confocal microscopy. Deep thin corneal blood vessels were observed in one patient, but no cause for then was established, despite decades of followup. This patient had an idiopathic limbitis as well, occurring in episodes. No previous ocular trauma, systemic disease or family history was reported for both cases. Conclusion. These two cases of idiopathic annular lipid keratopathy were observed for more than a decade with documented slow and insidious progression of the infiltrates, in spite of the use of topical steroids in one case. In the majority of other reported cases, a penetrating keratoplasty was made necessary. Differently, we showed that the visual acuity can remain quite good for years with very slow deterioration.
Ghanem, Ramon C.; Ghanem, Vinicius C.; Victor, Gustavo; Alves, Milton Ruiz
Management of retinoblastoma (Rb), the most common intraocular malignant tumor in childhood, is tailored to each individual case and based on the overall situation. We present a case of bilateral Rbs in a 4-month-old girl, referred to our center for bilateral leukocoria. In the right eye, the optic disc was partially visible, and three large foci of retinoblastoma were noted adjective in the vitreous cavity with satellite retinal detachment. The macula was obscured by the tumors. The tumor was therefore classified as group D (International classification of retinoblastoma), and thus underwent intravenous chemotherapy with the standard three-agent protocol of ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (ICE protocol) delivered monthly for six cycles, regressing with a type I calcified pattern. The left eye presented three multifocal yellow-white retinal masses, with a total retinal detachment, and secondary glaucoma. The lesions were classified as group E and, therefore, taking the results obtained by Shields et al. in group E tumors into consideration, underwent enucleation. This case clearly shows that this cancer is curable if detected at a stage in which it is still contained within the retina, subretinal space or vitreous, and that the management of Rb relies on an experienced team of ocular oncologists, pediatricians and pediatric ophthalmologists working together for the single goal of saving the child's life. PMID:23277210
Pichi, Francesco; Lembo, Andrea; De Luca, Mariacarla; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; Nucci, Paolo
The diaphragm is an unusual localization for disseminated erythematous lupus and is generally not recognized. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who developed bilateral pain in the base of the thorax 15 days before hospitalization without any bronchial signs and NYHA stage II dyspnea. The patient's general health status remained satisfactory and the physical examination was normal except for diffuse inflammatory joint pain and cutaneous photosensitivization. The chest x-ray disclosed ascension of both hemidiaphragms with retracted lungs associated with bilateral basal atalectasia. The diagnosis of lupus with diaphragmatic involvement was retained due to the clinical presentation with diffuse joint pain, photosensitization with facial erythema, pericardial effusion and elevated antinuclear antibody and lymphopenia (1 100/mm3). Lung function tests revealed a restrictive syndrome. Oral corticosteroids 1 mg/kg/d enabled clinical and functional improvement. In light of this observation we discuss the pathogenic mechanisms of this uncommon localization of lupus and the difficulty of establishing a sure diagnosis. PMID:16840998
El Bied, B; Afif, H; Safieddine, S; Hassani, L; Aichane, A; Trombati, N; Bouayad, Z
We experienced a patient with a combination of multiple osteochondroses: Blount's disease, bipartite patella, and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease in the left knee, and a combination of bipartite patella and Osgood-Schlatter disease in the right knee. The patient was a healthy, active 12-year-old boy with bilateral knee pain. He had been diagnosed with Blount's disease of the left tibia at 2 years of age, and had been treated with open wedge osteotomy. He was diagnosed with bilateral bipartite patellae at the age of 9 years, and was diagnosed with Osgood-Schlatter disease in the right knee and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease in the left knee at 10 years of age. The second growth spurt was observed during this period. At 11 years of age, he was diagnosed with an osteochondral fracture of the left lateral femoral condyle and was observed without surgery. This patient showed the sequential appearance of an ossification disorder, probably due to the abnormal response of enchondral ossification to mechanical stress. Overuse in this growth period may have played a role in the development of these osteochondroses. The osteochondral fracture was probably caused by a disruption at one of the weakest parts of the developing skeleton, between the ossification center and the overlying cartilage in the background of an ossification disorder. PMID:11484125
Segawa, H; Omori, G; Koga, Y
Morphogenesis of the pancreas is a complex process; nevertheless, congenital anomalies are rare. At embryogenesis, the pancreas develops from the endoderm-lined dorsal and ventral buds of the duodenum. The ventral bud gives rise to the lower head and uncinate process of the pancreas; whereas, the dorsal bud gives rise to the upper head, isthmus, body, and tail of the pancreas. Rarely, developmental failure of the dorsal pancreatic bud at embryogenesis results in the agenesis of the dorsal pancreas--neck, body, and tail. Even rarer is the association of pancreatic tumors with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas. In addition to citing our case, we provide a comprehensive review on agenesis of the dorsal pancreas and its association with pancreatic tumors. PMID:19390403
Sakpal, Sujit Vijay; Sexcius, Lucretia; Babel, Nitin; Chamberlain, Ronald Scott
Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces (SBSP) are uncommon. This report presents the case of a previously well 19-year-old man with a diagnosis of SBSP and symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma. Despite bilateral bullectomy and pleurodesis using a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical technique, the pneumothorax reoccurred unilaterally and open surgery was performed. This case illustrates a rare condition of bilateral pneumothoraces presenting as a first presentation of occupational asthma and the issues surrounding its management. PMID:24027249
Khan, Waseem Asrar; Curl-Roper, Thomas; Helm, Jenifer; Houghton, Catherine
. The aim of this article is to report the MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy and highlight the diagnostic\\u000a and prognostic value of MRI especially with regard to those lesions that may cause respiratory compromise. Retrospective review\\u000a of MRI scans in six infants with bilateral parotid haemangiomas. The bilateral haemangiomas were symmetrical in all but one\\u000a patient.
Savvas Andronikou; Kieran McHugh; Saaleeha Jadwat; Jane Linward
When patients present with bilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency and require reconstruction in both knees,\\u000a a single setting or staged approach can be adopted. Although single-setting reconstruction has been described, there are no\\u000a published case series that describe simultaneous bilateral ACL reconstruction. We report a case series of eight patients who\\u000a underwent simultaneous bilateral ACL reconstruction. We used two-camera
Adnan Saithna; Jamie Arbuthnot; Richard Carey-Smith; Tim Spalding
An unusual anatomic variation of bilateral ectopic ureters was diagnosed in a 6-week-old female Siberian Husky with urinary incontinence. Assessment during surgery revealed bilateral ectopic ureters with a common opening in the proximal portion of the urethra. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed bilaterally. After surgery, intermittent urinary incontinence continued, but was less severe. After resection of a persistent hymen in the 6-month-old dog, incontinence appeared to resolve, but then recurred, and has been controlled by phenylpropanolamine administration. PMID:2599944
Hosgood, G; Salisbury, K; Blevins, W E; Widmer, W R
InDrosophila,the Rel-protein Dorsal and its inhibitor, Cactus, act in signal transduction pathways that control the establishment of dorsoventral polarity during embryogenesis and the immune response during postembryonic life. Here we present data indicating that Dorsal is also involved in the control of development and maintenance of innervation in somatic muscles. Dorsal and Cactus are colocalized in all somatic muscles during
Rafael Cantera; Tatjana Kozlova; Carolina Barillas-Mury; Fotis C. Kafatos
In this study, we examine the kinematics and hydrodynamics of the soft dorsal fin in a representative basal teleost, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), during steady rectilinear locomotion at 0.5-2.0 body lengths (L)·s-1 and during maneuvering. During steady swimming, dorsal fin height and sweep amplitude decrease with increasing speed. The dorsal fin wake, as viewed within a horizontal plane, consists
Eliot G. Drucker; George V. Lauder
The prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus have been studied extensively for their significant roles in spatial working memory. A possible time-dependent functional relationship between the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus in spatial working memory was tested. A combined lesion and pharmacological inactivation technique targeting both the dorsal hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex was used (i.e., axon-sparing lesions
Inah Lee; Raymond P. Kesner
In decapod crustaceans, the dorsal light reflex rotates the eyestalk so that the dorsal retina faces the brightest segment\\u000a of dorsal visual space. Stepwise displacements of white stripes elicit eyestalk rotations in the same direction as that of\\u000a the stripe. Conversely, stepwise displacements of black stripes on a white background elicit eyestalk rotations in the opposite\\u000a direction as that of
Raymon M. Glantz; John P. Schroeter
Although word recognition is a skill commonly expected to rely more on ventral rather than dorsal stream processing, there\\u000a is some evidence for a magnocellular\\/dorsal impairment in dyslexia. The early rapid feedforward\\/feedback loop through the\\u000a dorsal stream seen in primate has been suggested to allow an initial global analysis, and in human early activation of parietal\\u000a attention mechanisms for detecting
Robin Laycock; David P. Crewther; Paul B. Fitzgerald; Sheila G. Crewther
A 5-day-old Angus x Hereford calf presented for bilateral haired masses on the eyes and nasolabial planum since birth. The masses were surgically excised from the inferonasal cornea and bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes and the left and right side of the dorsomedial nasolabial planum. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed bilateral corneoconjunctival dermoids with ectopic lacrimal glands, and bilateral nasal choristomas and ectopic nasal glandular tissue. Surgery was curative and healing was uneventful. Bilateral ocular dermoids in combination with nasal choristomas and ectopic glandular tissue have not been documented previously in cattle. PMID:18435664
Brudenall, Denise K; Ward, Daniel A; Kerr, Larry A; Newman, Shelley J
Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging facial aesthetic procedures. Achieving a desirable result depends on correct planning and execution and the tissue characteristics of the patient. Dorsal augmentation has been performed extensively using cartilage grafts harvested from the septum, alar cartilage, conchal artilage and costal cartilages as well as from bone harvested from the ilium or tibia. Carved or crushed cartilage used as a graft might be perceptible through the nasal skin when tissue resolution is complete. Graft warpage and displacement are potential complications. The use of finely diced cartilage wrapped in one layer of Surgicel mixed with 1 ml of the patient's blood, popularly known as Turkish delight, was suggested by Erol in 2000. The use of cartilage from the septum and ala might not suffice and conchal and costal cartilage harvesting requires a second surgical site. Also, considering the increasing demand for revision rhinoplasty, it might not always be feasible to harvest an adequate quantity of graft. The authors suggest the use of finely diced Medpor implant material wrapped in Surgicel, mixed with 1 ml of the patient's blood for dorsal augmentation during rhinoplasty. Preliminary results are encouraging. PMID:21514116
Richardson, S; Agni, N A; Pasha, Z
1. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) microinjected into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) elevates gastric activity through a vagal mechanism. Thus, it was hypothesized that PP alters the activity of nuclei comprising the DVC, i.e. the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the dorsal motor nucleus (DMN). 2. In vivo and in vitro approaches were used. For in vivo studies, micropipettes were used for recording and injecting vehicle or PP. Neurons were identified as NTS or DMN using orthodromic and antidromic activation, respectively, following vagal stimulation. Gastric-related DVC neurons were located using antral inflation. For in vitro studies, DMN neurons were recorded from medullary slices. 3. Of the twenty-eight NTS and DMN neurons identified, fifteen were activated, six inhibited and seven unaffected after PP microinjection. Forty-two gastric-related neurons were located in the DVC, of which twenty-five were stimulated by PP and seventeen exhibited no change. No gastric-related cells were inhibited. 4. For in vitro studies, 66% of DMN neurons were activated by PP (n = 27/47) while the remaining 33% were inhibited (n = 14/47). Similar results were obtained in normal or synaptic blockade media. 5. These results support the hypothesis that PP alters DVC neuronal activity, which may thereby lead to the previously observed alterations in gastric activity.
McTigue, D M; Hermann, G E; Rogers, R C
It is widely held that the spatial processing functions underlying rodent navigation are similar to those encoding human episodic memory (Doeller et al, 2010). Spatial and nonspatial information are provided by all senses including vision. It has been suggested that visual inputs are fed to the navigational network in cortex and hippocampus through dorsal and ventral intracortical streams (Whitlock et al, 2008), but this has not been shown directly in rodents. We have used cyto- and chemoarchitectonic markers, topographic mapping of receptive fields and pathway tracing to determine in mouse visual cortex whether the lateromedial (LM) and the anterolateral fields (AL), which are the principal targets of primary visual cortex (V1) (Wang and Burkhalter, 2007) specialized for processing nonspatial and spatial visual information (Gao et al, 2006), are distinct areas with diverse connections. We have found that the LM/AL border coincides with a change in type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m2AChR) expression in layer 4 and with the representation of the lower visual field periphery. Our quantitative analyses further show that LM strongly projects to temporal cortex as well as the lateral entorhinal cortex, which has weak spatial selectivity (Hargreaves et al, 2005). In contrast, AL has stronger connections with posterior parietal cortex, motor cortex and the spatially selective medial entorhinal cortex (Haftig et al, 2005). These results support the notion that LM and AL are architecturally, topographically and connectionally distinct areas of extrastriate visual cortex and that they are gateways for ventral and dorsal streams.
Wang, Quanxin; Gao, Enquan; Burkhalter, Andreas
Recent evidence has shown that the dorsal striatum of the rat is arranged as a patchwork of domains that exhibit distinct dopamine kinetics and concentrations. This raises the pressing question of how these distinct domains are maintained, especially if dopamine is able to diffuse through the extracellular space. Diffusion between the domains would eliminate the concentration differences and, thereby, the domains themselves. The present study is a closer examination of dopamine's ability to diffuse in the extracellular space. We used voltammetry to record dopamine overflow in dorsal striatum while stimulating the medial forebrain bundle over a range of stimulus currents and frequencies. We also examined the effects of drugs that modulated the dopamine release (raclopride and quinpirole) and uptake (nomifensine). Examining the details of the temporal features of the evoked profiles reveals no clear evidence for long-distance diffusion of dopamine between fast and slow domains, even though uptake inhibition by nomifensine clearly prolongs the time that dopamine resides in the extracellular space. Our observations support the conclusion that striatal tissue has the capacity to retain dopamine molecules, thereby limiting its tendency to diffuse through the extracellular space. PMID:23600442
Taylor, I Mitch; Ilitchev, Alexandre I; Michael, Adrian C
In the absence of clear phylogenetic data on the neurobiological basis of the evolution of language, comparative studies across species and across ontogenetic stages within humans may inform us about the possible neural prerequisites of language. In the adult human brain, language-relevant regions located in the frontal and temporal cortex are connected via different fiber tracts: ventral and dorsal pathways. Ontogenetically, it has been shown that newborns display an adult-like ventral pathway at birth. The dorsal pathway, however, seems to display two subparts which mature at different rates: one part, connecting the temporal cortex to the premotor cortex, is present at birth, whereas the other part, connecting the temporal cortex to Broca’s area, develops much later and is still not fully matured at the age of seven. At this age, typically developing children still have problems in processing syntactically complex sentences. We therefore suggest that the mastery of complex syntax, which is at the core of human language, crucially depends on the full maturation of the fiber connection between the temporal cortex and Broca’s area.
Friederici, Angela D.
The correlation between skin structure and hydrodynamic design of the dorsal fin of the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) was examined. For the study of fin morphology and geometry, a scheme of sampling representing a two-parameter mesh on the fin surface was used. At each data point the thickness of the epidermis, papillary and subpapillary layers of the dermis, the ligamentous layer of the fin, as well as the angle formed by the direction of dermal ridges and the fin root chord were measured. On the basis of fin cross-sections the three-dimensional surface models of the fin in a 1 : 1 scale were created with a CAD program. The shape of the model was evaluated by the wing and hydrofoil parameters (angle of leading edge sweep, leading edge radius, maximum thickness of the fin cross-section, and position of maximum thickness from the leading edge). Hydrodynamic performance of the fin cross-sections was studied with a CFD program. Regional variability of the parameters of morphology was compared with spanwise variability of the parameters of cross-sectional geometry. It was found that skin structure parameters correlate with the hydrodynamically relevant parameters of the fin and fin cross-sections. Regularities of skin structure of the harbor porpoise dorsal fin are considered indirect evidence of the adaptation of porpoise skin to the fin flow. PMID:14584030
Pavlov, Vadim V
Methiothepin, a nonselective 5-HT receptor antagonist was utilized to explore the 5-HT modulation of dorsal vagal complex-TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone) analogue stimulated gastric functional parameters. Intracisternal methiothepin pretreatment (200, 0.1 nmol) produced significant inhibition (70%, 44%, respectively) of the TRH analogue [p-Glu-His-(3,3'-dimethyl)-Pro NH2; RX 77368 (12 pmol)]-induced gastric acid output compared to vehicle pretreatment. Intracisternal pretreatment with methysergide (nonspecific 5-HT receptor antagonist) or combined cyanopindolol (5-HT(1A and 1B) receptor antagonist)+ritanserin (receptor antagonist of the 5-HT(2) family) did not alter the dorsal vagal complex-RX 77368 response. Unilateral dorsal vagal complex pretreatment with methiothepin (50 nmol/50 nl) attenuated ipsilateral dorsal vagal complex-TRH analog (12 pmol) induced gastric secretory response by 57%. The gastric secretagogue response to stimulation of the raphe obscurus (mediated by TRH release into the dorsal vagal complex) was inhibited 50% by pretreatment with intracisternal dorsal medullary methiothepin (0.1 nmol/10 microl). Intracisternal methiothepin (200 nmol/20 microl) also attenuated (a) dorsal vagal complex-glutamate (60 nmol/30 nl) stimulated gastric acid secretion and (b) gastric motility stimulated by dorsal vagal complex-RX 77368 (12 pmol/30 nl). The data suggest that other properties of methiothepin, alone or in addition to its 5-HT receptor antagonist effect, mediate its inhibitory actions at the dorsal vagal complex. PMID:11834248
Varanasi, Sridhar; Chi, Jinhan; Stephens, Robert L
Background When applying pulsed radiofrequency on dorsal root ganglia for treating chronic lower back pain, maximum efficiency can be expected when a needle is placed 1-2 cm peripheral to the dorsal root ganglion. The object of this study is to analyze images taken after adding contrast to transforaminal epidural injection, categorize root ganglia according to anatomical position, and provide a reference for efficient needle positioning in applying pulsed radiofrequency on dorsal root ganglia. Methods From January 2008 to January 2009, 457 patients who visited our hospital for root pain or radiculopathy were treated with transforaminal epidural injection on the nerve roots based on the dermatome of the painful area. Anteroposterior views were taken after injection of contrast. A virtual line was made by connecting the internal and external parts of the spinal pedicle from the contrast images. Then the dorsal root ganglia were categorized as intraspinal (IS), intraforaminal (IF), or extraforaminal (EF). Results In the fourth lumbar spine, dorsal root ganglia positions were 48% IF, 41% IS, and 6% EF. In the fifth lumbar spine, dorsal root ganglia positions were 75% IF, 10% IS, and 6% EF. In the first sacral spine, dorsal root ganglia locations were 8% IF and 83% IS. Conclusions Positional categorization of dorsal root ganglia according to contrast images was proven to be good anatomical references for effective radiofrequency or blocking of dorsal root ganglia.
Moon, Hyun Seog; Kim, Yeon Dong; Song, Bang Hoon; Cha, Young Deog; Song, Jang Ho
Sensory systems across the brain are specialized for their input, yet some principles of neural organization are conserved across modalities. The pattern of anatomical connections from the primate auditory cortex to the temporal, parietal, and prefrontal lobes suggests a possible division into dorsal and ventral auditory processing streams, with the dorsal stream originating from more caudal areas of the auditory cortex, and the ventral stream originating from more rostral areas. These streams are hypothesized to be analogous to the well-established dorsal and ventral streams of visual processing. In the visual system, the dorsal processing stream shows substantially faster neural response latencies than does the ventral stream. However, the relative timing of putative dorsal and ventral stream processing has yet to be explored in other sensory modalities. Here, we compare distributions of neural response latencies from 10 different areas of macaque auditory cortex, confirmed by individual anatomical reconstructions, to determine whether a similar timing advantage is found for the hypothesized dorsal auditory stream. Across three varieties of auditory stimuli (clicks, noise, and pure tones), we find that latencies increase with hierarchical level, as predicted by anatomical connectivity. Critically, we also find a pronounced timing differential along the caudal-to-rostral axis within the same hierarchical level, with caudal (dorsal stream) latencies being faster than rostral (ventral stream) latencies. This observed timing differential mirrors that found for the dorsal stream of the visual system, suggestive of a common timing advantage for the dorsal stream across sensory modalities.
Camalier, Corrie R.; D'Angelo, William R.; Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne J.; de la Mothe, Lisa A.; Hackett, Troy A.
Study Design. A prospective clinical study of modified unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression (M-ULBD) of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).Objective. In this paper, the authors describe the technique of modified unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis, and reported 2 years follow-up results.Summary of Background Data. Recent researches showed that atrophy of multifidus muscles and chronic low back pain after conventional laminectomy may relate to disturbance of the arterial supply caused by long duration of muscle retraction, extensive muscle stripping, and damage to the dorsal rami of the posterior branches.Methods. A total of 56 patients with LSS were randomly divided into group A and B. The 27 patients in Group A (15 males and 12 females) underwent M-ULBD. The other 29 patients in group B (18 males and 11 females) received conventional laminectomy. JOA score of low back pain, 10cm-VAS, CPK three days after operation, pre- and post-operative cross-sectional areas of multifidus were used to evaluate the clinical results.Results. There was no significant difference in preoperative data between both groups. A total of 54 patients (27 in each group A and B) completed 2 years of follow-up. The postoperative JOA and VAS scores in both groups were improved significantly compared with the corresponding preoperative ones (P<0.05). The postoperative CPK, VAS of low back pain, and atrophy rate of multifidus CSA in group A are lower than those in group B (P<0.05). Dural tear at the contralateral side occurred in 3 cases (11.1%) in group A and 1 case in group B (3.4%).Conclusions. Our two years follow-up shows that this method is efficient for lumbar spinal stenosis treatment, however, it still need long term follow-up and to compare with other modified methods. PMID:23466507
Liu, Xinyu; Yuan, Suomao; Tian, Yonghao
Objective To determine the efficacy of “simultaneous” bilateral cochlear implantation (both implants placed during a single surgical procedure) by comparing bilateral and unilateral implant use in a large number of adult subjects tested at multiple sites. Design Prospective study of 37 adults with postlinguistic onset of bilateral, severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Performance with the bilateral cochlear implants, using the same speech processor type and speech processing strategy, was compared with performance using the left implant alone and the right implant alone. Speech understanding in quiet (CNCs and HINT sentences) and in noise (BKB-SIN Test) were evaluated at several postactivation time intervals, with speech presented at 0° azimuth, and noise at either 0°, 90° right, or 90° left in the horizontal plane. APHAB questionnaire data were collected after each subject underwent a 3-wk “bilateral deprivation” period, during which they wore only the speech processor that produced the best score during unilateral testing, and also after a period of listening again with the bilateral implants. Results By 6-mo postactivation, a significant advantage for speech understanding in quiet was found in the bilateral listening mode compared with either unilateral listening modes. For speech understanding in noise, the largest and most robust bilateral benefit was when the subject was able to take advantage of the head shadow effect; i.e., results were significantly better for bilateral listening compared with the unilateral condition when the ear opposite to the side of the noise was added to create the bilateral condition. This bilateral benefit was seen on at least one of the two unilateral ear comparisons for nearly all (32/34) subjects. Bilateral benefit was also found for a few subjects in spatial configurations that evaluated binaural redundancy and binaural squelch effects. A subgroup of subjects who had asymmetrical unilateral implant performances were, overall, similar in performance to subjects with symmetrical hearing. The questionnaire data indicated that bilateral users perceive their own performance to be better with bilateral cochlear implants than when using a single device. Conclusions Findings with a large patient group are in agreement with previous reports on smaller groups, showing that, overall, bilateral implantation offers the majority of patients advantages when listening in simulated adverse conditions.
Litovsky, Ruth; Parkinson, Aaron; Arcaroli, Jennifer; Sammeth, Carol
The variable origin of muscles is not uncommon though the complete or partial absence of the clavicular head of pectoralis major muscle is rare. This paper deals with bilateral partial absence of clavicular head of pectoralis major muscle. The clavicular head was arising only in the middle of medial half of the clavicle and was separated from sternocostal head by a gap of 2.5cm and laterally from the origin of deltoid from clavicle by a gap of 2.5cm. Nerve supply of this muscle was from lateral and medial pectoral nerves as usual. The partial absence of the clavicular head of pectoralis major muscle becomes important in cases of reconstructive surgery as this head is required to cover the lateral acromioclavicular defect and in cases of established facial paralysis. PMID:16827097
Goyal, Neeru; Harjeet; Gupta, Madhur
Masseter muscle hypertrophy is characterized by unilateral or bilateral enlargement of the masseter muscles affecting both females and males after puberty. Limitations on mouth opening, swollen cheek, and also tension in the region of the hypertrophied muscle are symptoms reported. Also, masseter hypertrophy can cause aesthetic and functional problems. A 40-year old woman was referred to our clinic with the chief complaint of facial appearance with square-face type. To eliminate undesirable facial appearance, surgical intraoral approach compromising reduction of deep masseter muscle with monocortical and bicortical ostectomy of the angle of the mandible was performed. The patient was satisfied with both functional outcomes and aesthetic outcomes on both facial profile and frontal view. No complication was seen intraoperatively and postoperatively after a 12-month follow-up period. This treatment modality would be suggested to gain optimal aesthetic results especially in a square face from the lateral profile. PMID:22337448
Özkan, Birkan Taha; Tabrizi, Reza; Cigerim, Levent
A 57-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with painless binocular vision loss 1 week after direct application of radiofrequency energy to her orbits. She had no light perception bilaterally. Pupils were dilated and not reactive to light. Fundoscopic exam initially showed optic disc swelling in the right eye and a normal-appearing disc in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits showed gadolinium enhancement of both intraorbital optic nerves. She underwent a course of high-dose steroid treatment without recovery of vision. Optic discs were pale 11 weeks after injury. With exclusion of other possible causes, this represents a unique case of irreversible binocular optic nerve damage and blindness secondary to radiofrequency exposure.
Liu, Dianna; Cruz, Franz Marie; Subramanian, Prem S
Extracranial carotid aneurysms caused by Takayasu's arteritis is extremely rare. Their evolutionary risk is dominated by rupture and cerebral ischemia. We report a case of a 23 years old woman presenting bilateral common carotid aneurysm secondary to Takayasu's arteritis. Surgical treatment with the patient under steroid coverage was performed to prevent the risque of rupture. The aneurysm was resected, reconstruction was performed with prothetic aortocarotid bypass. She was discharged without major complications. The graft have remanied patent during the four years follow-up periods. A biologic inflammatory syndrome and a parietal thickening of the aneurysm in a young woman must provoke diagnosis. The surgery must be appropriate every time that the diagnosis is carried considering the evolutionary risk of these aneurysms. PMID:15881852
Sedki, N; El Mahi, O; Bouarhroum, A; Benzirar, A; Lekhel, B; Sefiani, Y; El Mesnaoui, A; Benjelloun, A; Ammar, F; Bensaïd, Y
Chikungunya fever is a relatively rare from of vector-borne viral fever caused by chikungunya virus and spread by bites of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito. Epidemics of chikungunya fever have been reported in the past from different parts of the world. Although the virus had been passive for quite some time, recent reports of outbreaks of chikungunya fever in several parts of Southern India have confirmed the re-emergence of this virus. Symptoms of this infection include abrupt onset of fever, chills, and headache, rash, severe joint pain, conjunctival injection and photophobia. Ocular manifestations have been recently reported with this infection. We report a case of a 48-year-old female patient, who presented with defective vision two weeks after a serology proven chikungunya infection. There was bilateral neuroretinitis with peripapillary cotton wool spots. These findings should be kept in mind as an ocular manifestation of chikungunya virus infection.
G, Mahesh; Giridhar, A; Shedbele, Archis; Kumar, Ram; Saikumar, S J
Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174
Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J
Across bilateral cochlear implants, contralateral threshold shift has been investigated as a function of electrode difference between the masking and probe electrodes. For contralateral electric masking, maximum threshold elevations occurred when the position of the masker and probe electrode was approximately place-matched across ears. The amount of masking diminished with increasing masker-probe electrode separation. Place-dependent masking occurred in both sequentially implanted ears, and was not affected by the masker intensity or the time delay from the masker onset. When compared to previous contralateral masking results in normal hearing, the similarities between place-dependent central masking patterns suggest comparable mechanisms of overlapping excitation in the central auditory nervous system. PMID:23363113
Lin, Payton; Lu, Thomas; Zeng, Fan-Gang
A case of bilateral congenital pseudarthrosis of the olecranon is reported in a 15-month-old boy. This abnormality was noted at birth because of a fixed flexion deformity of both elbows. The left side was operated on at the age of 16 months and the right side at 21 months. Surgical exploration showed a mobile pseudarthrosis with a 2-cm gap between the tip of the olecranon and the nucleus, each one covered with cartilage. This cartilage was excised, the triceps tendon was lengthened to allow the lowering of the nucleus, and both fragments were fixed with nylon threads. The elbow was kept extended for 30 days in a plaster cast. Fusion was obtained shortly. At the 2-year follow-up, the function was nearly normal as was the radiological appearance. This abnormality is very rarely reported in the literature, and we emphasize the necessity of an early operation. PMID:9260655
Pouliquen, J C; Pauthier, F; Kassis, B; Glorion, C
Taurodontism is a rare dental anomaly in which there is an enlarged pulp chamber at the expense of roots with apical displacement of the pulpal floor, giving it a rectangular shape. It is caused by the failure of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath to invaginate at the proper horizontal level. Taurodontism has been reported as an intraoral feature of several syndromes like Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Hurler syndrome, etc. Association of taurodontism with hypodontia in permanent dentition has also been reported. Taurodontism in primary dentition and its association with hypodontia is very rarely reported in the literature. The present case illustrates bilateral taurodontism of primary mandibular molars with hypodontia in maxilla. PMID:23345504
Surendar, Marappan Natarajan; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Khanna, Richa
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate the exact extension of the disease and to plan the correct treatment. Final diagnosis is histological. We described an unusual case of IGM with bilateral involvement in a patient with history of pacemaker implantation and IGM typical clinical symptoms. Mammography, ultrasound, and MRI examinations were performed to identify the inflammatory disorder and to plan the correct therapy. Imaging features were correlated with final histological diagnosis of IGM. PMID:23781373
Pistolese, C A; Di Trapano, R; Girardi, V; Costanzo, E; Di Poce, I; Simonetti, G
The mechanisms regulating the flow of sensory signals and their modification by synaptic interactions in the dorsal column nuclei are incompletely understood. Therefore, we examined the interactions between EPSPs evoked by stimulation of dorsal column and corticofugal fibres in the dorsal column nuclei cells using an in vitro slice technique. Dorsal column EPSPs had briefer durations at depolarised membrane potentials than corticofugal EPSPs. Superfusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2d(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) did not modify dorsal column EPSPs but reduced corticofugal EPSPs. Application of the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) abolished both dorsal column and corticofugal EPSPs in cells held at the resting potential. Therefore, dorsal column EPSPs were mediated by non-NMDA receptors but corticofugal EPSPs revealed both non-NMDA- and NMDA-dependent components. Paired-pulse stimulation of dorsal column fibres elicited a depression of the second EPSP at pulse intervals of < 50 ms; however, paired-pulse stimulation of corticofugal fibres evoked facilitation of the second EPSP at pulse intervals of < 30 ms. When stimulation of the corticofugal fibres preceded stimulation of the dorsal column fibres, facilitation of the dorsal column EPSP was observed at pulse intervals of < 100 ms. This facilitation was blocked at hyperpolarised membrane potentials or in the presence of AP5, suggesting activation of NMDA receptors. There was a depression of corticofugal EPSPs by previous dorsal column stimulation. Dorsal column EPSPs were gradually depressed during stimulation with barrages at frequencies of > 10 Hz, while corticofugal EPSPs were facilitated and summated at frequencies > 30 Hz. Hyperpolarisation and application of AP5 prevented the facilitation of corticofugal EPSPs. High frequency stimulation of the corticofugal input elicited a short-lasting AP5-sensitive facilitation of both corticofugal and dorsal column EPSPs. Depolarising current facilitated dorsal column EPSPs but not corticofugal EPSPs. These results indicate that synaptic interactions include different forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, with the participation of NMDA receptors and probably Ca2+ inflow through voltage-gated channels. These complex synaptic interactions may represent the cellular substrate of the integrative function of the dorsal column nuclei observed in vivo.
Nunez, Angel; Buno, Washington
The primary sensory axons injured by spinal root injuries fail to regenerate into the spinal cord, leading to chronic pain and permanent sensory loss. Regeneration of dorsal root (DR) axons into spinal cord is prevented at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the CNS and PNS. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that prevent regeneration at DREZ is incomplete, in part because complex changes associated with nerve injury have been deduced from postmortem analyses. Dynamic cellular processes, such as axon regeneration, are best studied with techniques that capture real-time events with multiple observations of each living animal. Our ability to monitor neurons serially in vivo has increased dramatically owing to revolutionary innovations in optics and mouse transgenics. Several lines of thy1-GFP transgenic mice, in which subsets of neurons are genetically labeled in distinct fluorescent colors, permit individual neurons to be imaged in vivo(1). These mice have been used extensively for in vivo imaging of muscle(2-4) and brain(5-7), and have provided novel insights into physiological mechanisms that static analyses could not have resolved. Imaging studies of neurons in living spinal cord have only recently begun. Lichtman and his colleagues first demonstrated their feasibility by tracking injured dorsal column (DC) axons with wide-field microscopy(8,9). Multi-photon in vivo imaging of deeply positioned DC axons, microglia and blood vessels has also been accomplished(10). Over the last few years, we have pioneered in applying in vivo imaging to monitor regeneration of DR axons using wide-field microscopy and H line of thy1-YFP mice. These studies have led us to a novel hypothesis about why DR axons are prevented from regenerating within the spinal cord(11). In H line of thy1-YFP mice, distinct YFP+ axons are superficially positioned, which allows several axons to be monitored simultaneously. We have learned that DR axons arriving at DREZ are better imaged in lumbar than in cervical spinal cord. In the present report we describe several strategies that we have found useful to assure successful long-term and repeated imaging of regenerating DR axons. These include methods that eliminate repeated intubation and respiratory interruption, minimize surgery-associated stress and scar formation, and acquire stable images at high resolution without phototoxicity. PMID:21912366
Skuba, Andrew; Himes, B Timothy; Son, Young-Jin
Acute pyelonephritis complicates 1-2% of pregnancies and causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of renal tuberculosis (TB) is often delayed and commonly presents with sterile pyuria or along with other pyogenic organisms. We report a case where the diagnosis of renal TB was missed in a pregnant woman when she presented with acute pyelonephritis, septic shock, and acute renal failure. There was clinical recovery with antibiotics, but bilateral psoas and perinephric abscesses (TB, Enterococcus sp., and E. coli) were diagnosed when she presented with loin pain and palpable left renal angle swelling. Bilateral psoas abscess due to TB in the absence of skeletal TB and human immunodeficiency virus infection is rare. The presentation of renal TB in pregnancy, its complications, and its management are discussed.
Veerappan, I.; Shanmugam, A.; Kumar, S.; Velayutham, P.
Acute pyelonephritis complicates 1-2% of pregnancies and causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of renal tuberculosis (TB) is often delayed and commonly presents with sterile pyuria or along with other pyogenic organisms. We report a case where the diagnosis of renal TB was missed in a pregnant woman when she presented with acute pyelonephritis, septic shock, and acute renal failure. There was clinical recovery with antibiotics, but bilateral psoas and perinephric abscesses (TB, Enterococcus sp., and E. coli) were diagnosed when she presented with loin pain and palpable left renal angle swelling. Bilateral psoas abscess due to TB in the absence of skeletal TB and human immunodeficiency virus infection is rare. The presentation of renal TB in pregnancy, its complications, and its management are discussed. PMID:23580809
Veerappan, I; Shanmugam, A; Kumar, S; Velayutham, P
The occurrence of anomalous muscles in the hand is rare, and therefore the clinician frequently does not account for their\\u000a existence when reaching the diagnosis and concluding the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome. This case report describes the highly\\u000a unusual case of the occurrence of bilateral flexor digitorum superficialis muscles in a recreational climber who developed\\u000a CTS following his intensive
Frank Unglaub; Maya Barbara Wolf; Adrian Dragu; Raymund E. Horch
Bilateral deafness is a rare but possible symptom for ischemia of the vertebrobasilar system, primarily derived from occlusion of anterior inferior cerebellar arteries or their branches. Patients 1 and 2 developed sudden bilateral deafness, soon followed by coma. The proximal segment of the basilar artery was occluded due to atherothrombosis in Patient 1 and arterial dissection in Patient 2. Thrombolytic
Kazunori Toyoda; Teruyuki Hirano; Yasuhiro Kumai; Kenichiro Fujii; Shinsuke Kiritoshi; Setsuro Ibayashi
This paper proposes separated master system to decrease operational force of bilateral control in free motion. Operational force in bilateral control is not desirable because it prevent accurate reproduction of remote environmental force. Thus to decrease operational force is important. The master system consists of a grip part and an actuator part. A human operator manipulates the grip part. In
Haruya Sato; Takahiro Mizoguchi; Fumiya Mitome; Kouhei Ohnishi
Monaural Cochlear Implantation is a widely accepted and effective way to enable deaf people to achieve excellent speech understanding in quiet. Recently, it has been started to implant bilaterally to provide patients with the advantages of binaural information. We have conducted a series of basic experiments to study the availability of binaural cues to a bilateral CI-user of interaurally unsynchronized
Eagle’s syndrome represents a symptomatic styloid process elongation or calcification of stylohyoid or stylomandibular ligament. The symptoms include the throat pain radiating to ipsilateral ear or foreign body sensation in the pharynx causing odynophagia and dysphagia. It is commonly unilateral and bilateral cases are rare. We report a case of bilateral elongation of styloid processes treated surgically by transoral approach.
Baharudin, Abdullah; Rohaida, Ibrahim; Khairudin, Abdullah
Kerosene ingested, intentionally or accidentally, is toxic. Data is scarce on complications and outcomes of hydrocarbon poisoning following kerosene aspiration in adults and there has been no known case of bilateral hemorrhagic effusion occurring due to it in literature. We, hereby, report a case of a bilateral hemorrhagic pleural effusion secondary to hydrocarbon aspiration in a 40-year old adult.
Prasad, Rajendra; Karmakar, Saurabh; Sodhi, Rakhee; Karmakar, Shilpi
|Between 2000 and 2006, the University Clinic for Ear Nose and Throat and Communication Disorders in Mainz, Germany, performed 41 bilateral cochlear implantations in children. This article addresses some of the factors to be considered in a decision to bilaterally implant a child, including the age of the child at the first implant, the length of…
Bohnert, Andrea; Spitzlei, Vera; Lippert, Karl L.; Keilmann, Annerose
We present a case of bilateral Morgagni hernia in a 68-year-old male with an intermittent history of progressive onset of breath shortness and occasional cardiac arrhythmias. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination and the findings in a plain chest radiograph and was confirmed by computed tomography scan. The patient was operated electively and subjected to a transabdominal approach. A bilateral
Vassilios Papanikolaou; Dimitrios Giakoustidis; Paraskevi Margari; Nikolaos Ouzounidis; Nikolaos Antoniadis; Alexander Giakoustidis; Dimitrios Kardasis; Dimitrios Takoudas
Bilateral control has been widely used in many industries including medical surgery. Slave manipulator usually works in a remote site or in a hazardous environment. Master operator is sensing the environment through the slave manipulator. Usually doctors are very sensitive to the tactile sensation they feel through medical tools. If bilateral control is used in surgery, ideally doctor should feel
A. M. Harsha; S. Abeykoon; K. Ohnishi
Bilateral facial nerve palsy is a rare but recognised manifestation of HIV seroconversion illness. The pathophysiology of this clinical presentation is thought to be associated with the immune response of the dissemination of virus throughout the body. We describe a case of bilateral facial nerve palsy, subsequently diagnosed with HIV. Related medical literature is also reviewed. The case highlights the
J C L Yeo; M I Trotter; F Wilson
Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign neoplasm of the parotid gland. However, bilateral synchronous pleomorphic adenomas occur infrequently. We report a case of bilateral synchronous pleomorphic adenoma involving the parotid gland in a 50-yr-old man diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:15108237
Keldahl, Mark L; Zarif, Adil; Gattuso, Paolo
Regional Trade Agreements have proliferated in the past two decades. Most recently the United States has spearheaded a drive for comprehensive bilateral free trade agreements with a number of countries including with those of Latin America. The bilateral free trade agreements are WTO plus, very comprehensive and extremely similar in their structure and content. It can be easily argued that
CARICOM BENEFIT; ESTEBAN PÉREZ CALDENTEY
Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury in healthy people and only a few cases have been reported in athletes. This is the first report of a patient with simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture incurred while playing basketball. The injury was surgically repaired and the patient had a good functional outcome.
M Shah; N Jooma
Purpose To retrospectively investigate the effectiveness of tube drainage in the treatment of bilateral pneumothorax. Methods We retrospectively examined 40 patients with bilateral pneumothorax treated at the Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Departments of Selcuk University between January 1994 and December 2000. There were 37 male and 3 female patients, aged 5–80 years (mean age, 42 years). The definite diagnosis of
Güven Sunam; Mehmet Gök; Sami Ceran; Hasan Solak
Background The current treatment intervention study determined the effect of coupled bilateral training (i.e., bilateral movements and EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation) and resistive load (mass) on upper extremity motor recovery in chronic stroke. Methods Thirty chronic stroke subjects were randomly assigned to one of three behavioral treatment groups and completed 6 hours of rehabilitation in 4 days: (1) coupled bilateral training with a load on the unimpaired hand, (2) coupled bilateral training with no load on the unimpaired hand, and (3) control (no stimulation assistance or load). Results Separate mixed design ANOVAs revealed improved motor capabilities by the coupled bilateral groups. From the pretest to the posttest, both the coupled bilateral no load and load groups moved a higher number of blocks and demonstrated more regularity in the sustained contraction task. Faster motor reaction times across test sessions for the coupled bilateral load group provided additional evidence for improved motor capabilities. Conclusions Together these behavioral findings lend support to the contribution of coupled bilateral training with a load on the unimpaired arm to improved motor capabilities on the impaired arm. This evidence supports a neural explanation in that simultaneously moving both limbs during stroke rehabilitation training appears to activate balanced interhemispheric interactions while an extra load on the unimpaired limb provides stability to the system.
Cauraugh, James H.; Coombes, Stephen A.; Lodha, Neha; Naik, Sagar K.; Summers, Jeffery J.
An unusual combination of downgaze palsy and bilateral ptosis occurred in a patient with central nervous system lymphoma involving bilateral thalamus and midbrain tegmentum. Following treatment with corticosteroids, the transition from total paralysis of downgaze to the supranuclear form was noted, along with alleviation of ptosis, followed by complete resolution of both. The results of serial magnetic resonance images were
Ken Johkura; Atsushi Komiyama; Osamu Hasegawa; Yoshiyuki Kuroiwa
Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672
Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman
Previous studies have demonstrated that the repetition of pseudowords engages a network of premotor areas for articulatory planning and articulation. However, it remains unclear how these premotor areas interact and drive one another during speech production. We used fMRI with dynamic causal modeling to investigate effective connectivity between premotor areas during overt repetition of words and pseudowords presented in both the auditory and visual modalities. Regions involved in phonological aspects of language production were identified as those where regional increases in the BOLD signal were common to repetition in both modalities. We thus obtained three seed regions: the bilateral pre-SMA, left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and left ventral premotor cortex that were used to test 63 different models of effective connectivity in the premotor network for pseudoword relative to word repetition. The optimal model was identified with Bayesian model selection and reflected a network with driving input to pre-SMA and an increase in facilitatory drive from pre-SMA to PMd during repetition of pseudowords. The task-specific increase in effective connectivity from pre-SMA to left PMd suggests that the pre-SMA plays a supervisory role in the generation and subsequent sequencing of motor plans. Diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tracking in another group of healthy volunteers showed that the functional connection between both regions is underpinned by a direct cortico-cortical anatomical connection. PMID:23249347
Hartwigsen, Gesa; Saur, Dorothee; Price, Cathy J; Baumgaertner, Annette; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R
Aside from monoamine disturbances, recent evidence has implicated particular intracellular pathways, including Wnt signaling, in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the role of Wingless (Wnt)-Dishevelled (DVL)-glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) signaling in the depression-like behaviors exhibited by rats exposed to chronic forced swim stress. We found that the rats subjected to forced swim stress for 14 consecutive days exhibited obvious depression-like behaviors and showed decreased levels of phosphorylated GSK3? and ?-catenin in the hippocampus. Chronic citalopram treatment alleviated the depression-like behaviors and reversed the disruptions of the phosphorylated GSK3? and ?-catenin in stressed rats. Furthermore, when the stressed rats with citalopram treatment received bilateral, dorsal hippocampus infusions of a DVL inhibitor, sulindac, the depression-like effects induced by chronic stress reappeared. These findings suggest that the Wnt-DVL-GSK3? signaling in the hippocampus is markedly involved in the pathophysiology of depression induced by chronic stress. The Wnt-DVL-GSK3? pathway may mediate the therapeutic action of citalopram, and the manipulation of DVL could be a target for novel antidepressants. PMID:22634067
Liu, Rui; Dang, Wei; Jianting, Miao; Su, Changjun; Wang, Huaning; Chen, Yunchun; Tan, Qingrong
Although unilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion and bilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion have been reported in the past, bilateral CCA occlusion is rare. The management and mechanism of unilateral CCA occlusion and bilateral ICA occlusion are debatable, but those of bilateral CCA occlusion are largely unknown. Herein, we present a case of bilateral CCA occlusion that had an
Shiao-Lin Lai; Yi-Chun Chen; Hsu-Huei Weng; Sien-Tsong Chen; Shih-Pin Hsu; Tsong-Hai Lee
Behavioural and imaging studies suggest that when humans mentally rehearse a familiar action they execute some of the same neural operations used during overt motor performance. Similarly, neural activation is present during action observation in many of the same brain regions normally used for performance, including premotor cortex. Here we present behavioural evidence that monkeys also engage in mental rehearsal during the observation of sensory events associated with a well-learned motor task. Furthermore, most task-related neurons in dorsal premotor cortex exhibit the same activity patterns during observation as during performance, even during an instructed-delay period before any actual observed motion. This activity might be a single-neuron correlate of covert mental rehearsal. PMID:15496925
Cisek, Paul; Kalaska, John F
Using fMRI, we explored cortical responses to dichoptically presented random-dot (RD) stimuli which formed a checkerboard by means of horizontal disparity (Julesz). Depth reversals occurred every 800 ms by appropriate horizontal shifting of a subset of the RD pattern. We compared cortical blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses of five subjects under conditions with and without binocular disparity. The results indicate that only extrastriate, but not striate, areas responded more to the stimuli with binocular disparity. We further found that the BOLD signal increased with increasing disparity level only in dorsal areas of occipito-parietal and prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that the fMRI BOLD response can reflect the processing of relative binocular disparity in extrastriate cortex. PMID:15094463
Rutschmann, Roland Marcus; Greenlee, Mark W
Because of the availability of disease and genetic models, the mouse has become a valuable species for auditory neuroscience that will facilitate long-term goals of understanding neuronal mechanisms underlying the perception and processing of sounds. The goal of this study was to define the basic sound-evoked response properties of single neurons in the mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Neurons producing complex spikes were distinguished as cartwheel cells (CWCs), and other neurons were classified according to the response map scheme previously developed in DCN. Similar to observations in other rodent species, neurons of the mouse DCN exhibit relatively little sound-driven inhibition. As a result, type III was the most commonly observed response. Our findings are generally consistent with the model of DCN function that has been developed in the cat and the gerbil, suggesting that this in vivo mouse preparation will be a useful tool for future studies of auditory physiology.
Ma, Wei-Li Diana
The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique in addition to some other applications. There are two main contributions of this paper. First, we provide an empirical study of the optimal parameter selection for the bilateral filter in image denoising applications. Second, we present an extension of the bilateral filter: multi-resolution bilateral filter, where bilateral filtering is applied to low-frequency subbands of a signal decomposed using an orthogonal wavelet transform. Combined with wavelet thresholding, this new image denoising framework turns out to be very effective in eliminating noise in real noisy images. We provide experimental results with both simulated data and real data.
Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K.
Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by gray matter cellular rests in the periventricular regions. Megalencephaly has not been reported in children with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia. No other disorder with a similar phenotype has been reported. Here we report the case of a 5-year-old Japanese boy with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and megalencephaly. Relative macrocephaly was evident at birth, and bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and megalencephaly were noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, no hydrocephalus or indication of cerebral cortical dysplasia was seen. A mild intellectual disability was present, but the patient had no history of seizures. Genetic analysis revealed no mutation on the capillary sequences for FLNA, and no pathogenic abnormalities were evident on array comparative genomic hybridization. This case could represent a new disease entity: bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with megalencephaly. PMID:23439715
Abe, Yu; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Tanaka, Soichiro; Inui, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kunishima, Shinji; Haginoya, Kazuhiro
Insulin resistance (IR) is the major feature of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes. IR studies are mainly focused on peripheral tissues, such as muscle and liver. There is, however, little knowledge about IR in neurons. In this study, we examined whether neurons develop IR in response to hyperinsulinemia. We first examined insulin signaling using adult dorsal root ganglion neurons as a model system. Acute insulin treatment resulted in time- and concentration-dependent activation of the signaling cascade, including phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, Akt, p70S6K, and glycogen synthase kinase-3?. To mimic hyperinsulinemia, cells were pretreated with 20 nm insulin for 24 h and then stimulated with 20 nm insulin for 15 min. Chronic insulin treatment resulted in increased basal Akt phosphorylation. More importantly, acute insulin stimulation after chronic insulin treatment resulted in blunted phosphorylation of Akt, p70S6K, and glycogen synthase kinase-3?. Interestingly, when the cells were treated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway inhibitor, but not MAPK pathway inhibitor, chronic insulin treatment did not block acute insulin treatment-induced Akt phosphorylation. Insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was lower in dorsal root ganglion neurons from BKS-db/db compared with control BKS-db+ mice. This effect was age dependent. Our results suggest that hyperinsulinemia cause IR by disrupting the Akt-mediated pathway. We also demonstrate that hyperinsulinemia increases the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1. Our results suggest a new theory for the etiology of diabetic neuropathy, i.e. that, similar to insulin dependent tissues, neurons develop IR and, in turn, cannot respond to the neurotrophic properties of insulin, resulting in neuronal injury and the development of neuropathy.
McLean, Lisa L.; Philip, Stephen S.; Feldman, Eva L.
During Drosophila embryogenesis the process of dorsal closure (DC) results in continuity of the embryonic epidermis, and DC is well recognized as a model system for the analysis of epithelial morphogenesis as well as wound healing. During DC the flanking lateral epidermal sheets stretch, align, and fuse along the dorsal midline, thereby sealing a hole in the epidermis occupied by an extra-embryonic tissue known as the amnioserosa (AS). Successful DC requires the regulation of cell shape change via actomyosin contractility in both the epidermis and the AS, and this involves bidirectional communication between these two tissues. We previously demonstrated that transcriptional regulation of myosin from the zipper (zip) locus in both the epidermis and the AS involves the expression of Ack family tyrosine kinases in the AS in conjunction with Dpp secreted from the epidermis. A major function of Ack in other species, however, involves the negative regulation of Egfr. We have, therefore, asked what role Egfr might play in the regulation of DC. Our studies demonstrate that Egfr is required to negatively regulate epidermal expression of dpp during DC. Interestingly, we also find that Egfr signaling in the AS is required to repress zip expression in both the AS and the epidermis, and this may be generally restrictive to the progression of morphogenesis in these tissues. Consistent with this theme of restricting morphogenesis, it has previously been shown that programmed cell death of the AS is essential for proper DC, and we show that Egfr signaling also functions to inhibit or delay AS programmed cell death. Finally, we present evidence that Ack regulates zip expression by promoting the endocytosis of Egfr in the AS. We propose that the general role of Egfr signaling during DC is that of a braking mechanism on the overall progression of DC.
Cormier, Olga; Cheng, David Chung-Pei; Reed, Bruce; Harden, Nicholas
Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p < 0.01),whereas the post-operative results were not significantly improved for the control group (1.2 ± 0.7 min vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 min, p > 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. PMID:22882515
Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F
Local circuit interactions between the dorsal and ventral divisions of the cochlear nucleus are known to influence the evoked responses of the resident neurons to sound. In the present study, we examined the projections of neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to the dorsal cochlear nucleus by using retrograde transport of biotinylated dextran amine injected into restricted but different regions
John R. Doucet; David K. Ryugo
Object: This study seeks to improve the accuracy of trigeminal nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) radiofrequency lesioning by quantifying the size and orientation of the nucleus caudalis. Methods: Using serial axial photographs of 6 formalin-fixed cadaver brainstems, digital nucleus caudalis measurements were taken at 1-mm intervals from the level of the obex to the C2 dorsal nerve roots.
Stephen E. Sandwell; Amr O. El-Naggar; G. Stephen Nettleton; Robert D. Acland
Buckon CE, Thomas SS, Harris GE, Piatt JH Jr, Aiona MD, Sussman MD. Objective measurement of muscle strength in children with spastic diplegia after selective dorsal rhizotomy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:454-60. Objectives: To examine changes in isometric muscle strength at the elbow, knee, and ankle at 6 months and 1 year after selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) and to determine
Cathleen E. Buckon; Susan Sienko Thomas; Gerald E. Harris; Joseph H. Piatt; Michael D. Aiona; Michael D. Sussman
It is widely accepted that the striatum of the basal ganglia is a primary substrate for the learning and performance of skills. We provide evidence that two regions of the rat striatum, ventral and dorsal, play distinct roles in instrumental conditioning (skill learning), with the ventral striatum being critical for learning and the dorsal striatum being important for performance but,
Dan Lopez-Paniagua; Jerry W Rudy; Hisham E Atallah; Randall C O'Reilly
Previously injured dorsal roots were electrically stimulated to determine if regenerating sensory axons can form physiologically active synaptic contacts with neurons within fetal spinal cord tissue transplants. Dorsal rootlets, sectioned at their spinal cord entry zone, were apposed to intraspinal transplants of fetal spinal cord tissue grafted along each side of a nerve growth factor-treated nitrocellulose implant. Two to six
John D. Houle; Robert D. Skinner; Edgar Garcia-Rill; Kathryn L. Turner
We assessed the correspondence of 660 nm light reflectance changes from the dorsal hippocampus with slow wave electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during quiet sleep (QS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in four cats. An optic probe, attached to a charge-coupled-device (CCD) video camera, was placed on the dorsal hippocampal surface to collect reflectance images simultaneously with EEG, which was measured
David M. Rector; Gina R. Poe; Morten P. Kristensen; Ronald M. Harper
Cat dorsal horn was searched for all detectable units that responded to peripheral C fibre input. Fifty-seven such units were examined in detail. They were located in two main areas. One group was in the superficial laminae 1, 2, and possibly dorsal 3 (n = 29), and the other group was much deeper in laminae 5 and 6 (n =
M. Fitzgerald; P. D. Wall
The Drosophila Rel transcription factor Dorsal and its inhibitor Cactus participate in a signal transduction pathway involved in several biologic processes, including embryonic pattern formation, immunity, and muscle development. In contrast with embryonic muscle, where Dorsal is reportedly absent, this protein and Cactus accumulates in the neuromuscular junctions in the muscle of both larvae and adults. The phenotype of homozygous dorsal mutant larvae suggested that Dorsal and Cactus maybe necessary for normal function and maintenance of the neuromuscular system. Here we investigate if these proteins can respond to synaptic activity. Using larval body wall preparations and antibodies specific for Dorsal or Cactus we show that the amount of these proteins at the neuromuscular junction is substantially decreased after electrical stimulation of the nerves or incubation in glutamate, the principal transmitter in this type of synapse. The specificity of the response was tested with a glutamate receptor antagonist (argiotoxin 636). Because the effect can be reproduced using a calcium ionophore (ionomycin treatment) as well as blocked by the inhibition of the muscle ryanodine receptor (tetracaine treatment), the involvement of calcium in this process seems likely. We also observed that the inhibition of the calcium dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin prevents the effect of glutamate on the fluorescence for Dorsal and Cactus, suggesting its participation in a signal transduction cascade that may activate Dorsal in the muscle independently of Toll. Our results are consistent with a novel function of the Rel factor Dorsal in a molecular pathway turned on by neural activity and/or contractile activity. PMID:12532402
Bolatto, Carmen; Chifflet, Silvia; Megighian, Aram; Cantera, Rafael
We have examined the fine structure of dorsal rim ommatidia in the compound eye of the three odonate species Sympetrum striolatum, Aeshna cyanea and Ischnura elegans. These ommatidia exhibit several specializations: (1) the rhabdoms are very short, (2) there is no rhabdomeric twist, and (3) the rhabdoms contain only two, orthogonally-arranged microvillar orientations. The dorsal rim ommatidia of several other
Eric P. Meyer; Thomas Labhart
The ability to perform a ‘selective’ dorsal rhizotomy has been challenged. EMG responses are inconsistent and often do not represent reflex responses. We perform nonselective partial dorsal rhizotomy (NSPDR) when reflex response is not evident. Ten children undergoing primarily NSPDR were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with the Modified Ashworth Scale, gait lab analyses gross motor function measure and the NSPDR
David J. Sacco; Chester M. Tylkowski; Benjamin C. Warf
Objectives To assess the extent to which hearing aids improve spatial benefit by restoring the availability of interaural difference cues, the benefit attributable to spatial separation of speech and babble with and without bilateral hearing aids was measured as a function of low-pass cutoff frequency. Design Twenty-one older adults with sloping high-frequency hearing loss were provided commercially available bilateral hearing aids. After a 3 to 6 month acclimatization period, speech levels corresponding to 50% correct recognition of sentences from the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) were measured in a 65-dB SPL babble, with speech and babble low-pass filtered at 1.8, 3.6, and 5.6 kHz. Sentences were always at 0° azimuth, and babble was at either 0° or 90°. Speech and babble spectra for all conditions were digitally recorded using a probe microphone placed in each ear canal of each subject. Spectra and levels of speech and babble and unaided thresholds for narrowband noises were used to calculate the aided audibility index and provide predictions of unaided and aided thresholds for HINT sentences, hearing aid benefit, and spatial benefit for each cutoff frequency. In addition, subjects’ willingness to tolerate background noise with and without amplification was measured in the spatially coincident and spatially separated conditions using the Acceptable Noise Level (ANL) procedure. Results Thresholds for HINT sentences in babble and ANL improved significantly when aided and when speech and babble were spatially separated. Specifically, hearing aid benefit improved significantly as cutoff frequency increased from 1.8 to 3.6 kHz but only when speech and babble were spatially separated; likewise, spatial benefit improved significantly from 1.8 to 3.6 kHz but only in the aided condition. No further improvement in hearing aid or spatial benefit was observed when cutoff frequency was increased from 3.6 to 5.6 kHz, although improvement in hearing aid benefit was predicted. Conclusions Hearing aid benefit, although significant, was poorer than predicted, suggesting that these older adults with high-frequency hearing loss did not take full advantage of the increase in audible speech information provided by amplification. Hearing aid benefit was also limited because hearing aids for some subjects did not restore speech audibility across the full bandwidth of speech. Unaided and aided spatial benefit was significantly greater than predicted, and aided spatial benefit was greater than unaided. This suggests that these older adults were able to take advantage of interaural level and time difference cues to improve speech recognition in babble and that they benefited from these cues to a greater extent with than without bilateral hearing aids. Finally, in contrast to results of previous studies, ANL may vary for an individual depending on the listening condition.
Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Horwitz, Amy R.; Dubno, Judy R.
Literature highlights that serotonergic descending pathways  are implicated in somatosensory functions in the spinal cord and that serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal horn might play a role in motor function through proprioceptive feedback [3, 8, 9, 13]. We hypothesized that 5-HT release in dorsal horn might represent an important factor in the completion of locomotion by facilitation of the spinocerebellar tract  and/or by modulation of spinal reflex pathways . The present study demonstrates that during locomotor activity, 5-HT is released in layers II, III, IV, V of Rexed laminae. Microdialysis in combination with HPLC was used to measure concentrations of neurotransmitters in the lumbar dorsal horn before, during, and after a treadmill running exercise. Our results show a significant 41% increase of 5-HT release within the dorsal horn during a running exercise. 5-HT release is temporally related to exercise. The present study demonstrates that dorsal horn 5-HT release might modulate locomotion.
Gerin, Christine; Teilhac, Jean-Rene; Smith, Kristin; Privat, Alain
In the present study, the effects of bilateral injections of cholinergic agents into the hippocampal CA1 regions (intra-CA1) on ethanol state-dependent memory were examined in mice. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of ethanol (0.25, 0.5 and 1g/kg) dose dependently induced impairment of memory retention. Pre-test administration of ethanol (0.5 and 1 g/kg, i.p.) induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under pre-training ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) influence. Pre-test intra-CA1 injection of physostigmine (2.5 and 5 microg/mouse, intra-CA1) or nicotine (0.3 and 0.5 microg/mouse, intra-CA1) improved pre-training ethanol (1g/kg)-induced retrieval impairment. Moreover, pre-test administration of physostigmine (2.5 and 5 microg/mouse, intra-CA1) or nicotine (0.3 and 0.5 microg/mouse, intra-CA1) with an ineffective dose of ethanol (0.25 g/kg) significantly restored the retrieval and induced ethanol state-dependent memory. Pre-test intra-CA1 injection of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (4 and 8 microg/mouse, intra-CA1) or the nicotinic receptor antagonist, mecamylamine (2 and 4 microg/mouse, intra-CA1) 5 min before the administration of ethanol (1g/kg, i.p.) dose dependently inhibited ethanol state-dependent memory. Pre-test intra-CA1 administration of physostigmine (0.5, 2.5 and 5 microg/mouse), atropine (2, 4 and 8 microg/mouse), nicotine (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 microg/mouse) or mecamylamine (1, 2 and 4 microg/mouse) alone cannot affect memory retention. These findings implicate the involvement of a dorsal hippocampal cholinergic mechanism in ethanol state-dependent memory and also it can be concluded that there may be a cross-state dependency between ethanol and acetylcholine. PMID:18065245
Rezayof, Ameneh; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Rassouli, Yassaman
... false Cooperation with bilateral technical assistance programs of the United...40.3 Cooperation with bilateral technical assistance programs of the United...Commerce and in cooperation with the bilateral technical assistance programs of the...
... false Cooperation with bilateral technical assistance programs of the United...40.3 Cooperation with bilateral technical assistance programs of the United...Commerce and in cooperation with the bilateral technical assistance programs of the...
The plausibility and stability of alternative states of the world with large bilateral reductions in nuclear weapons are examined. The current state, with approximately 50,000 nuclear weapons, is compared with two alternative states with arms control agreements with significant verification provisions. The first, minimum deterrence, reduces each superpower's nuclear weapons to a few hundred each and prohibits strategic defense. The second, zero-nuclear-weapons deterrence, abolishes deployed nuclear weapons, but, the superpowers maintain the capability to assemble and deploy a few hundred nuclear weapons on short notice. Strategic defense is encouraged to decrease the incentive to violate the arms control agreements. A conceptual framework is described that captures the fundamental arms procurement and arms control structure in economic terms. The three states are considered the initial conditions and four analyses are performed: potential attack (either a false alarm, an accidental attack, or an intentional attack) stability, major superpower crisis stability, arms procurement stability (the incentives to procure weapons which, although not in violation of the arms control agreements, may be destabilizing), and arms control stability (the incentives to violate the agreements). The analysis focuses on arms procurement and arms control stability.
We describe reconstructive surgeries, therapy, prostheses, and adaptations for a patient who experienced bilateral amputation of all five fingers of both hands through the proximal phalanges in January 1992. The patient made considerable progress in the use of his hands in the 10 mo after amputation, including nearly a 120% increase in the active range of flexion of metacarpophalangeal joints. In late 1992 and early 1993, the patient had "on-top plasty" surgeries, in which the index finger remnants were transferred onto the thumb stumps, performed on both hands. The increased web space and functional pinch resulting from these procedures made many tasks much easier. The patient and occupational therapists set challenging goals at all times. Moreover, the patient was actively involved in the design and fabrication of all prostheses and adaptations or he developed them himself. Although he was discharged from occupational therapy in 1997, the patient continues to actively find new solutions for prehension and grip strength 18 yr after amputation.
Stapanian, Martin A.; Stapanian, Adrienne M. P.; Staley, Keith E.
We describe reconstructive surgeries, therapy, prostheses, and adaptations for a patient who experienced bilateral amputation of all five fingers of both hands through the proximal phalanges in January 1992. The patient made considerable progress in the use of his hands in the 10 mo after amputation, including nearly a 120% increase in the active range of flexion of metacarpophalangeal joints. In late 1992 and early 1993, the patient had "on-top plasty" surgeries, in which the index finger remnants were transferred onto the thumb stumps, performed on both hands. The increased web space and functional pinch resulting from these procedures made many tasks much easier. The patient and occupational therapists set challenging goals at all times. Moreover, the patient was actively involved in the design and fabrication of all prostheses and adaptations or he developed them himself. Although he was discharged from occupational therapy in 1997, the patient continues to actively find new solutions for prehension and grip strength 18 yr after amputation. PMID:21218683
Stapanian, Martin A; Stapanian, Adrienne M P; Staley, Keith E
Approximately 15% of patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome have bilateral intracranial involvement and the prognosis of these patients is believed to be particularly unfavorable. We reviewed the clinical and neuroimaging features of patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome and bilateral intracranial involvement. Seizure variables, presence of hemiparesis and degree of developmental impairment at last follow-up were compared to imaging abnormalities. Out of 110 Sturge-Weber syndrome patients studied, 14 had bilateral brain involvement, which always showed an asymmetric pattern on glucose metabolism positron emission tomography. Although most patients had frequent seizures initially, associated with frontal hypometabolism on positron emission tomography, six patients (43%) had achieved good seizure-control during follow-up. Bilateral frontal hypometabolism was associated with severe developmental impairment; two children with bitemporal hypometabolism showed autistic features. Hemiparesis was associated with superior frontal (motor cortex) hypometabolism. Three patients had resective surgery, resulting in improved seizure control and/or developmental outcome. The severity of neurological complications and clinical course depend highly on the extent of cortical dysfunction in bilateral Sturge-Weber syndrome; bilateral frontal and temporal hypometabolism is associated with poor developmental outcome. Nevertheless, good seizure control and only mild/moderate developmental impairment can be achieved in about half of bilateral Sturge-Weber syndrome patients, with or without resective surgery.
Alkonyi, Balint; Chugani, Harry T.; Karia, Samir; Behen, Michael E.; Juhasz, Csaba
Here, we describe a bilateral cervical contusion model for mice. Adult female mice received graded bilateral contusion injuries at cervical level 5 (C5) using a commercially available impactor (the IH device). Three separate experiments were carried out to define conditions that produce impairments in forelimb function without unacceptable impairment of general health. A grip strength meter (GSM) was used to assess gripping ability as a measure of forelimb motor function; lesion size was assessed histologically by staining cross sections for H&E and GFAP. In Experiment 1, mice received injuries of 30 kilodynes (kdyn); these produced minimal deficits on grip strength. In Experiment 2, mice received injuries of 75 kdyn and 100 kdyn. Injuries of 75 kdyn produced transient deficits in gripping that recovered between 3-15 dpi to about 90% of control; injuries of 100 kdyn produced deficits that recovered to about 50% of control. In Experiment 3, none of the mice that received injuries of 100 kdyn recovered gripping ability. Histological assessment revealed graded injuries that ranged from damage limited primarily to the dorsal column (DC) to damage to the DC, grey matter, ventral column and lateral column. Most lesions filled in with a fibrous tissue matrix, but fluid-filled cystic cavities were found in 13% of the 100 kdyn injury group and a combination of fibrous-filled/fluid-filled cystic cavities were found in 22% and 38% of the 75 kdyn and 100 kdyn injury groups, respectively. There was minimal urine retention following cervical contusion injuries indicating preservation of bladder function. Our results define conditions to produce graded bilateral cervical contusion injuries in mice and demonstrate the usefulness of the GSM for assessing forelimb motor function after cervical contusions.
Aguilar, Roberto M.; Steward, Oswald
Earlier studies recording single neuronal activity in the postcentral somatosensory cortex of monkeys converged in suggesting that the bilateral receptive fields were related exclusively to the body midline including the trunk, perioral face, and oral cavity. These neurons were recorded mostly in the rostral part of the gyrus, areas 3b and 1. However, the authors recently found a substantial number of neurons with bilateral receptive fields on extremities, hand/digits, shoulders/arms, or legs/feet in the caudalmost part (areas 2 and 5) of the postcentral gyrus. The authors review these results and discuss functional implications of the bilateral representation in the postcentral somatosensory cortex. PMID:11597101
Iwamura, Y; Taoka, M; Iriki, A
Thoracotomic, trans-sternal or thoracoscopic approaches through transmediastinal access for contralateral lung are operative alternatives for bilateral pulmonary lesions. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for spontaneous pneumothorax (PTX) is now considered as a standard approach. Herein, we report a novel method of apico-posterior transmediastinal ipsilateral approach using VATS to perform simultaneous bilateral bullectomy in two young men with simultaneous bilateral spontaneous PTX. This new VATS access is technically feasible and may mitigate postoperative pain and avoid a secondary thoracic incision. PMID:18187456
Cho, Deog Gon; Do Cho, Kyu; Kang, Chul Ung; Seop Jo, Min
A single pleural space can lead to serious simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax in cases of congenital or acquired pleuro-pleural communication. Here we report a 35-year-old man with bilateral pneumothorax. Chest computed tomography scans revealed a small air space between the esophagus and aorta, suggesting pleuro-pleural communication. Bilateral thoracoscopic bullectomy was performed. Repeated inspection revealed a 2-cm-long pleural window between the aorta and esophagus, which was closed with a collagen patch. Although congenital pleuro-pleural communication has been regarded as rare, as many as nine patients have been reported (if suspected cases are included). The lower middle mediastinum should be carefully inspected.
Suzuki, Takashi; Yokoi, Masahide; Yoshida, Shuji; Takeyama, Teruaki; Nakazaki, Haruhiro; Goto, Hidenori; Sato, Fumitomo; Takagi, Keigo; Otsuka, Hajime
A single pleural space can lead to serious simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax in cases of congenital or acquired pleuro-pleural communication. Here we report a 35-year-old man with bilateral pneumothorax. Chest computed tomography scans revealed a small air space between the esophagus and aorta, suggesting pleuro-pleural communication. Bilateral thoracoscopic bullectomy was performed. Repeated inspection revealed a 2-cm-long pleural window between the aorta and esophagus, which was closed with a collagen patch. Although congenital pleuro-pleural communication has been regarded as rare, as many as nine patients have been reported (if suspected cases are included). The lower middle mediastinum should be carefully inspected. PMID:23372954
Hata, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Takashi; Yokoi, Masahide; Yoshida, Shuji; Takeyama, Teruaki; Nakazaki, Haruhiro; Goto, Hidenori; Sato, Fumitomo; Takagi, Keigo; Otsuka, Hajime
A 75-year-old female visited our hospital with bilateral adrenal masses that were detected incidentally during lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of radiating flank pain. Consecutive computed tomography and MRI revealed bilateral adrenal masses with no evidence of lymph node enlargement or local invasion; 2[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography showed an intense FDG accumulation in both adrenal glands without abnormal FDG uptake in extra-adrenal regions. The laboratory test results were within normal ranges. We performed a bilateral adrenalectomy. The pathologic diagnosis of both adrenal masses was consistent with adrenocortical carcinoma. The patient recovered well with no complications.
Kim, Dong Gon; Kim, Sang Deuk; Cha, Jai Seong; Pak, Chul-Ho
Sphenoid sinus mucocele comprises only 2% of all paranasal sinus mucoceles. In literature, there is a case report on sphenoidal mucocele causing bilateral optic neuropathy, with unilateral partial recovery and cranial nerve palsy, but we did not come across any literature with bilateral optic neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia together caused by spheno-ethmoidal mucocele. We present such a rare case of spheno-ethmoidal mucocele causing bilateral optic neuropathy and unilateral sixth nerve palsy who had postsurgery, unilateral good vision recovery, and complete resolution of sixth nerve palsy. PMID:23571243
Selvakumar, Ambika; Mahalaxmi, Balasubramanyam; Ananth, V; Gautam, Cugati
Elective bilateral exposure of iliac arteries during endovascular or laparoscopic aneurysm repair is commonly performed through two retroperitoneal incisions in the iliac fossa. Larger incisions are necessary when simultaneous external and common iliac exposures are needed. We describe a new technique using a single incision for bilateral approach of the iliac arteries. Exposure of iliac arteries through this bilateral anterior paramedian retroperitoneal approach allows the introduction of endografts, crossover ilioiliac bypass, implantation of graft limbs for bifurcated bypass grafting, reconstruction of internal iliac arteries, and ligature of iliac arteries. PMID:19450948
Colacchio, Giovanni; Tomescot, Andre; de Loubresse, Christian Garreau; Coggia, Marc
Tibial tubercle sleeve fracture is a rare injury. In concept, it is similar to the patellar sleeve fracture in a skeletally immature patient. We describe a unique case of simultaneous bilateral tibial tubercle sleeve fractures in a 12-year-old boy. Radiographs and MRI confirmed the injury. The patient underwent open surgical repair of bilateral sleeve fractures with suture anchor fixation. At the final followup, 3 years after his initial injury, the patient demonstrated full knee function bilaterally without radiographic evidence of growth disturbances.
Desai, Rasesh R.; Parikh, Shital N.
The differentiation and migration of superficial dorsal horn neurons and subsequent ingrowth of cutaneous afferents are crucial events in the formation of somatosensory circuitry in the dorsal spinal cord. We report that the differentiation and migration of the superficial dorsal horn neurons are regulated by the LIM homeobox gene Lmx1b, and its downstream targets Rnx and Drg11, two transcription factors
Yu-Qiang Ding; Jun Yin; Artur Kania; Zhong-Qiu Zhao; Randy L. Johnson; Zhou-Feng Chen
Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to modulate nociceptive transmission via projections to spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns. The cellular substrate for this descending modulation has been studied with regard to projections to spinal dorsal horn, but studies of the projections to trigeminal dorsal horn have been less complete. In this study, we combined anterograde tracing from RVM with immunocytochemical detection of the GABAergic synthetic enzyme, GAD67, to determine if the RVM sends inhibitory projections to trigeminal dorsal horn. We also examined the neuronal targets of this projection using immunocytochemical detection of NeuN. Finally, we used electron microscopy to verify cellular targets. We compared projections to both trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns. We found that RVM projections to both trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn were directed to postsynaptic profiles in the dorsal horn, including somata and dendrites, and not to primary afferent terminals. We found that RVM projections to spinal dorsal horn were more likely to contact neuronal somata and were more likely to contain GAD67 than projections from RVM to trigeminal dorsal horn. These findings suggest that RVM neurons send predominantly GABAergic projections to spinal dorsal horn and provide direct input to postsynaptic neurons such as interneurons or ascending projection neurons. The RVM projection to trigeminal dorsal horn is more heavily targeted to dendrites and is only modestly GABAergic in nature. These anatomical features may underlie differences between trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns with regard to the degree of inhibition or facilitation evoked by RVM stimulation.
Aicher, Sue A.; Hermes, Sam M.; Whittier, Kelsey L.; Hegarty, Deborah M.
Context Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is a rare developmental anomaly. This anomaly may be complicated by recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. Case report We report the case of a 28-year- old female with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas and chronic calcific pancreatitis. The diagnosis of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is discussed and the genetic changes leading to it
Vallath Balakrishnan; Vekateswara A Narayanan; Ismail Siyad; Lakshmi Radhakrishnan; Prem Nair
At thoracic and lumbar levels the spinal dorsal gray of young specimens of the turtle Chrysemys d'orbigny consists of a cell-free neuropil and an aggregation of perikarya termed here the lateral column of the dorsal horn (LCDH). Nerve cell clusters also occur in the dorsal commissure. The main neuropil area can be divided into a thin superficial layer containing some
A. Fernfindez; M. Radmilovich; O. Trujillo-Cenóz
Loss of dorsal root ganglion neuron, or injury to dorsal roots, induces permanent somatosensory defect without therapeutic option. We explored an approach to restoring hind limb somatosensory innervation after elimination of L4, L5 and L6 dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats. Somatosensory pathways were reconstructed by connecting L4, L5 and L6 lumbar dorsal roots to T10, T11 and T12 intercostal nerves, respectively, thus allowing elongation of thoracic ganglion neuron peripheral axons into the sciatic nerve. Connection of thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons to peripheral tissues was documented 4 and 7 months after injury. Myelinated and unmyelinated fibers regrew in the sciatic nerve. Nerve terminations expressing calcitonin-gene-related-peptide colonized the footpad skin. Retrograde tracing showed that T10, T11 and T12 dorsal root ganglion neurons expressing calcitonin-gene-related-peptide or the neurofilament RT97 projected axons to the sciatic nerve and the footpad skin. Recording of somatosensory evoked potentials in the upper spinal cord indicated connection between the sciatic nerve and the central nervous system. Hind limb retraction in response to nociceptive stimulation of the reinnervated footpads and reversion of skin lesions suggested partial recovery of sensory function. Proprioceptive defects persisted. Delayed somatosensory reinnervation of the hind limb after destruction of lumbar dorsal root neurons in rats indicates potential approaches to reduce chronic disability after severe injury to somatosensory pathways. PMID:16202409
Liu, Song; Bréjot, Thomas; Cressant, Arnaud; Bacci, Josette; Saïd, Gérard; Tadié, Marc; Heard, Jean Michel
Do functional linkages between islet endocrine cells exist? The effect of differences in frequency and distribution of islet endocrine cells on B cell function was examined in islets from the ventral (ventral islets) and dorsal (dorsal islets) areas of the rat pancreas. Dorsal islets contained 10 times as much glucagon as ventral islets, whereas insulin and total protein contents were similar. Basal rates of insulin secretion and proinsulin biosynthesis were similar in the two types of islet, but, under conditions of glucose stimulation, both insulin secretion and proinsulin biosynthesis were significantly greater in the glucagon-rich dorsal islets. Similarly, glucose utilization rates an ATP levels were greater in dorsal islets. In contrast, the rates of processing of newly synthesized proinsulin were similar in ventral and dorsal islets. That the islet glucagon content may have affected B cell function is inferred from two independent findings. Firstly, basal and glucose-stimulated cyclic AMP contents of glucagon-rich dorsal islets were greater than those of ventral islets. Secondly, in the presence of excess exogenous glucagon (1 microgram/ml), the differences in glucose-induced insulin secretion and proinsulin biosynthesis rates between the two types of islets were eliminated. These results strongly suggest that changes in the relative proportions of the different islet endocrine cells exert marked effects on islet function. In particular, a greater A cell and glucagon content is associated with higher rates of glucose-induced insulin secretion and biosynthesis.
Trimble, E R; Halban, P A; Wollheim, C B; Renold, A E
Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306
Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo
The dorsal visual processing stream subserves object-directed action, whereas the ventral visual processing stream subserves visual object recognition. Little is known about how information computed by dorsal-stream structures influences object recognition. We used continuous flash suppression to functionally separate information computed by the dorsal stream from that computed by the ventral stream. We show that information originating from the dorsal stream influences not only decisions requiring the selection of superordinate category labels, but also decisions that entail the selection of a basic-level object. We further show that information computed by the dorsal stream does not carry specific functional information about objects. Our results indicate that the dorsal stream, in isolation from the ventral stream, is agnostic as to the identity of the objects that it processes. We suggest that structures within the dorsal visual processing stream compute motor-relevant information (e.g., graspability), which influences the identification of manipulable objects, and is not either about the function of the object or function-specific. PMID:20483820
Almeida, Jorge; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso
The Drosophila wing consists of a transparent wing membrane supported by a network of wing veins. Previously, we have shown that the wing membrane cuticle is not flat but is organized into ridges that are the equivalent of one wing epithelial cell in width and multiple cells in length. These cuticle ridges have an anteroposterior orientation in the anterior wing and a proximodistal orientation in the posterior wing. The precise topography of the wing membrane is remarkable because it is a fusion of two independent cuticle contributions from the dorsal and ventral wing epithelia. Here, through morphological and genetic studies, we show that it is the dorsal wing epithelium that determines wing membrane topography. Specifically, we find that wing hair location and membrane topography are coordinated on the dorsal, but not ventral, surface of the wing. In addition, we find that altering Frizzled Planar Cell Polarity (i.e., Fz PCP) signaling in the dorsal wing epithelium alone changes the membrane topography of both dorsal and ventral wing surfaces. We also examined the wing morphology of two model Hymenopterans, the honeybee Apis mellifera and the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. In both cases, wing hair location and wing membrane topography are coordinated on the dorsal, but not ventral, wing surface, suggesting that the dorsal wing epithelium also controls wing topography in these species. Because phylogenomic studies have identified the Hymenotera as basal within the Endopterygota family tree, these findings suggest that this is a primitive insect character.
Belalcazar, Andrea D.; Doyle, Kristy; Hogan, Justin; Neff, David; Collier, Simon
The development of the vertebrate face relies on the regionalization of neural crest-derived skeletal precursors along the dorsoventral (DV) axis. Here we show that Jagged-Notch signaling ensures dorsal identity within the hyoid and mandibular components of the facial skeleton by repressing ventral fates. In a genetic screen in zebrafish, we identified a loss-of-function mutation in jagged 1b (jag1b) that results in dorsal expansion of ventral gene expression and partial transformation of the dorsal hyoid skeleton to a ventral morphology. Conversely, misexpression of human jagged 1 (JAG1) represses ventral gene expression and dorsalizes the ventral hyoid and mandibular skeletons. We further show that jag1b is expressed specifically in dorsal skeletal precursors, where it acts through the Notch2 receptor to activate hey1 expression. Whereas Jagged-Notch positive feedback propagates jag1b expression throughout the dorsal domain, Endothelin 1 (Edn1) inhibits jag1b and hey1 expression in the ventral domain. Strikingly, reduction of Jag1b or Notch2 function partially rescues the ventral defects of edn1 mutants, indicating that Edn1 promotes facial skeleton development in part by inhibiting Jagged-Notch signaling in ventral skeletal precursors. Together, these results indicate a novel function of Jagged-Notch signaling in ensuring dorsal identity within broad fields of facial skeletal precursors. PMID:20431122
Zuniga, Elizabeth; Stellabotte, Frank; Crump, J Gage
Background Neurons in the dorsal spinal cord play important roles in nociception and pain. These neurons receive input from peripheral sensory neurons and then transmit the signals to the brain, as well as receive and integrate descending control signals from the brain. Many molecules important for pain transmission have been demonstrated to be localized to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Further understanding of the molecular interactions and signaling pathways in the dorsal horn neurons will require a better knowledge of the molecular neuroanatomy in the dorsal spinal cord. Results A large scale screening was conducted for genes with enriched expression in the dorsal spinal cord using DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. In addition to genes known to be specifically expressed in the dorsal spinal cord, other neuropeptides, receptors, ion channels, and signaling molecules were also found enriched in the dorsal spinal cord. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed the cellular expression of a subset of these genes. The regulation of a subset of the genes was also studied in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) neuropathic pain model. In general, we found that the genes that are enriched in the dorsal spinal cord were not among those found to be up-regulated in the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. This study also provides a level of validation of the use of DNA microarrays in conjunction with our novel analysis algorithm (SAFER) for the identification of differences in gene expression. Conclusion This study identified molecules that are enriched in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and provided a molecular neuroanatomy in the spinal cord, which will aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms important in nociception and pain.
Sun, Hong; Xu, Jian; Della Penna, Kimberly B; Benz, Robert J; Kinose, Fumi; Holder, Daniel J; Koblan, Kenneth S; Gerhold, David L; Wang, Hao
In this article, we present two cases of bilateral retinal detachment in toxemia of pregnancy. The first case describes 31-year old patient admitted to hospital due to toxemia of pregnancy in the 38th week of the second pregnancy. Medical examination following admission showed blood pressure 180/130 mm Hg oedema of face and legs. Accessory investigations displayed proteinuria, leukocyturia, bacteriuria. At the fundus of eye the features of initial retinopatia hypertonica were discovered. On the fifth day of the patient's hospitalization because of the worsening of general health condition and sudden blood pressure increase, the pregnancy was delivered by cesarean section. Some hours after awakening the patient reported the loss of vision of both eyes. Ophthalmological examination showed the occurrence of retinal detachment. Tearing wasn't found. When the protein deficiency was supplemented and antiinflammatory and oedema--reducing treatment was administered the blood pleasure stabilized retina attached itself and visual functions returned. In the second case 22-year old patient was admitted to hospital at term of labour with blood pressure 150/90 mm Hg and a little proteinuria. On the second day of hospitalization the pregnancy was delivered through natural passages. A few hours after the delivery the patient reported indistinct vision and blurring of the image. Through ophthalmological examination retinal detachment was stated. Tearing was not found. Thanks to bed regime and resorbing treatment total retinal attachment was gained and visual functions returned. This case suggests that retinal detachment of pregnant woman does not have to be proceeded by symptoms of toxemia of pregnancy and the period of delivery may accelerate and release mechanisms damaging choriocapillaries, which causes the flow of liquid from vessels of chorioidea to subretinal space. PMID:10526447
Poppe, E; Sajkowska, M; Bernacka, I
To define the risk of spinal deformity after selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for the treatment of spasticity due to cerebral palsy, 43 patients were reviewed before and after the procedure. The average length of follow-up was 5.3 years with a range of 2-9 years. Scoliosis was present in three patients before rhizotomy. One patient had a thoracic hyperkyphosis, and another, a lumbar hyperlordosis deformity preoperatively. Wide laminectomies were performed in 46 patients, and none had laminoplasties. Twenty-eight significant spinal deformities developed in 19 patients; 15 cases of scoliosis, seven instances of lumbar hyperlordosis, five thoracic hyperkyphosis, and one L4-5 spondylolisthesis. Five patients were placed in braces, and three patients went on to have surgical stabilization of their deformities. For the entire group, the risk of developing a structural spinal deformity was 36%, with 6% requiring stabilization at an average of 4.9 years after SDR. Older age, more severe neurologic impairment, and preexisting spinal deformity seems to increase this risk. PMID:10641698
Turi, M; Kalen, V
In nonprimate mammals, the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is thought to play a role in the orientation of the head towards sounds of interest by integrating acoustic and somatosensory information (May, 2000; Davis and Young, 2002; Ryugo et al., 2003). Humans and higher primates might not use this system because of reported phylogenetic changes in DCN cytoarchitecture (Moskowitz, 1969; Moore and Osen, 1979; Moore, 1980). In this study, we re-evaluated this question from a comparative perspective and examined the rhesus monkey (cercopithecoid primate) using more sensitive probes and higher resolution imaging methods. We used electron microscopy to identify parallel fibers and their synapses, and molecular markers to determine that primates exhibit the main components of excitatory neurotransmission as other mammals. We observed that characteristics of the monkey molecular layer resembled what has been reported for nonprimates: (1) immunohistochemistry revealed many unmyelinated, thin axons and en passant glutamatergic synapses on dendritic spines; (2) immunohistochemistry for phosphodiesterase (PDE10A) showed the nuclei of granule cells distributed in the external molecular layer and the deep layers in the DCN; (3) antibodies for the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3r) and calbindin immunostained cartwheel cells; (4) postembedding immunogold labeling revealed synaptic expression of AMPA and delta glutamate receptor subunits on spines in parallel fiber endings; and (5) parallel fibers use VGLUT1 to package glutamate into the synaptic vesicles and to mediate glutamate transport. These observations are consistent with the argument that the rhesus monkey DCN has similar neuronal features as other nonprimate mammals.
Rubio, Maria E.; Gudsnuk, Kathryn A.; Smith, Yoland; Ryugo, David K.
The dorsal visual stream consists of several functionally specialized areas, but most of their cytoarchitectonic correlates have not yet been identified in the human brain. The cortex adjacent to Brodmann area 18/V2 was therefore analyzed in serial sections of ten human post-mortem brains using morphometrical and multivariate statistical analyses for the definition of areal borders. Two previously unknown cytoarchitectonic areas (hOc3d, hOc4d) were detected. They occupy the medial and, to a smaller extent, lateral surface of the occipital lobe. The larger area, hOc3d, is located dorso-lateral to area V2 in the region of superior and transverse occipital, as well as parieto-occipital sulci. Area hOc4d was identified rostral to hOc3d; it differed from the latter by larger pyramidal cells in lower layer III, thinner layers V and VI, and a sharp cortex-white-matter borderline. The delineated areas were superimposed in the anatomical MNI space, and probabilistic maps were calculated. They show a relatively high intersubject variability in volume and position. Based on their location and neighborhood relationship, areas hOc3d and hOc4d are putative anatomical substrates of functionally defined areas V3d and V3a, a hypothesis that can now be tested by comparing probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps and activation studies of the living human brain. PMID:22354469
Kujovic, Milenko; Zilles, Karl; Malikovic, Aleksandar; Schleicher, Axel; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B; Amunts, Katrin
Spatial computations underlying the coordination of the hand and eye present formidable geometric challenges. One way for the nervous system to simplify these computations is to directly encode the relative position of the hand and the center of gaze. Neurons in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), which is critical for the guidance of arm-reaching movements, encode the relative position of the hand, gaze and goal of reaching movements. This suggests that PMd can coordinate reaching movements with eye movements. Here, we examine saccade-related signals in PMd to determine whether they also point to a role for PMd in coordinating visual-motor behavior. We first compared the activity of a population of PMd neurons with a population of parietal reach region (PRR) neurons. During center-out reaching and saccade tasks, PMd neurons responded more strongly before saccades than PRR neurons and PMd contained a larger proportion of exclusively saccade-tuned cells than PRR. During a saccade relative position coding task, PMd neurons encoded saccade targets in a relative position code that depended on the relative position of gaze, the hand, and the goal of a saccadic eye movement. This relative position code for saccades is similar to the way that PMd neurons encode reach targets. We propose that eye movement and eye position signals in PMd do not drive eye movements, but rather provide spatial information that links the control of eye and arm movements in order to support coordinated visual-motor behavior.
Pesaran, Bijan; Nelson, Matthew J.; Andersen, Richard A.
Human infants, unlike even closely related primates, exhibit a remarkable capacity for language learning. Yet how the underlying anatomical network matures remains largely unknown. The classical view is that of a largely immature brain comprising only a few islands of maturity in primary cortices. This view has favored a description of learning based on bottom-up algorithms and has tended to discard the role of frontal regions, which were assumed to be barely functional early on. Here, using an index based on the normalized T2-weighted magnetic resonance signal, we have quantified maturation within the linguistic network in fourteen 1- to 4-month-old infants. Our results show first that the ventral superior temporal sulcus (STS), and not the inferior frontal area, is the less mature perisylvian region. A significant difference of maturation in the STS favoring the right side is an early testimony of the distinctive left-right development of this structure observed during the whole life. Second, asymmetries of maturation in Broca's area were correlated with asymmetries in the posterior STS and in the parietal segment of the arcuate fasciculus, suggesting that an efficient frontotemporal dorsal pathway might provide infants with a phonological loop circuitry much earlier than expected. PMID:21273434
Leroy, François; Glasel, Hervé; Dubois, Jessica; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Thirion, Bertrand; Mangin, Jean-François; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine
The ability to optimize behavioural performance when confronted with continuously evolving environmental demands is a key element of human cognition. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), which lies on the medial surface of the frontal lobes, is important in regulating cognitive control. Hypotheses about its function include guiding reward-based decision making, monitoring for conflict between competing responses and predicting task difficulty. Precise mechanisms of dACC function remain unknown, however, because of the limited number of human neurophysiological studies. Here we use functional imaging and human single-neuron recordings to show that the firing of individual dACC neurons encodes current and recent cognitive load. We demonstrate that the modulation of current dACC activity by previous activity produces a behavioural adaptation that accelerates reactions to cues of similar difficulty to previous ones, and retards reactions to cues of different difficulty. Furthermore, this conflict adaptation, or Gratton effect, is abolished after surgically targeted ablation of the dACC. Our results demonstrate that the dACC provides a continuously updated prediction of expected cognitive demand to optimize future behavioural responses. In situations with stable cognitive demands, this signal promotes efficiency by hastening responses, but in situations with changing demands it engenders accuracy by delaying responses. PMID:22722841
Sheth, Sameer A; Mian, Matthew K; Patel, Shaun R; Asaad, Wael F; Williams, Ziv M; Dougherty, Darin D; Bush, George; Eskandar, Emad N
Supernumerary paramolars are a rare anomaly of the maxillofacial complex. They are more common in the maxilla than the mandible. This article reports a rare case of bilateral maxillary paramolars, their complications and management.
Parolia, A.; Kundabala, M.
A case of congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and bilateral cataract without other ocular anomalies is presented. This association, to our knowledge, has not been reported before. PMID:8971891
Zeis, P M; Sotsiou, F; Sinaniotis, C
We present a patient with a Rathke's cleft cyst who presented with rapidly progressive bilateral 6th nerve palsy. A 20-year-old woman with a history of cleft palate, hypertension, and hydronephrotic kidneys presented with a one month history of headache, associated with dizziness and diplopia on horizontal gaze. Examination was significant for profound bilateral 6th nerve palsies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a hypodense mass that filled the sella and compressed the right cavernous sinus without contacting the optic chiasm. Pituitary function was normal. An endoscopic, transnasal transsphenoidal resection of the lesion was performed; microscopic examination revealed a Rathke's cleft cyst. Surgical excision resulted in near complete resolution of the bilateral 6th nerve palsy. Rathke's cleft cysts are an unusual cause of bilateral sixth nerve palsy and represent a potential cause of cranial neuropathy. PMID:19621262
Grover, Vinni; Hamrahian, Amir H; Prayson, Richard A; Weil, Robert J
The differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid gland enlargement in children includes infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders. We present the case of a 13-year-old male who presented with a 5-week history of bilateral parotid swelling. On exam, both parotid glands were nontender, smooth, and diffusely enlarged. He had slightly elevated inflammatory markers, but other lab results were normal. A neck CT revealed symmetric enlargement of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. A chest CT revealed scattered peripheral pulmonary nodules and bilateral hilar adenopathy. A parotid gland biopsy showed multiple noncaseating granulomas with multinucleated giant cells surrounded by lymphocytes, consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Special stains for acid-fast and fungal organisms were negative. Using this illustrative case, we discuss the differential diagnosis of bilateral salivary gland enlargement in children and review the etiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of pediatric sarcoidosis. PMID:23102965
Banks, Gretchen C; Kirse, Daniel J; Anthony, Evelyn; Bergman, Simon; Shetty, Avinash K
The hypothesis that bilaterally redundant, and mutually coupled circadian pacemakers are located near the lobula of the optic lobes of the cockroach,Leucophaea maderae, was investigated in a series of lesion experiments.
Terry L. Page
Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly, and may be total or partial, unilateral or bilateral. Total absence is more frequent than partial, unilateral absence occurs more often than bilateral, with right limb more commonly affected than the left. In partial defect, almost always the distal end of the bone is affected, and of the bilateral cases, there may be total absence on both sides, or total on one side and partial on the other. Males are slightly more commonly affected than the females. Though, the family history is usually negative for congenital abnormalities and other diseases, there is a considerable chance of occurrence of congenital defect of the tibia or of other abnormalities, in near or remote relatives. We report a case of newborn having bilateral tibial hemimelia type VIIa.
Chinnakkannan, Selvakumar; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Rughmini, K.; Ahmed, Sufath
Sternal wound complications after cardiac surgery are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Wire migrations associated with sternal dehiscence can lead to catastrophic haemorrhage unless intervened in time. We present a case of sternal wire migration causing bilateral pneumothoraces.
Imran Hamid, Umar; Gillespie, Scott; Lynchehaun, Colum; Parissis, Haralabos
The bilateral system was designed to study limb stiffness in different movement tasks. The mechatronics consists of two angular voice coil actuators (+/- 40 Nm) with embedded rotary (+/- 20 degrees) and torque sensors driven by voltage controlled current ...
E. Gallasch D. Rafolt H. P. Taferner M. Fend
A simple inexpensive scheme of an electronic amplifier for Wheatstone bridge application is presented. The bridge is excited from a bilateral constant current square wave source. The advantage of constant current drive is presented.
C. Velayudhan; Daniel Oommen
A simple inexpensive scheme of an electronic amplifier for Wheatstone bridge application is presented. The bridge is excited from a bilateral constant current square wave source. The advantage of constant current drive is presented. PMID:18647085
Velayudhan, C; Oommen, D
A simple inexpensive scheme of an electronic amplifier for Wheatstone bridge application is presented. The bridge is excited from a bilateral constant current square wave source. The advantage of constant current drive is presented.
Velayudhan, C.; Oommen, Daniel
BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is an extremely disabling affliction that causes problems in mastication, digestion, speech, appearance, and hygiene. The disease also has an impact on the psychological development of the patients. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male patient came to our unit with complaint of restriction in his alimentation and of mouth opening. In the anamnesis, the patient reported that this limitation began 11 years ago, soon after a serious car accident that caused trauma on the face. In the clinical examination, the patient's mouth opening was 1 mm, and there was satisfactory occlusion. He was diagnosed with bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis after an imaging examination. DISCUSSION: In order to confirm the post-traumatic etiology of the anquilose, we got the medical records from the hospital where the patient received the first treatment. The records, at that time, reported facial trauma with bilateral condylar fracture and comminuted symphyseal fracture which was reduced and fixed followed by maxillomandibular fixation that remained for 45 days. After collecting all the information needed for diagnosis, surgical treatment was proposed through arthroplasty. The patient was placed on immediate post-operative jaw physiotherapy, and 12 months after surgery, his mouth opening improved to 35 mm. Thus, in our case, ankylosis may have been developed as a sequel of the mandibular fractures. PMID:23306946
Benaglia, Matheus B; Gaetti-Jardim, Ellen Cristina; Oliveira, Janayna G Paiva; Mendonça, Jose Carlos Garcia
The participation of the opiate peptide enkephalin in the neural circuitry of the dorsal horn was examined at the light and ultrastructural level through the use of the combined techniques of immunocytochemistry and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Enkephalin immunoreactive axonal endings made direct synaptic contact with the soma and proximal dendrites of dorsal horn thalamic projection neurons. This observation demonstrates that one major synaptic site of enkephalin modulation of the transfer of nociceptive information in the dorsal horn is on the projection neurons themselves.
Ruda, M. A.
We report a 14-year-old girl with Alport’s syndrome who developed bilateral exudative retinal detachment in the macula. With the development of chronic renal failure, bilateral serous retinal detachment appeared which had the retinal flecks characteristic of Alport’s syndrome. The serous detachment was resolved and vision recovered following intensive hemodialysis. As far as we know this is the first case with
Kenjiro Yasuzumi; Soh Futagami; Motohiro Kiyosawa; Manabu Mochizuki
A patient is described who developed co-existent Reiter's disease and bilateral non-traumatic retinal detachment. Although numerous ophthalmological disorders are associated with Reiter's disease and HLA-B27, to our knowledge this is the first report of co-existent retinal detachment. Although this relationship may be fortuitous, there are a number of immunological mechanisms common to both entities. Retinal detachment, unlike bilateral conjunctivitis and
M. C. Belcon; W. G. Bensen; R. M. Zahoruk
We report a case of bilateral apical lung bullae that collapsed following an episode of community-acquired pneumonia with bilateral air fluid levels. With standard treatment for community-acquired pneumonia, management of a patient that may have qualified for bullectomy, (as in our case) showed complete resolution of all pathology without surgical intervention. Conservative management took precedence in alleviating pathology over surgical intervention. PMID:23843717
Shariff, Masood A; Singh, Vijay A; Daniele, Edward D; Goyal, Nikhil; Peykova, Deliana; Nabagiez, John P; Rosell, Frank M
We report a case of bilateral apical lung bullae that collapsed following an episode of community-acquired pneumonia with bilateral air fluid levels. With standard treatment for community-acquired pneumonia, management of a patient that may have qualified for bullectomy, (as in our case) showed complete resolution of all pathology without surgical intervention. Conservative management took precedence in alleviating pathology over surgical intervention.
Shariff, Masood A; Singh, Vijay A; Daniele, Edward D; Goyal, Nikhil; Peykova, Deliana; Nabagiez, John P; Rosell, Frank M
The purpose of this report is to provide two illustrative cases of spontaneous and bilateral perirenal hematomas that occurred during a pregnancy complicated by eclampsia. The sonographic and computed tomographic findings included bilateral perirenal hematoma with no evidence of an underlying malignancy. Since renal hematomas that occur in association with preeclampsia and eclampsia syndrome are extremely rare, but potentially life-threatening complications, prompt laboratory and radiologic evaluations are essential and can reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:12768075
Kably, Issam M; Chikhaoui, Nabil
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare and highly lethal soft-tissue infection that involves the skin, subcutaneous tissue,\\u000a and fascia. Although it can affect any part of the body, the breast is seldom involved. We describe a case of bilateral NF\\u000a of the breast following elective quadrantectomy, successfully treated with antibiotics, bilateral mastectomy, and a vacuum-assisted\\u000a wound closure system.
Fernando A. Angarita; Sergio A. Acuna; Lilian Torregrosa; Mauricio Tawil; Elio F. Sánchez; Oscar Heilbron; Luis Carlos Domínguez
We report the case of a 21-year-old male patient admitted emergently with progressive bilateral severe visual loss for 1month. Posterior segment examination revealed bilateral stellate neuroretinitis. Infectious serologies were negative, and brain CT was normal. Physical examination was remarkable for malignant hypertension of 220/150mmHg. Diagnostic work-up revealed a pheochromocytoma documented by histopathological exam upon adrenalectomy. The disc edema and macular exudates resolved once the hypertension was controlled. PMID:23790444
El Haddad, S; Benchekroun, N; Rhafour, A; Ahbeddou, S; Rhafour, I; Imdary, I; Idrissi Alami, S; Soufi, G; Berraho, A
A 48-year-old woman noted progressive, painless visual loss in her left eye. She was diagnosed with bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs), extending across the planum sphenoidale. Radiation was offered, but the patient declined. She has been followed for more than 27 years with stable visual function and neuroimaging findings. Bilateral ONSMs, although usually described as aggressive in nature, may follow a stable clinical course. PMID:23001155
Kothari, Nikisha A; Kulkarni, Kaushal M; Lam, Byron L
Letters can be matched by their physical identity (i.e., a–a: same\\/A–a: different) or by their name (both a–a and A–a: same). The latter, more demanding task has in previous experiments led to an advantage of bilateral over within-hemifield matches, which was not observed in the former. We have investigated the neural basis of this bilateral distribution advantage (BDA) in letter
Stefan Pollmann; Eran Zaidel; D. Yves von Cramon
A 59-year-old woman with large hard palate cancer underwent surgical resection. We constructed a maxillary prosthesis to be connected to the patient's mandibular denture. Bilateral maxillectomy resulted in total loss of the hard palate and bilateral alveolar and partial loss of the soft palate. A obturator prosthesis was prepared beforehand to fit the surgical cavity. The patient recovered functional speech and swallowing at a relatively early stage, achieving satisfactory cosmetic results. PMID:12440163
Nishimoto, Kengo; Iwamoto, Mituaki; Karaki, Atuko; Nishi, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yasuhiko; Kurono, Yuichi
Spontaneous bilateral rupture of Achilles tendon is rare. Rupture of the Achilles tendon has been described in patients on oral corticosteroid therapy. The sudden dorsiflexion of the plantar-flexed foot is the usual mechanism of injury. Spontaneous bilateral rupture is common in the degenerated tendon, which is often seen in patients with long-term corticosteroid therapy. This case is unusual because the patient has never taken steroids. We discuss the mechanism of injury and other probable causes. PMID:16131683
Rao, S K; Navadgi, B C; Vasdev, A
Congenital arteriovenous malformations are rare lesions of the kidneys. The first case of bilateral renal arteriovenous malformations was described in 1987. A case of extensive bilateral intrarenal arterivenous malformations presented to us as a case of hypertension. Renal angiography confirmed the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance angiography ruled out these malformations in cerebral circulation, and enhanced abdominal CT scan was normal. The blood pressure of the patient was controlled by medical therapy only. PMID:18212459
El-Lozi, M S; Hadad, A F
Objective Bilateral synchronous sporadic enhancing renal masses account for as many as 6% of newly diagnosed cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The data regarding concordance rates of malignant and benign phenotypes, histologic subtypes, nuclear grade, and pathologic stage are limited. Methods We reviewed the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, the published English language literature and our own institutional tumor registry to identify all cases of sporadic, synchronous localized (cT1-3NoMo) bilateral renal masses. Malignant and benign concordance rates were defined as agreement of any benign or malignant tumor type bilaterally. Histologic concordance was defined as bilateral histologic agreement. Tumors with mixed histologies were discordant unless all patterns were identical bilaterally. Nuclear grades were concordant if bilateral tumors were either “high” grade or “low” grade. Results The malignant concordance rate in the SEER data was 99% (273/274), and benign concordance was 0% (0/1). In the published literature and FCCC series, malignant concordance rates ranged from 84% to 95%, while benign concordance ranged from 39% to 67%. The SEER data revealed a histologic concordance rate of 93% (256/274) and nuclear grade concordance was 85% (88/103). Conclusions These data demonstrate that in cases of bilateral sporadic localized synchronous renal masses, a diagnosis of ipsilateral RCC is associated with contralateral RCC in the vast majority of patients, while ipsilateral benign pathology is associated with contralateral benign disease at a substantially lower rate. Histologic concordance is similarly high, meaning most cases of clear cell or papillary tumors ipsilaterally are concordant in the contralateral kidney. Concordance rates of nuclear grade were slightly lower. These data are important when counseling and managing patients with bilateral synchronous sporadic renal tumors.
Rothman, Jason; Crispen, Paul L.; Wong, Yu-Ning; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Fox, Eric; Uzzo, Robert G.
Ectopic parathyroid glands are frequently located in the thymus and may become hyperplasic in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. When medical management fails, surgical removal is required, using either a traditional open sternotomy approach or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). We were able to excise large, bilateral, mediastinal parathyroid glands using only left VATS. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of the use of unilateral thoracoscopic subtotal thymectomy for the excision of bilateral ectopic mediastinal parathyroid glands. PMID:20376735
Fama', F; Berry, M G; Linard, C; Gioffre'-Florio, M; Metois, D
In the present study, we investigated the possible role of the dorsal hippocampal (CA1) dopamine D1 receptors on scopolamine-induced amnesia as well as scopolamine state-dependent memory in adult male Wistar rats. Animals were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulae in the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus, trained in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance task, and tested 24h after training for their step-through latency. Results indicated that pre-training or pre-test intra-CA1 administration of scopolamine (1.5 and 3?g/rat) dose-dependently reduced the step-through latency, showing an amnestic response. The pre-training scopolamine-induced amnesia (3?g/rat) was reversed by the pre-test administration of scopolamine, indicating a state-dependent effect. Similarly, the pre-test administration of dopamine D1 receptor agonist, 1-phenyl-7,8-dihydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF38393; 1, 2 and 4?g/rat, intra-CA1), could significantly reverse the scopolamine-induced amnesia. Interestingly, administration of an ineffective dose of scopolamine (0.25?g/rat, intra-CA1) before different doses of SKF38393, blocked the reversal effect of SKF38393 on the pre-training scopolamine-induced amnesia. Moreover, while the pre-test intra-CA1 injection of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH23390; 0.1 and 0.5?g/rat, intra-CA1), resulted in apparent memory impairment, microinjection of the same doses of this agent inhibited the scopolamine-induced state-dependent memory. These results indicate that the CA1 dopamine D1 receptors may potentially play an important role in scopolamine-induced amnesia as well as the scopolamine state-dependent memory. Furthermore, our results propose that dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 reverses the scopolamine-induced amnesia via acetylcholine release and possibly through the activation of muscarinic receptors. PMID:23933216
Piri, M; Rostampour, M; Nasehi, M; Zarrindast, M R
The benefit of bilateral hearing aids is well documented, but many hearing-aid users still wear only one aid. It is plausible that the occlusion effect is part of the reason for some hearing-aid users not wearing both hearing aids. In this study we quantified the subjective occlusion effect by asking ten experienced users of bilateral hearing aids and a reference group of ten normal-hearing individuals to rate the naturalness of their own voice while reading a text sample aloud. The subjective occlusion effect was evaluated in the unilateral versus bilateral condition for a variety of vent designs in earmolds and in a custom hearing aid. The subjective occlusion effect was significantly higher for bilateral hearing aids with all vent designs with the exception of a non-occluding eartip option. The subjective occlusion effect was reduced with the more open vent designs in both the unilateral and bilateral conditions. Assuming that the occlusion effect is a barrier to bilateral hearing aid use, these results indicate that open-hearing-aid fittings can help promote the use of two aids. PMID:17153723
Jespersen, Charlotte Thunberg; Groth, Jennifer; Kiessling, Jürgen; Brenner, Barbara; Jensen, Ole Dyrlund
Bilateral simultaneous elbow dislocations are extremely rare and have only been described in 12 cases. In the paediatric population unilateral elbow dislocations are rare with 3-6% of all elbow injuries and there are only few studies describing this injury exclusively in children. There is only one case report of a paediatric patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with medial epicondyle fractures. We present a second paediatric case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with associated displaced bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a gymnast with joint hyperlaxity (3 of 5 Wynne-Davies criteria) treated with closed reduction and short-term immobilisation (3 weeks). The patient returned to full trampoline gymnastics between 4 and 5 months postinjury and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:23234820
Bauer, Stefan; Dunne, Ben; Whitewood, Colin
In this paper, we report a case of a 23-year-old male patient with bilateral absence of the flexor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis brevis muscles with an intact functioning opponens pollicis and flexor pollicis longus muscles with bilateral thenar atrophy due to its rarity. All physical, neurological, ultrasonographic, direct radiographic, electromyographic and MRI studies were used to confirm and document this congenital anomaly.
Koca, Kenan; Ekinci, Safak; Ege, Tolga; Ozyurek, Selahattin; Kurklu, Mustafa; Battal, Bilal; Basbozkurt, Mustafa
To characterize clinical features of those patients who showed an absence of vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses\\u000a in the presence of normal caloric responses bilaterally, we reviewed clinical records of 1,887 consecutive outpatients who\\u000a complained of balance problems, and identified three patients, who showed absent VEMPs in the presence of normal caloric responses\\u000a bilaterally with unknown causes. All three
Chisato Fujimoto; Toshihisa Murofushi; Yasuhiro Chihara; Mitsuya Suzuki; Tatsuya Yamasoba; Shinichi Iwasaki
The terminal distribution of cortical, tectal, rubral, vestibular, reticular and dorsal root axons was studied in the cat, utilizing the Nauta method. Massive fibre degeneration was found in (i) the ventral horn following destruction of the lateral vestib...
J. M. Petras
The simple mechanical models and experimental spinal examinations could be established that the double curved scoliosis operated with two Harrington rods and dorsal spondylodesis is better than the use of one Harrington rod. PMID:2357204
Manitz, U; Holzweissig, F
Dorsal closure is a tissue-modeling process in the developing Drosophila embryo during which an epidermal opening is closed. It begins with the appearance of a supracellular actin cable that surrounds the opening and provides a contractile force. Amnioserosa cells that fill the opening produce an additional critical force pulling on the surrounding epidermal tissue. We show that this force is not gradual but pulsed and occurs long before dorsal closure starts. Quantitative analysis, combined with laser cutting experiments and simulations, reveals that tension-based dynamics and cell coupling control the force pulses. These constitutively pull the surrounding epidermal tissue dorsally, but the displacement is initially transient. It is translated into dorsal-ward movement only with the help of the actin cable, which acts like a ratchet, counteracting ventral-ward epidermis relaxation after force pulses. Our work uncovers a sophisticated mechanism of cooperative force generation between two major forces driving morphogenesis. PMID:19563762
Solon, Jerome; Kaya-Copur, Aynur; Colombelli, Julien; Brunner, Damian
This case study reports the outcome of dorsal and ventral stabilisation of a traumatic cervical instability in a dog. A 2-year-old, male Pointer was admitted following a motor vehicle accident. Clinical examination revealed non-ambulatory tetraparesis, severe neck pain and upper motor neuron changes in all limbs. Deep pain response was present. Subluxation of C2/3 and fractures of the dorsal spinous process and lamina of C2 were observed on radiographs. Ventral stabilisation was performed with screws and bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate). For dorsal fixation of the fractures, screws and cerclage wire were used. The dog stood up independently after 1 month, was able to walk 1.5 months postoperatively and had recovered completely at 1 year following surgery. We conclude that combined stabilisation techniques are effective for this type of cervical fracture in which the dorsal, middle and ventral structures of the vertebra are severely disrupted. PMID:19796163
Ozak, A; Nisbet, H O; Yardimci, C; Sirin, Y S
Tinnitus, the perception of a phantom sound, is a common consequence of damage to the auditory periphery. A major goal of tinnitus research is to find the loci of the neural changes that underlie the disorder. Crucial to this endeavor has been the development of an animal behavioral model of tinnitus, so that neural changes can be correlated with behavioral evidence of tinnitus. Three major lines of evidence implicate the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in tinnitus. First, elevated spontaneous activity in the DCN is correlated with peripheral damage and tinnitus. Second, there are somatosensory inputs to the DCN that can modulate spontaneous activity and might mediate the somatic-auditory interactions seen in tinnitus patients. Third, we have found a subpopulation of DCN neurons in the adult rat that express doublecortin, a plasticity-related protein. The expression of this protein may reflect a role of these neurons in the neural reorganization causing tinnitus. However, there is a problem in extending the findings in the rodent DCN to humans. Classic studies state that the structure of the primate DCN is quite different from that of rodents, with primates lacking granule cells, the recipients of somatosensory input. To address the possibility of major species differences in DCN organization, we compared Nissl-stained sections of the DCN in five different species. In contrast to earlier reports, our data suggest that the organization of the primate DCN is not dramatically different from that of the rodents, and validate the use of animal data in the study of tinnitus. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience. PMID:22513100
Baizer, Joan S; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Paolone, Nicholas A; Weinstock, Nadav; Salvi, Richard J
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) encompasses a network of interconnected cortical areas that is considered the neural substrate for some types of memory, such as spatial, episodic, recognition, and associative memory. Within the MTL, the subiculum has been well characterized in terms of its connectivity and structure, but its functional role remains elusive. A long-held view is that the subiculum is mainly involved in spatial encoding because it exhibits spatially selective firing and receives prominent projections from the CA1 field, which is an essential substrate for spatial memory. However, the dorsal subiculum (DS) is also reciprocally connected to the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices, which are critically involved in recognition memory. This connectivity pattern suggests that DS might encode not only spatial signals but also recognition signals. Here, we examined this hypothesis by recording with multi-electrodes in DS and CA1 of freely behaving mice, as they performed the novel object recognition (NOR) task. Analysis of network oscillations revealed that theta power was significantly higher in DS when mice explored novel objects as compared to familiar objects and that this theta modulation was absent in CA1. We also found significant differences in coherence between DS and CA1, in the theta and gamma bands, depending on whether mice examined objects or engaged in spatial exploration. Furthermore, single-unit recordings revealed that DS cells did not exhibit phase-locked firing to theta and differed from CA1 place cells in that they had multiple peaks of spatially selective firing. We also detected DS units that were responsive specifically to novel object exploration, indicating that a subset of DS neurons were tuned to novelty during the NOR task. We have thus identified clear neurophysiological correlates for recognition within the DS, at the network and single-unit levels, strongly suggesting that it participates in encoding recognition-related signals.
Chang, Eric H.; Huerta, Patricio T.
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) encompasses a network of interconnected cortical areas that is considered the neural substrate for some types of memory, such as spatial, episodic, recognition, and associative memory. Within the MTL, the subiculum has been well characterized in terms of its connectivity and structure, but its functional role remains elusive. A long-held view is that the subiculum is mainly involved in spatial encoding because it exhibits spatially selective firing and receives prominent projections from the CA1 field, which is an essential substrate for spatial memory. However, the dorsal subiculum (DS) is also reciprocally connected to the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices, which are critically involved in recognition memory. This connectivity pattern suggests that DS might encode not only spatial signals but also recognition signals. Here, we examined this hypothesis by recording with multi-electrodes in DS and CA1 of freely behaving mice, as they performed the novel object recognition (NOR) task. Analysis of network oscillations revealed that theta power was significantly higher in DS when mice explored novel objects as compared to familiar objects and that this theta modulation was absent in CA1. We also found significant differences in coherence between DS and CA1, in the theta and gamma bands, depending on whether mice examined objects or engaged in spatial exploration. Furthermore, single-unit recordings revealed that DS cells did not exhibit phase-locked firing to theta and differed from CA1 place cells in that they had multiple peaks of spatially selective firing. We also detected DS units that were responsive specifically to novel object exploration, indicating that a subset of DS neurons were tuned to novelty during the NOR task. We have thus identified clear neurophysiological correlates for recognition within the DS, at the network and single-unit levels, strongly suggesting that it participates in encoding recognition-related signals. PMID:22833721
Chang, Eric H; Huerta, Patricio T
The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington’s, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.
Rice, Matthew W.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Perez-Costas, Emma
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) are rare neoplasms of mesenchymal origin involving soft tissues, mainly serosal sites; the spinal cord location is uncommon. We report a case of SFT occurring in the thoracic spinal cord, discussing histological, ultrastructural and molecular aspects. A 75-year-old woman with an MRI suggesting a dorsal intracanalar lesion was admitted to our institution. T5-T7 laminectomies were performed and an intramedullary tumor was discovered. The tumor arose within the spinal cord and was completely removed. Tumor samples were processed for histological, ultrastructural and molecular analysis (comparative genomic hybridization [CGH], methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase [MGMT], p16, deleted in colorectal cancer [DCC] and death-associated protein kinase 1 [DAPK1]). The histological examination demonstrated a proliferation of spindle-shaped cells with a collagen-matrix background. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for vimentin and CD34 and negative for S-100 and epithelial membrane antigen. A histological diagnosis of SFT was made. The ultrastructural examination showed undifferentiated cells within a collagenous matrix and sparse extravascular basement membrane. CGH analysis revealed deletion of 9p21 and losses on 2q, 3p, 16q and 19q and gains on 7q; furthermore, no aberrant methylation pattern was found in the promoter region of MGMT, p16, DCC and DAPK1 genes. On the second-year follow-up, the patient was neurologically intact. The occurrence of SFT within the spinal cord parenchyma and its histological characteristics demonstrate that SFTs are not restricted to serosal surfaces. The course of spinal cord SFT is unknown and long-term follow-up is necessary. The histological, ultrastructural and molecular findings are important for the diagnosis and the authors provide a literature review of these aspects. PMID:19751244
Ciappetta, Pasqualino; D'Urso, Pietro Ivo; Cimmino, Antonia; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Rossi, Roberta; Colamaria, Antonio; D'Urso, Oscar Fernando
The time course of aminoglycoside neurotoxic effect on cochlear nucleus is still obscure. We examined dynamic pathological changes of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and investigated whether apoptosis or autophagy was upregulated in the neurotoxic course of kanamycin on DCN after kanamycin treatment. Rats were treated with kanamycin sulfate/kg/day at a dose of 500mg by subcutaneous injection for 10 days. Dynamic pathological changes, neuron density and neuron apoptosis of the DCN were examined at 1, 7, 14, 28, 56, 70 and 140 days after kanamycin treatment. The expressions of JNK1, DAPK2, Bcl-2, p-Bcl-2, Caspase-3, LC3B and Beclin-1 were also detected. Under transmission electron microscopy, the mitochondrial swelling and focal vacuoles as well as endoplasmic reticulum dilation were progressively aggravated from 1 day to 14 days, and gradually recovered from 28 days to 140 days. Meanwhile, both autophagosomes and autolysosomes were increased from 1 day to 56 days. Only few neurons were positive to the TUNEL staining. Moreover, neither the expressions of caspase-3 and DAPK2 nor neurons density of DCN changed significantly. LC3-II was drastically increased at 7 days. Beclin-1 was upgraded at 1 and 7 days. P-Bcl-2 increased at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. JNK1 increased at 7 days, and Bcl-2 was downgraded at 140 days. LC3-B positive neurons were increased at 1, 7 and 14 days. These data demonstrated that the neurons damage of the DCN caused by kanamycin was reversible and autophagy was upregulated in the neurotoxic course of kanamycin on DCN through JNK1-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 pathway. PMID:23333799
Fan, Guo-Run; Yin, Ze-Deng; Sun, Yu; Chen, Sen; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Xiang; Kong, Wei-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Lian
The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the mouse has emerged as a model system in the study of thalamic circuit development. However, there is still a lack of information regarding how and when various types of retinal and nonretinal synapses develop. We examined the synaptic organization of the developing mouse dLGN in the common pigmented C57/BL6 strain, by recording the synaptic responses evoked by electrical stimulation of optic tract axons, and by investigating the ultrastructure of identified synapses. At early postnatal ages (
Bickford, Martha E; Slusarczyk, Arkadiusz; Dilger, Emily K; Krahe, Thomas E; Kucuk, Can; Guido, William
BACKGROUND Injury of a spinal nerve or dorsal root ganglion (DRG) during selective spinal nerve blocks is a potentially serious complication that has not been adequately investigated. Our hypothesis was that local anesthetic injection into these structures may result in an inflammatory response and hyperalgesia. METHODS We evaluated inflammatory and behavioral responses after injection of 4 ?L lidocaine or saline into the L5 spinal nerve or DRG of rats after partial laminectomy. Behavioral testing was performed before and after surgery to examine hyperalgesia in response to nociceptive mechanical stimulation of the foot. DRGs were harvested and stained, and rings of immunoreactive glial cells around neurons were counted. RESULTS Animals demonstrated hyperalgesia on the ipsilateral paw up to 4 days after lidocaine injection into the DRG but not after injection into the spinal nerve. The number of glial fibrillary acid protein immunopositive glial cell rings, which represent activation of satellite cells, significantly increased in DRGs after injection of lidocaine into either the DRG or the spinal nerve. The number of glial fibrillary acid protein-positive cells in the lidocaine-injected group was significantly larger than in the saline-injected group. Sporadic OX-42 immunopositive cells, which represent activated microglia, were also seen in lidocaine-injected DRGs. Testing for Pan-T expression, which labels activated T lymphocytes, showed no positive cells. CONCLUSIONS Lidocaine injection into the DRG may produce hyperalgesia, possibly due to activation of resident satellite glial cells. In a clinical setting, local anesthetic injection into the DRG should be avoided during selective spinal nerve blocks.
Puljak, Livia; Kojundzic, Sanja Lovric; Hogan, Quinn H.; Sapunar, Damir
Bilateral deficit has been used to describe the phenomenon of a reduction in performance during synchronous bilateral movements when compared to the sum of identical unilateral movements. The study of bilateral deficit in humans under isometric, and to a lesser extent, dynamic conditions has shown bilateral decreases in force and muscle activation, and delayed reaction time. Results are equivocal, however,
Dean Hay; Vinicius Aguiar de Souza; Senshi Fukashiro
Investigated 4 brain-stimulation phenomena elicited from both dorsal brain stem and hypothalamic sites, using a total of 20 male albino Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats. Results show that (a) intracranial self-stimulation rate-intensity functions for dorsal brain stem and hypothalamic sites yielded very high (over 1,000 responses\\/15 min) to moderate (201-500 responses\\/15 min) response rates; (b) dextroamphetamine produced higher response rates than either
Steven J Ellman
The authors describe the case of a 53 year-old right-handed patient, who fell from a scaffolding and sustained a dorsal metacarpophalangeal dislocation of the four long fingers of his left hand. Because of the major dorsal instability after reduction, a mini anchor was placed over each metacarpal neck, to help repair the volar plate. After active rehabilitation, the patient regained satisfying articular amplitudes and was able to get back to his job and his regular sports activities. PMID:22658584
Uhring, J; Gallinet, D; Gasse, N; Obert, L
Summary 1.Sensory transduction was studied in dorsal skin mechanoreceptors of the frog,Rana pipiens. The skin was clamped and stretched before being stimulated with the tip of a glass rod mounted on a servo-controlled loudspeaker. Afferent activity was recorded extracellularly from a dorsal cutaneous nerve.2.Three groups of sensory units could be identified by the size of their recorded action potentials and
R. E. Watts; A. S. French
Nitric oxide synthase which is constitutively expressed in some neurons3,8,10,17,20 can be induced in other neurons by pathological conditions.6,15,18,19,21,24,26 For example, sciatic nerve26 or pelvic nerve transection18,21 induced nitric oxide synthase expression in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion cells. This occurred in small to medium sized dorsal root ganglion neurons suggesting that this change might be limited to, or most prominent
M. A. Vizzard; S. L. Erdman; W. C. De Groat
The aim of the present work was to study the primary structure of the modular organization of neurons in the dorsal nucleus\\u000a of the thalamus (ventral anterior, ventral lateral, anterior ventral, anterior medial, anterior dorsal, medial, reticular)\\u000a and motor cortex (fields 4 and 6) in humans by the Nissl, Kluver-Barrera, and Golgi silver nitrate impregnation methods. These\\u000a studies showed that
L. A. Berezhnaya
Extracellular single unit recordings were obtained from antidromically identified nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in anesthetized rats to determine the effects of dorsal raphé stimulation on the somatodendritic excitability of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. Stimulation of the dorsal raphé with a brief train of pulses delivered 7–2 ms prior to the neostriatal-evoked antidromic response significantly reduced the proportion of neostriatal-evoked antidromic responses
F. Trent; J. M. Tepper
Much effort in computer science is currently focused on developing architectures for multi-agent adaptive system capable of\\u000a monitoring the environment and detecting security threats. I present here one such architecture developed by evolution and\\u000a implemented in the neural mechanisms of the human brain - it is the dorsal visual system. I claim that the dorsal visual system\\u000a in the human
THE positional cues that govern the fate of cells along the dorsoven-tral axis of the developing vertebrate limb are established in the mesoderm before outgrowth of limb buds. In Drosophila, a LIM\\/-homeodomain gene, apterous, expressed in the dorsal compartment of the wing disc, specifies dorsal cell fate1,2. Here we report the isolation of a vertebrate LIM-homeodomain containing gene, Chick Lmxl
Astrid Vogel; Concepción Rodriguez; Wayne Warnken; Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte
Endomorphin 2 (EM2) plays essential roles in regulating nociceptive transmission within the spinal dorsal horn, where EM2-immunopositive (EM2-IP) fibers and terminals are densely encountered. However, the origins of these EM2-IP structures are still obscure. Unilateral primary sensory afferents disruption (lumbar 3–6 dorsal roots rhizotomy) significantly decreased the density of EM2-IP fibers and terminals in the superficial laminae (laminae I and
R. Hui; W. Wang; T. Chen; B. C. Lü; H. Li; T. Zhang; S. X. Wu; Y. Q. Li
The determinants of Xenopus laevis embryos that act before their first cell division are mandatory for the formation of mRNas required to establish the dorsal axis. Although their chemical identities are unknown, a number of their properties have long been recognized. One of the determinants is present in the cytoplasm and is sensitive to UV light. Thus, exposing stage 1 embryos to either standard 254-nm or, as shown here, to 366-nm UV light during the 0.3–0.4 time fraction of their first cycle inactivates the cytoplasmic determinant. As a consequence, both types of irradiated embryos fail to express dorsal markers, e.g., goosecoid and chordin, without affecting formation of ventral markers, e.g., Vent-1. The developmental outcome is dorsal axis-deficient morphology. We report here that biliverdin IX?, a normal constituent of cytoplasmic yolk platelets, is photo-transformed by irradiation with either 254- or 366-nm UV light and that the transformation triggers the dorsal axis deficiency. When the 254- or 366-nm UV-irradiated embryos, fated to dorsal axis deficiency, are incubated solely with ?M amounts of biliverdin, they recover and form the axis. In contrast, incubation with either in vitro photo-transformed biliverdin or biliverdin IX? dimethyl ester does not induce recovery. The results define an approach to produce dorsal axis-deficient embryos by photo-transforming its biliverdin by irradiation with 366-nm UV light and identify an unsuspected role for biliverdin IX? in X. laevis embryogenesis.
Falchuk, Kenneth H.; Contin, Jennifer M.; Dziedzic, T. Scott; Feng, Zhongling; French, Thayer C.; Heffron, Gregory J.; Montorzi, Marcelo
In insects, the boundary between the embryonic head and thorax is formed by the dorsal ridge, a fused structure composed of portions of the maxillary and labial segments. However, the mechanisms that promote development of this unusual structure remain a mystery. In Drosophila, mutations in the Hox genes Sex combs reduced and Deformed have been reported to cause abnormal dorsal ridge formation, but the significance of these abnormalities is not clear. We have identified three mutant allele classes of Cephalothorax, the Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) ortholog of Sex combs reduced, each of which has a different effect on dorsal ridge development. By using Engrailed expression to monitor dorsal ridge development in these mutants, we demonstrate that Cephalothorax promotes the fusion and subsequent dorsolateral extension of the maxillary and labial Engrailed stripes (posterior compartments) during dorsal ridge formation. Molecular and genetic analysis of these alleles indicates that the N terminus of Cephalothorax is important for the fusion step, but is dispensable for Engrailed stripe extension. Thus, we find that specific regions of Cephalothorax are required for discrete steps in dorsal ridge formation. PMID:16849608
Shippy, Teresa D; Rogers, Carmelle D; Beeman, Richard W; Brown, Susan J; Denell, Robin E
Interconnections between the dorsal column nucleus and the cerebellum were examined in one group of reptiles, Caiman crocodilus. After anterograde tracer injections into the dorsal column nucleus, efferents terminated nearly exclusively in the white matter and ventral portion of the granule cell layer of the ipsilateral cerebellum. Subsequent to deposition of a retrograde tracer into the cerebellum, neurons in the central and ventral half of the dorsal column nucleus were labeled. When compared with the origin of midbrain and spinal cord projecting cells in Caiman, cerebellar projecting neurons arose from a more rostral location in the dorsal column nucleus than did neurons that terminated in either of these two other targets. The results of the present and previous experiments suggest that the dorsal column nucleus in this reptilian group is organized into sectors based on efferent target in a fashion similar to what has been described in certain mammals. Furthermore, the presence of this circuit in crocodilians and turtles suggests that his pathway from the dorsal column nucleus to the cerebellum arose early in amniote evolution. PMID:21440041
Pritz, Michael B
In Drosophila, the Rel-protein Dorsal and its inhibitor, Cactus, act in signal transduction pathways that control the establishment of dorsoventral polarity during embryogenesis and the immune response during postembryonic life. Here we present data indicating that Dorsal is also involved in the control of development and maintenance of innervation in somatic muscles. Dorsal and Cactus are colocalized in all somatic muscles during postembryonic development. In larvae and adults, these proteins are distributed at low levels in the cytoplasm and nuclei and at much higher levels in the postsynaptic component of glutamatergic neuromuscular junctions. Absence of Dorsal, in homozygous dorsal mutant larvae results in muscle misinsertions, duplications, nuclear hypotrophy, disorganization of actin bundles, and altered subcellular distribution of Cactus. Some muscles show very abnormal neuromuscular junctions, and some motor axon terminals are transformed into growth cone-like structures embedded in synaptotagmin-enriched vesicles. The detailed phenotype suggests a role of Dorsal signalling in the maintenance and plasticity of the NMJ. PMID:10192771
Cantera, R; Kozlova, T; Barillas-Mury, C; Kafatos, F C
In the developing spinal cord, most oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs) arise from the ventral ventricular zone (VZ) under the influence of Sonic Hedgehog, but a minority are generated from the dorsal VZ in a Hedgehog-independent manner. In the developing forebrain too, OLPs arise from both the ventral and the dorsal VZ. It is not known whether dorsally and ventrally derived oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells have different properties. We generated a dual reporter mouse line to color code ventrally and dorsally derived OLPs (vOLPs and dOLPs) and their differentiated oligodendrocyte progeny (vOLs and dOLs) for functional studies. We found that ?80% of OL lineage cells in the postnatal spinal cord and ?20% in the corpus callosum are ventrally derived. In both spinal cord and corpus callosum, vOLPs and dOLPs had indistinguishable electrical properties, as did vOLs and dOLs. However, vOLPs and dOLPs had different migration and settling patterns. In the spinal cord, vOLPs appeared early and spread uniformly throughout the cord, whereas dOLPs arrived later and remained mainly in the dorsal and dorsolateral funiculi. During adulthood, corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts became myelinated mainly by dOLs, even though vOLs dominated these tracts during early postnatal life. Thus, dOLPs are electrically similar to vOLPs but appear to outcompete them for dorsal axons. PMID:21543611
Tripathi, Richa B; Clarke, Laura E; Burzomato, Valeria; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Anderson, Patrick N; Attwell, David; Richardson, William D
Introduction The dorsal root ganglion is a rare manifestation of metastatic spread. We report what we believe to be the first case of metastasis of a pulmonary adenocarcinoma to the lumbar dorsal root ganglion. Only four descriptions for different primary tumors spreading to the dorsal root ganglion have been described in the literature so far. Case presentation A 70-year-old Caucasian woman with a four-month history of left-sided lumbar radiculopathy was admitted to our department under the assumption of a herniated lumbar disc. Her past medical history included a pulmonary adenocarcinoma and invasive ductal breast cancer. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed a space-occupying mass in her left neuroforamen L3-L4 with compression of her L3 nerve root. Neurinoma was taken into account as a differential diagnosis, although not considered typical. Surgery revealed a metastasis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma to her dorsal root ganglion. Conclusions Dorsal root gangl