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Sample records for bilateral dorsal perilunate

  1. Complete dorsal dislocation of the carpal scaphoid with perilunate dorsal dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong Woo; Park, Jong Hoon; Suh, Dong Hun; Park, Jong Woong

    2016-01-01

    Complete dorsal dislocation of the carpal scaphoid combined with dorsal perilunate dislocation is an extremely rare carpal injury. We describe the case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a complete dorsal dislocation of the carpal scaphoid, combined with a perilunate dislocation. Surgical treatment was performed with open reduction and interosseus ligament repair. At 4 years follow up, the patient's wrist pain had completely resolved without limitations of wrist joint motion and without evidence of avascular necrosis of the carpal scaphoid. PMID:27512229

  2. Perilunate Injuries, Not Dislocated (PLIND)

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed a series of equivalents of perilunate dislocations and fracture-dislocations (PLDs–PLFDs) in which there was no dislocation of the capitate from the lunate on the initial radiographs. We propose to include these injuries as a variant of perilunate dislocations that we have termed a perilunate injury, not dislocated (PLIND) lesion in a modified classification of perilunate injuries. Methods A review of the records of all acute perilunate injuries and displaced carpal fractures was done in a single-center university hospital wrist surgery unit over a 5-year period. All cases presenting at the acute stage with displaced fractures of scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, or capitate along with scapholunate and/or lunotriquetral dissociation but no dislocation of the capitate from the lunate in the sagittal or coronal plane were reviewed and considered as PLIND lesions. Results We identified 11 patients with PLIND lesions. Three cases with clinical and radiological follow-up are presented. Discussion Equivalents of PLDs–PLFDs presenting without dislocation of the capitate from the lunate do exist. These injuries may be overlooked despite their severity. They require both osseous and ligamentous repair. Including them into an existing perilunate injuries classification highlights their recognition and enables a better understanding and treatment of both acute and chronic nondislocated perilunate injuries. Level of Evidence Level IV, retrospective case series. PMID:24436839

  3. Arthroscopic Reduction and Stabilization of Chronic Perilunate Wrist Dislocations.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Deepak N

    2016-04-01

    An acute perilunate wrist injury that is unreduced for more than 6 weeks results in severe disability, and even open reduction with stabilization through wide dorsal and volar approaches is technically challenging. This report describes an arthroscopic technique for reduction and percutaneous wire stabilization of a chronic perilunate wrist dislocations. The technique involves initial radiocarpal and midcarpal access through the 6R and 3-4 portals, and these portals are used for synovectomy and debridement of capsular flap tears. The midcarpal joint is accessed initially through the radiocarpal joint, and additional midcarpal portals are used for sequential perilunate adhesiolysis before carpal mobilization and reduction. A percutaneous wire drilled into the lunate is used as a joystick to manipulate the lunate into its anatomic alignment along the carpal bones, and percutaneous transcarpal wire fixation is performed to stabilize the carpus. Arthroscopic and fluoroscopic guidance is used to optimize anatomic reduction and to confirm stability. The wrist is immobilized for 6 weeks; the percutaneous wires are removed thereafter, and the wrist is mobilized. Overall, the arthroscopic technique provides a safe and reproducible method for treatment of this complex chronic injury. PMID:27354948

  4. PARTIAL NECROSIS OF THE LUNATE AFTER A TRANSLUNATE PALMAR PERILUNATE FRACTURE DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    AKANE, MAO; TATEBE, MASAHIRO; IYODA, KAZUHITO; OTA, KYOTARO; IWATSUKI, KATSUYUKI; YAMAMOTO, MICHIRO; HIRATA, HITOSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present an extreme rare case of traumatic partial avascular necrosis of the lunate after palmar perilunate dislocation with lunate fracture. A 32-year-old female was injured by motorcycle accident with palmar perilunate fracture dislocation and lunate fracture. Scapholunate and lunotriquetrum dislocations were reduced and fixed temporarily. The torn dorsal ligament was repaired. Considering close observation with both arthroscopy and fluoroscopy, we decided not to conduct open reduction and internal fixation for the lunate. Partial avascular necrosis of the lunate appeared gradually in follow-up. PMID:25130008

  5. Arthroscopically Assisted Mini-Invasive Management of Perilunate Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Chen, Shan-Lin; Zhu, Jin; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Shen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of perilunate dislocations and fracture-dislocations treated with arthroscopically assisted mini-invasive reduction and fixation. Methods Between June 2012 and May 2014, 24 patients who had a dorsal perilunate dislocation or fracture-dislocation were treated with arthroscopically assisted reduction and percutaneous fixation. The mean follow-up was 14.8 months (range 6–32 months). Clinical outcomes were evaluated on the basis of range of motion; grip strength; Mayo Wrist Score; Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire; and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) score. Radiographic evaluations included time to scaphoid union, carpal alignments, and any development of arthritis. Results The range of flexion-extension motion of the injured wrist averaged 86% of the values for the contralateral wrist. The grip strength of the injured wrist averaged 83% of the values for the contralateral wrists. The mean QuickDASH score was 6, and the mean PRWE score was 10. According to the Mayo Wrist Scores, overall functional outcomes were rated as excellent in 13 patients (54%), good in 6 (25%), fair in 4 (17%), and poor in 1 (4%). Scaphoid nonunion developed in one patient. Reduction obtained during the operation was maintained within normal ranges in all patients. Arthritis had not developed in any patient at final follow-up. Conclusions Arthroscopically assisted mini-invasive reduction with percutaneous fixation is a reliable and favorable alternative in the treatment of perilunate injuries according to our early follow-up results. Level of Evidence: Level IV, Therapeutic. PMID:25945293

  6. [Volar transcaphocapitate perilunate disclocation of the carpus: a new variety, a new approach].

    PubMed

    Wodecki, Philippe; Guigui, Pierre; Masmejean, Emmanuel

    2002-03-01

    On the one hand, surgical treatment of dorsal perilunate fracture-dislocation is now well codified. The posterior approach is preferred by the majority of the authors. On the other hand, surgical schedule for volar perilunate dislocation is not well establish in the literature. The anterior approach is the most frequently recommended. In case of Fenton's syndrome (scaphocapitate fracture), the head of the capitatum is described with a rotation of 180 degrees. The authors reports a case of a volar transcaphocapitate perilunate fracture-dislocation of the carpus in a polytrauma. The head of the capitatum was in place onto the neck. By a posterior approach, a primary repair of all the elements has been performed including open reduction and internal fixation of the carpal scaphoid fracture in addition with a bone graft. The capitatum were fixed by wiring. At two years follow-up, the result were good. The patient did return at the same work. Clinically, there was a range of motion of 70 degrees in flexion-extension. Radiologically, all the fractures healed and there were no intracarpal desaxation. Volar perilunate fracture-dislocation of the carpus and Fenton's fracture (scaphocapitate fracture) are two exceptional entities in the literature. Association of both lesions has been found only twice in the literature. No similar case with a head of the capitatum in place has been already described. PMID:11980343

  7. An unusual variant of perilunate fracture dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Matthew L.; Becker, Giles W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Trans-scaphoid, trans-radial styloid, trans-triquetral perilunate fracture dislocations are rare. We describe a 19-year-old male who suffered this injury after crashing his bicycle. He underwent open reduction internal fixation and percutaneous pinning. Scaphoid union was achieved at 8 weeks. Near complete range of painless motion was achieved by 4 months.

  8. An unusual variant of perilunate fracture dislocations.

    PubMed

    Morin, Matthew L; Becker, Giles W

    2016-01-01

    Trans-scaphoid, trans-radial styloid, trans-triquetral perilunate fracture dislocations are rare. We describe a 19-year-old male who suffered this injury after crashing his bicycle. He underwent open reduction internal fixation and percutaneous pinning. Scaphoid union was achieved at 8 weeks. Near complete range of painless motion was achieved by 4 months. PMID:27583261

  9. Bilateral dorsal cochlear nucleus lesions prevent acoustic-trauma induced tinnitus in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Brozoski, Thomas Jeffrey; Wisner, Kurt W; Sybert, Lauren T; Bauer, Carol A

    2012-02-01

    Animal experiments suggest that chronic tinnitus ("ringing in the ears") may result from processes that overcompensate for lost afferent input. Abnormally elevated spontaneous neural activity has been found in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) of animals with psychophysical evidence of tinnitus. However, it has also been reported that DCN ablation fails to reduce established tinnitus. Since other auditory areas have been implicated in tinnitus, the role of the DCN is unresolved. The apparently conflicting electrophysiological and lesion data can be reconciled if the DCN serves as a necessary trigger zone rather than a chronic generator of tinnitus. The present experiment used lesion procedures identical to those that failed to decrease pre-existing tinnitus. The exception was that lesions were done prior to tinnitus induction. Young adult rats were trained and tested using a psychophysical procedure shown to detect tinnitus. Tinnitus was induced by a single unilateral high-level noise exposure. Consistent with the trigger hypothesis, bilateral dorsal DCN lesions made before high-level noise exposure prevented the development of tinnitus. A protective effect stemming from disruption of the afferent pathway could not explain the outcome because unilateral lesions ipsilateral to the noise exposure did not prevent tinnitus and unilateral lesions contralateral to the noise exposure actually exacerbated the tinnitus. The DCN trigger mechanism may involve plastic circuits that, through loss of inhibition, or upregulation of excitation, increase spontaneous neural output to rostral areas such as the inferior colliculus. The increased drive could produce persistent pathological changes in the rostral areas, such as high-frequency bursting and decreased interspike variance, that comprise the chronic tinnitus signal. PMID:21969021

  10. The role of arthroscopy for treatment of perilunate injuries.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Guillaume; Burnier, Marion; Marc, Antoine; Merlini, Lorenzo; Izem, Yadar

    2015-05-01

    Background Open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) is currently the gold standard treatment of acute perilunate injuries (PLIs). Less invasive surgery, including arthroscopic techniques, has recently emerged in the hope that results similar to those of ORIF could be obtained with less tissue disturbance. Our purpose was to review retrospectively a series of selected PLIs treated with arthroscopic assistance over the past 10 years. Materials and Methods Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 135 acute PLIs were surgically treated in our unit. A total of 27 patients were treated with arthroscopic assistance, among whom 18 were reviewed clinically and radiologically. Description of Technique After an initial closed gross reduction, radio- and midcarpal arthroscopy were performed to clean up the debris and assess the cartilaginous, bony, and ligamentous damage. In 22 cases arthroscopy was followed by either radiolunate and lunotriquetral pinning, scapholunate ligament repair, and SL joint pinning or ORIF of a scaphoid fracture through a mini-invasive dorsal approach. In the remaining six cases, fixation of the ligamentous and/or bony injuries was done using arthroscopy alone. Results Arthroscopic findings are presented as well as the clinical results in a subgroup of patients. At final follow-up, visual analog scale (VAS) pain was rated 18/100 on average (minimum 0, maximum 50). If we consider only the patients without reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD; n = 14), the average active wrist flexion-extension was 87° (58% of the normal contralateral side) and the average grip strength was 30 kg (71% of the normal contralateral side). Conclusions Although no statistical comparisons were made, we found that the results were similar to those of ORIF. The results of our study suggest that the use of arthroscopy to treat selected PLIs may be a reliable adjunct either alone or in combination with a dorsal mini-open approach. PMID:25945294

  11. Sudden falls as a persistent complication of selective dorsal rhizotomy surgery in children with bilateral spasticity: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Grootveld, Laura R; van Schie, Petra E M; Buizer, Annemieke I; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; Strijers, Rob L M; Becher, Jules J G

    2016-08-01

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) surgery is a well-established treatment for ambulatory children with bilateral spastic paresis and is performed to eliminate spasticity and improve walking. The objective of this case report is to describe sudden falls as a persistent complication of SDR. The authors report on 3 patients with bilateral spastic paresis, aged 12, 6, and 7 years at the time of surgery. The percentage of transected dorsal rootlets was around 40% at the L2-S1 levels. Sudden falls were reported with a frequency of several a day, continuing for years after SDR. The falls were often triggered by performing dual tasks as well as occurring in the transition from sitting to standing, during running, after strenuous exercise, or following a fright. Patients also had residual hyperesthesia and dysesthesia of the foot sole. The authors hypothesize that the sudden falls are caused by a muscle inhibition reflex of the muscles in the legs, as an abnormal reaction to a sensory stimulus that is perceived with increased intensity by a patient with hyperesthesia. A favorable effect of gabapentin medication supports this hypothesis. PMID:27104630

  12. Distal Radius Radiographic Indices and Perilunate Fracture Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jafari, Davod; Keihan Shokouh, Hassan; Motavallian, Ebrahim; Najd Mazhar, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background Distal radius radiographic indices may play a role as risk factors in pathogenesis of Kienbock’s disease, scaphoid fracture and nonunion. Perilunate fracture dislocations are devastating wrist injuries, and their relationship and distal radius indices have not been addressed in the literature. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of distal radius radiographic indices including radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance and volar tilt as risk factors in the perilunate fracture dislocation injury of the wrist. Patients and Methods We studied distal radius radiographic indices including radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance and volar tilt in 43 patients with perilunate fracture dislocations and compared them with 44 wrists in the control group. Results The mean values of the radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance and volar tilt were 12.74 (5 - 18), 24.20 (7 - 35), -0.73 (-5 - 4) and 12.28 (2 - 20) in the patient group. These values were 12.68 (9 - 22), 23.22 (17 - 30), -0.11 (-4 - 3) and 11.05 (-3 - 20), respectively in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions This study did not show that distal radius anatomical indices including the radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance and volar tilt influence perilunate fracture dislocation as risk factors.

  13. Transradial, Transscaphoid, Transcapitate, Perilunate Dislocation; A Case Report and Approach to the Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Sarabjeet; Khanna, Vikram; D Virani, Nilesh; Chaturvedi, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Carpal injuries are uncommon and are mainly seen in the younger age group. The incidence is unclear as many of the cases go undiagnosed. A 22-year-old male patient coming to the hospital after road traffic accidentwith head, face and left wrist injury. After immediate primary management the patient was taken up for a definitive procedure 4 days after the injury. Scaphoid fracture was fixed with the help of Herbert’s screw via the dorsal approach. The base of the first metacarpal was fixed with the help of JESS fixator and the distal end radius was fixed with the help of K-wires.  The scapholunate and lunato triquetral ligaments were repaired. The whole construct was stabilized with the help of an external fixator. Postoperative period was uneventful. The external fixator was removed after 4 weeks and patient had a good functional outcome with the patient related wrist evaluation score coming out to be 11 at the end of the third month. This uncommon case of Transradial, Trans scaphoid, transcapitate, and perilunate dislocation was managed successfully with no postoperative complications and a good functional outcome. PMID:27162929

  14. Bilateral mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia after chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong-Gui; Kong, Wei-Wei; Ge, Da-Long; Luo, Ceng; Hu, San-Jue

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Low back pain is one of the most inextricable problems encountered in clinics. Animal models that imitate symptoms in humans are valuable tools for investigating low back pain mechanisms and the possible therapeutic applications. With the development of genetic technology in pain field, the possibility of mutating specific genes in mice has provided a potent tool for investigating the specific mechanisms of pain. The aim of the present study was to develop a mouse model of chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD), in which gene mutation can be applied to facilitate the studies of chronic pain. METHODS Chronic compression of L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglia was conducted in mice by inserting fine stainless steel rods into the intervertebral foramina, one at L4 and the other at L5. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were examined with von Frey filaments and radiating heat stimulator, respectively. RESULTS The CCD mice displayed dramatic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as tactile allodynia in the hindpaw ipsilateral to CCD. In addition, this mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia as well as tactile allodynia was also found to spread to the contralateral hindpaw. CONCLUSION This model, combined with the possible genetic modification, will strengthen our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of low back pain. It also favors the development of new treatment strategies for pain and hyperalgesia after spinal injury and other disorders which affect the dorsal root ganglion in humans. PMID:21788994

  15. Bilateral elevation of interleukin-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar and cervical dorsal root ganglia following unilateral chronic compression injury of the sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current research implicates interleukin (IL)-6 as a key component of the nervous-system response to injury with various effects. Methods We used unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of rat sciatic nerve as a model for neuropathic pain. Immunofluorescence, ELISA, western blotting and in situ hybridization were used to investigate bilateral changes in IL-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar (L4-L5) and cervical (C7-C8) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following CCI. The operated (CCI) and sham-operated (sham) rats were assessed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Withdrawal thresholds for mechanical hyperalgesia and latencies for thermal hyperalgesia were measured in both ipsilateral and contralateral hind and fore paws. Results The ipsilateral hind paws of all CCI rats displayed a decreased threshold of mechanical hyperalgesia and withdrawal latency of thermal hyperalgesia, while the contralateral hind and fore paws of both sides exhibited no significant changes in mechanical or thermal sensitivity. No significant behavioral changes were found in the hind and fore paws on either side of the sham rats, except for thermal hypersensitivity, which was present bilaterally at 3 days. Unilateral CCI of the sciatic nerve induced a bilateral increase in IL-6 immunostaining in the neuronal bodies and satellite glial cells (SGC) surrounding neurons of both lumbar and cervical DRG, compared with those of naive control rats. This bilateral increase in IL-6 protein levels was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. More intense staining for IL-6 mRNA was detected in lumbar and cervical DRG from both sides of rats following CCI. The DRG removed from sham rats displayed a similar pattern of staining for IL-6 protein and mRNA as found in naive DRG, but there was a higher staining intensity in SGC. Conclusions Bilateral elevation of IL-6 protein and mRNA is not limited to DRG homonymous to the injured nerve, but also extended to DRG that are heteronymous to the injured nerve. The

  16. Arthroscopic Treatment of Perilunate Dislocations and Fracture Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Pil; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background The key to a successful result in the treatment of perilunate dislocations (PLDs) and fracture-dislocations (PLFDs) is the restoration of normal alignment of the carpal bones, followed by stable maintenance until healing. This article aimed to assess whether arthroscopic techniques are a reliable surgical option for the treatment of this challenging injury. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with an acute PLD or PLFD were treated by an arthroscopic technique. They were retrospectively reviewed at an average follow-up of 31.2 months (range 18–61 months). Functional outcomes were assessed with the Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) score as well as radiographic evaluations. Description of Technique Arthroscopic reduction and percutaneous fixation was performed to the scapholunate and lunotriquetral intervals using Kirschner wires (K-wires) as joysticks as well as to the scaphoid using a cannulated headless screw for transscaphoid-type injuries. The K-wires were removed at 10 weeks postoperation. Results Overall functional outcomes according to the MMWS were rated as excellent in three patients, good in eight, fair in seven, and poor in two. The mean DASH score was 18, and the mean PRWE score was 30. On the basis of radiographic parameters, reduction obtained at the operation was maintained within normal ranges in 15 patients. No patient had developed arthritis by the last follow-up. Conclusions The medium-term results show that arthroscopic treatment can provide proper restoration and stable fixation of carpal alignment and results in satisfactory functional and radiologic outcomes for acute perilunate injuries. Level of Evidence Level IV. PMID:25945291

  17. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the lunate.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Na; Sarkar, Sp

    2012-01-01

    Lunate dislocations are well described in the volar direction as part of the perilunate dislocation, sometimes together with fractures of the other carpal bones or distal radius, as described by the anatomical studies of Mayfield [1]. It is a result of disruption of the complex inter-carpal and radiocarpal ligaments that hold the well conforming carpus in their normal position. Given the strength of these structures a significant trauma is required to cause them to fail.However, we present a case of a patient who not only presented with relatively trivial trauma that resulted in a lunate dislocation, but it was also in the dorsal direction and not associated with any fracture or neurological compromise. In addition, she presented several days after her injury.We treated her with closed manipulation and percutaneous K-wire fixation followed by a short period of immobilisation in a Plaster-of-Paris cast, with rapid return to full duties at work.As many volar lunate dislocations may be missed at presentation, we suggest that in patients with relatively trivial trauma there should also be a suspicion of the lunate dislocating dorsally, which may be treated successfully without the aggressive open surgery usually required in volar perilunate dislocations. PMID:23248723

  18. Trans-Scaphoid Perilunate Fracture Dislocation; A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Hossein; Bazavar, Mohammad Reza; Sadighi, Ali; Tabrizi, Ali; Elmi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Carpal fracture-dislocation is regarded as an unusual orthopedic injury and, thus, orthopedic surgeons are less experienced in dealing with and treating these fractures and dislocations. We report a 20-year-old worker man suffering from an unusual carpal fracture-dislocation. There was trans-scaphoid fracture and lunate dislocation with other carpal proximal bones toward volar of the wrist. Two volar and dorsal approaches were used to treat and stabilize the fracture. It was completely stabilized after open reduction and fixation using several pins. After two days, neural symptoms were completely recovered and the patient was discharged. Postoperative radiographies revealed complete restitution of lesser and greater arcs and normalization of Gilula's line. Scapholunate and lunatocapitate angles reached to less than 60° and 10°, respectively. The combined approach had favorable results for treatment of this unusual type of carpus fracture dislocation. However longer follow up is need to evaluate the arthritis and degenerative changes in wrist. PMID:27331069

  19. Transcapho perilunate dislocation with palmar extrusion of the scaphoid proximal pole.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Augusto; Leigheb, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Perilunate fracture-dislocations usually combine ligament ruptures, bone avulsions, and fractures in different patterns. Rarely a displaced fracture of the scaphoid can coexist with a scapho-lunate dissociation and can result in enucleation of the proximal pole. We report about a case of trans-scaphoid perilunate dislocation with palmar extrusion/enucleation of the scaphoid proximal pole, treated with scaphoid fracture open reduction and internal fixation with screw, scapho-lunate ligament repair with an anchor and vascularization of the scaphoid proximal pole with the 2nd intermetacarpal artery. At 52 months follow up we had good clinical and radiographic results. In conclusion, scientific literature including our experience about this rare complex lesion of the wrist is too weak to support an effective strategy of management but we think that the careful analysis of the single problems can be the key to solve the complexity. Goal of the treatment should be complete revascularization and healing of the scaphoid, avoiding non union and avascular necrosis; simultaneously a proper ligament reconstruction is fundamental to re-establish carpal stability. Prevention of carpal collapse for a SNAC o SLAC situation is essential to reach a good level of Quality of Life and satisfaction of the patient. PMID:27104332

  20. Bilateral cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Batra, Vivek; Baras, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral lesions in a 50-year-old man, which were on first impression mistaken for and initially treated as bilateral cellulitis. We propose that bilateral cellulitis, as opposed to unilateral, is rare and that other aetiologies should be considered in evaluating a patient with bilateral lesions. The differential diagnosis includes stasis-dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis, lymphoedema and vascular lesions such as Kaposi sarcoma, as was identified in this case. Early consultation with dermatology and biopsy in unclear cases mitigates the unnecessary use of prolonged antibiotics, antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infections. HIV testing is an essential screening test in all adults who present with non-specific viral symptoms and rash. PMID:26392449

  1. Dorsal wrist syndrome repair.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masataka; Masada, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Eiji

    2004-07-01

    Dorsal wrist pain with or without a palpable dorsal wrist ganglion is a common complaint. Watson developed the concept of the dorsal wrist syndrome (DWS) which is an entity encompassing pre-dynamic rotary subluxation of the scaphoid and the overloaded wrist. We reviewed 20 cases of DWS treated surgically. There were nine males (11 wrists) and nine females (nine wrists). Post-operative follow-up ranged from five to 67 months (mean, 37 months). At operation, we observed SLL tears in eight wrists and dorsal ganglia in 12 cases. Following surgery, 12 cases reported being pain free, five had mild pain, two moderate pain and one case reported severe pain. Post-operative extension/flexion was 73/70 average. Post-operative grip strength was 28 kg average. We believe that excision of the posterior interosseous nerve and the dorsal capsule including the ganglion, if present, provides pain relief in DWS. PMID:15368625

  2. Function of dorsal fins in bamboo shark during steady swimming.

    PubMed

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl A

    2013-08-01

    To gain insight into the function of the dorsal fins in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyillidae) during steady swimming, data on three-dimensional kinematics and electromyographic recordings were collected. Bamboo sharks were induced to swim at 0.5 and 0.75 body lengths per second in a laminar flow tank. Displacement, lag and angles were analyzed from high-speed video images. Onset, offset, duration, duty cycle and asynchrony index were calculated from three muscle implants on each side of each dorsal fin. The dorsal fins were displaced more laterally than the undulating body. In addition, the dorsal tips had larger lateral displacement than the trailing edges. Increased speed was accompanied by an increase in tail beat frequency with constant tail beat amplitude. However, lateral displacement of the fins and duration of muscle bursts remained relatively constant with increased speed. The range of lateral motion was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 33.3°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 28.4°). Bending within the fin was greater for the second dorsal fin (mean 43.8°) than for the first dorsal fin (mean 30.8°). Muscle onset and offset among implants on the same side of each dorsal fin was similar. Three-dimensional conformation of the dorsal fins was caused by interactions between muscle activity, material properties, and incident flow. Alternating bilateral activity occurred in both dorsal fins, further supporting the active role of these hydrofoils in thrust production during steady swimming. The dorsal fins in bamboo sharks are capable of thrust production during steady swimming and do not appear to function as stabilizing structures. PMID:23830781

  3. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Striatum in Female Musicians.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen) is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to functional connectivity analysis and graph theoretical analysis. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum (FO) and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degrees, which represent the numbers of connections, of the bilateral putamen were significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers, suggesting that long-term musical training reshapes the functional network of the dorsal striatum to be less extensive or selective. PMID:27148025

  4. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Striatum in Female Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen) is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to functional connectivity analysis and graph theoretical analysis. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum (FO) and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degrees, which represent the numbers of connections, of the bilateral putamen were significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers, suggesting that long-term musical training reshapes the functional network of the dorsal striatum to be less extensive or selective. PMID:27148025

  5. Bilateral extensor digitorum brevis manus.

    PubMed

    Froelich, John M; Bidgoli-Moghaddam, Mahsa; Moran, Steven L

    2012-09-01

    Dorsal wrist pain and swelling is commonly attributed to a dorsal wrist ganglion. However, based on the authors' experience, a cautious surgeon should keep the uncommonly symptomatic diagnosis of an extensor digitorum brevis manus in their differential despite classic ganglion presentation and suggestive advanced imaging. This article describes a case of a young patient who presented with bilateral symptomatic extensor digitorum brevis manus anomalies that required surgical intervention. An extensor digitorum brevis manus is present in 3% of the population in a classic anatomy study from Japan and is most commonly symptomatic with heavy activity and extremes of wrist extension. Anatomically, the extensor digitorum brevis manus is located in the fourth wrist compartment and most commonly inserts on the index finger extensor mechanism. Examination often reveals a spindle-shaped mass that is palpable distal to the extensor mechanism and moves with extensor tendon motion. Magnetic resonance imaging shows a typical dorsal mass distal to the common extensors with a similar signal as muscle with all image sequencing. Treatment includes activity alterations to relieve symptoms or surgical excision of the muscle belly for refractory cases with care taken to preserve the index extensor mechanism. PMID:22955414

  6. Dorsal spine osteoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Singh, Rahul; Garg, Bharat B.

    2016-01-01

    Benign osteoblastoma is a rare primary neoplasm comprising less than 1% of primary bone tumors.[1] We report a case of a 20-year-old female patient presenting with progressive paraparesis over one year and back pain over the dorsal spine gradually increasing in severity over a year. Computerised tomomography (CT) of the spine revealed a well-defined 3.5 × 3.0 cm mass heterodense expansile bony lesion arising from the lamina of the D12 vertebra, having lytic and sclerotic component and causing compromise of the bony spinal canal. D12 laminectomy and total excision of the tumor was done. PMID:27057242

  7. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians. PMID:23230533

  8. Dual dorsal columns: a review.

    PubMed

    Beck, C H

    1976-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that Wall (1970) may have been premature in concluding that dorsal column lesions produce no discernable sensory defects. Much of the negative evidence Wall presented to support this view is inconclusive. In addition several studies have reported significant sensory deficits in animals with severed dorsal columns. On the other hand, the literature strongly supports Wall's view that dorsal column lesions cause motor disturbances. A review of the anatomical and electrophysiological literature reveals growing evidence for the dissociation of two major subsystems relaying in the dorsal column nuclei. The possible functions of these two systems are discussed. PMID:814988

  9. Pointing in visual periphery: is DF's dorsal stream intact?

    PubMed

    Hesse, Constanze; Ball, Keira; Schenk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the visual form agnosic patient DF have been highly influential in establishing the hypothesis that separate processing streams deal with vision for perception (ventral stream) and vision for action (dorsal stream). In this context, DF's preserved ability to perform visually-guided actions has been contrasted with the selective impairment of visuomotor performance in optic ataxia patients suffering from damage to dorsal stream areas. However, the recent finding that DF shows a thinning of the grey matter in the dorsal stream regions of both hemispheres in combination with the observation that her right-handed movements are impaired when they are performed in visual periphery has opened up the possibility that patient DF may potentially also be suffering from optic ataxia. If lesions to the posterior parietal cortex (dorsal stream) are bilateral, pointing and reaching deficits should be observed in both visual hemifields and for both hands when targets are viewed in visual periphery. Here, we tested DF's visuomotor performance when pointing with her left and her right hand toward targets presented in the left and the right visual field at three different visual eccentricities. Our results indicate that DF shows large and consistent impairments in all conditions. These findings imply that DF's dorsal stream atrophies are functionally relevant and hence challenge the idea that patient DF's seemingly normal visuomotor behaviour can be attributed to her intact dorsal stream. Instead, DF seems to be a patient who suffers from combined ventral and dorsal stream damage meaning that a new account is needed to explain why she shows such remarkably normal visuomotor behaviour in a number of tasks and conditions. PMID:24626162

  10. Bilateral Thoracic Ganglion Cyst : A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kazanci, Burak; Tehli, Ozkan; Guclu, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts usually arise from the tissues around the facet joints. It is usually associated with degenerative cahanges in facet joints. Bilateral thoracic ganglion cysts are very rare and there is no previous case that located in bilateral intervertebral foramen compressing the L1 nerve root associated with severe radiculopathy. We report a 53 years old woman who presented with bilateral groin pain and severe numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cystic mass in the intervertebral foramen between 12th thoracal and 1st lumbar vertebrae. The cystic lesions were removed after bilateral exposure of Th12-L1 foramens. The result of hystopathology confirmed the diagnosis as ganglion cyst. The ganglion cyst may compromise lumbar dorsal ganglion when it located in the intervertebral foramen. The surgeon should keep this rare entity in their mind for differential diagnosis. PMID:23908708

  11. Crossed receptive field components and crossed dendrites in cat sacrocaudal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Gladfelter, W E; Millecchia, R J; Pubols, L M; Sonty, R V; Ritz, L A; Covalt-Dunning, D; Culberson, J; Brown, P B

    1993-10-01

    The hypothesis that sacrocaudal dorsal horn neurons with crossed receptive field components on the tail have dendrites which cross to the contralateral dorsal horn was tested in a combined electrophysiological and morphological study. Dorsal horn cells in the sacrocaudal spinal cord of anesthetized cats were penetrated with horseradish peroxidase-filled microelectrodes. After mapping their low threshold mechanoreceptive fields, cells were iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase. A sample of 16 well-stained cells was obtained in laminae III and IV. Cells with receptive fields crossing the dorsal midline of the tail (n = 8) had somata in the lateral ipsilateral dorsal horn, and some of these cells (5/8) had dendrites which crossed to the lateral contralateral dorsal horn. Cells with receptive fields spanning the ventral midline (n = 2) were located near the center of the fused dorsal horn, and one of these had bilateral dendrites in this region. Cells with receptive fields on the lateral tail, crossing neither the dorsal nor the ventral midline (n = 6), had cell bodies in the middle of the ipsilateral dorsal horn; half had only ipsilateral dendrites, and half had crossed dendritic branches. Although the relationship between cell receptive field (RF) location (RF center, expressed as distance from tips of toes) and mediolateral location of the cell body was statistically significant, the correlation between crossed RF components and crossed dendritic branches was not significant. PMID:8254116

  12. The human lumbar dorsal rami.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N; Wilson, A S; Tynan, W

    1982-01-01

    The L 1-4 dorsal rami tend to form three branches, medial, lateral, and intermediate, which are distributed, respectively, to multifidus, iliocostalis, and longissimus. The intertransversarii mediales are innervated by a branch of the dorsal ramus near the origin of the medial branch. The L 4 dorsal ramus regularly forms three branches while the L 1-3 levels the lateral and intermediate branches may, alternatively, arise from a short common stem. The L 5 dorsal ramus is much longer than the others and forms only a medial and an intermediate branch. Each lumbar medial branch innervates two adjacent zygapophysial joints and ramifies in multifidus, supplying only those fascicles which arise from the spinous process with the same segmental number as the nerve. The comparative anatomy of the lumbar dorsal rami is discussed and the applied anatomy with respect to 'rhizolysis', 'facet denervation' and diagnostic paraspinal electromyography is described. PMID:7076562

  13. Neurotransmitter map of the asymmetric dorsal habenular nuclei of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    deCarvalho, Tagide N.; Subedi, Abhignya; Rock, Jason; Harfe, Brian D.; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard; Halpern, Marnie E.; Hong, Elim

    2014-01-01

    The role of the habenular nuclei in modulating fear and reward pathways has sparked a renewed interest in this conserved forebrain region. The bilaterally paired habenular nuclei, each consisting of a medial/dorsal and lateral/ventral nucleus, can be further divided into discrete subdomains whose neuronal populations, precise connectivity and specific functions are not well understood. An added complexity is that the left and right habenulae show pronounced morphological differences in many non-mammalian species. Notably, the dorsal habenulae of larval zebrafish provide a vertebrate genetic model to probe the development and functional significance of brain asymmetry. Previous reports have described a number of genes that are expressed in the zebrafish habenulae, either in bilaterally symmetric patterns or more extensively on one side of the brain than the other. The goal of our study was to generate a comprehensive map of the zebrafish dorsal habenular nuclei, by delineating the relationship between gene expression domains, comparing the extent of left-right asymmetry at larval and adult stages, and identifying potentially functional subnuclear regions as defined by neurotransmitter phenotype. While many aspects of habenular organization appear conserved with rodents, the zebrafish habenulae also possess unique properties that may underlie lateralization of their functions. PMID:24753112

  14. Ventral and dorsal visual streams in posterior cortical atrophy: A DT MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Raffaella; Agosta, Federica; Scola, Elisa; Magnani, Giuseppe; Cappa, Stefano F.; Pagani, Elisabetta; Canu, Elisa; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging tractography, ventral (inferior longitudinal fasciculus) and fronto-occipital (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) and dorsal (fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus) visual pathways were assessed in 7 patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), showing either predominantly ventral or additional dorsal cognitive deficits. Corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts were also studied. Gray and white matter atrophy was assessed using voxel-based morphometry. In all PCA patients, abnormal diffusivity indexes were found in bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, with a left-side predominance. Patients also had mild microstructural damage to the corpus callosum. The 2 patients with more dorsal symptoms also showed right fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus abnormalities. Corticospinal tracts were normal, bilaterally. When studied separately, patients with ventral clinical impairment showed a pattern of atrophy mainly located in the ventral occipitotemporal regions, bilaterally; patients with both ventral and dorsal clinical deficits showed additional atrophy of the bilateral inferior parietal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging patterns of abnormalities mirror closely the clinical phenotypes and could provide reliable ante mortem markers of tissue damage in PCA. PMID:22277261

  15. Below Level Central Pain Induced by Discrete Dorsal Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Amanda L.; McFadden, Andrew; Brown, Kimberley; Starnes, Charlotte; Maier, Steven F.; Watkins, Linda R.; Falci, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Central neuropathic pain occurs with multiple sclerosis, stroke, and spinal cord injury (SCI). Models of SCI are commonly used to study central neuropathic pain and are excellent at modeling gross physiological changes. Our goal was to develop a rat model of central neuropathic pain by traumatizing a discrete region of the dorsal spinal cord, thereby avoiding issues including paralysis, urinary tract infection, and autotomy. To this end, dorsal root avulsion was pursued. The model was developed by first determining the number of avulsed dorsal roots sufficient to induce below-level hindpaw mechanical allodynia. This was optimally achieved by unilateral T13 and L1 avulsion, which resulted in tissue damage confined to Lissauer's tract, dorsal horn, and dorsal columns, at the site of avulsion, with no gross physical changes at other spinal levels. Behavior following avulsion was compared to that following rhizotomy of the T13 and L1 dorsal roots, a commonly used model of neuropathic pain. Avulsion induced below-level allodynia that was more robust and enduring than that seen after rhizotomy. This, plus the lack of direct spinal cord damage associated with rhizotomy, suggests that avulsion is not synonymous with rhizotomy, and that avulsion (but not rhizotomy) is a model of central neuropathic pain. The new model described here is the first to use discrete dorsal horn damage by dorsal root avulsion to create below-level bilateral central neuropathic pain. PMID:20649467

  16. Sensory and spinal inhibitory dorsal midline crossing is independent of Robo3

    PubMed Central

    Comer, John D.; Pan, Fong Cheng; Willet, Spencer G.; Haldipur, Parthiv; Millen, Kathleen J.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Kaltschmidt, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Commissural neurons project across the midline at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS), providing bilateral communication critical for the coordination of motor activity and sensory perception. Midline crossing at the spinal ventral midline has been extensively studied and has revealed that multiple developmental lineages contribute to this commissural neuron population. Ventral midline crossing occurs in a manner dependent on Robo3 regulation of Robo/Slit signaling and the ventral commissure is absent in the spinal cord and hindbrain of Robo3 mutants. Midline crossing in the spinal cord is not limited to the ventral midline, however. While prior anatomical studies provide evidence that commissural axons also cross the midline dorsally, little is known of the genetic and molecular properties of dorsally-crossing neurons or of the mechanisms that regulate dorsal midline crossing. In this study, we describe a commissural neuron population that crosses the spinal dorsal midline during the last quarter of embryogenesis in discrete fiber bundles present throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Using immunohistochemistry, neurotracing, and mouse genetics, we show that this commissural neuron population includes spinal inhibitory neurons and sensory nociceptors. While the floor plate and roof plate are dispensable for dorsal midline crossing, we show that this population depends on Robo/Slit signaling yet crosses the dorsal midline in a Robo3-independent manner. The dorsally-crossing commissural neuron population we describe suggests a substrate circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal spinal cord. PMID:26257608

  17. Sensory and spinal inhibitory dorsal midline crossing is independent of Robo3.

    PubMed

    Comer, John D; Pan, Fong Cheng; Willet, Spencer G; Haldipur, Parthiv; Millen, Kathleen J; Wright, Christopher V E; Kaltschmidt, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Commissural neurons project across the midline at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS), providing bilateral communication critical for the coordination of motor activity and sensory perception. Midline crossing at the spinal ventral midline has been extensively studied and has revealed that multiple developmental lineages contribute to this commissural neuron population. Ventral midline crossing occurs in a manner dependent on Robo3 regulation of Robo/Slit signaling and the ventral commissure is absent in the spinal cord and hindbrain of Robo3 mutants. Midline crossing in the spinal cord is not limited to the ventral midline, however. While prior anatomical studies provide evidence that commissural axons also cross the midline dorsally, little is known of the genetic and molecular properties of dorsally-crossing neurons or of the mechanisms that regulate dorsal midline crossing. In this study, we describe a commissural neuron population that crosses the spinal dorsal midline during the last quarter of embryogenesis in discrete fiber bundles present throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Using immunohistochemistry, neurotracing, and mouse genetics, we show that this commissural neuron population includes spinal inhibitory neurons and sensory nociceptors. While the floor plate and roof plate are dispensable for dorsal midline crossing, we show that this population depends on Robo/Slit signaling yet crosses the dorsal midline in a Robo3-independent manner. The dorsally-crossing commissural neuron population we describe suggests a substrate circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal spinal cord. PMID:26257608

  18. Slow dorsal-ventral rhythm generator in the lamprey spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Aoki, F; Wannier, T; Grillner, S

    2001-01-01

    In the isolated lamprey spinal cord, a very slow rhythm (0.03-0.11 Hz), superimposed on fast N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced locomotor activity (0.26-2.98 Hz), could be induced by a blockade of GABA(A) or glycine receptors or by administration of (1 s, 3 s)-l-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist. Ventral root branches supplying dorsal and ventral myotomes were exposed bilaterally to study the motor pattern in detail. The slow rhythm was expressed in two main forms: 1) a dorsal-ventral reciprocal pattern was the most common (18 of 24 preparations), in which bilateral dorsal branches were synchronous and alternated with the ventral branches, in two additional cases a diagonal dorsal-ventral reciprocal pattern with alternation between the left (or right) dorsal and the right (or left) ventral branches was observed; 2) synchronous bursting in all branches was encountered in four cases. In contrast, the fast locomotor rhythm occurred always in a left-right reciprocal pattern. Thus when the slow rhythm appeared in a dorsal-ventral reciprocal pattern, fast rhythms would simultaneously display left-right alternation. A longitudinal midline section of the spinal cord during ongoing slow bursting abolished the reciprocal pattern between ipsilateral dorsal and ventral branches but a synchronous burst activity could still remain. The fast swimming rhythm did not recover after the midline section. These results suggest that in addition to the network generating the swimming rhythm in the lamprey spinal cord, there is also a network providing slow reciprocal alternation between dorsal and ventral parts of the myotome. During steering, a selective activation of dorsal and ventral myotomes is required and the neural network generating the slow rhythm may represent activity in the spinal machinery used for steering. PMID:11152721

  19. Spatial learning with a minislab in the dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M B; Moser, E I; Forrest, E; Andersen, P; Morris, R G

    1995-01-01

    We have determined the volume and location of hippocampal tissue required for normal acquisition of a spatial memory task. Ibotenic acid was used to make bilateral symmetric lesions of 20-100% of hippocampal volume. Even a small transverse block (minislab) of the hippocampus (down to 26% of the total) could support spatial learning in a water maze, provided it was at the septal (dorsal) pole of the hippocampus. Lesions of the septal pole, leaving 60% of the hippocampi intact, caused a learning deficit, although normal electrophysiological responses, synaptic plasticity, and preserved acetylcholinesterase staining argue for adequate function of the remaining tissue. Thus, with an otherwise normal brain, hippocampal-dependent spatial learning only requires a minislab of dorsal hippocampal tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568200

  20. Changes in Synaptic Populations in the Spinal Dorsal Horn Following a Dorsal Rhizotomy in the Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Darian-Smith, Corinna; Hopkins, Stephanie; Ralston, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in monkeys have shown substantial neuronal reorganization and behavioral recovery during the months following a cervical dorsal root lesion (DRL; Darian-Smith [2004] J. Comp. Neurol. 470:134–150; Darian-Smith and Ciferri [2005] J. Comp. Neurol. 491:27–45, [2006] J. Comp. Neurol. 498:552–565). The goal of the present study was to identify ultrastructural synaptic changes post-DRL within the dorsal horn (DH). Two monkeys received a unilateral DRL, as described previously (Darian-Smith and Brown [2000] Nat. Neurosci. 3:476–481), which removed cutaneous and proprioceptive input from the thumb, index finger, and middle finger. Six weeks before terminating the experiment at 4 post-DRL months, hand representation was mapped electrophysiologically within the somatosensory cortex, and anterograde tracers were injected into reactivated cortex to label corticospinal terminals. Sections were collected through the spinal lesion zone. Corticospinal terminals and inhibitory profiles were visualized by using preembedding immunohistochemistry and postembedding γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunostaining, respectively. Synaptic elements were systematically counted through the superficial DH and included synaptic profiles with round vesicles (R), pleomorphic flattened vesicles (F; presumed inhibitory synapses), similar synapses immunolabeled for GABA (F-GABA), primary afferent synapses (C-type), synapses with dense-cored vesicles (D, mostly primary afferents), and presynaptic dendrites of interneurons (PSD). Synapse types were compared bilaterally via ANOVAs. As expected, we found a significant drop in C-type profiles on the lesioned side (~16% of contralateral), and R profiles did not differ bilaterally. More surprising was a significant increase in the number of F profiles (~170% of contralateral) and F-GABA profiles (~315% of contralateral) on the side of the lesion. Our results demonstrate a striking increase in the inhibitory circuitry within the deafferented DH

  1. Hypothalamic and Other Connections with the Dorsal CA2 Area of the Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhenzhong; Gerfen, Charles R.; Young, W. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The CA2 area is an important, although relatively unexplored, component of the hippocampus. We used various tracers to provide a comprehensive analysis of CA2 connections in C57BL/6J mice. Using various adeno-associated viruses that express fluorescent proteins, we found a vasopressinergic projection from the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (PVN) to the CA2, as well as a projection from pyramidal neurons of the CA2 to the supramammillary nuclei. These projections were confirmed by retrograde tracing. As expected, we observed CA2 afferent projections from neurons in ipsilateral entorhinal cortical layer II as well as from bilateral dorsal CA2 and CA3 using retrograde tracers. Additionally, we saw CA2 neuronal input from bilateral medial septal nuclei, vertical and horizontal limbs of the nucleus of diagonal band of Broca, supramammillary nuclei (SUM) and median raphe nucleus. Dorsal CA2 injections of adeno-associated virus expressing green fluorescent protein revealed axonal projections primarily to dorsal CA1, CA2 and CA3 bilaterally. No projection was detected to the entorhinal cortex from the dorsal CA2. These results are consistent with recent observations that the dorsal CA2 forms disynaptic connections with the entorhinal cortex to influence dynamic memory processing. Mouse dorsal CA2 neurons send bilateral projections to the medial and lateral septal nuclei, vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca and the SUM. Novel connections from the PVN and to the SUM suggest important regulatory roles for CA2 in mediating social and emotional input for memory processing. PMID:23172108

  2. Hypothalamic and other connections with dorsal CA2 area of the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenzhong; Gerfen, Charles R; Young, W Scott

    2013-06-01

    The CA2 area is an important, although relatively unexplored, component of the hippocampus. We used various tracers to provide a comprehensive analysis of CA2 connections in C57BL/6J mice. Using various adeno-associated viruses that express fluorescent proteins, we found a vasopressinergic projection from the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (PVN) to the CA2 as well as a projection from pyramidal neurons of the CA2 to the supramammillary nuclei. These projections were confirmed by retrograde tracing. As expected, we observed CA2 afferent projections from neurons in ipsilateral entorhinal cortical layer II as well as from bilateral dorsal CA2 and CA3 using retrograde tracers. Additionally, we saw CA2 neuronal input from bilateral medial septal nuclei, vertical and horizontal limbs of the nucleus of diagonal band of Broca, supramammillary nuclei (SUM), and median raphe nucleus. Dorsal CA2 injections of adeno-associated virus expressing green fluorescent protein revealed axonal projections primarily to dorsal CA1, CA2, and CA3 bilaterally. No projection was detected to the entorhinal cortex from the dorsal CA2. These results are consistent with recent observations that the dorsal CA2 forms disynaptic connections with the entorhinal cortex to influence dynamic memory processing. Mouse dorsal CA2 neurons send bilateral projections to the medial and lateral septal nuclei, vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band of Broca, and SUM. Novel connections from the PVN and to the SUM suggest important regulatory roles for CA2 in mediating social and emotional input for memory processing. PMID:23172108

  3. Dorsal raphe nucleus and harm avoidance: A resting-state investigation.

    PubMed

    Meylakh, N; Henderson, L A

    2016-06-01

    The temperament dimension of harm avoidance defines an individual's biological tendency to exhibit altering levels of anxious, inhibiting, and cautious behavior. High harm avoidance and anxiety are highly comorbid, likely due to activity in similar neural circuitries involving the dorsal raphe nucleus. Despite the many investigations that have explored personality factors and brain function, none have determined the influence of ongoing activity within dorsal raphe networks on harm avoidance. The aim of this study was to explore such a relationship. In 62 healthy subjects, a series of 180 functional magnetic resonance images covering the entire brain were collected, and each subject completed the 240-item TCI-R questionnaire. Independent component analyses were performed to define the dorsal raphe network and then to determine the regions significantly correlated with harm avoidance. The independent component analyses revealed three signal intensity fluctuation maps encompassing the dorsal raphe nucleus, showing interactions with regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal, insular, and cingulate cortices. Within these systems, the resting signal intensity was significantly coupled to harm avoidance in the bilateral basal amygdala, bilateral ventral hippocampus, bilateral insula, bilateral nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex. Note that we could not measure serotonergic output, but instead measured signal changes in the dorsal raphe that likely reflect synaptic activity. These data provide evidence that at rest, signal intensity fluctuations within the dorsal raphe networks are related to harm avoidance. Given the strong relationship between harm avoidance and anxiety-like behaviors, it is possible that ongoing activity within this identified neural circuitry can contribute to an individual developing anxiety disorders. PMID:27007610

  4. Somatotopic organization of single primary afferent axon projections to cat spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Gladfelter, W E; Culberson, J C; Covalt-Dunning, D; Sonty, R V; Pubols, L M; Millecchia, R J

    1991-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase injection of identified low threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptor (LTCM) primary afferent axons was used to assess the somatotopic organization of hindlimb projections to laminae III and IV of cat dorsal horn. Multiple injections in the same animals were used to assess bilateral symmetry and precision. Thirty-one axons were injected, with more than 1 axon injected in each of 8 animals (25 axons). Somatotopic relations between their receptive field (RF) centers and the centers of their dorsal horn projections were similar to the somatotopic relations between dorsal horn cell RF centers and cell locations. Very few reversals of mediolateral somatotopic gradients (proximodistal RF location as a function of mediolateral projection center) were observed. Two afferents with nearly identical RFs in 1 animal had nearly identical projections. These observations held for many different combinations of receptor types. A simple mathematical model was used to demonstrate that assembly of dorsal horn cell RFs via passive sampling of the presynaptic neuropil by dorsal horn cell dendrites cannot account for the sizes of dorsal horn cell LTCM RFs. Hypothesized mechanisms for assembly of dorsal horn cell RFs must take into account the functional selectivity of connections required to produce RFs smaller than those predicted by the passive assembly model. PMID:1702466

  5. Dorsal Hump Reduction and Osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Reilly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the technique for planning, executing, and troubleshooting dorsal hump reduction for the cosmetic rhinoplasty patient. Details of the discussion include the necessary elements of the preoperative consultation with the patient, the specific instruments used to effectively and reproducibly create osteotomies, the anatomic and patient variables that require special attention, and the necessary measures to guard against potential complications. PMID:26616694

  6. [Bilateral operculum syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sagie, T; Porat-Alkabetz, E; Meir, J J; Harel, S

    1996-09-01

    The bilateral operculum syndrome, is a unique developmental syndrome. It is characterized by spastic paralysis of the muscles of the face, pharynx, and of mastication, as well as by epilepsy and mental retardation. Imaging studies show bilateral, structural abnormalities in the frontal, perisylvian region consistent with polymicrogyria. These children are usually diagnosed as suffering from cerebral palsy, but in the bilateral operculum syndrome, intelligence is relatively preserved despite the severe motor involvement. Misdiagnosis may lead to improper estimation of rehabilitation potential preventing appropriate therapy, especially in the field of alternative communication. We present a 3-year-old boy, apparently the first case of this syndrome to be described in Israel. PMID:8940497

  7. [Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Rose, I; Vakilzadeh, F

    1991-12-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare type of neurofibromatosis. We report a case of bilateral manifestation, review the literature on this extremely uncommon variant, and discuss the possible causative mechanisms and the genetic risk of segmental neurofibromatosis. PMID:1765491

  8. Echinoderms Have Bilateral Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present. PMID:22247765

  9. Does Loss of Spasticity Matter? A 10-Year Follow-up after Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedroff, Kristina; Lowing, Kristina; Jacobson, Dan N. O.; Astrom, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Nineteen children (four females, 15 males; mean age 4y 7mo, SD 1y 7mo) with bilateral spastic CP, were prospectively assessed at baseline and 18 months, 3 years, and 10 years after SDR. Assessments…

  10. Dissociated repetition deficits in aphasia can reflect flexible interactions between left dorsal and ventral streams and gender-dimorphic architecture of the right dorsal stream

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Marcelo L.; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Dávila, Guadalupe; Nabrozidis, Alejandro; Juárez y Ruiz de Mier, Rocío; Gutiérrez, Antonio; De-Torres, Irene; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; Alfaro, Francisco; García-Casares, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of brain-damaged subjects presenting with dissociated repetition deficits after selective injury to either the left dorsal or ventral auditory pathways can provide further insight on their respective roles in verbal repetition. We evaluated repetition performance and its neural correlates using multimodal imaging (anatomical MRI, DTI, fMRI, and18FDG-PET) in a female patient with transcortical motor aphasia (TCMA) and in a male patient with conduction aphasia (CA) who had small contiguous but non-overlapping left perisylvian infarctions. Repetition in the TCMA patient was fully preserved except for a mild impairment in nonwords and digits, whereas the CA patient had impaired repetition of nonwords, digits and word triplet lists. Sentence repetition was impaired, but he repeated novel sentences significantly better than clichés. The TCMA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex and insula. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-frontal and parieto-frontal segments of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and part of the left ventral stream together with well-developed right dorsal and ventral streams, as has been reported in more than one-third of females. The CA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolic activity in the left temporoparietal cortex with additional metabolic decrements in the left frontal lobe. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-parietal and temporo-frontal segments of the AF, but the ventral stream was spared. The direct segment of the AF in the right hemisphere was also absent with only vestigial remains of the other dorsal subcomponents present, as is often found in males. fMRI during word and nonword repetition revealed bilateral perisylvian activation in the TCMA patient suggesting recruitment of spared segments of the left dorsal stream and right dorsal stream with propagation of signals to temporal lobe structures suggesting a compensatory reallocation of resources via the ventral streams. The CA

  11. Bilateral popliteal arterial dissection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Liang; Ko, Shih-Yu; Tan, Ken-Hing

    2012-01-01

    A clinical feature of bilateral popliteal arterial dissection without involving the descending aorta, bilateral iliac, as well as femoral arteries has never been reported in the past literature. We report a 56-year-old man with hypertension and coronary artery disease who presented to our emergency department with complaints of bilateral knee pain after long-distance walking. Physical examination was notable for elevated blood pressure, but there was no palpable pulsation over dorsalis pedis arteries on his feet. Laboratory evaluation revealed a d-dimer level of 35.2 mg/L (FEU) on the day of the test and 1.2 mg/L one and a half months ago (normal level, <0.55). These findings were suggestive of a recent-onset peripheral arterial occlusive disorder. Computed tomography of the aorta showed bilateral popliteal arterial dissection with arterial intimal flap. Abdominal aorta, bilateral iliac, and femoral arteries remained intact with only arteriosclerotic change. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafting was then performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:21106320

  12. [Bilateral caudate head infarcts].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, N; Yamamoto, Y; Akiguchi, I; Oiwa, K; Nakajima, K

    1997-11-01

    We reported a 67-year-old woman with bilateral caudate head infarcts. She developed sudden mutism followed by abulia. She was admitted to our hospital 2 months after ictus for further examination. She showed prominent abulia and was inactive, slow and apathetic. Spontaneous activity and speech, immediate response to queries, spontaneous word recall and attention and persistence to complex programs were disturbed. Apparent motor disturbance, gait disturbance, motor aphasia, apraxia and remote memory disturbance were not identified. She seemed to be depressed but not sad. Brain CT and MRI revealed bilateral caudate head hemorrhagic infarcts including bilateral anterior internal capsules, in which the left lesion was more extensive than right one and involved the part of the left putamen. These infarct locations were thought to be supplied by the area around the medial striate artery including Heubner's arteries and the A1 perforator. Digital subtraction angiography showed asymptomatic right internal carotid artery occlusion. She bad had hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation and also had a left atrium with a large diameter. The infarcts were thought to be caused by cardioembolic occlusion to the distal portion of the left internal carotid artery. Although some variations of vasculature at the anterior communicating artery might contribute to bilateral medial striate artery infarcts, we could not demonstrate such abnormalities by angiography. Bilateral caudate head infarcts involving the anterior internal capsule may cause prominent abulia. The patient did not improve by drug and rehabilitation therapy and died suddenly a year after discharge. PMID:9503974

  13. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma.

    PubMed

    Sahemey, R; Warfield, A T; Ahmed, S

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma.A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  14. Efficacy of bilateral pallidotomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, R; Alterman, R; Kelly, P J; Fazzini, E; Eidelberg, D; Beric, A; Sterio, D

    1997-03-15

    Unilateral pallidotomy is a safe and effective treatment for medically refractory bradykinetic Parkinson's disease, especially in those patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia and severe on-off fluctuations. The efficacy of bilateral pallidotomy is less certain. The authors completed 11 of 12 attempted bilateral pallidotomies among 150 patients undergoing pallidotomy at New York University. In all but one patient, the pallidotomies were separated by at least 9 months. Patients were selected for bilateral pallidotomy if they exhibited bilateral rigidity, bradykinesia, or levodopa-induced dyskinesia prior to treatment or if they exhibited disease progression contralateral to their previously treated side. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and timed upper-extremity tasks of the Core Assessment Protocol for Intracerebral Transplantation (CAPIT) were administered to all 12 patients in the "off" state (12 hours without receiving medications) preoperatively and again at 6 and 12 months after each procedure. The median UPDRS and contralateral CAPIT scores improved 60% following the initial procedure (p = 0.008, Wilcoxon rank sums test). The second pallidotomy generated only an additional 10% improvement in the UPDRS and CAPIT scores ipsilateral to the original procedure (p = 0.05). Worsened speech was observed in two cases. In the 12th case, total speech arrest was noted during test stimulation. Speech returned within minutes after stimulation was halted. Lesioning was not performed. These results indicate that bilateral pallidotomy has a narrow therapeutic window. Motor improvement ipsilateral to the first lesion leaves little room for further improvement from the second lesion and the risk of speech deficit is greatly enhanced. Chronic pallidal stimulation contralateral to a previously successful pallidotomy may prove to be a safer alternative for the subset of patients who require bilateral procedures. PMID:15096015

  15. Dorsal Extradural Lumbar Disc Herniation Causing Cauda Equina Syndrome : A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Arbatti, Nikhil J.

    2010-01-01

    A 73-year-old male presented with a rare dorsally sequestrated lumbar disc herniation manifesting as severe radiating pain in both leg, progressively worsening weakness in both lower extremities, and urinary incontinence, suggesting cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested the sequestrated disc fragment located in the extradural space at the L4-L5 level had surrounded and compressed the dural sac from the lateral to dorsal sides. A bilateral decompressive laminectomy was performed under an operating microscope. A large extruded disc was found to have migrated from the ventral aspect, around the thecal sac, and into the dorsal aspect, which compressed the sac to the right. After removal of the disc fragment, his sciatica was relieved and the patient felt strength of lower extremity improved. PMID:20379476

  16. Bilateral ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, L; Medina Ramos, N; García Rodríguez, R; Barber, M A; Arias, M D; García, J A

    2009-01-01

    Primary ovarian lymphoma is a rare entity. We submit a case of a 34-year-old black patient presenting with a bilateral adnexal tumor. She underwent hysterectomy with double salpingo-oophorectomy followed by polychemotherapy treatment. Histology confirmed Epstein-Barr virus-positive bilateral Burkitt's lymphoma. The patient died from septic shock after a month of treatment. Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma has a predilection for the female genital tract, manifesting itself clinically as a pelvic mass and less frequently as a menstrual disorder. It is a rare entity in our environment but should be kept in mind when treating patients of African origin. PMID:19480266

  17. Hepatopancreatic arterial ring: bilateral symmetric typology in human celiaco-mesenteric arterial system.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Motohiro; Horiuchi, Kanji; Nishida, Keiichiro; Taguchi, Takehito; Murakami, Takuro; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2002-10-01

    The celiac and mesenteric arterial system including the left gastric, splenic, common hepatic, and superior mesenteric arteries shows various types of origins, courses, ramifications and anastomoses. In order to explain the various expressions of this system, we have proposed a typological model, in which celiacomesenteric arteries develop as paired or bilaterally symmetrical primordial vessels originated from the anterior aspect of the aorta, and these vessels anastomose each other with longitudinal and horizontal pathways. Here, we report 3 unusual cases characterized by arterial rings, formed by the left gastric, left accessory hepatic, proper hepatic, anterior pancreaticoduodenal, and dorsal pancreatic arteries. The dorsal pancreatic and anterior pancreaticoduodenal arteries are located to the right and left of the embryonic pancreas developing in the dorsal mesentery, respectively. Such hepatopancreatic arterial rings simultaneously containing right and left elements can only be explained using our typological model, in which the concept of paired arteries or bilateral symmetry is introduced. PMID:12530508

  18. Bilateral pisotriquetral loose bodies

    PubMed Central

    Williams, GR; Holland, P; Beazley, J; Hyder, N

    2012-01-01

    Case reports detailing diagnosis and effective treatment of pisotriquetral loose bodies are scarce. This article describes an even rarer case of bilateral pisotriquetral joint loose bodies, explores the relative diagnostic roles of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography, and outlines effective strategies used for the management of this condition drawn from the literature and our own experience. PMID:22507708

  19. Bilateral periorbital ecthyma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Ghosheh, Faris R; Kathuria, Sajeev S

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of bilateral periorbital ecthyma gangrenosum in a diabetic patient with renal failure. Ecthyma gangrenosum is a cutaneous manifestation of Pseudomonas sepsis. We briefly review the pathogenesis of ecthyma gangrenosum and discuss previous reports of periocular involvement. In our patient, conservative measures and supportive care of the periorbital tissue resulted in a good outcome. PMID:17117116

  20. Universal Dorsal Approach of the Wrist.

    PubMed

    Ciais, Grégoire; Waitzenegger, Thomas; Parot, Catalina; Leclercq, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    The ideal dorsal wrist approach has to provide the best exposure while preserving sensitive dorsal nerve branches, dorsal veins, and skin integrity. Longitudinal incision is mostly used in the wrist surgery. Few anatomic or clinical studies have described transverse dorsal approach following Langer's lines. We present a universal transversal skin incision, the design of which meets the requirements of a dorsal wrist approach. It is adjustable with the radial and ulnar extension and respects Langer's lines, nerves, and veins. We conducted both an anatomic, clinical, and a retrospective study. For the anatomic part, we performed a cadaveric study on the wrist. For the clinical part of the study, we analyzed clinical results for 10 consecutive patients who underwent a universal dorsal wrist approach for various surgical procedures by the same surgeon. For the last part, we reviewed the patients operated during the past 5 years with this approach for different procedures in the wrist. PMID:26197157

  1. Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral sagittal split osteotomy is an indispensable tool in the correction of dentofacial abnormalities. The technique has been in practice since the late 1800s, but did not reach widespread acceptance and use until several modifications were described in the 1960s and 1970s. Those modifications came from a desire to make the procedure safer, more reliable, and more predictable with less relapse. Those goals continue to stimulate innovation in the field today and have helped the procedure evolve to be a very dependable, consistent method of correction of many types of malocclusion. The operative surgeon should be well versed in the history, anatomy, technical aspects, and complications of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy to fully understand the procedure and to counsel the patient. PMID:24872760

  2. Bilateral Presumed Tuberculous Choroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Naseh; Ghassemi, Fariba; Shojaei, Esfandiar; Moradnejad, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of bilateral presumed tuberculous choroiditis which resolved promptly with a short course of antituberculous therapy. Case Report: A 44-year-old lady presented with bilateral visual loss of 8 months’duration. Considering the presence of pan-uveitis, severe macular edema, multifocal leakage on fluorescein angiography, positive tuberculin skin test, and after excluding other diseases, she underwent anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) for disseminated choroiditis due to presumed ocular tuberculosis. She improved promptly and completely. There were no signs of relapse 18 months after completion of the treatment course. In a young patient with disseminated choroiditis and relatively short duration of symptoms, a course of ATT for 6 months may effectively treat the disease preventing relapse for a considerable period of time. Conclusion: In Presumed Tuberculous chroiditis early diagnosis is crucial for prompt and complete improvement. PMID:27413507

  3. Bilateral renal calculi

    PubMed Central

    Sreenevasan, G

    1974-01-01

    Bilateral renal calculi were present in 114 (10.7%) of 1,070 cases of proved urinary calculus admitted to the Urological Department of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, during the period November 1968—May 1973. The management of bilateral renal calculi is discussed with reference to the first 100 cases in this series. The introduction of renography has greatly facilitated the decision as to which kidney should be operated on first. The management of patients with and without uraemia is discussed and the use of the modified V and V—Y incisions for the removal of staghorn calculi is described. Complications and results are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:4845653

  4. Bilateral Mandibular Paramolars

    PubMed Central

    Dhull, Rachita Singh; Panda, Swagatika; Acharya, Sonu; Yadav, Shweta; Mohanty, Gatha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Supernumerary tooth is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple etiologies. These teeth may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the oral cavity. They can cause a variety of complications in the develo­ping dentition. Supernumerary teeth can present in various forms and in any region of the mandible or maxilla, but have a predisposition for the anterior maxilla. Here is the presentation of a case of unusual location of supernumerary teeth located in between mandibular first and second molar region bilaterally. How to cite this article: Dhull KS, Dhull RS, Panda S, Acharya S, Yadav S, Mohanty G. Bilateral Mandibular Paramolars. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):40-42. PMID:25206236

  5. Bilateral Nipple Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Kapakli, Mahmut Sertan; Altintoprak, Fatih; Cayırcı, Mine; Manukyan, Manuk Norayk; Kebudi, Abut

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas are benign smooth muscle neoplasms of the skin. They arise from vascular, arrector pili, genital, and areolar smooth muscles. The most common localizations of cutaneous leiomyomas are the extensor surfaces of the extremities and the trunk. To our knowledge, only few cases of one-sided nipple leiomyomas have been reported, but two-sided nipple leiomyomas have not been presented. For the first time, here, we report a bilateral nipple leiomyoma. PMID:23762734

  6. Compressive Bilateral Filtering.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Kenjiro; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient constant-time bilateral filter that produces a near-optimal performance tradeoff between approximate accuracy and computational complexity without any complicated parameter adjustment, called a compressive bilateral filter (CBLF). The constant-time means that the computational complexity is independent of its filter window size. Although many existing constant-time bilateral filters have been proposed step-by-step to pursue a more efficient performance tradeoff, they have less focused on the optimal tradeoff for their own frameworks. It is important to discuss this question, because it can reveal whether or not a constant-time algorithm still has plenty room for improvements of performance tradeoff. This paper tackles the question from a viewpoint of compressibility and highlights the fact that state-of-the-art algorithms have not yet touched the optimal tradeoff. The CBLF achieves a near-optimal performance tradeoff by two key ideas: 1) an approximate Gaussian range kernel through Fourier analysis and 2) a period length optimization. Experiments demonstrate that the CBLF significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of approximate accuracy, computational complexity, and usability. PMID:26068315

  7. Bilateral cerebellar dysfunctions in a unilateral meso-diencephalic lesion.

    PubMed Central

    von Cramon, D

    1981-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of a 65-year-old patient with a slit-shaped right-sided meso-diencephalic lesion was analysed. A cerebellar syndrome with limb-kinetic ataxia, intention tremor and hypotonicity in all extremities as well as ataxic dysarthria was found. The disruption of the two cerebello-(rubro)-thalamic pathways probably explained the signs of bilateral cerebellar dysfunction. The uncrossed ascending limb of the right, and the crossed one of the left brachium conjunctivum may have been damaged by the unilateral lesion extending between caudal midbrain and dorsal thalamus. Images PMID:7241166

  8. Anatomy and muscle activity of the dorsal fins in bamboo sharks and spiny dogfish during turning maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2013-11-01

    Stability and procured instability characterize two opposing types of swimming, steady and maneuvering, respectively. Fins can be used to manipulate flow to adjust stability during swimming maneuvers either actively using muscle control or passively by structural control. The function of the dorsal fins during turning maneuvering in two shark species with different swimming modes is investigated here using musculoskeletal anatomy and muscle function. White-spotted bamboo sharks are a benthic species that inhabits complex reef habitats and thus have high requirements for maneuverability. Spiny dogfish occupy a variety of coastal and continental shelf habitats and spend relatively more time cruising in open water. These species differ in dorsal fin morphology and fin position along the body. Bamboo sharks have a larger second dorsal fin area and proportionally more muscle insertion into both dorsal fins. The basal and radial pterygiophores are plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another. In contrast, bamboo sharks lack basal pterygiophores, while the radial pterygiophores form two rows of elongated rectangular elements that articulate with one another. The dorsal fin muscles are composed of a large muscle mass that extends over the ceratotrichia overlying the radials in spiny dogfish. However, in bamboo sharks, the muscle mass is divided into multiple distinct muscles that insert onto the ceratotrichia. During turning maneuvers, the dorsal fin muscles are active in both species with no differences in onset between fin sides. Spiny dogfish have longer burst durations on the outer fin side, which is consistent with opposing resistance to the medium. In bamboo sharks, bilateral activation of the dorsal in muscles could also be stiffening the fin throughout the turn. Thus, dogfish sharks passively stiffen the dorsal fin structurally and functionally, while bamboo sharks have more flexible dorsal fins, which result from a

  9. Optogenetic Inhibition of Dorsal Medial Prefrontal Cortex Attenuates Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Palatable Food Seeking in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Calu, Donna J.; Kawa, Alex B.; Marchant, Nathan J.; Navarre, Brittany M.; Henderson, Mark J.; Chen, Billy; Yau, Hau-Jie; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Deisseroth, Karl; Harvey, Brandon K.; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. Recently, we identified a role of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons in stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking in male rats. It is unknown whether endogenous neural activity in dorsal mPFC drives stress-induced reinstatement in female rats. Here, we used an optogenetic approach, in which female rats received bilateral dorsal mPFC microinjections of viral constructs coding light-sensitive eNpHR3.0 – eYFP or control eYFP protein and intracranial fiber optic implants. Rats were food restricted and trained to lever press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, pellets were removed, and lever pressing was extinguished; then the effect of bilateral dorsal mPFC light delivery on reinstatement of food seeking was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (an α-2 andrenoceptor antagonist) or pellet priming, a manipulation known to provoke food seeking in hungry rats. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected rats. This optical manipulation had no effect on pellet-priming-induced reinstatement or ongoing food-reinforced responding. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced Fos immuno-reactivity and disrupted neural activity during in vivo electrophysiological recording in awake rats. Optical stimulation caused significant outward currents and blocked electrically evoked action potentials in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected mPFC hemispheres. Light delivery alone caused no significant inflammatory response in mPFC. These findings indicate that intracranial light delivery in eNpHR3.0 rats disrupts endogenous dorsal mPFC neural activity that plays a role in stress-induced relapse to food seeking in female rats. PMID:23283335

  10. Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyan, Annapurneswari; Radhakrishna, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) is not an uncommon entity in contemporary breast clinics. Improved life expectancy after breast cancer treatment and routine use of contra-lateral breast mammography has led to increased incidence of BBC. Our study objective was to define the epidemiological and tumour characteristics of BBC in India. Materials and Methods A total of 1251 breast cancer patients were treated during the period January 2007 to March 2015 and 30 patients were found to have BBC who constituted the study population (60 tumour samples). Synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBC) was defined as two tumours diagnosed within an interval of 6 months and a second cancer diagnosed after 6 months was labelled as metachronous breast cancer (MBC). Analyses of patient and tumour characteristics were done in this prospective data base of BBC patients. Results Median patient age was 66 years (range 39-85). Majority of the patients had SBC (n=28) and in 12 patients the second tumour was clinically occult and detected only by mammography of the contra-lateral breast. The second tumour was found at lower tumour size compared to the first in 73% of cases and was negative for axillary metastasis in 80% of cases (24/30). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histological type (n=51) and majority of the tumours were ER/PR positive (50/60). Her2 was overexpressed in 13 tumours (21%). Over 70% (22/30) of patients had similar histology in both breasts and amongst them grade concordance was present in about 69% (15/22) of patients. Concordance rates of ER, PR and Her2 statuses were 83%, 80% and 90% respectively. Bilateral mastectomy was the commonest surgery performed in 80% of the patients followed by bilateral breast conservation in 13%. At the end of study period, 26 patients were alive and disease free. Median survival was 29 months (range 3-86 months). Conclusion In most patients with BBC, the second tumour is identified at an early stage than index

  11. [Arthroscopic treatment of dorsal wrist ganglia].

    PubMed

    Dumontier, C; Chaumeil, G; Chassat, R; Nourissat, G

    2006-11-01

    Incidentally discovered in 1987, arthroscopic treatment of dorsal wrist ganglia is based on our knowledge of their physiopathology which in turn benefits from the arthroscopic wrist evaluation. Dorsal wrist ganglia arise in the radiocarpal space from the dorsal part of the scapholunate ligament and migrate along the dorsal wrist capsule. According to their position above or under the dorsal intercarpal ligament, their cutaneous projection may vary. The basis of the arthroscopic treatment of wrist ganglia is, as with open surgery, the capsular resection in front of their origin. Arthroscopic resection is made either from dorsal radio-carpal or midcarpal approaches with little morbidity. Scars are unnoticeable, wrist mobility and strength close to normal by three months, which is the delay for dorsal wrist pain, always very limited, to disappear. The recurrence rate is however still debatable. Close to zero in some series, we had almost 20% recurrence rate in our series, with half of patients who reccur after two years follow-up. This variability in the recurrence rate also exists with open techniques. The only prospective and randomized study available to date found no differences between the two techniques, according to the recurrence rate. PMID:17361892

  12. Bilateral posterior sternoclavicular dislocation.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Matthias; Vogel, Tobias; Weise, Kuno; Muratore, Tim; Trobisch, Per

    2010-07-01

    Posterior sternoclavicular dislocations are a rare injury, representing <5% of all sternoclavicular dislocations and 1 in 1600 shoulder girdle injuries. Proper imaging with computed tomography and prompt diagnosis are essential steps in preventing potentially lethal complications observed in approximately 3% of all posterior sternoclavicular dislocations. Surgical treatment is necessary if closed reduction fails. With the medial clavicular epiphysis being the last to close (between ages 22 and 25), children and adolescents typically present with epiphyseal fractures rather than joint dislocations. If closed reduction fails, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) should be considered in fractures, whereas complex reconstructions with tendon graft procedures have been recommended for joint dislocations. This article presents a case of a traumatic bilateral posterior sternoclavicular dislocation due to an epiphyseal fracture in a 15-year-old boy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a bilateral posterior sternoclavicular dislocation. Attempted closed reduction failed with redislocation after 2 days. The patient subsequently required ORIF. This article describes our technique with anterior retraction of the medial clavicle, closure of the posterior periosteum, and ORIF using nonabsorbable sutures. Postoperative shoulder mobilization was started on day 1. At final follow-up, the patient was completely asymptomatic. PMID:20608625

  13. [Mechanics of the perilunate carpal bones and their injury patterns including post-traumatic instability with reference to rare clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Zilch, H

    1985-01-01

    There is given a survey of recent findings of the biomechanics of the carpal bones of which the complex of the os scaphoideum, lunatum and capitatum has the key role. The mechanism of injury and posttraumatic instability of the wrist are presented. Rare injuries like subluxation of the os scaphoideum with DISI instability, "scapho-capitate fracture" syndrome, and perilunar dislocation associated with scaphoid fracture (de Quervain) with a proximal fragment of the scaphoid which is turned over about 180 and 90 degrees, are reported in form of clinical cases. In case of subluxation of the os scaphoideum the operation described by Dobyns is recommended, using a split of ECRB tendon for dorsal ligament reconstruction. PMID:3984469

  14. Rhinoplasty: dorsal grafts and the designer dorsum.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Rollin K

    2010-04-01

    Over the last 2 decades, many of the difficulties in shaping primary tips and rebuilding destroyed secondary tips have been solved through the use of tip sutures and grafts. Dorsal grafts, which are a highly visible determinant of the nasal profile and contour, have become the greatest challenge in rhinoplasty surgery. This article reviews the author's different approaches to dorsal grafts using fascia and diced cartilage, either separately or in combination. PMID:20206746

  15. [Dorsal ligament reconstruction in scapholunate dissociation].

    PubMed

    Zilch, H

    1985-07-01

    After discussion of the importance of the palmar, dorsal and interosseous ligaments in cases of scapholunate subluxation, the radiologic signs of this carpal instability are described. Four cases with this instability were treated successfully by reconstruction of the dorsal ligaments. In three instances ligament reconstruction was performed with the split tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis passed through drill holes in the scaphoid and lunate similar to the method reported by Dobyns. PMID:4029764

  16. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  17. The functional anatomy of speech perception: Dorsal and ventral processing pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, Hickok and Poeppel (2000) have proposed a new model of the functional anatomy of speech perception. The model posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventrolaterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex which serves as an interface between sound and meaning. The dorsal stream projects dorsoposteriorly toward the parietal lobe and ultimately to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of ``parity'' between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the dorsal stream represents a tight connection between speech perception and speech production, it is not a critical component of the speech perception process under ecologically natural listening conditions. Some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways is also proposed. A variety of recent empirical tests of this model have provided further support for the proposal.

  18. Ligamentous Hyperlaxity and Dorsal Wrist Ganglions

    PubMed Central

    McKeon, Kathleen E.; London, Daniel A.; Osei, Daniel A.; Gelberman, Richard H.; Goldfarb, Charles A.; Boyer, Martin I.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine if symptomatic dorsal wrist ganglions are associated with generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity. Methods Ninety-six patients (61 females) presenting to hand surgeons for a symptomatic dorsal wrist ganglions were prospectively enrolled in this case-control investigation. Beighton scores were calculated to quantify generalized ligamentous laxity in each patient, and a scaphoid shift test (scapholunate capsuloligamentous laxity evaluation) was performed. A positive scaphoid shift test was defined by both pain and a palpable clunk. Ninety-six individuals without ganglions were then enrolled to form an age and sex frequency-matched control cohort. The control group was similarly assessed for Beighton score and scaphoid shift test. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess the association of ganglions with generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity (Beighton score ≥4) while accounting for effects of age and sex. Results Patients with symptomatic dorsal wrist ganglions demonstrated significantly increased rates of generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity. Among those with ganglions, 27 of 96 (28%) patients exhibited generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity, compared to 12 of the 96 (13%) age and sex-matched individuals in the control group. Patients with symptomatic dorsal wrist ganglions were also significantly more likely to demonstrate localized scapholunate hyperlaxity with a positive scaphoid shift test (25% positive scaphoid shift test with ganglions vs 1% in controls). In logistic modeling, patients with dorsal wrist ganglions had 2.9 (95% CI 1.3-6.2) times greater odds of generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity compared to patients without a dorsal wrist ganglion after accounting for patient age and sex. Discussion Symptomatic dorsal wrist ganglions were associated with both generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity and a positive scaphoid shift test. Although an association between wrist ganglions and ligamentous hyperlaxity does not prove causation, the

  19. Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Graf-Deuel, E; Knoblauch, A

    1994-04-01

    We describe 12 patients with simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP). They represent 4 percent of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax seen at our hospital from 1971 to 1990. Five of the 12 had no underlying lung disease. In the seven remaining patients, SBSP was secondary to histiocytosis X, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, osteogenic sarcoma with pleural and pulmonary metastases, Hodgkin's disease, mesothelioma, cystic fibrosis, or miliary tuberculosis. Nineteen of the 56 patients with SBSP (34 percent) described in the literature (this series included) had pulmonary disease related to disorders of cells of mesenchymal origin. Emphysema and bullous lung disease were not associated with SBSP. Long-term prognosis was a function of pulmonary status. Four of the patients described herein died during the period reviewed. All suffered from severe underlying disease. In no case was SBSP the main cause of death. With timely treatment, the short-term prognosis is benign even for patients with underlying lung disease. Surgical pleurectomy should be attempted early, especially in SBSP secondary to underlying lung disease. PMID:8162740

  20. Gelsolin is a dorsalizing factor in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Kozmik, Zbynek; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.; Piatigorsky, Joram

    2003-01-01

    The gene for gelsolin (an actin-binding, cytoskeletal regulatory protein) was shown earlier to be specialized for high corneal expression in adult zebrafish. We show here that zebrafish gelsolin is required for proper dorsalization during embryogenesis. Inhibition of gelsolin expression by injecting fertilized eggs with a specific morpholino oligonucleotide resulted in a range of concentration-dependent ventralized phenotypes, including those lacking a brain and eyes. These were rescued by coinjection of zebrafish gelsolin or chordin (a known dorsalizing agent) mRNAs, or human gelsolin protein. Moreover, injection of gelsolin mRNA or human gelsolin protein by itself dorsalized the developing embryos, often resulting in axis duplication. Injection of the gelsolin-specific morpholino oligonucleotide enhanced the expression of Vent mRNA, a ventral marker downstream of bone morphogenetic proteins, whereas injection of gelsolin mRNA enhanced the expression of chordin and goosecoid mRNAs, both dorsal markers. Our results indicate that gelsolin also modulates embryonic dorsal/ventral pattern formation in zebrafish. PMID:12629212

  1. Dorsal and Ventral Pathways for Prosody.

    PubMed

    Sammler, Daniela; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Anwander, Alfred; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Belin, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Our vocal tone--the prosody--contributes a lot to the meaning of speech beyond the actual words. Indeed, the hesitant tone of a "yes" may be more telling than its affirmative lexical meaning. The human brain contains dorsal and ventral processing streams in the left hemisphere that underlie core linguistic abilities such as phonology, syntax, and semantics. Whether or not prosody--a reportedly right-hemispheric faculty--involves analogous processing streams is a matter of debate. Functional connectivity studies on prosody leave no doubt about the existence of such streams, but opinions diverge on whether information travels along dorsal or ventral pathways. Here we show, with a novel paradigm using audio morphing combined with multimodal neuroimaging and brain stimulation, that prosody perception takes dual routes along dorsal and ventral pathways in the right hemisphere. In experiment 1, categorization of speech stimuli that gradually varied in their prosodic pitch contour (between statement and question) involved (1) an auditory ventral pathway along the superior temporal lobe and (2) auditory-motor dorsal pathways connecting posterior temporal and inferior frontal/premotor areas. In experiment 2, inhibitory stimulation of right premotor cortex as a key node of the dorsal stream decreased participants' performance in prosody categorization, arguing for a motor involvement in prosody perception. These data draw a dual-stream picture of prosodic processing that parallels the established left-hemispheric multi-stream architecture of language, but with relative rightward asymmetry. PMID:26549262

  2. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  3. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  4. The dorsal filament of the weakly electric Apteronotidae (Gymnotiformes; Teleostei) is specialized for electroreception.

    PubMed

    Franchina, C R; Hopkins, C D

    1996-01-01

    The Apteronotidae, a family of weakly electric fish from South America (Gymnotiformes), possess a structure called the dorsal filament with an unknown function and evolutionary origin. This study compared the gross anatomy of the dorsal filament of 13 species of apteronotids and used light microscopy to examine the filaments of Adontosternarchus balaenops, Apteronotus albifrons, and Apteronotus leptorhynchus. The dorsal filament is an unscaled, thin, tapering structure attached to a mid-dorsal groove on the posterior half of the fish's back. The interior of the filament is a gelatinous mucopolysaccharide matrix (connective tissue) containing blood vessels and a bilateral nerve in which nearly all the afferents are large (8-10 mu m) and heavily myelinated. The location of the anterior origin of the filament varies from 0.48 to 0.66 of the body length, posterior to the snout, in 13 species. The filament is covered with hundreds of large-type tuberous electroreceptors and some ampullary receptors, at approximately the same density and ratio as those on the nearby back. The morphology of the large-type tuberous receptors and their afferents suggests that they are phase-coding T-units. A double layer of epithelial cells separates the ventral side of the filament from the groove in the trunk of the fish, except at the anterior origin where the interior of the filament is continuous with the body. This specialized double epithelium could provide a high resistance barrier to electrical current. This study was unable to distinguish between two hypotheses: that the dorsal filament is a modified adipose fin (as suggested previously), retained only in this family of Gymnotiformes; or that it is a uniquely derived character of the Apteronotidae. PMID:9156779

  5. Dorsal wrist ganglion: Current review of literature.

    PubMed

    Meena, Sanjay; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-06-01

    Ganglion cyst is the most common soft tissue tumour of hand. Sixty to seventy percent of ganglion cysts are found in the dorsal aspect of the wrist. They may affect any age group; however they are more common in the twenties to forties. Its origin and pathogenesis remains enigmatic. Non-surgical treatment is unreliable with a high recurrence rates. Open surgical excision leads to unsightly scar and poor outcome. Arthroscopy excision has shown very promising result with very low recurrence rate. We reviewed the current literature available on dorsal wrist ganglion. PMID:25983472

  6. Dorsal wrist ganglion: Current review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Sanjay; Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Ganglion cyst is the most common soft tissue tumour of hand. Sixty to seventy percent of ganglion cysts are found in the dorsal aspect of the wrist. They may affect any age group; however they are more common in the twenties to forties. Its origin and pathogenesis remains enigmatic. Non-surgical treatment is unreliable with a high recurrence rates. Open surgical excision leads to unsightly scar and poor outcome. Arthroscopy excision has shown very promising result with very low recurrence rate. We reviewed the current literature available on dorsal wrist ganglion. PMID:25983472

  7. Bilateral internal laryngoceles mimicking asthma.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Elif A; Elsürer, Cağdaş; Serin, Gediz M; Unal, O Faruk

    2013-05-01

    Laryngocele is an air-filled, abnormal dilation of the laryngeal saccule that extends upward within the false vocal fold, in communication with the laryngeal lumen. A case of 43-year-old male with bilateral internal laryngoceles, who has been treated as asthma for 4 years, is presented. The patient had dyspnea, cough, and excessive phlegm for a month and a late onset stridor. Flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy showed bilateral cystic enlargements of the false vocal folds and true vocal folds could not be visualized. Laryngeal CT without contrast enhancement showed bilateral internal laryngoceles. Submucosal total excision of bilateral cystic masses including parts of false vocal folds was performed. The symptoms resolved immediately after surgery. Although the incidence of internal laryngocele is rare, it should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of upper airway problems and diagnostic flexible nasopharnygolaryngoscopy is routinely indicated for airway evaluation in at-risk patients. PMID:24174956

  8. Isolated Bilateral Lacrimal Gland Agenesis.

    PubMed

    Al-Ryalat, Nosaiba T; Ezzat, Jumana W; Ababneh, Osama H; AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen S; Al-Hadidy, Azmy M

    2016-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy presented to the ophthalmology department complaining of absent tearing while crying. Slit-lamp examination showed decreased tear margin film with normal punctae. Orbit magnetic resonance imaging was done and showed bilateral absent lacrimal glands. This is the third case of isolated bilateral lacrimal gland agenesis in the literature. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e35-e38.]. PMID:27486892

  9. Effector selection precedes reach planning in the dorsal parietofrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Matthew; Grafton, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence and computational modeling suggest that target selection for reaching is associated with the parallel encoding of multiple movement plans in the dorsomedial posterior parietal cortex (dmPPC) and the caudal part of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMdc). We tested the hypothesis that a similar mechanism also accounts for arm selection for unimanual reaching, with simultaneous and separate motor goal representations for the left and right arms existing in the right and left parietofrontal cortex, respectively. We recorded simultaneous electroencephalograms and functional MRI and studied a condition in which subjects had to select the appropriate arm for reaching based on the color of an appearing visuospatial target, contrasting it to a condition in which they had full knowledge of the arm to be used before target onset. We showed that irrespective of whether subjects had to select the arm or not, activity in dmPPC and PMdc was only observed contralateral to the reaching arm after target onset. Furthermore, the latency of activation in these regions was significantly delayed when arm selection had to be achieved during movement planning. Together, these results demonstrate that effector selection is not achieved through the simultaneous specification of motor goals tied to the two arms in bilateral parietofrontal cortex, but suggest that a motor goal is formed in these regions only after an arm is selected for action. PMID:22457458

  10. Simultaneous Bilateral Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Bilateral Retinoblastoma (Tandem Therapy)

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, David H.; Marr, Brian P.; Francis, Jasmine H.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Fabius, Armida W. M.; Brodie, Scott E.; Mondesire-Crump, Ijah; Gobin, Y. Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective Report on the 7-year experience with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC-Tandem therapy) for bilateral retinoblastoma. Design Retrospective, single institution study. Subjects 120 eyes of 60 children with bilateral retinoblastoma treated since March 2008. Methods Retrospective review of all children treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (Melphalan, Carboplatin, Topotecan, Methotrexate) delivered in the same initial session to both naïve and previously treated eyes. Main Outcome Measures Ocular survival, metastatic disease, patient survival from metastases, second cancers, systemic adverse effects, need for transfusion of blood products, electroretinogram before and after treatment. Results 116 eyes were salvaged (4 eyes were enucleated: 3 because of progressive disease, 1 family choice). Kaplan Meier ocular survival was 99.2% at one year, 96.9% at 2 and 3 years and 94.9% for years 4 through 7. There were no cases of metastatic disease or metastatic deaths with a mean follow-up of 3.01 years. Two children developed second cancers (both pineoblastoma) and one of them died. Transfusion of blood products was required in 3 cases (4 transfusions), 1.9%. Two children developed fever/neutropenia requiring hospitalization (0.95%). ERGs were improved in 21.6% and unchanged after treatment in 52.5% of cases (increase or decrease of less than 25μV). Conclusions Bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery is a safe and effective technique for managing bilateral retinoblastoma-even when eyes are advanced bilaterally, and if both eyes have progressed after systemic chemotherapy. Ocular survival was excellent (94.9% at 8 years), there were no cases of of metastatic disease and no deaths from metastatic disease, but children remain at risk for second cancers. In 21.6% of cases ERG function improved. Despite using chemotherapy in both eyes in the same session, systemic toxicity was low. PMID:27258771

  11. Assembly of the dorsal horn somatotopic map.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Koerber, H R; Millecchia, R

    1997-01-01

    We hypothesize: (a) peripheral innervation densities determine map scales in dorsal horn, (b) dorsal horn cell (DHC) receptive field (RF) geometries are determined by map scales, and (c) morphologies of primary afferents (PAs) and DHCs reflect their developmental history. We suggest the following sequence: (A) PAs project in a somatotopic mediolateral sequence. (B) DHCs assemble prototype RFs by sampling presynaptic neuropil with their dendrites. (C) PAs then project to all levels where their RFs are contained within prototype RFs of DHCs. (D) A competitive mechanism produces the adult form of DHC RFs. (E) Adult distributions of PA terminals and DHC dendrites reflect this developmental history. (F) Mediolateral somatotopic gradients are determined by RF densities of axons entering at the same levels. (G) Map scales at different rostrocaudal levels are determined by somatotopic gradients. (H) Geometries of DHC RFs are determined by constant convergence and divergence of monosynaptic connections. (I) Secondary processes further modify geometries of DHC RFs. (J) Residual self-organizing capacity supports maintenance and plastic mechanisms. We adduce the following evidence: (1) agreement between monosynaptically coupled inputs and cells' excitatory low threshold mechanoreceptive fields; (2) the temporal sequence of events during penetration of the gray matter by PAs; (3)variation of PA terminal and DHC dendritic domains as a function of map scale; (4) somatotopic gradients and geometries of DHC RFs in adult dorsal horn; (5) calculations of peripheral innervation densities and dorsal horn map scales; and (6) constant divergence and convergence between PAs and DHCs. PMID:9399410

  12. On the origins of dorsal root potentials.

    PubMed

    LLOYD, D P C; McINTYRE, A K

    1949-03-20

    The "dorsal root potential" consists of five successive deflections designated for convenience, D.R.I, II, III, IV, and V. Of these, D.R.V alone constitutes the dorsal root potential of prior description. A study has been made of the general properties of those deflections not previously described. Dorsal root potentials are electrotonic extensions into the extramedullary root segment, the result of electrical interactions within the cord comparable to those that have been studied in peripheral nerve. Although the anatomical and electrical conditions of interaction are infinitely more complex in the cord than in nerve, it is seen that the fact of parallel distribution of primary afferent fibers pertaining to neighboring dorsal roots provides a sufficient anatomical basis for qualitative analysis in the first approximation of dorsal root potentials. An extension of the theory of interaction between neighboring nerve fibers has been made to include an especial case of interaction between fibers orientated at right angles to one another. The predictions have been tested in a nerve model and found correct. Given this elaboration, and the stated anatomical propositions, existing knowledge of interaction provides an adequate theoretical basis for an elementary understanding of dorsal root potentials. The study of general properties and the analysis of dorsal root potentials have led to the formulation of certain conclusions that follow. D.R.I, II, and III record the electrotonic spread of polarization resulting from the external field of impulses conducted in the intramedullary segment and longitudinal trajects of primary afferent fibers. D.R.IV arises in part as the result of activity in primary afferent fibers, and in part as the result of activity in secondary neurons. In either case the mode of production is the same, and the responsible agent is residual negativity in the active collaterals, or, more precisely, the external field of current flow about the

  13. Successful Pancreatic Duct Stent Placement for Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Patient with Polysplenia with Agenesis of the Dorsal Pancreas and Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Shintaro; Itoi, Takao; Iwasaki, Eisuke; Hosoe, Naoki; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with relapsing acute pancreatitis. A contrast CT scan revealed polysplenia, agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, preduodenal portal vein, inferior vena cava with persistent continuity of the azygos vein, abnormal lung lobation with bilateral left bronchial morphology, and intestinal malrotation (non-rotation type). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which successful pancreatic duct stent placement for the treatment of recurrent pancreatitis was performed in a polysplenia patient with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, separate bile and pancreatic ducts and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. PMID:27374675

  14. fMRI evidence for dorsal stream processing abnormality in adults born preterm.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, Thierry; Leutcher, Russia Ha-Vinh; Millet, Véronique; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the consequences of premature birth on the functional neuroanatomy of the dorsal stream of visual processing. fMRI was recorded while sixteen healthy participants, 8 (two men) adults (19 years 6 months old, SD 10 months) born premature (mean gestational age 30 weeks), referred to as Premas, and 8 (two men) matched controls (20 years 1 month old, SD 13 months), performed a 1-back memory task of Object or Grip information using a hand grasping a drinking vessel as stimulus. While history of prematurity did not significantly affect task performance, Group by Task analysis of variance in regions of interest spanning the occipital, temporal and parietal lobes revealed main effects of Task and interactions between the two factors. Object processing activated the left inferior occipital cortex and bilateral ventral temporal regions, belonging to the ventral stream, with no effect of Group. Grip processing across groups activated the early visual cortex and the left supramarginal gyrus belonging to the dorsal stream. Group effect on the brain activity during Grip suggested that Controls represented the actions' goal while Premas relied more on low-level visual information. This shift from higher- to lower-order visual processing between Controls and Premas may reflect a more general trend, in which Premas inadequately recruit higher-order visual functions for dorsal stream task performance, and rely more on lower-level functions. PMID:23174430

  15. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Arash; Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Parker, Justin; Carrion, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. Aim To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. Methods A 33-year-old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, he was emergently taken to the operating room for exploration and required only dorsal venous ligation. Results Postoperatively, patient's Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 23, and he had no issues with erections or sexual intercourse. Conclusion Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. PMID:25548650

  16. A case of bilateral extensor digitorum brevis manus.

    PubMed

    Muncibì, Francesco; Carulli, Christian; Paez, Diana Chicon; Fidecicchi, Fabio; Roselli, Giuliana

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of symptomatic dorsal mass in a 72-year-old man, with onset of pain during daily life efforts. On the other side, the dominant hand, a similar mass without any impairment was present. Before surgery, the mass on the left nondominant wrist was diagnosed by ultrasound as synovial ganglion: during excision, a muscular belly was found and sent to isthological evaluation, confirming the existence of an alive aberrant muscular tissue, named Extensor Digitorum Brevis Manus. Being reported in literature as occasionally bilateral, we decided to perform, 3 months later, an MRI in the contralateral asymptomatic wrist: it was possible to reveal the presence of a similar but asymptomatic mass. PMID:18759071

  17. Bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral artery dissection following facial massage.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Andrea L; Zink, Walter; Zimmerman, Robert; Riina, Howard; Benitez, Ronald

    A 50-year-old woman underwent facial massage. After 13 days, she experienced left retro-orbital pain, ptosis, and miosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed stenotic dissection of bilateral cervical internal carotid and vertebral arteries. The intracranial vasculature was intact. She was treated conservatively with long-term oral anticoagulation and remains asymptomatic 18 months later. PMID:18388028

  18. [Arthroscopic resection of dorsal wrist ganglia].

    PubMed

    Borisch, N

    2014-10-01

    In arthroscopic wrist surgery, the resection of dorsal wrist ganglia has become a well accepted practice. As advantages for the minimally invasive procedure the low complication rate and low postoperative morbidity, less postoperative pain and faster recovery over open techniques are discussed. The possibility to assess accompanying joint pathology is considered as another advantage. The importance of identifying a so-called ganglion cyst stalk seems to have been overstated. Regarding the technique, the main discussion points are the size and localisation of the capsular window and the necessity of additional midcarpal arthroscopy. The possibility and results of treatment of recurrent ganglion cysts are still controversial. Our own experience and that of some authors are positive. Hardly mentioned in the literature is the treatment of occult dorsal wrist ganglia and its results, which is considered as very successful by the authors. PMID:25290273

  19. Ventral vs. dorsal chick dermal progenitor specification.

    PubMed

    Fliniaux, Ingrid; Viallet, Jean P; Dhouailly, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The dorsal and the ventral trunk integuments of the chick differ in their dermal cell lineage (originating from the somatic and somatopleural mesoderm respectively) and in the distribution of their feather fields. The dorsal macropattern has a large spinal pteryla surrounded by semi-apteria, whereas the ventral skin has a true medial apterium surrounded by the ventral pterylae. Comparison of the results of heterotopic transplantations of distal somatopleure in place of somatic mesoderm (Mauger 1972) or in place of proximal somatopleure (our data), leads to two conclusions. These are that the fate of the midventral apterium is not committed at day 2 of incubation and that the signals from the environment which specify the ventral and dorsal featherforming dermal progenitors are different. Effectively, Shh, but not Wnt -1 signalling can induce the formation of feather forming dermis from the embryonic somatopleure. Shh is not able, however, to trigger the formation of a feather forming dermis from the extra embryonic somatopleure. This brief report constitutes the first attempt, by comparing old and new preliminary results, to understand whether dermal progenitors at different sites are specified by different signalling pathways. PMID:15272375

  20. Visual dorsal stream is associated with Chinese reading skills: A resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi; Bi, Yanchao; Wang, Xiaosha; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the relationship between visual dorsal stream and Chinese reading by resting-state fMRI technique. We collected the resting-state brain activities and reading skills of Chinese-speaking adult readers. The results showed that the values of amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and left visual middle temporal area (MT) (two regions of dorsal stream) were significantly correlated with rapid naming (RAN) speed, and the ALFF values of right PPC were correlated with orthographic awareness (OA). Further resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis revealed that RAN speed was related to RSFCs between dorsal stream areas and reading areas (e.g., left fusiform gyrus, bilateral middle occipital gyrus). OA was correlated with RSFCs between right PPC and left middle occipital gyrus. It suggested that spontaneous activities of visual dorsal stream, as well as connection between it and reading-related areas, were highly associated with Chinese reading skills. PMID:27474853

  1. Direct catecholaminergic innervation of spinal dorsal horn neurons with axons ascending the dorsal columns in cat.

    PubMed

    Doyle, C A; Maxwell, D J

    1993-05-15

    Previous ultrastructural studies have shown that catecholamine-containing nerve terminals in the spinal dorsal horn form synaptic junctions with dendrites and somata, but the identity of the neurons giving rise to these structures is largely unknown. In this study we have investigated the possibility that spinomedullary neurons, which project through the dorsal columns to the dorsal column nuclei, are synaptic targets for descending catecholaminergic axons. Neurons with axons ascending the dorsal columns were retrogradely labelled after uptake of horseradish peroxidase by their severed axons in the thoracic (T10-T12) or cervical (C2-C3) dorsal columns. After the retrogradely labelled neurons were visualized, the tissue was immunocytochemically stained with antisera raised against tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Three hundred forty-three retrogradely labelled neurons within laminae III-V of the lumbosacral dorsal horn were examined under high power with the light microscope. In Triton X-100 treated material, over 60% of cells were found to have dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive varicosities closely apposed to their somata and proximal dendrites. The number of contacts per cell varied from 1 to 22, with a mean number of 4.5. Fewer cells (34%) received contacts from axons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase as a consequence of the weaker immunoreaction produced by this antiserum. Correlated light and electron microscopic analysis confirmed that many of these contacts were regions of synaptic specialization and that immunostained boutons contained pleomorphic (round to oval) agranular vesicles together with several dense core vesicles. These observations suggest that catecholamines regulate sensory transmission through this spinomedullary pathway by a direct postsynaptic action upon its cells of origin. Such an action would be predicted to suppress transmission generally through this pathway. PMID:8099918

  2. Dorsal wrist mass: the carpal boss.

    PubMed

    Boggess, Blake; Berkoff, David

    2011-01-01

    The carpal boss is an osseous overgrowth that is occasionally mistaken for a ganglion cyst. This report highlights the case a 36-year-old patient who was originally diagnosed by his primary care physician with a ganglion cyst and was sent to an orthopaedist for aspiration. Upon further evaluation with a plain radiograph, the dorsal wrist mass was found to be a carpal boss. The patient was treated with rest and a wrist brace, and was informed that a corticosteroid injection or surgical excision would be necessary if conservative treatment failed. The patient was asymptomatic on follow-up and invasive procedures were not necessary. PMID:22707539

  3. Bilateral diabetic thigh muscle infarction.

    PubMed

    Barohn, R J; Bazan, C; Timmons, J H; Tegeler, C

    1994-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus developed pain and tenderness in the medial aspect of the left thigh and calf, followed 1 week later by similar symptoms in the right leg. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate (PYP) radionuclide scans showed increased flow and uptake in the medial thigh muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thigh showed increased signal on proton density and T2-weighted images in the medial and lateral thigh compartments. High-resolution B-mode ultrasound showed hyperechoic changes in the anteromedial thigh muscles, with loss of normal myofascial interfaces, and a mixed appearance, bilaterally. Two months later, after the symptoms had begun to resolve, the images had improved. This case documents bilateral diabetic thigh infarction identified by abnormal technetium 99m PYP flow studies, MRI signal, and B-mode ultrasound imaging. PMID:8136579

  4. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA infarction, no aetiological cause was identified. Unlike the transient nature of symptoms in some cases following unilateral infarction, his deficits persisted on 2-month follow-up. PMID:22798298

  5. Compensation Following Bilateral Vestibular Damage

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A.; Yates, Bill J.

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that non-labyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained. PMID:22207864

  6. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the tarsal naviculum

    PubMed Central

    Hamdi, Kaziz; Hazem, Ben Ghozlen; Yadh, Zitoun; Faouzi, Abid

    2015-01-01

    Isolated dislocation of the tarsal naviculum is an unusual injury, scarcely reported in the literature. The naviculum is surrounded by the rigid bony and ligamentous support hence fracture dislocation is more common than isolated dislocation. The mechanism and treatment options remain unclear. In this case report, we describe a 31 year old man who sustained an isolated dorsal dislocation of the left tarsal naviculum, without fracture, when he was involved in a motor vehicle collision. The reported mechanism of the dislocation is a hyper plantar flexion force applied to the midfoot, resulting in a transient disruption of the ligamentous support of the naviculum bone, with dorsal displacement of the bone. The patient was treated with open reduction and Krischner-wire fixation of the navicular after the failure of closed reduction. The wires were removed after 6 weeks postoperatively. Physiotherapy for stiffness and midfoot pain was recommended for 2 months. At 6 months postoperatively, limping, midfoot pain and weakness were reported, no X-ray abnormalities were found. The patient returned to his obvious activities with a normal range of motion. PMID:26806978

  7. Multiresolution Bilateral Filtering for Image Denoising

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K.

    2008-01-01

    The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique. An important issue with the application of the bilateral filter is the selection of the filter parameters, which affect the results significantly. There are two main contributions of this paper. The first contribution is an empirical study of the optimal bilateral filter parameter selection in image denoising applications. The second contribution is an extension of the bilateral filter: multiresolution bilateral filter, where bilateral filtering is applied to the approximation (low-frequency) subbands of a signal decomposed using a wavelet filter bank. The multiresolution bilateral filter is combined with wavelet thresholding to form a new image denoising framework, which turns out to be very effective in eliminating noise in real noisy images. Experimental results with both simulated and real data are provided. PMID:19004705

  8. HDAC I inhibition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulates predator-odor fear learning and generalization.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Robin K; Hebert, Jenna C; Thomas, Arthur S; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2015-01-01

    Although predator odors are ethologically relevant stimuli for rodents, the molecular pathways and contribution of some brain regions involved in predator odor conditioning remain elusive. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the dorsal hippocampus has been shown to enhance shock-induced contextual fear learning, but it is unknown if HDACs have differential effects along the dorso-ventral hippocampal axis during predator odor fear learning. We injected MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor, bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus of mice and found that it had no effects on innate anxiety in either region. We then assessed the effects of MS-275 at different stages of fear learning along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Animals were injected with MS-275 or vehicle after context pre-exposure (pre-conditioning injections), when a representation of the context is first formed, or after exposure to coyote urine (post-conditioning injections), when the context becomes associated with predator odor. When MS-275 was administered after context pre-exposure, dorsally injected animals showed enhanced fear in the training context but were able to discriminate it from a neutral environment. Conversely, ventrally injected animals did not display enhanced learning in the training context but generalized the fear response to a neutral context. However, when MS-275 was administered after conditioning, there were no differences between the MS-275 and vehicle control groups in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Surprisingly, all groups displayed generalization to a neutral context, suggesting that predator odor exposure followed by a mild stressor such as restraint leads to fear generalization. These results may elucidate distinct functions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor-induced fear conditioning as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying fear generalization. PMID:26441495

  9. HDAC I inhibition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulates predator-odor fear learning and generalization

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Robin K.; Hebert, Jenna C.; Thomas, Arthur S.; Wann, Ellen G.; Muzzio, Isabel A.

    2015-01-01

    Although predator odors are ethologically relevant stimuli for rodents, the molecular pathways and contribution of some brain regions involved in predator odor conditioning remain elusive. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the dorsal hippocampus has been shown to enhance shock-induced contextual fear learning, but it is unknown if HDACs have differential effects along the dorso-ventral hippocampal axis during predator odor fear learning. We injected MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor, bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus of mice and found that it had no effects on innate anxiety in either region. We then assessed the effects of MS-275 at different stages of fear learning along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Animals were injected with MS-275 or vehicle after context pre-exposure (pre-conditioning injections), when a representation of the context is first formed, or after exposure to coyote urine (post-conditioning injections), when the context becomes associated with predator odor. When MS-275 was administered after context pre-exposure, dorsally injected animals showed enhanced fear in the training context but were able to discriminate it from a neutral environment. Conversely, ventrally injected animals did not display enhanced learning in the training context but generalized the fear response to a neutral context. However, when MS-275 was administered after conditioning, there were no differences between the MS-275 and vehicle control groups in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Surprisingly, all groups displayed generalization to a neutral context, suggesting that predator odor exposure followed by a mild stressor such as restraint leads to fear generalization. These results may elucidate distinct functions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor-induced fear conditioning as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying fear generalization. PMID:26441495

  10. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  11. Multistep joint bilateral depth upsampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemens, A. K.; Gangwal, O. P.; Barenbrug, B.; Berretty, R.-P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Depth maps are used in many applications, e.g. 3D television, stereo matching, segmentation, etc. Often, depth maps are available at a lower resolution compared to the corresponding image data. For these applications, depth maps must be upsampled to the image resolution. Recently, joint bilateral filters are proposed to upsample depth maps in a single step. In this solution, a high-resolution output depth is computed as a weighted average of surrounding low-resolution depth values, where the weight calculation depends on spatial distance function and intensity range function on the related image data. Compared to that, we present two novel ideas. Firstly, we apply anti-alias prefiltering on the high-resolution image to derive an image at the same low resolution as the input depth map. The upsample filter uses samples from both the high-resolution and the low-resolution images in the range term of the bilateral filter. Secondly, we propose to perform the upsampling in multiple stages, refining the resolution by a factor of 2×2 at each stage. We show experimental results on the consequences of the aliasing issue, and we apply our method to two use cases: a high quality ground-truth depth map and a real-time generated depth map of lower quality. For the first use case a relatively small filter footprint is applied; the second use case benefits from a substantially larger footprint. These experiments show that the dual image resolution range function alleviates the aliasing artifacts and therefore improves the temporal stability of the output depth map. On both use cases, we achieved comparable or better image quality with respect to upsampling with the joint bilateral filter in a single step. On the former use case, we feature a reduction of a factor of 5 in computational cost, whereas on the latter use case, the cost saving is a factor of 50.

  12. Dorsal Wrist Capsular Tears in Association with Scapholunate Instability: Results of an Arthroscopic Dorsal Capsuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Adeline Cambon; Kerfant, Nathalie; Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet L.; Tandara, Andrea A.; Mathoulin, Christophe L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the association of dorsal wrist capsular avulsion with scapholunate ligament instability and to evaluate the results of an arthroscopy-assisted repair. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients with a mean age of 39.1 years suffering from chronic dorsal wrist pain. They underwent a wrist arthroscopy with an evaluation of the scapholunate ligament complex from the radiocarpal and midcarpal compartments. An avulsion of the dorsal intercarpal ligament (DICL) from the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) was visible from the radiocarpal compartment in all cases, while the SLIL was intact. The DICL tear was repaired with an arthroscopy-assisted dorsal capsuloplasty. Patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by the QuickDASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) questionnaire, by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, and by a clinical and radiological examination. Results Preoperatively, all patients had reduced flexion and radial deviation of the affected wrist. On the lateral radiograph, 5 of the 10 patients showed an increase of the scapholunate angle (60 to 85°). The scapholunate instability was graded as Messina–European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS) II in five cases and as grade IIIB in five cases. A tear of the ulnar part of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) was found in seven cases. At a mean followup of 16 months, the wrist range of motion (ROM), the grip strength, the QuickDASH, and the VAS of pain improved significatively. The scapholunate angle was normalized in all cases. Discussion Isolated tears of the DICL at its insertion from the dorsal part of the SLIL can be associated with scapholunate instability in the absence of an injury to the SLIL. The diagnosis is made arthroscopically. The arthroscopic dorsal capsuloplasty is a minimally invasive technique that provides short-term satisfactory results. Further studies are needed to determine whether

  13. Selective dorsal rhizotomy for spastic diplegia secondary to stroke in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Melissa Ann; Berman, Casey Melissa; Mazzola, Catherine Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is often recommended for children with spastic paraparesis and cerebral palsy. SDR reduces spasticity in the lower extremities for these children with spastic paraplegia. However, SDR is infrequently recommended for adults with spasticity. Spastic diplegia in adult patients can be due to stroke, brain or spinal cord injury from trauma, infection, toxic-metabolic disorders, and other causes. Although rarely considered, SDR is an option for adult patients with spastic diplegia as well. Case Description: The authors describe a patient who underwent a SDR with a successful postoperative outcome. This man suffered a hypertensive and hemorrhagic stroke secondary to intravenous drug abuse at age 46. A SDR was performed after two failed intrathecal baclofen pump placements due to recurrent infections, likely resulting from his immunocompromised status. The patient underwent lumbar laminectomies and dorsal rhizotomies at levels L1-S1 bilaterally. Postoperatively, the patient's spasticity was significantly reduced. His Ashworth spasticity score decreased from 4/5 to 1/5, and the reduction in tone has been durable over 3 years. Conclusion: SDR in older patients with spastic paraparesis may be considered as a treatment option. PMID:26167363

  14. Bilateral Impedance Control For Telemanipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    Telemanipulator system includes master robot manipulated by human operator, and slave robot performing tasks at remote location. Two robots electronically coupled so slave robot moves in response to commands from master robot. Teleoperation greatly enhanced if forces acting on slave robot fed back to operator, giving operator feeling he or she manipulates remote environment directly. Main advantage of bilateral impedance control: enables arbitrary specification of desired performance characteristics for telemanipulator system. Relationship between force and position modulated at both ends of system to suit requirements of task.

  15. Bilateral molariform mandibular second premolars.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sonu; Kumar Mandal, Pradip; Ghosh, Chiranjit

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side and erupted macrodontic premolar on the other side and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, and molariform crowns and tapering, single roots. PMID:25685564

  16. A test revealing the slow acquisition and the dorsal stream substrate of visuo-spatial perception.

    PubMed

    Pisella, L; André, V; Gavault, E; Le Flem, A; Luc-Pupat, E; Glissoux, C; Barrière, A; Vindras, P; Rossetti, Y; Gonzalez-Monge, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose a battery of simple clinical tests to assess the development of elementary visuo-spatial perception. We postulate that most of the tasks we selected rely on the visual dorsal stream, although the dual-stream theory (Milner & Goodale, 1995) discards the role of the dorsal stream for visual perception. In order to test the contribution of this anatomical substrate in visuo-spatial perception, we evaluated the performance of two adult patients with acquired bilateral occipito-parietal (dorsal stream) damage. Additionally, the developmental evolution was assessed by testing 96 children from 4 to 12 years old (4 two-year age groups of 24 children). In order to determine the point at which children achieved adult performance, and to provide a control group for the two patients, we also tested a group of 14 healthy adults. The results highlighted the necessity for age-dependent normative values: adult performance was achieved only at the age of 8 for length and size comparisons and at 12 for dot localisation. In contrast, the ability to judge angles and midlines did not reach adult performance even in the oldest group of children, suggesting further acquisition through adolescence. Occipito-parietal lesions strongly and differentially affected elementary visuo-spatial tasks. In overall scores, the two adult patients were approximately at the level of 6-year olds, below the outlier limit of the adult group. They were on average within the adult interquartile range for processing length and size but clearly outside for the 4 other subtests (Angle, Midline, Position perception and Position selection). As a whole, these data both shed light on the neuroanatomical bases of visuo-spatial perception and allow for age-specific comparisons in children with developmental disorders potentially linked to visuo-spatial and/or attentional defects. PMID:23174400

  17. Emotional detachment in psychopathy: Involvement of dorsal default-mode connections.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Arjun; Gregory, Sarah; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Periche Thomas, Eva; Simmons, Andy; Murphy, Declan G M; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Blackwood, Nigel J; Craig, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Criminal psychopathy is defined by emotional detachment [Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) factor 1], and antisocial behaviour (PCL-R factor 2). Previous work has associated antisocial behaviour in psychopathy with abnormalities in a ventral temporo-amygdala-orbitofrontal network. However, little is known of the neural correlates of emotional detachment. Imaging studies have indicated that the 'default-mode network' (DMN), and in particular its dorsomedial (medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate) component, contributes to affective and social processing in healthy individuals. Furthermore, recent work suggests that this network may be implicated in psychopathy. However, no research has examined the relationship between psychopathy, emotional detachment, and the white matter underpinning the DMN. We therefore used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography in 13 offenders with psychopathy and 13 non-offenders to investigate the relationship between emotional detachment and the microstructure of white matter connections within the DMN. These included the dorsal cingulum (containing the medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate connections of the DMN), and the ventral cingulum (containing the posterior cingulate - medial temporal connections of the DMN). We found that fractional anisotropy (FA) was reduced in the left dorsal cingulum in the psychopathy group (p = .024). Moreover, within this group, emotional detachment was negatively correlated with FA in this tract portion bilaterally (left: r = -.61, p = .026; right: r = -.62, p = .023). These results suggest the importance of the dorsal DMN in the emotional detachment observed in individuals with psychopathy. We propose a 'dual-network' model of white matter abnormalities in the disorder, which incorporates these with previous findings. PMID:25218645

  18. Calcium Signaling in Intact Dorsal Root Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gemes, Geza; Rigaud, Marcel; Koopmeiners, Andrew S.; Poroli, Mark J.; Zoga, Vasiliki; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ca2+ is the dominant second messenger in primary sensory neurons. In addition, disrupted Ca2+ signaling is a prominent feature in pain models involving peripheral nerve injury. Standard cytoplasmic Ca2+ recording techniques use high K+ or field stimulation and dissociated neurons. To compare findings in intact dorsal root ganglia, we used a method of simultaneous electrophysiologic and microfluorimetric recording. Methods Dissociated neurons were loaded by bath-applied Fura-2-AM and subjected to field stimulation. Alternatively, we adapted a technique in which neuronal somata of intact ganglia were loaded with Fura-2 through an intracellular microelectrode that provided simultaneous membrane potential recording during activation by action potentials (APs) conducted from attached dorsal roots. Results Field stimulation at levels necessary to activate neurons generated bath pH changes through electrolysis and failed to predictably drive neurons with AP trains. In the intact ganglion technique, single APs produced measurable Ca2+ transients that were fourfold larger in presumed nociceptive C-type neurons than in nonnociceptive Aβ-type neurons. Unitary Ca2+ transients summated during AP trains, forming transients with amplitudes that were highly dependent on stimulation frequency. Each neuron was tuned to a preferred frequency at which transient amplitude was maximal. Transients predominantly exhibited monoexponential recovery and had sustained plateaus during recovery only with trains of more than 100 APs. Nerve injury decreased Ca2+ transients in C-type neurons, but increased transients in Aβ-type neurons. Conclusions Refined observation of Ca2+ signaling is possible through natural activation by conducted APs in undissociated sensory neurons and reveals features distinct to neuronal types and injury state. PMID:20526180

  19. Bilateral behavioral and regional cerebral blood flow changes during painful peripheral mononeuropathy in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Pamela E.; Morrow, Thomas J.; Casey, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    A unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve produced bilateral effects in both pain related behaviors and in the pattern of forebrain activation. All CCI animals exhibited spontaneous pain-related behaviors as well as bilateral hyperalgesia and allodynia after CCI. Further, we identified changes in baseline (unstimulated) forebrain activation patterns 2 weeks following CCI by measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Compared to controls, CCI consistently produced detectable, well-localized and typically bilateral increases in rCBF within multiple forebrain structures in unstimulated animals. For example, the hindlimb region of somatosensory cortex was significantly activated (22%) as well as multiple thalamc nuclei, including the ventral medial (8%), ventral posterior lateral (10%) and the posterior (9%) nuclear groups. In addition, several forebrain regions considered to be part of the limbic system showed pain-induced changes in rCBF, including the anterior dorsal nucleus of the thalamus (23%), cingulate cortex (18%), retrosplenial cortex (30%), habenular complex (53%), interpeduncular nucleus (45%) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (30%). Our results suggest that bilateral somatosensory and limbic forebrain structures participate in the neural mechanisms of prolonged persistent pain produced by a unilateral injury. Published for the International Association for the Study of Pain by Elsevier Science B.V. PMID:10666528

  20. Arthroscopic resection of dorsal wrist ganglia and treatment of recurrences.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, R; Badia, A; Alfarano, M; Orbay, J; Indriago, I; Mustapha, B

    2000-02-01

    From 1995 to 1998, 30 patients with dorsal wrist ganglia and four with recurrent dorsal ganglia underwent arthroscopic resection. At a mean follow-up of 16 months, no complications were seen, but minimal pain persisted in three patients. Two recurrences were seen after arthroscopic resection of primary ganglia. PMID:10763721

  1. Arthroscopic diagnosis and treatment of dorsal wrist ganglion.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, S; Toh, S; Miura, H; Arai, K; Irie, T

    2001-12-01

    Thirty-seven patients with dorsal wrist ganglia underwent arthroscopic resection. The mean follow-up was 20 months, and no complications were encountered. The ganglia were classified into three types according to their arthroscopic appearance. This classification helps to determine the amount of dorsal capsular resection required. PMID:11884110

  2. Sequentially evolved bilateral epidural haematomas.

    PubMed

    Rochat, P; Johannesen, H H; Poulsgård, L; Bøgeskov, L

    2002-12-01

    Sequentially evolved bilateral epidural haematomas, where the second haematoma evolves after surgical removal of the first haematoma, are rarely reported. We report two cases of this entity. One patient was involved in a road traffic accident and the other was suffering from a head injury after an assault. CT scans showed that both patients had an unilateral epidural haematoma with a thin presumably epidural haemorrhage on the opposite side. Both patients were operated for their epidural haematomas, but did not improve after surgical treatment, and postoperative CT scans revealed evolving of an epidural haematoma on the opposite side. After evacuation of the second epidural haematoma both patients recovered quickly. Sequentially evolved bilateral epidural haematomas are rare, but must be considered in the postoperative intensive care treatment in patients with epidural haematomas. Both cases emphasize the need for intensive care monitoring after an operation for an epidural haematoma and the need for CT scans if the patient does not improve quickly after removal of the haematoma. This is especially important if a small contralateral haematoma is seen on the initial CT scan. PMID:12445923

  3. [Simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax. Case report].

    PubMed

    Paolini, A; Caminiti, F; Tosato, F; Ruggieri, M; Paolini, G; Carnevale, L; Corsini, F; Marano, S; Monsellato, I

    2001-04-01

    A case report of a 44 year-old white man admitted to the surgical unit for a bilateral simultaneous pneumothorax is presented. The pneumothorax occurred on day one after a surgical operation for discal hernia; in the past the patient already presented a right spontaneous pneumothorax at 32 years of age and a left pneumothorax at 37 years of age, both treated with a pleural drainage. A thoracic drain was bilaterally positioned with a good result only in the right side. The persistence of the left pneumothorax induced the authors to perform a postero-lateral thoracotomy bullae excision and pleurectomy with a good postoperative course. After a few months a new right pneumothorax occurred and the patient was treated with a right postero-lateral thoracotomy, bullae resection and pleurectomy. On the basis of the case reported, the authors consider the different opportunities in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to the present knowledges and technologies. Surgical procedure is to be preferred in case of persistence of pneumothorax despite a pleural drain and in case of pneumothorax in high risk subjects. Even if thoracoscopy seems to give better results regarding postoperative pain, it is not always possible with such a method to perform a careful pleurectomy neither to obtain it in all cases (above all in secondary pneumothorax). Every case must then be carefully studied to choose the best treatment at present available. PMID:11353349

  4. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  5. The Role of Parieto-Occipital Junction in the Interaction between Dorsal and Ventral Streams in Disparity-Defined Near and Far Space Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological and functional MRI data suggest that two functionally and anatomically dissociable streams of visual processing exist: a ventral perception-related stream and a dorsal action-related stream. However, relatively little is known about how the two streams interact in the intact brain during the production of adaptive behavior. Using functional MRI and a virtual three-dimensional paradigm, we aimed at examining whether the parieto-occipital junction (POJ) acts as an interface for the integration and processing of information between the dorsal and ventral streams in the near and far space processing. Virtual reality three-dimensional near and far space was defined by manipulating binocular disparity, with -68.76 arcmin crossed disparity for near space and +68.76 arcmin uncrossed disparity for near space. Our results showed that the POJ and bilateral superior occipital gyrus (SOG) showed relative increased activity when responded to targets presented in the near space than in the far space, which was independent of the retinotopic and perceived sizes of target. Furthermore, the POJ showed the enhanced functional connectivity with both the dorsal and ventral streams during the far space processing irrespective of target sizes, supporting that the POJ acts as an interface between the dorsal and ventral streams in disparity-defined near and far space processing. In contrast, the bilateral SOG showed the enhanced functional connectivity only with the ventral stream if retinotopic sizes of targets in the near and far spaces were matched, which suggested there was a functional dissociation between the POJ and bilateral SOG. PMID:26999674

  6. The Role of Parieto-Occipital Junction in the Interaction between Dorsal and Ventral Streams in Disparity-Defined Near and Far Space Processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aijun; Li, You; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological and functional MRI data suggest that two functionally and anatomically dissociable streams of visual processing exist: a ventral perception-related stream and a dorsal action-related stream. However, relatively little is known about how the two streams interact in the intact brain during the production of adaptive behavior. Using functional MRI and a virtual three-dimensional paradigm, we aimed at examining whether the parieto-occipital junction (POJ) acts as an interface for the integration and processing of information between the dorsal and ventral streams in the near and far space processing. Virtual reality three-dimensional near and far space was defined by manipulating binocular disparity, with -68.76 arcmin crossed disparity for near space and +68.76 arcmin uncrossed disparity for near space. Our results showed that the POJ and bilateral superior occipital gyrus (SOG) showed relative increased activity when responded to targets presented in the near space than in the far space, which was independent of the retinotopic and perceived sizes of target. Furthermore, the POJ showed the enhanced functional connectivity with both the dorsal and ventral streams during the far space processing irrespective of target sizes, supporting that the POJ acts as an interface between the dorsal and ventral streams in disparity-defined near and far space processing. In contrast, the bilateral SOG showed the enhanced functional connectivity only with the ventral stream if retinotopic sizes of targets in the near and far spaces were matched, which suggested there was a functional dissociation between the POJ and bilateral SOG. PMID:26999674

  7. Unusual Bilateral Paramolars Associated with Clinical Complications

    PubMed Central

    Sulabha, A. N.; Sameer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Paramolars are rare supernumerary structures of maxillofacial complex that occur buccally or lingually near the molar row. Predominantly these occur singly; bilateral presentation is very rare. This paper reports two unusual bilateral presentations of paramolars with clinical complication and its management. One of the cases in the present paper also documents the cooccurrence of bilateral paramolars and microdontia of single tooth and one of its paramolars presented with multilobed crown with an anomalous buccal tubercle. PMID:26078890

  8. A clinical analysis of bilateral orbital fracture.

    PubMed

    Roh, Joon Ho; Jung, Jee Woong; Chi, Mijung

    2014-03-01

    Although bilateral orbital fracture can cause serious eyeball and facial skeletal problems, few reports have been issued on the topic. We analyzed the clinical features of bilateral orbital fracture by reviewing the medical records of 147 patients and compared bilateral and unilateral fractures by reviewing the literature.Bilateral orbital fracture was most common in men aged between 50 and 59 years. A traffic accident was the leading cause of trauma, and average time between trauma and surgery was 12.2 days. Bilateral medial fracture accompanied by nasal fracture accounted for the overwhelming majority, and impure blowout fracture in at least 1 eye occurred in 69.4% of the 147 patients. Associated ocular injuries seemed to be similar for bilateral and unilateral fracture. Thirty-five patients (23.8%) had other multiple traumas affecting other than the eyes, and this significantly increased the need for surgery (P < 0.05). Of the 48 patients who underwent surgery, including 4 cases of bilateral surgery, 21 patients who had ocular motility restriction with central diplopia within 30 degrees almost completely recovered. No significant relation between the timing of surgery and improvement was found. Although unilateral surgery was performed in most cases, facial asymmetry related to enophthalmos was unclear at 6 months postoperatively.In summary, bilateral orbital fracture was found to be clinically distinguishable from unilateral fracture in several aspects. We hope these findings provide a reference guide to the approach and management of bilateral orbital fracture. PMID:24514894

  9. Fast bilateral filtering using recursive moving sum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Masaki; Ikebe, Masayuki; Shimoyama, Sohsuke; Motohisa, Junichi

    We propose a constant-time algorithm for a bilateral filter. Bilateral filter can be converted into the operation of three-dimensional (3D) convolution. By using recursive moving sum, we can reduce the number of calculations needed to construct a pseudo-Gaussian filter. Applying one-dimensional Gaussian filter to the 3D convolution, we achieved a constant-time bilateral filter. We used a 3-GHz CPU without SIMD instructions, or multi-thread operations. We confirmed our proposed bilateral filter to be processed in constant time. In practical conditions, high PSNR values over 40 dB are obtained.

  10. Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines. PMID:24323872

  11. Bilateral Neck of Femur Fractures in a Bilateral Below-Knee Amputee: A Unique Case.

    PubMed

    Lancer, Hannah R; Smitham, Peter; Ray, Pinak

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Hip Fracture Database, over 64,000 patients were admitted with a hip fracture across England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in 2013, but very few are bilateral, and there are no current cases in the literature of bilateral neck of femur fractures in a patient with bilateral below-knee amputations. We present a case of a 69-year-old bilateral below-knee amputee male admitted to the emergency department with bilateral hip pain and radiological evidence of bilateral displaced neck of femur fractures. The patient subsequently underwent synchronous bilateral total hip replacements under general anaesthetic and an epidural and then went on to make a full recovery. He was discharged 27 days after arrival in hospital. Outpatient follow-up at 3 months has shown that the patient has returned to a similar level of preinjury function and is still able to carry out his daily activities with walking aids and bilateral leg prostheses. PMID:26881162

  12. Bilateral Neck of Femur Fractures in a Bilateral Below-Knee Amputee: A Unique Case

    PubMed Central

    Lancer, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Hip Fracture Database, over 64,000 patients were admitted with a hip fracture across England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in 2013, but very few are bilateral, and there are no current cases in the literature of bilateral neck of femur fractures in a patient with bilateral below-knee amputations. We present a case of a 69-year-old bilateral below-knee amputee male admitted to the emergency department with bilateral hip pain and radiological evidence of bilateral displaced neck of femur fractures. The patient subsequently underwent synchronous bilateral total hip replacements under general anaesthetic and an epidural and then went on to make a full recovery. He was discharged 27 days after arrival in hospital. Outpatient follow-up at 3 months has shown that the patient has returned to a similar level of preinjury function and is still able to carry out his daily activities with walking aids and bilateral leg prostheses. PMID:26881162

  13. β-Arrestins Negatively Regulate the Toll Pathway in Shrimp by Preventing Dorsal Translocation and Inhibiting Dorsal Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie-Jie; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Yang, Ming-Chong; Niu, Guo-Juan; Ding, Ding; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-04-01

    The Toll signaling pathway plays an important role in the innate immunity ofDrosophila melanogasterand mammals. The activation and termination of Toll signaling are finely regulated in these animals. Although the primary components of the Toll pathway were identified in shrimp, the functions and regulation of the pathway are seldom studied. We first demonstrated that the Toll signaling pathway plays a central role in host defense againstStaphylococcus aureusby regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides in shrimp. We then found that β-arrestins negatively regulate Toll signaling in two different ways. β-Arrestins interact with the C-terminal PEST domain of Cactus through the arrestin-N domain, and Cactus interacts with the RHD domain of Dorsal via the ankyrin repeats domain, forming a heterotrimeric complex of β-arrestin·Cactus·Dorsal, with Cactus as the bridge. This complex prevents Cactus phosphorylation and degradation, as well as Dorsal translocation into the nucleus, thus inhibiting activation of the Toll signaling pathway. β-Arrestins also interact with non-phosphorylated ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) through the arrestin-C domain to inhibit ERK phosphorylation, which affects Dorsal translocation into the nucleus and phosphorylation of Dorsal at Ser(276)that impairs Dorsal transcriptional activity. Our study suggests that β-arrestins negatively regulate the Toll signaling pathway by preventing Dorsal translocation and inhibiting Dorsal phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. PMID:26846853

  14. Identification and molecular characterization of dorsal and dorsal-like genes in the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Min Chul; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-12-01

    To date, knowledge of the immune system in aquatic invertebrates has been reported in only a few model organisms, even though all metazoans have an innate immune system. In particular, information on the copepod's immunity and the potential role of key genes in the innate immune systems is still unclear. In this study, we identified dorsal and dorsal-like genes in the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana. In silico analyses for identifying conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships supported their gene annotations. The transcriptional levels of both genes were slightly increased from the nauplius to copepodid stages, suggesting that these genes are putatively involved in copepodid development of P. nana. To examine the involvement of both genes in the innate immune response and under stressful conditions, the copepods were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), different culture densities, salinities, and temperatures. LPS significantly upregulated mRNA expressions of dorsal and dorsal-like genes, suggesting that both genes are transcriptionally sensitive in response to immune modulators. Exposure to unfavorable culture conditions also increased mRNA levels of dorsal and dorsal-like genes. These findings suggest that transcriptional regulation of the dorsal and dorsal-like genes would be associated with environmental changes in P. nana. PMID:26297599

  15. Bilateral treatment for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Torchia, Daniele; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2010-01-01

    A 4-year-old, otherwise healthy white girl was referred for a 15-month history of alopecia areata. Anthralin 0.1% cream was prescribed for the left side of the scalp, while corticosteroids for the right side. After 4 months, only the right side of the scalp showed hair regrowth. Half-side strategy, that is, treating one side and managing the other--divided by the mid sagittal suture--as an internal control for no treatment, placebo or other treatment, has been commonly used in clinical studies for decades. In everyday practice, bilateral treatment is useful to evaluate the responsiveness to two topically delivered interventions and diminishes the time necessary to identify an effective one. PMID:20653874

  16. Occult scapholunate ganglion: a cause of dorsal radial wrist pain.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, B D; Kleinman, W B

    1999-03-01

    There are multiple causes for chronic dorsal wrist pain over the scapholunate ligament, including occult dorsal carpal ganglion cyst, scaphoid impaction syndrome, dorsal carpal capsulitis, distal posterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and dynamic scapholunate ligament instability. Patients with such pain often have normal x-rays. A retrospective study of 21 patients undergoing surgical exploration for chronic dorsal radial wrist pain who had no palpable cyst and normal x-rays revealed that 18 of the patients had occult scapholunate ganglion cysts or myxomatous degeneration within the scapholunate ligament. All had failed long-term conservative management. Surgery involved an approach through Langer's lines, resection of a large triangular portion of the capsule between the dorsal intercarpal and radiotriquetral ligaments, and tangential debridement of the area of myxoid degeneration proximal to the distal 2 to 3 mm of dorsal scapholunate interosseous ligament. None of the patients had scapholunate instability or scaphoid impacting syndrome. Of the 18 patients with histologically confirmed myxomatous changes in the scapholunate ligament, 16 had an excellent outcome as defined by rigorous criteria; 1 had a good outcome. There was 1 patient with a poor result. A compelling argument is made for surgical exploration of the scapholunate joint in patients with persistent dorsal radial wrist pain and scapholunate point tenderness. PMID:10194003

  17. Neuronal cell lines as model dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kathleen; Baillie, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Background Dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived immortal cell lines including ND7/23 and F-11 cells have been used extensively as in vitro model systems of native peripheral sensory neurons. However, while it is clear that some sensory neuron-specific receptors and ion channels are present in these cell lines, a systematic comparison of the molecular targets expressed by these cell lines with those expressed in intact peripheral neurons is lacking. Results In this study, we examined the expression of RNA transcripts in the human neuroblastoma-derived cell line, SH-SY5Y, and two dorsal root ganglion hybridoma cell lines, F-11 and ND7/23, using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared the results with native whole murine dorsal root ganglions. The gene expression profiles of these three cell lines did not resemble any specific defined dorsal root ganglion subclass. The cell lines lacked many markers for nociceptive sensory neurons, such as the Transient receptor potential V1 gene, but expressed markers for both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons. Global gene ontology analysis on whole dorsal root ganglions and cell lines showed similar enrichment of biological process terms across all samples. Conclusions This paper provides insights into the receptor repertoire expressed in common dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived cell lines compared with whole murine dorsal root ganglions, and illustrates the limits and potentials of these cell lines as tools for neuropharmacological exploration. PMID:27130590

  18. Submaximal Expression of the Bilateral Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott P.; Vint, Peter F.; Stember, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-six participants performed bilateral and unilateral isometric elbow flexion trials at what they perceived to be 100, 75, 50, and 25% of maximal effort. Absolute bilateral deficits ranged from -16% at 25% effort to -10% at 100% effort. The deficit included a component independent of consciousness and a component inversely related to…

  19. Bilateral microperc in a severe kyphoscoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Dağgülli, Mansur; Penbegül, Necmettin; Dede, Onur; Utanğaç, Mehmet Mazhar

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the standard modality for large renal calculi in normal and abnormal renal anatomic situations. This case report describes a 57-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral kidney stones and severe kyphoscoliosis. He had successfully been treated with a bilateral microperc technique. PMID:27011881

  20. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  1. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    PubMed

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin. PMID:22561379

  2. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment. PMID:27275469

  3. Bilateral microperc in a severe kyphoscoliosis.

    PubMed

    Dağgülli, Mansur; Penbegül, Necmettin; Dede, Onur; Utanğaç, Mehmet Mazhar

    2016-03-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the standard modality for large renal calculi in normal and abnormal renal anatomic situations. This case report describes a 57-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral kidney stones and severe kyphoscoliosis. He had successfully been treated with a bilateral microperc technique. PMID:27011881

  4. Bilateral pulmonary sequestration: computed tomographic appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Wimbish, K.J.; Agha, F.P.; Brady, T.M.

    1983-04-01

    Intralobar pulmonary sequestration is one manifestation of the wide spectrum of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Bilateral intralobar pulmonary sequestration is an exceedingly rare anomaly. Only two pathologically proven cases and one possible case have been reported. We report a case presenting as bilateral paraspinal masses, studied by computed tomograpy (CT) and angiography.

  5. Bilateral parotid swelling: a radiological review

    PubMed Central

    Gadodia, A; Bhalla, A S; Sharma, R; Thakar, A; Parshad, R

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral parotid swelling is not an uncommon occurrence and may pose a challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Numerous causes of bilateral parotid swellings have been identified. The purpose of this pictorial review is to display this wide array with a focus on multimodality approach. PMID:21960397

  6. Copper sensitivity in dorsal hippocampus slices.

    PubMed

    Leiva, J; Palestini, M; Tetas, M; López, J

    2000-04-01

    The action of copper on the pyramidal neurons in CA1 of the hippocampus is little understood. Our main aim was to study the possible interaction of copper on the synaptic network in CA1 pyramidal neurons. We used Wistar rats hippocampus slices in a recording chamber. The population response ("population of spikes") collected by an extracellular micropipette under baseline conditions served as control. Copper, GABA, bicuculline and picrotoxin were delivered in different experimental conditions to the slice. One, 10 and 100 microM of copper concentration decreased significantly the amplitude and duration of the population spikes in relation to the control response. This effect did not show concentration dependency. Copper in bicuculline medium decreased significantly the duration response in relation to the control response and in relation to copper effect in a free bicuculline medium. This phenomenon emphasizes the copper action on the GABA (B) and (C) receptors. Copper in a picrotoxin medium increased significantly the excitability of the response. This new effect suggests that copper acts on non-GABA receptors, an effect that could be detected when the GABA receptors were inactivated. As a result of these findings it appears that, under our experimental conditions, copper generated transient sensitivity changes in pyramidal neurons of CA1 dorsal hippocampus. PMID:10782257

  7. Conduction in regenerating dorsal root fibres.

    PubMed

    Feasby, T E; Bostock, H; Sears, T A

    1981-03-01

    Rat dorsal roots were crushed and recordings of compound action potentials and single fibre longitudinal currents were made 12-85 days later from the regenerating portions. Maximum conduction velocities rose from 1.3 m/s at day 10 to 25.7 m/s by day 41 and single fibre velocities varied from 1.2 m/s at 12 days postcrush to 23.8 m/s at 85 days. Many fibres appeared to conduct continuously in the early stages, although the resolution of the technique was insufficient to exclude saltatory conduction over short internodes. Two fibres showed internodes of about 200 microns at 9 and 13 days of regeneration, suggesting that "nodal" regions may be formed before significant myelination. At 27 days post-crush and later, internodes were 300-425 microns in length. Many regenerating fibres had branches, both retrograde and orthograde. Reduced conduction velocities in rostral portions of regenerating fibres suggested tapering. PMID:6260903

  8. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans. PMID:27069895

  9. Are The Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus functionally distinct structures?

    PubMed Central

    Fanselow, Michael S.; Dong, Hong-Wei

    2009-01-01

    One literature treats the hippocampus as a purely cognitive structure involved in memory; another treats it as a regulator of emotion whose dysfunction leads to psychopathology. We review behavioral, anatomical, and gene expression studies that together support a functional segmentation into 3 hippocampal compartments dorsal, intermediate and ventral. The dorsal hippocampus, which corresponds to the posterior hippocampus in primates, performs primarily cognitive functions. The ventral (anterior in primates) relates to stress, emotion and affect. Strikingly, gene expression in the dorsal hippocampus correlates with cortical regions involved in information processing, while genes expressed in the ventral hippocampus correlate with regions involved in emotion and stress (amygdala and hypothalamus). PMID:20152109

  10. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis due to Bilateral Vagal Nerve Involvement.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Mari; Nureki, Shin-Ichi; Ushijima, Ryoichi; Mukai, Yutaka; Goto, Akihiko; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a rare case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal cord paralysis due to bilateral vagal nerve involvement. A 72-year-old woman with uveitis of the left eye complained of hoarseness and aspiration due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. An endobronchial needle aspiration biopsy specimen of the mediastinal lymph nodes showed non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma. Total protein and cell concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were increased. We diagnosed her to have sarcoidosis with bilateral vagal nerve involvement. Corticosteroid therapy improved her symptoms of hoarseness and aspiration. Sarcoidosis should therefore be taken into consideration as a potential cause of bilateral vocal cord paralysis. PMID:27150886

  11. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D. K.; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique. PMID:24194754

  12. Exome Sequencing of Bilateral Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Suggests Independent Development Lineages12

    PubMed Central

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M.; Berg, Kaja G.; Bakken, Anne C.; Bruun, Jarle; Fosså, Sophie D.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I.

    2015-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  13. Exome sequencing of bilateral testicular germ cell tumors suggests independent development lineages.

    PubMed

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M; Berg, Kaja G; Bakken, Anne C; Bruun, Jarle; Fosså, Sophie D; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2015-02-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  14. Heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after ovulation induction*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Xu, Gu-feng; Liu, Yi-feng; Qu, Fan; Yao, Wei-miao; Zhu, Yi-min; Gao, Hui-juan; Zhang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is identified with the widely-applied assisted reproductive technology (ART). Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which is difficult to be diagnosed at the pre-operation stage. In this paper, we presented an unusual case of heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI), where there has been a delay of 22 d between the diagnoses of the two ectopic pregnancies. Literature was reviewed on the occurrence of bilateral ectopic pregnancy during the past four years in the MEDLINE database. We found 16 cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy reported since 2008, and analyzed the characteristics of those cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. We emphasize that ovulation induction and other ARTs may increase the risk of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. Because of the difficulty in identification of bilateral ectopic pregnancy by ultrasonography, the clinician should be aware that the treatment of one ectopic pregnancy does not preclude the occurrence of a second ectopic pregnancy in the same patient and should pay attention to the intra-operation inspection of both side fallopian tubes in any ectopic pregnancy case. PMID:25091994

  15. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    PubMed

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  16. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  17. Bilateral pneumothorax after orthognatic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bertossi, Dario; Malchiodi, Luciano; Turra, Matteo; Bondi, Vincenzo; Albanese, Massimo; Lucchese, Alessandra; Carinci, Francesco; Nocini, Pierfrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Among complications in orthognathic surgery, the insurgence of pneumothorax is very rare. Pneumothorax is the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity and it is rare complications in the postoperative oral and maxillofacial surgery patient. The clinical results are dependent on the degree of collapse of the lung on the affected side. Pneumothorax can impair oxygenation and/or ventilation. If the pneumothorax is significant, it can cause a shift of the mediastinum and compromise haemodynamic stability. While 10% of pneumothoraces are asymptomatic, patients often complain of acute chest pain and difficulty breathing. There is a reduction in vital capacity, tachycardia, tachypnoea and a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen with an inability to maintain oxygen saturations. We observed this unusual surgical consequence in a 28-year-old female with negative clinical history and instrumental evaluation after Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). No further consequences, no neurological sequelae, no infections and no other osteotomies sequelae were seen. Sudden post-surgical dispnea associated to sub-cutaneous emphysema of the neck and of the thorax must be adequately observed with the aim of monitoring further severe sequelae. The anaesthetic management of the emergency difficult airway in any post-surgical orthognatic treatment can be extremely difficult requiring a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:23814593

  18. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral lumbar sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Segers, B; Himpens, J; Barroy, J P

    2007-06-01

    The first retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy was performed in 1924 by Julio Diez. The classic procedure for sympathectomy is open surgery. We report a unilateral laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach to perform bilateral lumbar sympathectomy. This approach was performed for a 43-year-old man with distal arterial occlusive disease and no indication for direct revascularization. His predominant symptoms were intermittent claudication at 100 metres and cold legs. The patient was placed in a left lateral decubitus position. The optical system was placed first in an intra-abdominal position to check that the trocars were well positioned in the retroperitoneal space. The dissection of retroperitoneum was performed by CO2 insufflation. The inferior vena cava was reclined and the right sympathetic chain was individualized. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. The aorta was isolated on a vessel loop and careful anterior traction allowed a retro-aortic pre-vertebral approach between the lumbar vessels. The left sympathetic chain was dissected. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. PMID:17685269

  19. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra.

  20. Variation of dorsal horn cell dendritic spread with map scale.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Millecchia, R; Culberson, J L; Gladfelter, W; Covalt-Dunning, D

    1996-10-21

    Cells in laminae III, IV, and V of cat dorsal horn were injected with horseradish peroxidase or neurobiotin. Dorsal views of the dendritic domains were constructed in order to measure their lengths, widths, areas, and length/width ratios in the horizontal plane (the plane of the somatotopic map). Dendritic domain width and area in the horizontal plane were negatively correlated with fractional distance between the medial and lateral edges of the dorsal horn. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dendritic domain width varies with map scale, which is maximal in the medial dorsal horn. This is similar to the variation in widths of primary afferent bouton distributions. The parallel variation of dorsal horn cell dendritic domain width and primary afferent bouton distribution width with map scale suggests that there is a causal relation between morphology and map scale in the dorsal horn representation of the hindlimb. This variation of adult morphology with map scale must reflect mechanisms responsible for the assembly of receptive fields. PMID:8906504

  1. Interactions between dorsal and ventral streams for controlling skilled grasp.

    PubMed

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The two visual systems hypothesis suggests processing of visual information into two distinct routes in the brain: a dorsal stream for the control of actions and a ventral stream for the identification of objects. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that the dorsal and ventral streams are not strictly independent, but do interact with each other. In this paper, we argue that the interactions between dorsal and ventral streams are important for controlling complex object-oriented hand movements, especially skilled grasp. Anatomical studies have reported the existence of direct connections between dorsal and ventral stream areas. These physiological interconnections appear to be gradually more active as the precision demands of the grasp become higher. It is hypothesised that the dorsal stream needs to retrieve detailed information about object identity, stored in ventral stream areas, when the object properties require complex fine-tuning of the grasp. In turn, the ventral stream might receive up to date grasp-related information from dorsal stream areas to refine the object internal representation. Future research will provide direct evidence for which specific areas of the two streams interact, the timing of their interactions and in which behavioural context they occur. PMID:26169317

  2. Interactions between dorsal and ventral streams for controlling skilled grasp

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The two visual systems hypothesis suggests processing of visual information into two distinct routes in the brain: a dorsal stream for the control of actions and a ventral stream for the identification of objects. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that the dorsal and ventral streams are not strictly independent, but do interact with each other. In this paper, we argue that the interactions between dorsal and ventral streams are important for controlling complex object-oriented hand movements, especially skilled grasp. Anatomical studies have reported the existence of direct connections between dorsal and ventral stream areas. These physiological interconnections appear to be gradually more active as the precision demands of the grasp become higher. It is hypothesised that the dorsal stream needs to retrieve detailed information about object identity, stored in ventral stream areas, when the object properties require complex fine-tuning of the grasp. In turn, the ventral stream might receive up to date grasp-related information from dorsal stream areas to refine the object internal representation. Future research will provide direct evidence for which specific areas of the two streams interact, the timing of their interactions and in which behavioural context they occur. PMID:26169317

  3. [Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis simulating epidermal nevus].

    PubMed

    Gambichler, T; Küster, W; Wolter, M; Rapp, S; Altmeyer, P; Hoffmann, K

    2000-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis is a neuroectodermal systemic disease. A rare variant of this condition is bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis. A 29-year-old man presented with bilateral papillomatous plaques in the lumbar dermatomes. Clinically, the lesions were very similar to an epidermal nevus but histologic examination revealed superficial neurofibromas. Family history, ophthalmologic and neurologic investigations were unremarkable. The unusual morphologic presentation of bilateral segmental neurofibromas in this case points to the wide clinical spectrum of the disease and the significance of histologic examination in systematic nevoid lesions. PMID:11116852

  4. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage leading to adrenal crisis

    PubMed Central

    McGowan-Smyth, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old man presented with an acute worsening of chronic back pain. CT showed dense bilateral adrenal glands suggestive of adrenal haemorrhage which was confirmed by MRI. Despite appropriate glucocorticoid replacement for adrenal insufficiency, 7 days after admission this patient suffered an adrenal crisis. Owing to the timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment was given and the patient survived. Large bilateral adrenal haemorrhage however, can lead to cardiovascular collapse and death if not appropriately diagnosed and managed promptly. Despite its rarity, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage should always be considered as a differential for back pain in the setting of an acute illness due to its potentially fatal consequences. PMID:24969071

  5. Fibromuscular Dysplasia Presenting with Bilateral Renal Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Doody, O.; Adam, W. R.; Foley, P. T.; Lyon, S. M.

    2009-03-15

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report a rare case of bilateral segmental renal infarction secondary to FMD in a young male patient. His initial presentation with loin pain and pyrexia resulted in a delay in the definitive diagnosis of FMD. He was successfully treated with bilateral balloon angioplasty. The delayed diagnosis in this patient until the condition had progressed to bilateral renal infarcts highlights the need for prompt investigation and diagnosis of suspected cases of FMD.

  6. Localized neurofibromas in the bilateral orbits.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Localized neurofibromas are rare in the orbit and, unlike the more common plexiform neurofibromas, are not typically associated with von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. We present a rare case of localized neurofibromas in the bilateral orbits. PMID:24426488

  7. Bilateral persistent pupillary membranes associated with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Syed Shoeb; Binson, Caroline; Lung, Chong Ka; Ghani, Shuaibah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Summary Exuberant persistent pupillary membranes (PPM) are rare in adult eyes. We report the case of a 53-year-old man diagnosed with bilateral, profuse, persistent pupillary membranes and unilateral cataract. PMID:23362401

  8. Bilateral Coordination of Children who are Blind.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Izabela; Lieberman, Lauren J; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Molik, Bartosz; Kazimierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Marszałek, Jolanta; Gómez-Ruano, Miguel-Ángel

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilateral coordination in children and adolescents with visual impairments aged 7 to 18 years in comparison to their sighted peers. An additional objective was to identify the influence of sex and age on bilateral coordination. Seventy-five individuals with congenital severe visual impairment (40 girls and 35 boys) comprised the visually impaired group. The Sighted group comprised 139 youth without visual impairment. Subtest 4 of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was administered to test bilateral coordination. To analyze the effect of the independent variables in the results obtained in the Subtest 4, four linear regression models were applied according to group and sex. The results indicated that severe visual impairment and lack of visual sensation had a negative effect on the development of participants' bilateral coordination, which however did not depend on sex or age. PMID:27166337

  9. BILATERAL ANTERIOR GLENOHUMERAL DISLOCATION: CLINICAL CASE

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luís Pires; Sousa, Cristina Varino; Rodrigues, Elisa; Alpoim, Bruno; Leal, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation is a rare occurrence. We present a case of bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation caused by a fall. The interest in publishing this case is that this is a clinical rarity with few cases reported in the literature. An 89-year-old female patient was brought to the emergency department after a fall, complaining of intense pain in both shoulders and inability to move them. Objective examination showed clinical signs giving the suspicion of bilateral anterior glenohumeral dislocation, which was confirmed by x-ray imaging. Both dislocations were successfully reduced in the emergency department using the modified Milch technique. When a synchronous and symmetrical force has acted on both shoulders and these are painful with significant functional limitation, the suspicion of bilateral glenohumeral dislocation is a differential diagnosis to be considered, even though it is rare. PMID:27047826

  10. Bilateral total deafness due to pontine haematoma.

    PubMed Central

    Egan, C A; Davies, L; Halmagyi, G M

    1996-01-01

    A 64 year old woman with a predominantly midline pontine tegmental haemorrhage presented with bilateral total deafness. One week later reasonable pure-tone thresholds appeared but she still had total bilateral loss of speech discrimination. At that time contralateral acoustic reflexes were bilaterally absent, whereas ipsilateral acoustic reflexes and waves IV and V of the brainstem auditory evoked potential were bilaterally preserved. It is proposed that this patient's hearing deficit was due to inactivation of the ventral acoustic striae decussating in the trapezoid body. This case supports the contention that in humans the ventral pontine acoustic decussation carries most of the neural signals required for hearing and perhaps all the neural signals required for speech perception. Images PMID:8971114

  11. Bilateral obstruction of bilaterally duplicated collecting systems requiring upper and lower moiety drainage.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J O; Cox, A; Rawal, B; Shelmerdine, S; Vasdev, N; Patel, A

    2016-04-01

    A 60-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer presented with bilateral obstruction of bilaterally duplicated renal collecting systems secondary to extrinsic compression from metastatic pelvic lymphadenopathy. Bilateral JJ ureteric stents were inserted, resulting in some improvement of renal function but a failure to normalise completely. Repeat computed tomography demonstrated bilateral duplex collecting systems with persisting obstruction of the undrained moieties. Selective puncture was performed to decompress the obstructed renal moieties for bilateral nephrostomy catheter insertion. This allowed renal function to improve sufficiently for the patient to be discharged and commence chemotherapy. This is the first reported case of bilaterally obstructed partially duplicated collecting systems and it illustrates the importance of recognising anatomical variants to tailor treatment appropriately. It also highlights the important relationship between urology and interventional radiology in the management of such complex patients. PMID:26985816

  12. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Geetha; Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V

    2016-04-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  13. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V.

    2016-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  14. Bilateral multicystic kidneys--an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Lila; Millard, Marie-Louise; Fairhurst, Joanna; Gilbert, Rodney D

    2002-11-01

    Multicystic dysplasia of the kidneys is a condition whose prognosis is good as it usually presents unilaterally. Bilateral cases are usually fatal in utero. We report a case of bilateral multicystic dysplasia of the kidneys where the lower moiety of the right kidney was spared cystic change. The patient had normal renal function and, following conservative management, remains alive and well 6 months later. PMID:12432443

  15. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of the breasts-a rare indication for bilateral skin reducing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Laitano, Francisco Felipe; Neto, Francisco Laitano; Zerwes, Felipe Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast but giant juvenile fibroadenoma represent only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas and when bilateral are much more rare. We describe the case of a 25 years old girl that presented with bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas and was treated by bilateral skin reducing mastectomy using the inferior dermal flap, implant, and free nipple graft. PMID:27563567

  16. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of the breasts—a rare indication for bilateral skin reducing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Francisco Laitano; Zerwes, Felipe Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast but giant juvenile fibroadenoma represent only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas and when bilateral are much more rare. We describe the case of a 25 years old girl that presented with bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas and was treated by bilateral skin reducing mastectomy using the inferior dermal flap, implant, and free nipple graft. PMID:27563567

  17. Evaluating the Differential Roles of the Dorsal Dentate Gyrus, Dorsal CA3, and Dorsal CA1 During a Temporal Ordering for Spatial Locations Task

    PubMed Central

    Hunsaker, Michael R.; Kesner, Raymond P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the dorsal CA1 subregion of the hippocampus mediates temporal processing of information, that dorsal CA3 participates in the spatiotemporal processing of memory, and the dorsal dentate gyrus mediates spatial pattern separation. A temporal ordering of spatial locations task was developed to test the role of the dorsal dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 for the temporal processing of spatial information with either high or low levels of spatial interference. The results indicate that animals with dentate gyrus lesions showed difficulty performing the task at high levels of spatial interference, but were able to perform the task well when there was low spatial interference. Animals with lesions to CA3 did not show a preference for either spatial location presented during the study phase during the preference test, suggesting impaired spatiotemporal processing. Animals with lesions to CA1 showed a preference for a later presented spatial location over the earlier, the opposite preference to that shown by control animals. PMID:18493930

  18. Dorsal-Ventral Patterning and Neural Induction in Xenopus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    De Robertis, Edward M.; Kuroda, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    We review the current status of research in dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterning in vertebrates. Emphasis is placed on recent work on Xenopus, which provides a paradigm for vertebrate development based on a rich heritage of experimental embryology. D-V patterning starts much earlier than previously thought, under the influence of a dorsal nuclear β-Catenin signal. At mid-blastula two signaling centers are present on the dorsal side: The prospective neuroectoderm expresses bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists, and the future dorsal endoderm secretes Nodal-related mesoderm-inducing factors. When dorsal mesoderm is formed at gastrula, a cocktail of growth factor antagonists is secreted by the Spemann organizer and further patterns the embryo. A ventral gastrula signaling center opposes the actions of the dorsal organizer, and another set of secreted antagonists is produced ventrally under the control of BMP4. The early dorsal β-Catenin signal inhibits BMP expression at the transcriptional level and promotes expression of secreted BMP antagonists in the prospective central nervous system (CNS). In the absence of mesoderm, expression of Chordin and Noggin in ectoderm is required for anterior CNS formation. FGF (fibroblast growth factor) and IGF (insulin-like growth factor) signals are also potent neural inducers. Neural induction by anti-BMPs such as Chordin requires mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation mediated by FGF and IGF. These multiple signals can be integrated at the level of Smad1. Phosphorylation by BMP receptor stimulates Smad1 transcriptional activity, whereas phosphorylation by MAPK has the opposite effect. Neural tissue is formed only at very low levels of activity of BMP-transducing Smads, which require the combination of both low BMP levels and high MAPK signals. Many of the molecular players that regulate D-V patterning via regulation of BMP signaling have been conserved between Drosophila and the vertebrates. PMID:15473842

  19. A Case Report of Bilateral Mirror Clubfeet and Bilateral Hand Polydactyly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Mai P; Lawler, Ericka A; Morcuende, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with bilateral mirror clubfeet and bilateral hand polydactyly. The patient presented to our orthopaedic clinic with bilateral mirror clubfeet, each with eight toes, and bilateral hands with six fingers and a hypoplastic thumb. The pattern does not fit any described syndrome such as Martin or Laurin-Sandrow syndrome. Treatments by an orthopaedic pediatric surgeon and an orthopaedic pediatric hand surgeon are described. The patient achieved excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes at four year follow-up. PMID:25328478

  20. [Posttrial injections of corticosterone in dorsal hippocampus of the BALB/c mouse facilitate extinction of appetitive operant conditioning in the Skinner box].

    PubMed

    Micheau, J; Destrade, C; Soumireu-Mourat, B

    1982-06-28

    Corticosterone was injected bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus of BALB/c Mice immediately after the first extinction session of an operant conditioning in a Skinner box. Compared with the control animals the Mice that received 1 or 0.1 microgram corticosterone exhibited 24 hrs. later, faster extinction of this conditioning. With a 0.01 microgram dose of corticosterone in each hippocampus we obtained an accelerated extinction during the session. These data suggest that corticosterone modulates hippocampal mechanisms involved in memory processes. PMID:6812885

  1. Ecophysiology of dorsal versus ventral cuticle in flattened sawfly larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boevé, Jean-Luc; Angeli, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Platycampus larvae are highly cryptic leaf feeders characterised by a dorso-ventrally flattened body, the dorsal integument resembling a shield. Dorsal and ventral cuticles from Platycampus luridiventris were compared by histology and gel electrophoresis. By Azan-staining, a red and a blue layer were distinguished in the dorsal cuticle, while the ventral cuticle showed one, almost uniform blue layer, as in both cuticles of control species. The two cuticles from P. luridiventris had similar amounts and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of soluble proteins, but not insoluble proteins. One insoluble protein (MW ≈ 41 kDa) was visible as a large band in the ventral cuticle only. It is likely that this protein renders the cuticle elastic, and that the dorsal, red layer is the exocuticle, mainly composed of insoluble proteins. We discuss eco-physiological implications of the exocuticle in insects. Further, data from the literature indicate that the defence strategy in P. luridiventris larvae relies on being visually cryptic towards avian predators and tactically cryptic towards arthropod predators and parasitoids. Crypsis in both senses is favoured by the shield effect, itself based on an abnormally thick dorsal exocuticle. Although the larvae are external feeders, they may be considered as hidden from an ecological perspective.

  2. The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C.; Burgess, Harold A.

    2012-01-01

    During waking behavior animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. Following a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context. PMID:23100441

  3. Acquisition of the dorsal structures in chordate amphioxus

    PubMed Central

    Morov, Arseniy R.; Ukizintambara, Tharcisse; Sabirov, Rushan M.

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of dorsal structures, such as notochord and hollow nerve cord, is likely to have had a profound influence upon vertebrate evolution. Dorsal formation in chordate development thus has been intensively studied in vertebrates and ascidians. However, the present understanding does not explain how chordates acquired dorsal structures. Here we show that amphioxus retains a key clue to answer this question. In amphioxus embryos, maternal nodal mRNA distributes asymmetrically in accordance with the remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton in the fertilized egg, and subsequently lefty is first expressed in a patch of blastomeres across the equator where wnt8 is expressed circularly and which will become the margin of the blastopore. The lefty domain co-expresses zygotic nodal by the initial gastrula stage on the one side of the blastopore margin and induces the expression of goosecoid, not-like, chordin and brachyury1 genes in this region, as in the oral ectoderm of sea urchin embryos, which provides a basis for the formation of the dorsal structures. The striking similarity in the gene regulations and their respective expression domains when comparing dorsal formation in amphioxus and the determination of the oral ectoderm in sea urchin embryos suggests that chordates derived from an ambulacrarian-type blastula with dorsoventral inversion. PMID:27307516

  4. Dorsal and ventral language pathways in persistent developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that affects an individual's ability to fluently produce speech. While the disorder mainly manifests in situations that require language production, it is still unclear whether persistent developmental stuttering is indeed a language impairment, and if so, which language stream is implicated in people who stutter. In this study, we take a neuroanatomical approach to this question by examining the structural properties of the dorsal and ventral language pathways in adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. We use diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and individualized tract identification to extract white matter volumes and diffusion properties of these tracts in samples of adults who do and do not stutter. We further quantify diffusion properties at multiple points along the tract and examine group differences within these diffusivity profiles. Our results show differences in the dorsal, but not in the ventral, language-related tracts. Specifically, AWS show reduced volume of the left dorsal stream, as well as lower anisotropy in the right dorsal stream. These data provide neuroanatomical support for the view that stuttering involves an impairment in the bidirectional mapping between auditory and articulatory cortices supported by the dorsal pathways, not in lexical access and semantic aspects of language processing which are thought to rely more heavily on the left ventral pathways. PMID:27179916

  5. Dorsal Buttress Plate Fixation of Ulnar Carpometacarpal Joint Fracture Dislocations.

    PubMed

    Tan, En Si; Chao, Tay Shian

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method for open reduction and internal fixation of early and unstable ulnar (fourth and/or fifth) carpometacarpal joint (CMCJ) fracture subluxations or dislocations using a dorsal buttress plate. In ulnar CMCJ fracture dislocations, the metacarpal has a tendency to displace dorsally and proximally when there is an axial load. Using the dorsal buttress plate method of fixation, a plate is fixed proximally to the hamate, aligned parallel and dorsal to the metacarpal to act as a buttress, to resist this movement. To preserve the fourth and the fifth CMCJ mobility, the distal end of the plate is not fixed to the metacarpal base. We illustrate the use of this technique on 4 patients who had different patterns of injury at the ulnar CMCJ. All patients regained excellent range of motion and function. None of the patients had redisplacement or nonunion of fracture. The dorsal buttress plate is a viable option for fixation of early and unstable ulnar CMCJ fracture subluxations or dislocations. PMID:27077465

  6. Acquisition of the dorsal structures in chordate amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Morov, Arseniy R; Ukizintambara, Tharcisse; Sabirov, Rushan M; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-06-01

    Acquisition of dorsal structures, such as notochord and hollow nerve cord, is likely to have had a profound influence upon vertebrate evolution. Dorsal formation in chordate development thus has been intensively studied in vertebrates and ascidians. However, the present understanding does not explain how chordates acquired dorsal structures. Here we show that amphioxus retains a key clue to answer this question. In amphioxus embryos, maternal nodal mRNA distributes asymmetrically in accordance with the remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton in the fertilized egg, and subsequently lefty is first expressed in a patch of blastomeres across the equator where wnt8 is expressed circularly and which will become the margin of the blastopore. The lefty domain co-expresses zygotic nodal by the initial gastrula stage on the one side of the blastopore margin and induces the expression of goosecoid, not-like, chordin and brachyury1 genes in this region, as in the oral ectoderm of sea urchin embryos, which provides a basis for the formation of the dorsal structures. The striking similarity in the gene regulations and their respective expression domains when comparing dorsal formation in amphioxus and the determination of the oral ectoderm in sea urchin embryos suggests that chordates derived from an ambulacrarian-type blastula with dorsoventral inversion. PMID:27307516

  7. [Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Okubo, Tetsuyuki; Kawada, Masaya; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Yo; Kitashiro, Shuji; Okushiba, Shun-ichi

    2014-04-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP) occurred in a 16-year-old male. He presented with severe dyspnea. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pneumothorax. Computed tomography revealed bilateral apical bullas. Chest tubes were promptly inserted bilaterally. The patient underwent single-stage bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery( VATS). Bilateral bullectomy was performed sequentially. Saline poured in to test for air leakage did not escape to the opposite pleural cavity, suggesting no pleuro-pleural communication. Post-operative course was uneventful. A bilateral single-stage VATS by a conventional lateral approach with intra-operative patient repositioning is a safe, feasible and familiar technique for treatment of SBSP. PMID:24917168

  8. Beta-band activity in auditory pathways reflects speech localization and recognition in bilateral cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Senkowski, Daniel; Pomper, Ulrich; Fitzner, Inga; Engel, Andreas Karl; Kral, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    In normal-hearing listeners, localization of auditory speech involves stimulus processing in the postero-dorsal pathway of the auditory system. In quiet environments, bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users show high speech recognition performance, but localization of auditory speech is poor, especially when discriminating stimuli from the same hemifield. Whether this difficulty relates to the inability of the auditory system to translate binaural electrical cues into neural signals, or to a functional reorganization of auditory cortical pathways following long periods of binaural deprivation is unknown. In this electroencephalography study, we examined the processing of auditory syllables in postlingually deaf adults with bilateral CIs and in normal-hearing adults. Participants were instructed to either recognize ("recognition" task) or localize ("localization" task) the syllables. The analysis focused on event-related potentials and oscillatory brain responses. N1 amplitudes in CI users were larger in the localization compared with recognition task, suggesting an enhanced stimulus processing effort in the localization task. Linear beamforming of oscillatory activity in CI users revealed stronger suppression of beta-band activity after 200 ms in the postero-dorsal auditory pathway for the localization compared with the recognition task. In normal-hearing adults, effects for longer latency event-related potentials were found, but no effects were observed for N1 amplitudes or beta-band responses. Our study suggests that difficulties in speech localization in bilateral CI users are not reflected in a functional reorganization of cortical auditory pathways. New signal processing strategies of cochlear devices preserving unambiguous binaural cues may improve auditory localization performance in bilateral CI users. PMID:24123535

  9. Bilateral ACL Reconstructions with Hamstring Autografts.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Ranajit; Mahapatra, Amita Kumari; Priyadarshi, Ashok; Palo, Nishit; Biswal, Manas R

    2016-07-01

    Bilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are rare with incidence between 2 and 4%, and presently no definitive guidelines for proper management exist. Ideal treatment protocol remains controversial between a single-stage and two-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of single-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autografts in bilateral ACL injuries. A prospective study was undertaken including a total of 14 consecutive patients with bilateral ACL deficient knee who underwent single-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft with a mean follow-up duration of 28 months (24-38 months). Functional outcomes were evaluated by range of movements, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm and Tegner activity score, and stability tests. The mean age was 30 years (range 18-42 years). Average duration of rehabilitation was 8 weeks. Time to return to full-time work and full sports was 5.6 weeks and 6.2 months, respectively. Clinical examination demonstrated full range of motion; a total of 12 patients (86%) had a negative Lachman test and 13 patients (93%) had a negative pivot shift at the final follow-ups. The mean IKDC evaluation score was 89 points, the mean Tegner activity score was 7 points, and the mean Lysholm knee score was 91 points. A total of 12 patients (86%) returned to their preinjury level of activity and an overall greater than 90% satisfaction rate was achieved. Single-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction using hamstring autografts is clinically safe, effective, and cost-effective with better patient compliance and with comparable functional outcome as opposed to two-stage ACL reconstructions. PMID:26408992

  10. Functional-structural degeneration in dorsal and ventral attention systems for Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shaowen; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Li, Bo; Sun, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Growing evidence of attention related failures in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has already been proposed by previous studies. However, previous studies lacked of systematic investigation on the functional and structural substrates for attention function for patients with AD and aMCI. In this work, we investigated the functional connectivity and gray matter density in dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN, VAN) of normal participants (n = 15) and patients with aMCI (n = 12) and AD (n = 16) by applying group independent component analysis (ICA) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Using ICA, we extracted the functional patterns of DAN and VAN which are respectively responsible for the "top-down" attention process and "bottom-up" process. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant group-differed functional connectivity in bilateral frontal eye fields (FEF) area and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) area, as well as posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus in the dorsal system. With regard to the ventral system, group-effects were significantly focused in right orbital superior/middle frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus around the temporal-parietal junction area. Post hoc cluster-level comparisons revealed totally impaired functional substrates for both attentional networks for patients with AD, whereas selectively impaired attention systems for patients with aMCI with impaired functional patent of DAN but preserved functional pattern of VAN. Correspondingly, VBM analysis revealed gray matter loss in right ventral and dorsal frontal cortex was in the AD group, whereas preserved gray matter density was in aMCI, even a little extent of expansion of gray matter density in several participants. Using multivariate regression analysis we found discrepant couplings of functional-structural degenerations between both patient groups

  11. Dorsal Plating of Unstable Scaphoid Fractures and Nonunions.

    PubMed

    Bain, Gregory I; Turow, Arthur; Phadnis, Joideep

    2015-09-01

    Achieving stable fixation of displaced acute and chronic nonunited scaphoid fractures continues to be a challenge for the treating surgeon. The threaded compression screw has been the mainstay of treatment of these fractures for the last 3 decades; however, persistent nonunion after screw fixation has prompted development of new techniques. Recent results of volar buttress plating have been promising. We describe a novel technique of dorsal scaphoid plating. In contrast to volar plating, the dorsal plate is biomechanically more favorable as it utilizes the tension side of the scaphoid bone for dynamic compression. Dorsal scaphoid plating provides a more stable construct than the traditional Herbert screw and mitigates the need for vascular or corticocancellous bone grafting in most cases. PMID:26053203

  12. Dorsal and ventral stream sensitivity in normal development and hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Alison; Cory, Elizabeth; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver; Wattam-Bell, John; Guzzetta, Andrea; Cioni, Giovanni

    2002-05-01

    Form and motion coherence thresholds can provide comparable measures of global visual processing in the ventral and dorsal streams respectively. Normal development of thresholds was tested in 360 normally developing children aged 4-11 and in normal adults. The two tasks showed similar developmental trends, with some greater variability and a slight delay in motion coherence compared to form coherence performance, in reaching adult levels. To examine the proposal of dorsal stream vulnerability related to specific developmental disorders, we compared 24 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy with the normally developing group. Hemiplegic children performed significantly worse than controls on the motion coherence task for their age, but not on the form coherence task; however, within this group no specific brain area was significantly associated with poor motion compared to form coherence performance. These results suggest that extrastriate mechanisms mediating these thresholds normally develop in parallel, but that the dorsal stream has a greater, general vulnerability to early neurological impairment. PMID:11997698

  13. Rapid Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Brain Regions after Early Bilateral Enucleation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Functional sensory and motor areas in the developing mammalian neocortex are formed through a complex interaction of cortically intrinsic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and cortically extrinsic mechanisms such as those mediated by thalamic input from the senses. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are believed to be involved in cortical patterning and the establishment of areal boundaries in early development; however, the nature of the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic processes is not well understood. In a previous study, we used a perinatal bilateral enucleation mouse model to test some aspects of this interaction by reweighting sensory input to the developing cortex. Visual deprivation at birth resulted in a shift of intraneocortical connections (INCs) that aligned with ectopic ephrin A5 expression in the same location ten days later at postnatal day (P) 10. A prevailing question remained: Does visual deprivation first induce a change in gene expression, followed by a shift in INCs, or vice versa? In the present study, we address this question by investigating the neuroanatomy and patterns of gene expression in post-natal day (P) 1 and 4 mice following bilateral enucleation at birth. Our results demonstrate a rapid reduction in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) size and ephrin A5 gene expression 24-hours post-enucleation, with more profound effects apparent at P4. The reduced nuclear size and diminished gene expression mirrors subtle changes in ephrin A5 expression evident in P1 and P4 enucleated neocortex, 11 and 8 days prior to natural eye opening, respectively. Somatosensory and visual INCs were indistinguishable between P1 and P4 mice bilaterally enucleated at birth, indicating that perinatal bilateral enucleation initiates a rapid change in gene expression (within one day) followed by an alteration of sensory INCs later on (second postnatal week). With these results, we gain a deeper understanding of how gene expression and

  14. Dorsal eye selector pannier (pnr) suppresses the eye fate to define dorsal margin of the Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Oros, Sarah M.; Tare, Meghana; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Singh, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Axial patterning is crucial for organogenesis. During Drosophila eye development, dorso-ventral (DV) axis determination is the first lineage restriction event. The eye primordium begins with a default ventral fate, on which the dorsal eye fate is established by expression of the GATA-1 transcription factor pannier (pnr). Earlier, it was suggested that loss of pnr function induces enlargement in the dorsal eye due to ectopic equator formation. Interestingly, we found that in addition to regulating DV patterning, pnr suppresses the eye fate by downregulating the core retinal determination genes eyes absent (eya), sine oculis (so) and dacshund (dac) to define the dorsal eye margin. We found that pnr acts downstream of Ey and affect the retinal determination pathway by suppressing eya. Further analysis of the “eye suppression” function of pnr revealed that this function is likely mediated through suppression of the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh) and is independent of homothorax (hth), a negative regulator of eye. Pnr expression is restricted to the peripodial membrane on the dorsal eye margin, which gives rise to head structures around the eye, and pnr is not expressed in the eye disc proper that forms the retina. Thus, pnr has dual function, during early developmental stages pnr is involved in axial patterning whereas later it promotes the head specific fate. These studies will help in understanding the developmental regulation of boundary formation of the eye field on the dorsal eye margin. PMID:20691679

  15. Bilateral ovarian cystic teratomata mimicking bilateral pure ovarian hemangiomata: case report.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, I M; Aronson, B L; McCarthy, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral, benign cystic ovarian teratomata which were composed predominantly of cavernous hemangiomatous elements. The right-sided lesion, in particular, mimicked a pure ovarian hemangioma. The clinical presentation, bilaterality of the lesions, the sizes of the hemangiomata, and the subsequent hemangioma of the leg are all of interest in this very rare lesion. PMID:6511164

  16. Dorsal Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex: Clinical Features and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yukio; Moriya, Atsushi; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Koji

    2016-03-01

    Background Several different triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear patterns have been classified through the use of wrist arthroscopy. A tear of the dorsal aspect of the TFCC has been previously reported, but it is not included in Palmer original classification. Our purpose was to describe this type of tear pattern along with the clinical presentation. Methods An isolated dorsal TFCC tear was encountered in seven wrists of six patients (three men and three women; average age was 31 years). All patients were evaluated by physical exam, X-ray, plain axial computed tomography with pronation, neutral and supination position, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with coronal, sagittal, and axial section and arthroscopy. Results The clinical findings varied and included the following: tenderness at the dorsoulnar aspect of the wrist was positive in all wrists, fovea sign was positive in five wrists, and tenderness at the dorsal aspect of the distal radioulnar joint was present in one wrist. Pain with forearm rotation was positive in all wrists. The ulnar head ballottement test induced pain in all wrists, whereas dorsal instability of the ulnar head was present in one wrist with this test. The ulnocarpal stress test was positive in five wrists. Axial and sagittal images on MRI revealed the dorsal tear in five wrists. All wrists were treated with an arthroscopic capsular repair. The final functional outcome at an average follow-up of 16.1 months was four excellent and one good wrist according to the modified Mayo wrist score. Conclusions The aim of this article is to describe our experiences with tears involving the dorsal aspect of the TFCC, which may be misdiagnosed if the surgeon is not cognizant of this injury. Type of study/level of evidence Diagnostic/level IV. PMID:26855835

  17. Bilateral sensory deprivation of trigeminal afferent fibres on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M; Baad-Hansen, L; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in human limb muscles following modulation of sensory afferent inputs. The aim of this study was to determine whether bilateral local anaesthesia (LA) of the lingual nerve affects the excitability of the tongue motor cortex (MI) as measured by TMS. The effect on MEPs after bilateral LA of the lingual nerve was studied, while the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle served as a control in ten healthy participants. MEPs were measured on the right side of the tongue dorsum in four different conditions: (i) immediately prior to anaesthesia (baseline), (ii) during bilateral LA block of the lingual nerve, (iii) after anaesthesia had subjectively subsided (recovery) and (iv) 3 h after bilateral lingual block injection. MEPs were assessed using stimulus-response curves in steps of 10% of motor threshold (T). Eight stimuli were given at each stimulus level. The amplitudes of the tongue MEPs were significantly influenced by the stimulus intensity (P < 0·001) but not by condition (P = 0·186). However, post hoc tests showed that MEPS were statistically significantly higher during bilateral LA block condition compared with baseline at T + 40%, T + 50% and T + 60% (P < 0·028) and also compared with recovery at T + 60% (P = 0·010) as well as at 3 h after injection at T + 50% and T + 60% (P < 0·029). Bilateral LA block of the lingual nerve seems to be associated with a facilitation of the corticomotor pathways related to the tongue musculature. PMID:27265155

  18. Bilateral Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomies: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panuganti, Sravan; Kavoussi, Louis Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although laparoscopy is a recognized operative approach to the management of renal masses, there is currently no standardized approach to manage bilateral synchronous renal masses. We present a case of synchronous bilateral renal masses, identified during work-up for flank pain, and managed simultaneously with laparoscopic partial nephrectomies. The patient is a 42-year-old Caucasian male found to have bilateral renal masses during evaluation for left flank pain. Cross-sectional imaging studies showed a 7.0 × 7.3 × 5.2 cm anterior, mid-to-lower pole mass on the left kidney and a 1.5 × 1.9 × 1.6 cm medial lower pole mass on the right kidney. He underwent bilateral laparoscopic partial nephrectomy at the same setting, with an uncomplicated postoperative course. Pathology report revealed clear cell renal-cell carcinoma (ccRCC) on both sides. He had normal renal function and no evidence of recurrence in the first 6 months of follow-up. This case demonstrates the possibility and safety of performing bilateral laparoscopic partial nephrectomies in one operative session. Our review of the literature supports the role of genetic counseling and the need for long-term surveillance in young patients having RCC.

  19. Macro and micro structures in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex contribute to individual differences in self-monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junyi; Tian, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Kangcheng; Chen, Qunlin; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Individual differences in self-monitoring, which are the capability to adjust behavior to adapt to social situations, influence a wide range of social behaviors. However, understanding of focal differences in brain structures related to individual self-monitoring is minimal, particularly when micro and macro structures are considered simultaneously. The present study investigates the relationship between self-monitoring and brain structure in a relatively large sample of young adults. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and gray matter volume in the dorsal cingulate anterior cortex (dACC), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and bilateral ventral striatum (VS). Further analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between self-monitoring and white matter (WM) integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in the anterior cingulum (ACG) bundle. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and mean radius diffusion (RD). These results shed light on the structural neural basis of variation in self-monitoring. PMID:25958159

  20. Meso-diencephalic regions projecting to spinal cord and dorsal column nuclear complex in the hedgehog-tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of neurons projecting to the spinal cord and dorsal column nuclear complex was investigated in the mesodiencephalic regions of the lesser hedgehog-tenrec, Echinops telfairi (Insectivora) by using the retrograde flow technique. While only few neurons projected to the dorsal column nuclear complex, numerous cells were found to give rise to spinal projections. Rubro-spinal neurons of various sizes were distributed over the entire rostrocaudal extent of the contra-lateral nucleus; a few neurons were also located ipsilaterally, Unlike that of the opossum, the projection appeared to be somatotopically organised. Interstitio-spinal neurons were differentiated into several subpopulations according to their location and laterality of projection. In the ipsilateral periventricular grey, in addition, there was a distinct population of cells possibly corresponding to the nucleus of Darkschewitsch. The mesencephalic central grey contained relatively few labeled neurons, the great majority of them being mesencephalic trigeminal, ectopic cuneiform or midline cells. Labeled cuneiform and midline cells, on the other hand, were quite numerous, extending both from a level just caudal to the trochlear nucleus to levels far beyond the rostral tip of the somatic oculomotor nucleus. The discrepancy between the poorly differentiated oculomotor nuclei and the apparently well-developed Edinger-Westphal complex is discussed. Hypothalamo-spinal neurons were essentially restricted to dorsal regions: the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PAV), the dorso-medial (DmHy) and dorso-intermediate cell groups as well as the lateral hypothalamic zone. The latter two cell groups were bilaterally labeled, while the labeled neurons in DmHy and PAV were located predominantly ipsilaterally. Labeled neurons in the amygdala, colliculus superior and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were only found following cervical injections; all other mentioned areas and the posterior commissure complex

  1. Selective Functional Disconnection of the Dorsal Subregion of the Temporal Pole in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lixue; Qin, Wen; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Zhu, Jiajia; Liu, Huaigui; Liu, Xingyun; Xu, Yongjie; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Although extensive resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes have been reported in schizophrenia, rsFC changes in the temporal pole (TP) remain unknown. The TP contains several subregions with different connection patterns; however, it is not known whether TP subregions are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Sixty-six schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy comparison subjects underwent resting-state fMRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in (SENSE-SPIRAL) imaging sequence to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The TP was subdivided into the dorsal (TPd) and ventral (TPv) subregions. Mean fMRI time series were extracted for each TP subregion and entered into a seed-based rsFC analysis. Direct between-group comparisons revealed reduced rsFC between the right TPd and brain regions involved in language processing and multisensory integration in schizophrenia, including the left superior temporal gyrus, left mid-cingulate cortex, and right insular cortex. The rsFC changes of the right TPd in schizophrenia were independent of the grey matter reduction of this subregion. Moreover, these rsFC changes were unrelated to illness severity, duration of illness and antipsychotic medication dosage. No significant group differences were observed in the rsFC of the left TPd and bilateral TPv subregions. These findings suggest a selective (the right TPd) functional disconnection of TP subregions in schizophrenia. PMID:26058049

  2. Dorsal striatal dopamine depletion impairs both allocentric and egocentric navigation in rats.

    PubMed

    Braun, Amanda A; Graham, Devon L; Schaefer, Tori L; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2012-05-01

    Successful navigation requires interactions among multiple but overlapping neural pathways mediating distinct capabilities, including egocentric (self-oriented, route-based) and allocentric (spatial, map-based) learning. Route-based navigation has been shown to be impaired following acute exposure to the dopaminergic (DA) drugs (+)-methamphetamine and (+)-amphetamine, but not the serotoninergic (5-HT) drugs (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or (±)-fenfluramine. The dopaminergic-rich neostriatum is involved in both allocentric and egocentric navigation. This experiment tested whether dorsal striatal DA loss using bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injections impaired one or both types of navigation. Two weeks following 6-OHDA injections, rats began testing in the Cincinnati water maze (CWM) followed by the Morris water maze (MWM) for route-based and spatial navigation, respectively. 6-OHDA treatment significantly increased latency and errors in the CWM and path length, latency, and cumulative distance in the MWM with no difference on cued MWM trials. Neostriatal DA levels were reduced by 80% at 2 and 7 weeks post-treatment. In addition, 6-OHDA increased DA turnover and decreased norepinephrine (NE) levels. 6-OHDA injections did not alter monoamine levels in the prefrontal cortex. The data support that neostriatal DA modulates both types of navigation. PMID:22465436

  3. Development of Tool Representations in the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Object Processing Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kersey, Alyssa J; Clark, Tyia S; Lussier, Courtney A; Mahon, Bradford Z; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2016-07-01

    Tools represent a special class of objects, because they are processed across both the dorsal and ventral visual object processing pathways. Three core regions are known to be involved in tool processing: the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, the medial fusiform gyrus (bilaterally), and the left inferior parietal lobule. A critical and relatively unexplored issue concerns whether, in development, tool preferences emerge at the same time and to a similar degree across all regions of the tool-processing network. To test this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the neural amplitude, peak location, and the dispersion of tool-related neural responses in the youngest sample of children tested to date in this domain (ages 4-8 years). We show that children recruit overlapping regions of the adult tool-processing network and also exhibit similar patterns of co-activation across the network to adults. The amplitude and co-activation data show that the core components of the tool-processing network are established by age 4. Our findings on the distributions of peak location and dispersion of activation indicate that the tool network undergoes refinement between ages 4 and 8 years. PMID:26108614

  4. Bilateral self-inflicted infectious dacryoadenitis.

    PubMed

    Latasiewicz, Marta; Chang-Sotomayor, Meilin; Alonso-Caldarelli, Claudia; Farias-Plazas, Fabian; Leszczynska, Anna; Gonzalez-Candial, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this report is to present a case of a patient with bilateral lacrimal gland abscesses in the course of dacryoadenitis. A 45-year-old female patient with a long history of cocaine abuse presented with bilateral bacterial dacryoadenitis and upper lid inflammation with purulent discharge from a palpebral wound of the right upper lid. The diagnosis was confirmed with microbiology culture and an orbital CT scan, which revealed lacrimal gland abscesses. The patient admitted to vigorous eye scratching, which we believe was the mechanism responsible for the process. The infection resolved on targeted antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of bilateral infectious dacryoadenitis produced in a self-inflicted mechanism in a cocaine addict. PMID:25208047

  5. Postpartum Bilateral Sacroiliitis caused by Brucella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Ferdi; Altun, Demet; Ulubay, Mustafa; Firatligil, Fahri Burçin

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of this septic sacroiliitis is difficult because symptoms are nonspecific during the postpartum period. In this case we dicscuss about a patient with bilateral buttock pain unresolved with painkillers and rest, after an induction delivery. A 31-year-old woman was presented to our clinic on the second week of postpartum period with bilateral buttock pain. She was subfebrile and had no apparent abnormality on her pelvic X-ray. The pain was so severe that she was unable to walk properly. Sacroiliac MRI during the acute episode of pain showed bone marrow oedema and fluid within the bilateral sacroiliac joint. She was found seropositive for brucellosis and the patient completely recovered with antibiotherapy treatment. We stopped our patient from breastfeeding when the Rose Bengal test turned out positive. Brucella sacroiliitis should be considered in puerperium period women when buttock pain and difficulty in walking are present and pain is unresponsive to analgesics. PMID:26675497

  6. An in vitro assay system for studying synapse formation between nociceptive dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn neurons

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Donald J.; Choudhury, Papiya; MacDermott, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Synapses between nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and spinal cord dorsal horn neurons represent the first loci for transmission of painful stimuli. Our knowledge of the molecular organization and development of these synapses is sparse due, partly, to a lack of a reliable model system that reconstitutes synaptogenesis between these two neuronal populations. To address this issue, we have established an in vitro assay system consisting of separately purified DRG neurons and dorsal horn neurons on astrocyte micro-islands. Using immunocytochemistry, we have found that 97%, 93%, 98%, 96%, and 94% of DRG neurons on these microislands express markers often associated with nociceptive neurons including Substance P, TRPV1, calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), TrKA, and peripherin, respectively. Triple labeling with these nociceptive-like markers, synaptic vesicle marker Vglut2 and using MAP2 as a dendritic marker revealed the presence of nociceptive-like markers at synaptic terminals. Using this immunocytochemical approach, we counted contact points as overlapping MAP2/Vglut2 puncta and showed that they increased with time in culture. Single and dual patch clamp recordings showed that overlapping Vglut2/MAP2 puncta observed after a few days in culture are likely to be functional synapses between DRG and dorsal horn neurons in our in vitro assay system. Taken together, these data suggest our co-culture microisland model system consists of mostly nociceptive-like DRG neurons that express presynaptic markers and form functional synapses with their dorsal horn partners. Thus, this model system may have direct application for studies on factors regulating development of nociceptive DRG/dorsal horn synapses. PMID:20385165

  7. Bilateral Meckel's cave amyloidoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gültaşli, N; van den Hauwe, L; Bruneau, M; D'Haene, N; Delpierre, I; Balériaux, D

    2012-05-01

    Primary solitary amyloidoma of Meckel's cave is rare, and a bilateral location is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 12 cases in the literature have described such a primary lesion, including one case of bilateral involvement of Meckel's cave. We report here on the case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with pseudotumor masses involving both Meckel's caves and responsible for trigeminal neuropathy. The final diagnosis of amyloidoma was made on the basis of histological examination of surgical biopsy specimens. PMID:21641646

  8. [Bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris syndrome].

    PubMed

    Portmann, A; Gueudry, J; Siahmed, K; Muraine, M

    2011-05-01

    Bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris syndrome (BADI syndrome) is a new clinical entity. Young females from 20 to 45 years of age are most commonly affected. It is characterized by bilateral nontransilluminating depigmentation of the iris stroma. During the acute phase, this clinical entity also combines with red painful eye, pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork, anterior chamber flare, circulating pigment, and pigmented deposit on the endothelium cornea. At the acute stage, the symptoms are controlled with topical corticosteroid treatment. The prognosis is good. We report a 41-year-old woman presenting with BADI syndrome. PMID:21531477

  9. Bilateral Atrial Myxoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Susupaus, Attapoom; Foofuengmonkolkit, Kumpoo

    2016-02-01

    Among the rare cardiac tumors, myxoma, which is mostly located in the left atrium, is the most common type. Bilateral atrial myxoma is extremely rare, and requires urgent surgery. The authors report the case of a 34-year-old male, who presented with one month of right hemiparesis and aphasia and subsequently diagnosed with bilateral atrial myxoma based on transthoracic echocardiography. An urgent operation for intra-cardiac tumor removal was performed with the biatrial approach. Once a diagnosis of myxoma has been made, an urgent operation for tumor removal is necessary due to the risk of serious complications, including sudden death from normal blood flow obstruction. PMID:27266240

  10. A case of bilateral ophthalmoplegia while diving.

    PubMed

    Lee, Blair C; Young, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents a military diver who became dysphoric and lost consciousness during a routine surface-supplied dive. The patient regained consciousness spontaneously, but the physical exam was notable for bilateral ophthalmoplegia. Full eye movement was regained during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy, and the patient subsequently made a full recovery. Equipment and dive profile analysis led to the conclusion of hypercapnia and arterial gas embolism as the probable causes of the diver's symptoms. This is a unique case of isolated bilateral ophthalmoplegia presenting in a diving injury. PMID:26403021

  11. Neuromuscular diversity in archosaur deep dorsal thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Gatesy, S M

    1994-01-01

    The living members of the clade Archosauria, crocodilians and birds, differ markedly in the morphology of their deep dorsal thigh muscles. To investigate whether this diversity is accompanied by differences in motor pattern and muscle function, the hindlimbs of representative archosaurs were studied by electromyography and cineradiography during terrestrial locomotion. In a crocodilian, Alligator, the iliofemoralis and pubo-ischio-femoralis internus part 2 are both active during the swing phase of the stride cycle. This appears to be the primitive motor pattern for archosaurs. There are four avian homologues of these muscles in the helmeted guineafowl, Numida. These are primarily active in the propulsive phase (iliotrochantericus caudalis and iliotrochantericus medius), the swing phase (iliotrochantericus cranialis) and a speed-dependent combination of the propulsive and/or swing phases (iliofemoralis externus). Differences between Alligator and Numida in the number and attachment of deep dorsal muscles are associated with dissimilar motor patterns and functions. Evolutionary modifications of neuromuscular control must be recognized when evaluating avian locomotor history, but are rarely considered by paleontologists. Even within the deep dorsal thigh muscles of Numida, developmentally and anatomically similar muscles are active out-of-phase. Therefore, although the actions of two adjacent muscles appear equivalent, their functions may differ dramatically. The diversity of deep dorsal thigh muscles in modern birds may be a good model for studying the relationship between activity pattern and peripheral morphology. PMID:8306187

  12. Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain.

    PubMed

    Halilagic, Aida; Ribes, Vanessa; Ghyselinck, Norbert B; Zile, Maija H; Dollé, Pascal; Studer, Michèle

    2007-03-01

    We have previously shown that retinoic acid (RA) synthesized by the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) is required in forebrain development. Deficiency in RA due to inactivation of the mouse Raldh2 gene or to complete absence of retinoids in vitamin-A-deficient (VAD) quails, leads to abnormal morphogenesis of various forebrain derivatives. In this study we show that double Raldh2/Raldh3 mouse mutants have a more severe phenotype in the craniofacial region than single null mutants. In particular, the nasal processes are truncated and the eye abnormalities are exacerbated. It has been previously shown that retinoids act mainly on cell proliferation and survival in the ventral forebrain by regulating SHH and FGF8 signaling. Using the VAD quail model, which survives longer than the Raldh-deficient mouse embryos, we found that retinoids act in maintaining the correct position of anterior and dorsal boundaries in the forebrain by modulating FGF8 anteriorly and WNT signaling dorsally. Furthermore, BMP4 and FGF8 signaling are affected in the nasal region and BMP4 is ventrally expanded in the optic vesicle. At the optic cup stage, Pax6, Tbx5 and Bmp4 are ectopically expressed in the presumptive retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), while Otx2 and Mitf are not induced, leading to a dorsal transdifferentiation of RPE to neural retina. Therefore, besides being required for survival of ventral structures, retinoids are involved in restricting anterior identity in the telencephalon and dorsal identity in the diencephalon and the retina. PMID:17184764

  13. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. PMID:23097247

  14. Role of the Dorsal Hippocampus in Object Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Sara; Russo, Fabio; Torromino, Giulia; Pendolino, Valentina; Calabresi, Paolo; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal hippocampus is crucial for mammalian spatial memory, but its exact role in item memory is still hotly debated. Recent evidence in humans suggested that the hippocampus might be selectively involved in item short-term memory to deal with an increasing memory load. In this study, we sought to test this hypothesis. To this aim we developed…

  15. Enkephalin surges in dorsal neostriatum as a signal to eat.

    PubMed

    DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G; Mabrouk, Omar S; Kennedy, Robert T; Berridge, Kent C

    2012-10-23

    Compulsive overconsumption of reward characterizes disorders ranging from binge eating to drug addiction. Here, we provide evidence that enkephalin surges in an anteromedial quadrant of dorsal neostriatum contribute to generating intense consumption of palatable food. In ventral striatum, mu opioid circuitry contributes an important component of motivation to consume reward. In dorsal neostriatum, mu opioid receptors are concentrated within striosomes that receive inputs from limbic regions of prefrontal cortex. We employed advanced opioid microdialysis techniques that allow detection of extracellular enkephalin levels. Endogenous >150% enkephalin surges in anterior dorsomedial neostriatum were triggered as rats began to consume palatable chocolates. In contrast, dynorphin levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, a causal role for mu opioid stimulation in overconsumption was demonstrated by observations that microinjection in the same anterior dorsomedial quadrant of a mu receptor agonist ([D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin; DAMGO) generated intense >250% increases in intake of palatable sweet food (without altering hedonic impact of sweet tastes). Mapping by "Fos plume" methods confirmed the hyperphagic effect to be anatomically localized to the anteromedial quadrant of the dorsal neostriatum, whereas other quadrants were relatively ineffective. These findings reveal that opioid signals in anteromedial dorsal neostriatum are able to code and cause motivation to consume sensory reward. PMID:23000149

  16. Dorsal finger joint soft tissue loss: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Bervar, M

    2003-01-01

    This article brings our experience, standpoints and management guidelines for early reconstruction of traumatic soft tissue loss on the dorsal aspect of the finger joints, with the aim of preserving acceptable late functional ability of the hand. Two interesting and unusual cases of reconstruction are presented. PMID:14989334

  17. Unusual Presentation of Recurrent Pyogenic Bilateral Psoas Abscess Causing Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism by Iliac Vein Compression

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Mohsin; Sakam, Sailaja; Ashraf, Umair; Marquez, Jose Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Bilateral psoas abscess • acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis • bilateral pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Progressive left leg swelling • productive cough with whitish sputum • right flank pain Medication: Antibiotics and anticoagulation Clinical Procedure: CT-guided percutaneous drain placement Specialty: Internal Medicine/Critical Care Objective: Unusual presentation Background: Psoas abscesses are a known cause of back pain, but they have not been reported as a cause of acute lower extremity thromboses and bilateral pulmonary emboli. We report a patient with bilateral psoas abscesses causing extensive pulmonary emboli through compression of the iliac vein. Case Report: A 47-year-old man presented with bilateral leg swelling over 4 weeks. Physical examination revealed a thin male with bilateral leg swelling, extending to the thigh on his left side. He had hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl, leukocytosis of 16 000/ml, and an elevated D-dimer. A computed tomography (CT) angiogram of his chest showed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli and infarcts. He remained febrile with vague flank pain, prompting a CT of his abdomen and pelvis that showed large, multiloculated, septated, bilateral psoas abscesses with compression of the left femoral vein by the left psoas abscess and a thrombus distal to the occlusion. Two liters of pus was drained from the left psoas abscess by CT-guidance, and although the Gram staining showed Gram-positive cocci in clusters, cultures from the abscess and blood were negative. A repeat CT showed resolution of the abscesses, and the drain was removed. He was discharged to a nursing home to complete a course of intravenous antibiotics and anticoagulation. Conclusions: Although the infectious complications of psoas abscesses have been described in the literature, the mechanical complications of bilateral psoas abscesses are lacking. It is important to assess for complete resolution of psoas abscesses through

  18. Dorsal dislocation of the trapezoid at the scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal joint.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Malliaris, Stephanie; Weiland, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    Background Axial dislocations of the trapezoid are rare, high-energy injuries. We present an unusual case of isolated dorsal dislocation of the trapezoid and index metacarpal at the scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal (STT) joint due to steering wheel injury. Case Description A 56-year-old man presented to our office with right hand pain for 10 days after a head-on motor vehicle accident (MVA) in which he suffered an axial load injury to his hand on the steering wheel. X-ray images were reported as unremarkable. Further workup with computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an isolated dorsal dislocation of the trapezoid with its associated index metacarpal at the STT joint. The patient was treated with open reduction, pinning, and dorsal capsulodesis. Literature Review Dorsal dislocation of the trapezoid has been associated with high-energy trauma such as industrial accidents or motorcycle accidents; however, recent case reports have also revealed an axial loading mechanism from a steering wheel injury as an increasingly common mechanism. These cases typically occur concomitantly with other fractures or dislocations of the carpal bones or carpometacarpal (CMC) joints. Multiple reports of delayed diagnoses due to distracting injuries and difficulty of recognition on plain radiographs have been reported. Clinical Relevance Dorsal dislocation of the trapezoid with its associated second metacarpal is a rare, high-energy injury that can often be missed on plain radiography. We report a rare variant with no concomitant injury to the metacarpals or carpal bones. A low index of suspicion for further imaging should exist in the setting of an axial loading injury to the hand. PMID:25945300

  19. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    PubMed

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia. PMID:17650728

  20. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, Kunal N.; Dabhade, Swapnil D.

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires $O(S)$ operations per pixel, where $S$ is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to $O(1)$ per pixel for any arbitrary $S$. The algorithm has a simple implementation involving $N+1$ spatial filterings, where $N$ is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to to estimate the order $N$ required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy.

  1. Computed tomographic findings in bilateral adrenal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, G.E.; Baert, A.L.; Kint, E.J.; Pringot, J.H.; Goddeeris, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) features of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis are reported in two cases that demonstrate two typical different clinical and morphological manifestations of the disease. The incidence and CT appearance of adrenal tuberculosis are discussed, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

  2. [Bilateral bronchial rupture: problems of respiratory management].

    PubMed

    Sztark, F; Thicoïpé, M; Favarel-Garrigues, J F; Velly, J F; Lassié, P

    1995-01-01

    The authors report the case of bilateral bronchial rupture in a 39-year-old multiple trauma patient. During the thoracotomy for right main bronchus repair, a partial left bronchial rupture was recognized because of severe hypoxaemia after left selective intubation. PMID:7486281

  3. A Bilateral Traumatic Hip Obturator Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Karci, Tolga; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    A case of a bilateral simultaneous traumatic obturator dislocation of both hip joints in an 18-year-old young man following a traffic accident is presented. We reduced the dislocated femoral heads immediately under general anesthesia followed by passive and active exercises and early full-weight bearing mobilization. After 5 years, the result was excellent. PMID:26977327

  4. Bilateral spontaneous hyphema in juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, P; Shetty, Shashikant; Jethani, Jitendra; Devi, T B Uma

    2006-03-01

    This report describes a rare occurrence of bilateral, spontaneous, nontraumatic hyphema in a 6 weeks old infant, associated with a small, multiple skin lesions. The diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma was confirmed by histopathological examination of the cutaneous lesions. The hyphaema cleared gradually in 2 weeks time with conservative management. PMID:16531672

  5. Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis diagnosed during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Maldonado Cid, P; Sendagorta Cudós, E; Noguera Morel, L; Beato Merino, M J

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare subtype of neurofibromatosis type 1 defined by lesions affecting a single segment of the body and crossing the midline, with no systemic involvement. We present a case diagnosed during pregnancy because of the characteristic increase in size of the lesions during this period. PMID:21635828

  6. Cystic fibrosis presenting with bilateral facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anna P; Kumar, Prashant; Devlin, Anita M; O'Brien, Christopher J

    2007-07-01

    A 15-week old male infant presented with bilateral lower motor neuron facial palsy of unknown cause. Subsequently his growth deteriorated and he developed progressively worsening cough and wheeze. A diagnosis of cystic fibrosis was confirmed and hypovitaminosis A detected. Improvement of the facial palsy was noted following standard management of cystic fibrosis including vitamin A supplementation. PMID:17287135

  7. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Dabhade, Swapnil D

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires O(S) operations per pixel, where S is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to O(1) per pixel for any arbitrary S . The algorithm has a simple implementation involving N+1 spatial filterings, where N is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to estimate the order N required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy. PMID:27093722

  8. Bilateral giant cyst of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A; Ferrante, J; Schmidt, R; Eisenbeis, C H

    1987-01-01

    The case of a 61 year old white female with a rapidly progressive rheumatoid arthritis who developed bilateral giant cyst of the shoulder is described here. Arthrographic investigation indicated that these giant cysts were true synovial cysts rather than "pseudocysts". PMID:3427842

  9. Bilateral Mandibular Supernumerary Canines: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Abouei Mehrizi, Ehsan; Semyari, Hassan; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are defined as the teeth developed in excess of the number found in a normal dentition. Supernumerary canine is an extremely rare finding particularly in the mandible. This case report presents a 25-year-old female patient with the unique feature of bilateral mandibular supplemental supernumerary canines. The patient was non-syndromic without any other supernumerary teeth. PMID:23346342

  10. Bilateral Horner's syndrome in cluster type headaches.

    PubMed

    Khurana, R K

    1993-09-01

    A patient with cluster type headaches demonstrated bilateral and alternating ocular sympathetic dysfunction during a spontaneous as well as a nitroglycerin-induced attack. Biochemical evaluation revealed postganglionic pupillary dysfunction on the symptomatic side and preganglionic pupillary dysfunction contralaterally. These findings defy a simple explanation regarding a central or peripheral origin of the oculocephalic sympathetic dysfunction. PMID:8262788

  11. Syphilitic aortitis causing bilateral coronary ostial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hosoba, Soh; Suzuki, Tomoaki; Koizumi, Yusuke; Asai, Tohru

    2011-02-01

    Coronary ostial stenosis in otherwise normal coronary vessels is a rare complication of syphilitic aortitis. A 47-year-old man with no coronary risk factors developed severe isolated ostial stenosis in the left main coronary artery and right coronary artery. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting using the bilateral internal thoracic arteries and gastroepiploic artery and recovered uneventfully. PMID:21345777

  12. A case of bilateral temporal lobe agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lang, C; Lehrl, S; Huk, W

    1981-01-01

    A 76-year-old man with bilateral temporal lobe agenesis producing clinical features resembling the Robinson syndrome is described. The malformation was discovered during a routine CT examination after the appearance of a homonymous visual field defect. The patient was examined by (neuro) psychological testing. The findings are compared with other reported cases and discussed with regard to cerebral localisation. Images PMID:7288451

  13. 17β-Estradiol infusions into the dorsal striatum rapidly increase dorsal striatal dopamine release in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shams, Waqqas M; Sanio, Christian; Quinlan, Matthew G; Brake, Wayne G

    2016-08-25

    Systemic injections of 17β-estradiol (E2) in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats rapidly enhance dorsal striatal dopamine (DA) release in response to amphetamine (AMPH). Additionally, a single injection of E2 rapidly (within 30min) enhances amphetamine-induced DA release. In situ studies show that this rapid effect of E2 occurs specifically within the dorsal striatum (DS). The present study investigated the in vivo effects of E2 infused into the DS, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or the substantia nigra (SN) on dorsal striatal DA release. Rats were OVX and implanted with a silastic tube containing 5% E2 in cholesterol, previously shown to mimic low physiological serum concentrations of 18-32pg/ml. Single-probe microdialysis was used to measure extracellular DA levels in the DS. In addition, DA release was measured subsequent to systemic injections of the indirect DA agonist, AMPH (0.5mg/kg SC), administered simultaneously with E2 (0.544μg/100μl) or its vehicle, cyclodextrin (VEH) (0.520μg/100μl). Local infusions of E2 into the DS resulted in a greater amphetamine-induced dorsal striatal DA release in comparison to vehicle. Local infusions of E2 into the mPFC or the SN did not result in an enhancement of amphetamine-induced DA levels in the DS. These studies suggest that increases in dorsal striatal DA release in response to systemic E2 are a consequence of E2 actions within the DS itself. PMID:27256507

  14. Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of preoperatively diagnosed bilateral obturator and incidental bilateral femoral herniae.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Usman; Connelly, Tara M; Hamid, Mustafa; Pretorius, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Obturator hernia (OH), a rare type of hernia, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often delayed as clinical symptoms are typically non-specific. OH is frequently associated with other occult inguinopelvic herniae. Early diagnosis is vital to decrease morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented to the surgical outpatients' department with non-specific bilateral groin pain radiating to the thighs. CT of the pelvis demonstrated bilateral OH with no radiological evidence of bowel obstruction. Semiurgent elective laparoscopic total extraperitoneal mesh repair was performed. Intraoperative findings confirmed bilateral obturator herniae as well as incidental bilateral femoral herniae. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for such concomitant hernias that, in the presence of OH, may only be identified intraoperatively. PMID:27113790

  15. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Steven K; Archdeacon, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. PMID:27298944

  16. Bilateral Chest X-Ray Shadowing and Bilateral leg lesions - A case of Pulmonary Kaposi Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, M

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 30 year old gentleman seen on the respiratory ward with no significant past medical history presenting with a three week history of worsening dyspnoea, productive cough, fever, bilateral leg swelling and bilateral leg swelling. Initial differential diagnosis included community-acquired pneumonia, cellulitis and deep vein thrombosis. After much investigation a diagnosis of AIDS-related kaposi's sarcoma with visceral manifestations was made. PMID:27239297

  17. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study

    PubMed Central

    ten Berg, Paul W. L.; Dobbe, Johannes G. G.; Strackee, Simon D.; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD) of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6); 0.4 (1.2); 0.2 (0.6) mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9); −1.5 (3.3); 1.0 (3.7)°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available. PMID:26413532

  18. Predicting Early Reading Skills from Pre-Reading Measures of Dorsal Stream Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the…

  19. A review of bilateral training for upper extremity hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Upper extremity hemiparesis is the most common post-stroke disability. Longitudinal studies have indicated that 30-66% of stroke survivors do not have full arm function 6 months post-stroke. The current gold standard for treatment of mild post-stroke upper limb impairment is constraint-induced therapy but, because of the inclusion criteria, alternative treatments are needed which target more impaired subjects. Bilateral arm training has been investigated as a potential rehabilitation intervention. Bilateral arm training encompasses a number of methods including: (1) bilateral isokinematic training; (2) mirror therapy using bilateral training; (3) device-driven bilateral training; and (4) bilateral motor priming. Neural mechanisms mediating bilateral training are first reviewed. The key bilateral training studies that have demonstrated evidence of efficacy will then be discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning clinical implications based on the reviewed literature. PMID:19517519

  20. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  1. An Approach to Bilateral Control System for Improvement of Operationality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Many types of bilateral control architectures to transmit force sensation have been proposed. Some control methods obtain good performance. Operationality is not satisfactory, however, when these methods are implemented in bilateral systems with large inertia and friction force. In this paper, a novel bilateral control method is proposed to improve operationality of bilateral systems with large inertia and friction force. The proposed method is compared with a conventional method, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by coordinate transformation and experiments.

  2. Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Root Stimulation on the Generation of Locomotor-Like Activity in the Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Pujala, Avinash; Blivis, Dvir; O'Donovan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether dorsal (DR) and ventral root (VR) stimulus trains engage common postsynaptic components to activate the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion in the neonatal mouse spinal cord. VR stimulation did not activate the first order interneurons mediating the activation of the locomotor CPG by sacrocaudal afferent stimulation. Simultaneous stimulation of adjacent dorsal or ventral root pairs, subthreshold for evoking locomotor-like activity, did not summate to activate the CPG. This suggests that locomotor-like activity is triggered when a critical class of efferent or afferent axons is stimulated and does not depend on the number of stimulated axons or activated postsynaptic neurons. DR- and VR-evoked episodes exhibited differences in the coupling between VR pairs. In DR-evoked episodes, the coupling between the ipsilateral and contralateral flexor/extensor roots was similar and stronger than the bilateral extensor roots. In VR-evoked episodes, ipsilateral flexor/extensor coupling was stronger than both the contralateral flexor/extensor and the bilateral extensor coupling. For both types of stimulation, the coupling was greatest between the bilateral L1/L2 flexor-dominated roots. This indicates that the recruitment and/or the firing pattern of motoneurons differed in DR and VR-evoked episodes. However, the DR and VR trains do not appear to activate distinct CPGs because trains of DR and VR stimuli at frequencies too low to evoke locomotor-like activity did so when they were interleaved. These results indicate that the excitatory actions of VR stimulation converge onto the CPG through an unknown pathway that is not captured by current models of the locomotor CPG. PMID:27419215

  3. Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Root Stimulation on the Generation of Locomotor-Like Activity in the Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated whether dorsal (DR) and ventral root (VR) stimulus trains engage common postsynaptic components to activate the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion in the neonatal mouse spinal cord. VR stimulation did not activate the first order interneurons mediating the activation of the locomotor CPG by sacrocaudal afferent stimulation. Simultaneous stimulation of adjacent dorsal or ventral root pairs, subthreshold for evoking locomotor-like activity, did not summate to activate the CPG. This suggests that locomotor-like activity is triggered when a critical class of efferent or afferent axons is stimulated and does not depend on the number of stimulated axons or activated postsynaptic neurons. DR- and VR-evoked episodes exhibited differences in the coupling between VR pairs. In DR-evoked episodes, the coupling between the ipsilateral and contralateral flexor/extensor roots was similar and stronger than the bilateral extensor roots. In VR-evoked episodes, ipsilateral flexor/extensor coupling was stronger than both the contralateral flexor/extensor and the bilateral extensor coupling. For both types of stimulation, the coupling was greatest between the bilateral L1/L2 flexor-dominated roots. This indicates that the recruitment and/or the firing pattern of motoneurons differed in DR and VR-evoked episodes. However, the DR and VR trains do not appear to activate distinct CPGs because trains of DR and VR stimuli at frequencies too low to evoke locomotor-like activity did so when they were interleaved. These results indicate that the excitatory actions of VR stimulation converge onto the CPG through an unknown pathway that is not captured by current models of the locomotor CPG. PMID:27419215

  4. [Bilateral testicular metastasis of cancer of the prostate].

    PubMed

    el Moussaoui, A; Sarf, I; Dakir, M; Zamiati, S; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer rarely occurs. Bilateral localization is exceptional. We report a new case of prostate adenocarcinoma with bilateral testicular metastasis. The diagnosis was made on clinical and ultrasonic arguments, and confirmed on the pathological specimen. Treatment consisted in a bilateral orchidectomy, associated with nonsteroid androgens. PMID:9765784

  5. Nocturnal seizure and simultaneous bilateral shoulder fracture-dislocation.

    PubMed

    Sahbudin, Ilfita; Filer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise fit and well 27-year-old man presented with acute onset unexplained bilateral shoulder pain, and was found to have bilateral shoulder fractures and dislocations on imaging. Although features were atypical, a nocturnal seizure causing the bilateral shoulder fractures was suspected and EEG showed features compatible with epilepsy. PMID:26838296

  6. Dorsal Striatal Dopamine, Food Preference and Health Perception in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Deanna L.; Aarts, Esther; Dang, Linh C.; Greer, Stephanie M.; Jagust, William J.; D′Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies have explored the neurochemical mechanisms supporting individual differences in food preference in humans. Here we investigate how dorsal striatal dopamine, as measured by the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [18F]fluorometatyrosine (FMT), correlates with food-related decision-making, as well as body mass index (BMI) in 16 healthy-weight to moderately obese individuals. We find that lower PET FMT dopamine synthesis binding potential correlates with higher BMI, greater preference for perceived “healthy” foods, but also greater healthiness ratings for food items. These findings further substantiate the role of dorsal striatal dopamine in food-related behaviors and shed light on the complexity of individual differences in food preference. PMID:24806534

  7. Pollicization of the Second Metacarpal Based on Dorsal Metacarpal Arteries.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Kagan

    2016-09-01

    Blood supply to the index finger is maintained through volar (palmar arch) and dorsal (intermetacarpal arteries) vascular networks. In traditional index finger pollicization, blood supply is maintained on the volar palmar arch. In case of index finger loss at the metacarpophalangeal joint, remaining length of the second metacarpal is often not used for pollicization because the arc of rotation is limited on digital arteries. In this report, we present a surgical technique for the transfer of the index metacarpal to the thumb on the dorsal vascular network. This method adds no further morbidity and can be used as an alternative method of thumb reconstruction in cases in which the thumb and index fingers are amputated. PMID:27436565

  8. Dorsal approaches to intradural extramedullary tumors of the craniovertebral junction

    PubMed Central

    Refai, Daniel; Shin, John H.; Iannotti, Christopher; Benzel, Edward C.

    2010-01-01

    Tumors of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) pose significant challenges to cranial and spine surgeons. Familiarity with the complex anatomy and avoidance of injury to neurologic and vascular structures are essential to success. Multiple surgical approaches to address lesions at the CVJ have been promoted, including ventral and dorsal-based trajectories. However, optimal selection of the surgical vector to manage the pathology requires a firm understanding of the limitations and advantages of each approach. The selection of the best surgical trajectory must include several factors, such as obtaining the optimal exposure of the region of interest, avoiding injury to critical neurologic or vascular structures, identification of normal anatomical landmarks, the familiarity and comfort level of the surgeon to the approach, and the need for fixation. This review article focuses on dorsal approaches to the CVJ and the advantages and limitations in managing intradural extramedullary tumors. PMID:20890415

  9. [Deep dorsal penile vein thrombosis revealing Behcet's disease].

    PubMed

    Beddouche, Ali; Ouaziz, Hicham; Zougaghi, Sinane; Alaoui, Abdelilah; Dergamoun, Hamza; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2016-01-01

    Deep dorsal penile vein thrombosis (DDPVT)is a rare and little known urologic emergency. It requires an early etiological and symptomatic approach to preserve erectile function and prevent recurrences. This study reports a case of dorsal penile vein thrombosis revealed by spontaneous priapism that didn't resolve adequately and confirmed by penile Doppler ultrasound. After management of priapism and DDPVT, the etiological investigation revealed Behcet's disease whose diagnosis was based on the association of a major criteria, such as oral aphthous ulcers with 3 minor criteria such as: genital aphthous ulcers, ocular involvement, and a positive skin pathergy test within 24h. The patient underwent etiological treatment with good clinical evolution and preservation of erectile function. PMID:27583081

  10. Mitotic activity in dorsal epidermis of Rana pipiens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Arce, H.; Mizell, S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of statistically significant rhythms of mitotic division in dorsal epidermis of frogs, Rana pipiens, exposed to a 12:12 light:dark environment for 14 days. The results include the findings that (1) male animals have a primary period of 22 hr in summer and 18 hr in winter, (2) female animals have an 18 hr period, and (3) parapinealectomy and blinding abolish the rhythm.

  11. Neural dynamics of phonological processing in the dorsal auditory stream.

    PubMed

    Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2013-09-25

    Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors. PMID:24068810

  12. The Organization of Dorsal Frontal Cortex in Humans and Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Rogier B.; Noonan, MaryAnn P.; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Jbabdi, Saad; O'Reilly, Jill X.; Filippini, Nicola; Thomas, Adam G.; Rushworth, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    The human dorsal frontal cortex has been associated with the most sophisticated aspects of cognition, including those that are thought to be especially refined in humans. Here we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) in humans and macaques to infer and compare the organization of dorsal frontal cortex in the two species. Using DW-MRI tractography-based parcellation, we identified 10 dorsal frontal regions lying between the human inferior frontal sulcus and cingulate cortex. Patterns of functional coupling between each area and the rest of the brain were then estimated with fMRI and compared with functional coupling patterns in macaques. Areas in human medial frontal cortex, including areas associated with high-level social cognitive processes such as theory of mind, showed a surprising degree of similarity in their functional coupling patterns with the frontal pole, medial prefrontal, and dorsal prefrontal convexity in the macaque. We failed to find evidence for “new” regions in human medial frontal cortex. On the lateral surface, comparison of functional coupling patterns suggested correspondences in anatomical organization distinct from those that are widely assumed. A human region sometimes referred to as lateral frontal pole more closely resembled area 46, rather than the frontal pole, of the macaque. Overall the pattern of results suggest important similarities in frontal cortex organization in humans and other primates, even in the case of regions thought to carry out uniquely human functions. The patterns of interspecies correspondences are not, however, always those that are widely assumed. PMID:23884933

  13. The tract of Lissauer and the dorsal root potential.

    PubMed Central

    Cervero, F; Iggo, A; Molony, V

    1978-01-01

    1. Intersegmental dorsal root potentials (d.r.p.s) have been recorded in the lumbar spinal cord of spinalized cats under Na pentobarbitone anaesthesia, to investigate the spinal cord structures involved in the intersegmental transmission of d.r.p.s. 2. A technique has been developed for restricted surgical isolation of Lissauer's tract between the segments with subsequent histological verification of the extent of the isolation. 3. Section of the ipsilateral dorsal column resulted in an increase in the latency of the intersegmental d.r.p. and a significant reduction in its amplitude. A further reduction in amplitude was achieved by section of the ipsilateral dorso-lateral funiculus. 4. Neither section of Lissauer's tract after the above lesions were performed nor restricted Lissauer's tractotomies abolished intersegmental d.r.p.s; only a small reduction in the amplitude of the d.r.p. was obtained. 5. It is proposed that intersegmental d.r.p.s are produced by the activaiton of a propriospinal system projecting through pathways other than Lissauer's tract and that primary afferent collaterals from the dorsal columns make a major contribtuion to their generation. The contribution made by Lissauer's tract is probably small. PMID:214544

  14. Is visual processing in the dorsal stream accessible to consciousness?

    PubMed

    Milner, A D

    2012-06-22

    There are two highly interconnected clusters of visually responsive areas in the primate cortex. These two clusters have relatively few interconnections with each other, though those interconnections are undoubtedly important. One of the two main clusters (the dorsal stream) links the primary visual cortex (V1) to superior regions of the occipito-parietal cortex, while the other (the ventral stream) links V1 to inferior regions of the occipito-temporal cortex. According to our current understanding of the functional anatomy of these two systems, the dorsal stream's principal role is to provide real-time 'bottom-up' visual guidance of our movements online. In contrast, the ventral stream, in conjunction with top-down information from visual and semantic memory, provides perceptual representations that can serve recognition, visual thought, planning and memory offline. In recent years, this interpretation, initially based chiefly on studies of non-human primates and human neurological patients, has been well supported by functional MRI studies in humans. This perspective presents empirical evidence for the contention that the dorsal stream governs the visual control of movement without the intervention of visual awareness. PMID:22456882

  15. Correlation of peripheral innervation density and dorsal horn map scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Millecchia, R; Brown, P B

    1997-08-01

    Dorsal horn map scale and peripheral innervation density were compared to test a hypothesized linear relationship. In anesthetized cats, low-threshold mechanoreceptive peripheral nerve innervation fields (IFs) were measured by outlining areas of skin from which action potentials could be elicited in cutaneous nerves. The same nerves were processed histologically and used to count myelinated axons. Innervation density for each nerve was calculated as number of axons divided by IF area. Single units were recorded throughout the hindlimb representation, in laminae III and IV. These data, combined with single-unit data from other animals and with cell counts in laminae III and IV, permitted estimation of numbers of cells whose receptive field centers fell in contiguous 1-cm bands from tips of toes to proximal thigh. A similar estimate was performed with the use of the nerve innervation data, so that peripheral innervation densities and map scales for the different 1-cm bands of skin could be compared. Correlation between the two was quite high (r = 0.8), and highly significant (P = 2.5 x 10(-7)). These results are consistent with a proposed developmental model in which map scale, peripheral innervation density, and reciprocal of dorsal horn cell receptive field size are mutually proportional, as a result of developmental mechanisms that produce constant divergence and convergence between primary afferent axons and dorsal horn cells. PMID:9307105

  16. Spinal dorsal dermal sinus tract: An experience of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ishwar; Rohilla, Seema; Kumar, Prashant; Sharma, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal dorsal dermal sinus is a rare entity, which usually comes to clinical attention by cutaneous abnormalities, neurologic deficit, and/or infection. The present study was undertaken to know the clinical profile of these patients, to study associated anomalies and to assess the results of surgical intervention. Methods: Medical records of 21 patients treated for spinal dorsal dermal sinus from September 2007 to December 2013 were reviewed. Results: We had 21 patients with male: female ratio of 13:8. Only 2 patients were below 1-year of age, and most cases (15) were between 2 and 15 years (mean age = 8.2 years). Lumbar region (11 cases) was most frequently involved, followed by thoracic (4 cases), lumbosacral, and cervical region in 3 patients each. All of our patients presented with neurological deficits. Three patients were admitted with acute meningitis with acute onset paraplegia and had intraspinal abscess. The motor, sensory, and autonomic deficits were seen in 14, 6, and 8 patients, respectively. Scoliosis and congenital talipes equinovarus were the common associated anomalies. All patients underwent surgical exploration and repair of dysraphic state and excision of the sinus. Overall, 20 patients improved or neurological status stabilized and only 1 patient deteriorated. Postoperative wound infection was seen in 2 cases. Conclusions: All patients with spinal dorsal dermal sinuses should be offered aggressive surgical treatment in the form of total excision of sinus tract and correction of spinal malformation, as soon as diagnosed. PMID:26539316

  17. Prospective outcomes of arthroscopic treatment of dorsal wrist ganglia.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Hamidreza; Najafi, Arvin; Zaaferani, Zohre

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the results of arthroscopic resection of dorsal wrist ganglia. Between November 2002 and September 2007, all patients with dorsal wrist ganglia underwent arthroscopic resection in our institution. Average follow-up was 39.2 months (range, 24-71 months). Fifty-two patients (40 women and 12 men; mean age, 29.8 years) were treated with our operative technique. Symptoms at presentation were unpleasant appearance in 15 patients (28.8 %), pain in 30 (57.6%), and unpleasant appearance and pain in 7 (13.5%). The ganglion cyst site was in front of the midcarpal joint in 41 patients (78.8%), in front of the radiocarpal joint in 6 patients (11.5%), and in front of the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints in 5 patients (9.6%). Our surgical technique resulted in a significant improvement in flexion, extension, and grip strength (P≤.005). In patients with painful ganglia, treatment also had a significant effect. Nine (17.3%) recurrences were observed. Mean time off work was 14 days, but 19 patients returned to work immediately. According to the results of this study, we recommend the use of arthroscopy as the primary treatment method for dorsal wrist ganglion excision. PMID:22385448

  18. The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming

    PubMed Central

    Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch

    2012-01-01

    Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production. PMID:23171662

  19. Bilateral Orbital Abscesses After Strabismus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Lee, Winston; Garg, Aakriti; Garibaldi, Daniel C; Leibert, Michelle; Kazim, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Infectious orbital complications after strabismus surgery are rare. Their incidence is estimated to be 1 case per 1,100 surgeries and include preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, subconjunctival and sub-Tenon's abscesses, myositis, and endophthalmitis. This report describes the case of an otherwise healthy 3-year-old boy who underwent bilateral medial rectus recession and disinsertion of the inferior obliques. A few days after surgery, the patient presented with bilateral periorbital edema and inferotemporal chemosis. A series of CT scans with contrast revealed inferotemporal orbital collections OU. The patient immediately underwent transconjunctival drainage of fibrinous and seropurulent collections in the sub-Tenon's space and experienced rapid improvement a few days later. The patient is reported to be in stable condition in a follow-up examination performed more than a year after the reported events. PMID:24896771

  20. Simultaneous, Isolated Traumatic Bilateral Patella Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Madi, Sandesh; Naik, Monappa; Rao, Sharath; Vijayan, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Isolated traumatic fractures of both Patellae, occurring at the same time, in an otherwise healthy person, are very rare. The Patella, as a subcutaneous and a cancellous bone, is vulnerable to injury. However, simultaneous injury to both Patellae without the involvement of any other bony injuries occurs infrequently, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Case Presentation We report a rare case of isolated, traumatic bilateral Patella fracture with unusual fracture patterns and briefly review the literature. Conclusions In simultaneous bilateral Patella fractures, good functional outcome can be expected following a stable surgical fixation and a structured rehabilitation regime. However, personality of the fracture determines salvage versus sacrifice of the Patella. PMID:27218047

  1. Bilateral traumatic facial paralysis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Undabeitia, Jose; Liu, Brian; Pendleton, Courtney; Nogues, Pere; Noboa, Roberto; Undabeitia, Jose Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Although traumatic injury of the facial nerve is a relatively common condition in neurosurgical practice, bilateral lesions related to fracture of temporal bones are seldom seen. We report the case of a 38-year-old patient admitted to Intensive Care Unit after severe head trauma requiring ventilatory support (Glasgow Coma Scale of 7 on admission). A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed a longitudinal fracture of the right temporal bone and a transversal fracture of the left. After successful weaning from respirator, bilateral facial paralysis was observed. The possible aetiologies for facial diplegia differ from those of unilateral injury. Due to the lack of facial asymmetry, it can be easily missed in critically ill patients, and both the high resolution CT scan and electromyographic studies can be helpful for correct diagnosis. PMID:23541180

  2. Bilateral idiopathic optic neuritis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiffany S; Crow, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old primiparous woman at 31 weeks gestation with no prior history of ocular disease, autoimmune disease, or recent viral infection presented with rapidly decreasing visual acuity to 20/400 OD and counting fingers OS over 11 days. MRI demonstrated mild bilateral optic nerve enhancement. Humphrey 30-2 visual field testing showed bilateral seco-central scotomas. MR venogram, visual evoked potentials, preeclampsia workup, and serum blood tests for folate, B6, B12, Toxoplasmosis, Bartonella, Lyme disease, ACE levels, RPR, and LFTs were all within normal limits. After one-time treatment of IV 125 mg methylprednisolone and spinal tap, visual acuity improved to 20/20 OD and 20/20 OS. PMID:23305442

  3. Peribulbar anesthesia causing bilateral orbital hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Garft, Kyla; Burt, Peter; Burt, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral orbital hemorrhage as a complication of peribulbar anesthesia in a 78 year old man. Initially, unilateral orbital hemorrhage occurred but quickly spread to the contralateral side. Neuroophthalmological assessment revealed a proptosed tense globe with normal retinovascular findings. Visual acuity was adversely affected and this was conservatively managed with no lasting ophthalmic sequela. This patient’s case was reported as it illustrates an unusual complication of bilateral spread of orbital hemorrhage secondary to peribulbar anesthesia. It highlights how early ophthalmic assessment can ensure a good visual outcome in the setting of appropriate ophthalmic monitoring. The mechanisms of orbital hemorrhage spread and appropriate management options are discussed. PMID:27013899

  4. Bilateral calcaneal stress fractures in two cats.

    PubMed

    Cantatore, M; Clements, D N

    2015-06-01

    Two cats that developed bilateral calcaneal stress fractures are reported. One cat developed lameness associated with incomplete fractures at the base of both calcanei, both of which progressed to acute, complete fractures 2 months later. The second cat presented with acute complete calcaneal fracture, with evidence of remodelling of the contralateral calcaneus, which subsequently fractured two years later. The calcaneal fractures were successfully stabilised with lateral bone plates in each case. Stress fractures were suspected because of the bilateral nature, the simple and similar configuration, the consistent location of the fractures, the absence of other signs of trauma in both cases and the suspected insidious onset of the lameness. The feline calcaneus is susceptible to stress fracture, and cats presenting with calcaneal fractures without evidence of trauma should be evaluated for concurrent skeletal pathology. PMID:25929309

  5. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Amir; Feizi, Sepehr; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Case Report A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response. PMID:23275825

  6. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes - right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  7. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  8. Idiopathic Bilateral External Jugular Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Zakaria; Fadel, Ehab

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis Symptoms: Face engorgement • neck swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vein thrombosis is mainly determined by 3 factors, which constitute a triad called Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury. Venous thrombosis commonly occurs in the lower extremities since most of the blood resides there and flows against gravity. The veins of the lower extremities are dependent on intact valves and fully functional leg muscles. However, in case of valvular incompetency or muscular weakness, thrombosis and blood stasis will occur as a result. In contrast, the veins of the neck, specially the jugulars, have distensible walls which allow flexibility during respiration. In addition, the blood directly flows downward towards the heart. Nevertheless, many case reports mentioned the thrombosis of internal jugular veins and external jugular veins with identified risk factors. Jugular vein thrombosis has previously been associated in the literature with a variety of medical conditions, including malignancy. Case Report: This report is of a case of idiopathic bilateral external jugular vein thrombosis in a 21 year-old male construction worker of Southeast Asian origin with no previous medical history who presented with bilateral facial puffiness of gradual onset over 1 month. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the diagnosis. Further work-up showed no evidence of infection or neoplasia. The patient was eventually discharged on warfarin. The patient was assessed after 6 months and his symptoms had resolved completely. Conclusions: Bilateral idiopathic external jugular veins thrombosis is extremely rare and can be an indicator of early malignancy or hidden infection. While previous reports in the literature have associated jugular vein thrombosis with malignancy, the present

  9. Bilateral Parotid Swelling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Yakov; Mandel, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is recognized by the presence of polycystic ovaries, irregular menstruation, and increased androgen levels. Many patients have insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance and an associated development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A patient with PCOS is presented whose cosmetic concerns centered on the prolonged existence of substantial bilateral parotid swelling. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of sialosis are discussed. PMID:26657398

  10. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterior uveitis. PMID:22694887

  11. Bilateral pedicled gracilis flap for scrotal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Daigeler, Adrien; Behr, Björn; Mikhail, Bassem Daniel; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Wallner, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Trauma, infection and cancer can cause severe scrotal defects. The demand to a definitive reconstruction in terms of aesthetics and function is high. Primary closure, skin grafts and local fasciocutaneous flaps do not meet these high demands in most cases. The authors treated a series of patients requiring scrotal reconstruction with bilateral pedicled gracilis muscle flaps and split thickness skin grafts, resulting in satisfying aesthetic and functional outcomes. PMID:27318782

  12. IMPORTANCE OF D1 AND D2 RECEPTORS IN THE DORSAL CAUDATE-PUTAMEN FOR THE LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY AND STEREOTYPED BEHAVIORS OF PREWEANLING RATS

    PubMed Central

    CHARNTIKOV, S.; DER-GHAZARIAN, T.; HERBERT, M. S.; HORN, L. R.; WIDARMA, C. B.; GUTIERREZ, A.; VARELA, F. A.; MCDOUGALL, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Dopaminergic compounds often affect the unlearned behaviors of preweanling and adult rats differently, although the brain regions underlying these age-dependent behavioral effects have not been specified. A candidate brain region is the dorsal caudate-putamen (CPu); thus, a goal of the present study was to determine whether D1 and D2 receptors in the dorsal CPu are capable of modulating the unlearned behaviors of preweanling rats. In Experiments 1 and 2, selective and nonselective dopamine agonists were bilaterally microinjected into the dorsal CPu on postnatal day (PD) 18 and both locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. In Experiment 3, the functional coupling of D1 and D2 receptors was assessed by microinjecting the D1 agonist SKF-82958 and the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole either alone or in combination. In Experiments 4 and 5, quinpirole and the D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390, or SKF-82958 and the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride, were co-administered into the dorsal CPu to further assess whether a functional D1 or D2 receptor system is necessary for the expression of quinpirole- or SKF-82958-induced behaviors. Results showed that selective stimulation of D1 or D2 receptors in the dorsal CPu increased both the locomotor activity and stereotypy of preweanling rats. Receptor coupling was evident on PD 18 because co-administration of a subthreshold dose of SKF-82958 and quinpirole produced more locomotor activity than either agonist alone. Lastly, the dopamine antagonist experiments showed that both D1 and D2 receptor systems must be functional for SKF-82958- or quinpirole-induced locomotor activity to be fully manifested. When the present data are compared to results from non-ontogenetic studies, it appears that pharmacological manipulation of D1 and D2 receptors in the dorsal CPu affects the behavior of preweanling and adult rats in a generally similar manner, although some important age-dependent differences are apparent. For example, D1 and/or D2

  13. Importance of D1 and D2 receptors in the dorsal caudate-putamen for the locomotor activity and stereotyped behaviors of preweanling rats.

    PubMed

    Charntikov, S; Der-Ghazarian, T; Herbert, M S; Horn, L R; Widarma, C B; Gutierrez, A; Varela, F A; McDougall, S A

    2011-06-01

    Dopaminergic compounds often affect the unlearned behaviors of preweanling and adult rats differently, although the brain regions underlying these age-dependent behavioral effects have not been specified. A candidate brain region is the dorsal caudate-putamen (CPu); thus, a goal of the present study was to determine whether D1 and D2 receptors in the dorsal CPu are capable of modulating the unlearned behaviors of preweanling rats. In Experiments 1 and 2, selective and nonselective dopamine agonists were bilaterally microinjected into the dorsal CPu on postnatal day (PD) 18 and both locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. In Experiment 3, the functional coupling of D1 and D2 receptors was assessed by microinjecting the D1 agonist SKF-82958 and the D₂/D₃ agonist quinpirole either alone or in combination. In Experiments 4 and 5, quinpirole and the D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390, or SKF-82958 and the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride, were co-administered into the dorsal CPu to further assess whether a functional D1 or D2 receptor system is necessary for the expression of quinpirole- or SKF-82958-induced behaviors. Results showed that selective stimulation of D1 or D2 receptors in the dorsal CPu increased both the locomotor activity and stereotypy of preweanling rats. Receptor coupling was evident on PD 18 because co-administration of a subthreshold dose of SKF-82958 and quinpirole produced more locomotor activity than either agonist alone. Lastly, the dopamine antagonist experiments showed that both D1 and D2 receptor systems must be functional for SKF-82958- or quinpirole-induced locomotor activity to be fully manifested. When the present data are compared to results from non-ontogenetic studies, it appears that pharmacological manipulation of D1 and D2 receptors in the dorsal CPu affects the behavior of preweanling and adult rats in a generally similar manner, although some important age-dependent differences are apparent. For example, D1 and/or D2

  14. Effective analgesia after bilateral tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Wittels, B; Faure, E A; Chavez, R; Moawad, A; Ismail, M; Hibbard, J; Principe, D; Karl, L; Toledano, A Y

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of local anesthetic infiltration, 20 parturients scheduled for elective minilaparotomy and bilateral tubal ligation with either spinal or epidural anesthesia participated in this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. All patients received intravenous (iv) metoclopramide 10 mg and ketorolac 60 mg intraoperatively, as well as preincisional infiltration of the infraumbilical skin incision with 0.5% bupivacaine. Infiltration of bilateral uterine tubes and mesosalpinx was performed either with 0.5% bupivacaine (n = 10) or isotonic sodium chloride solution (n = 10). Intravenous meperidine (25 mg every 3 minutes as needed) was given to treat pain in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). The total amount of meperidine administered in the PACU was significantly larger in the saline group than in the bupivacaine group. Pain scores at 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes postoperatively and on the 7th postoperative day were significantly lower in the bupivacaine group than in the saline group. During tubal ligation, infiltration of uterine tubes and mesosalpinx with 0.5% bupivacaine significantly enhanced analgesia both immediately postoperatively and on the 7th postoperative day compared with infiltration with sodium chloride. In conclusion, this study proved that during bilateral tubal ligation with either spinal or epidural anesthesia, preemptive analgesia using iv ketorolac, iv metoclopramide, and infiltration of the incised skin and uterine tubes with 0.5% bupivacaine can eliminate pain, nausea, vomiting, or cramping and maintain good analgesia for 7 days postoperatively. PMID:9728841

  15. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  16. Bilateral limbic system destruction in man

    PubMed Central

    Feinstein, Justin S.; Rudrauf, David; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cassell, Martin D.; Bruss, Joel; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We report here a case study of a rare neurological patient with bilateral brain damage encompassing a substantial portion of the so-called “limbic system.” The patient, Roger, has been studied in our laboratory for over 14 years and the current article presents his complete neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profiles. The brain damage occurred in 1980 following an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis. The amount of destroyed neural tissue is extensive and includes bilateral damage to core limbic and paralimbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal poles, orbitofrontal cortex, basal forebrain, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex. The right hemisphere is more extensively affected than the left, although the lesions are largely bilateral. Despite the magnitude of his brain damage, Roger has a normal IQ, average to above average attention, working memory, and executive functioning skills, and very good speech and language abilities. In fact, his only obvious presenting deficits are a dense global amnesia and a severe anosmia and ageusia. Roger's case presents a rare opportunity to advance our understanding of the critical functions underlying the human limbic system, and the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data presented here provide a critical foundation for such investigations. PMID:19763994

  17. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany )

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  18. [Clinical features of bilateral trigeminal neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Yokosako, Suguru; Takahashi, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Asami; Yoshimura, Chika; Arai, Naoyuki; Ohbuchi, Hidenori; Hirota, Kengo; Hagiwara, Shinji; Tani, Shigeru; Sasahara, Atsushi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2015-02-01

    Among 238 patients with bilateral trigeminal neuralgia(TN)who visited our hospital between April 2007 and June 2014, 5(2%)were surgically treated by microvascular decompression(MVD). The initial symptom was on the right side in four and on both sides in one patient. Intervals between the initial and second onset on the other side(left)were two months, and four, six, and eight years. None of the patients showed involvement of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve. The patients with bilateral TN were younger than the 154 patients with unilateral TN who were treated surgically by MVD in this period(45 vs. 65 years), and the bilateral TN patients predominantly were women(4/5 vs. 99/154). In the surgical field, the trigeminal nerve and root entry zone were compressed more by veins in the bi lateral TN patients than in the unilateral TN(4/5 vs. 60/154, respectively)patients. We could not identify any differences in MRI CISS before versus after the onset of left trigeminal neuralgia, suggesting that compression is not the sole cause of the symptom. PMID:25672553

  19. Bilateral caudate infarct--a case report.

    PubMed

    Lim, J K; Yap, K B

    1999-07-01

    Caudate strokes comprise only a small proportion of all subtypes of strokes. Bilateral caudate infarcts are even rarer and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report an 86-year-old woman with bilateral caudate infarcts. She had no past medical history of note. She presented with headache for several days and drowsiness on day of admission. Clinical examination revealed abulia, inability to comprehend or verbalize (acute mutism), right-sided neglect and right-sided hemiparesis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan brain revealed decreased attenuation in both heads of both caudate nuclei with extension across the anterior limb of both internal capsules to involve the lentiform nuclei. Echocardiography showed aortic valve sclerosis, mild mitral and aortic regurgitation and normal left ventricular function. Carotid ultrasound revealed mild stenosis of proximal right internal carotid and left distal common carotid and adjacent proximal internal carotid arteries. She showed initial improvement in the first week, but subsequently had a progressive downward course despite rehabilitation and died 44 days after her stroke. A patient with bilateral caudate infarcts is likely to have poor prognosis for rehabilitation and survival. PMID:10561773

  20. Acute bilateral spontaneous forearm compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David M; Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Subramaniam, Tava; McCabe, John P

    2014-01-01

    Acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the forearm is rarely reported in the literature. It is typically associated with trauma or thromboembolism in the acute setting and repetitive exertional stress in the chronic setting. However it is rare for it to present bilaterally with no apparent underlying cause. We report the case of a young 31-year-old lady who presented to our Emergency Department with bilateral compartment syndrome of the forearm. Her presenting complaints included acute severe pain and swelling of the forearms bilaterally, with a decreased range of movement of the wrist and fingers. She also complained of numbness in all fingers. She had no history of recent trauma and ultrasound scans showed no evidence of vascular compromise. Past medical history was notable only for idiopathic hypertension and coeliac disease. The patient was taken to theatre urgently where flexor and extensor compartments and carpal tunnel were decompressed. Pronator Teres was found to be dusky initially but turned pink after decompression. All other muscles were normal. An interesting fact of this case was that combination of the high compartment pressures and anaesthetic related hypotension caused the forearm pulses to become impalpable at induction, these returned intra-operatively. The patient has been seen in the outpatient department following discharge. She is well apart from some mildly reduced grip strength in her right hand likely due to carpal tunnel decompression. No cause was found for the scenario after extensive medical investigation. PMID:24641749

  1. Asymmetric distribution of Echinoid defines the epidermal leading edge during Drosophila dorsal closure.

    PubMed

    Laplante, Caroline; Nilson, Laura A

    2011-01-24

    During Drosophila melanogaster dorsal closure, lateral sheets of embryonic epidermis assemble an actomyosin cable at their leading edge and migrate dorsally over the amnioserosa, converging at the dorsal midline. We show that disappearance of the homophilic cell adhesion molecule Echinoid (Ed) from the amnioserosa just before dorsal closure eliminates homophilic interactions with the adjacent dorsal-most epidermal (DME) cells, which comprise the leading edge. The resulting planar polarized distribution of Ed in the DME cells is essential for the localized accumulation of actin regulators and for actomyosin cable formation at the leading edge and for the polarized localization of the scaffolding protein Bazooka/PAR-3. DME cells with uniform Ed fail to assemble a cable and protrude dorsally, suggesting that the cable restricts dorsal migration. The planar polarized distribution of Ed in the DME cells thus provides a spatial cue that polarizes the DME cell actin cytoskeleton, defining the epidermal leading edge and establishing its contractile properties. PMID:21263031

  2. Dorsal horn spatial representation of simple cutaneous stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Millecchia, R; Lawson, J J; Stephens, S; Harton, P; Culberson, J C

    1998-02-01

    A model of lamina III-IV dorsal horn cell receptive fields (RFs) has been developed to visualize the spatial patterns of cells activated by light touch stimuli. Low-threshold mechanoreceptive fields (RFs) of 551 dorsal horn neurons recorded in anesthetized cats were characterized by location of RF center in cylindrical coordinates, area, length/width ratio, and orientation of long axis. Best-fitting ellipses overlapped actual RFs by 90%. Exponentially smoothed mean and variance surfaces were estimated for these five variables, on a grid of 40 points mediolaterally by 20/segment rostrocaudally in dorsal horn segments L4-S1. The variations of model RF location, area, and length/width ratio with map location were all similar to previous observations. When elliptical RFs were simulated at the locations of the original cells, the RFs of real and simulated cells overlapped by 64%. The densities of cell representations of skin points on the hindlimb were represented as pseudocolor contour plots on dorsal view maps, and segmental representations were plotted on the standard views of the leg. Overlap of modeled and real segmental representations was at the 84% level. Simulated and observed RFs had similar relations between area and length/width ratio and location on the hindlimb: r(A) = 0.52; r(L/W) = 0.56. Although the representation of simple stimuli was orderly, and there was clearly only one somatotopic map of the skin, the representation of a single point often was not a single cluster of active neurons. When two-point stimuli were simulated, there usually was no fractionation of response zones or addition of new zones. Variation of stimulus size (area of skin contacted) produced less variation of representation size (number of cells responding) than movement of stimuli from one location to another. We conclude that stimulus features are preserved poorly in their dorsal horn spatial representation and that discrimination mechanisms that depend on detection of such

  3. Involvement of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (medullary dorsal horn) in craniofacial nociceptive reflex activity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C M; Chiang, C Y; Yu, X M; Sessle, B J

    1999-05-01

    We have previously shown that an increase in electromyographic (EMG) activity of digastric (DIG) and masseter (MASS) muscles can be reflexly evoked by injection into the rat's temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region of the small-fibre excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO). Since the trigeminal (V) subnucleus caudalis (Vc, i.e. medullary dorsal horn) has traditionally been viewed as an essential brainstem relay site of nociceptive information from craniofacial tissues, an EMG study was carried out in 45 anaesthetized rats to determine if Vc is involved in the MO-evoked increases in jaw muscle EMG activity. The effects of histologically confirmed surgical or chemical lesions of Vc on this evoked EMG activity were tested in different groups of rats. MO injection into the left TMJ region of intact rats evoked bilateral increases in EMG activity of DIG and MASS which could be significantly reduced by surgical transection of the left caudal brainstem at the obex level; MO injection into the right TMJ region in these same rats still readily evoked increases in EMG activity. A sagittal section medial to Vc or transection at the level of the second cervical spinal segment did not produce any significant reduction in the reflexly evoked EMG activity. Neurones in Vc, as opposed to fibres of passage, appear to be important for the MO-evoked EMG activity, since injection into Vc of the neurotoxic chemical ibotenic acid significantly reduced the mustard oil-evoked EMG activity. The Vc also appears to play a role in the activation of contralateral V motoneurons, as evidenced by the activation of the contralateral DIG and MASS muscles by the injection of MO into the left TMJ region of intact rats and by the reduction of this evoked EMG activity in the contralateral DIG and MASS of rats with a surgical transection or ibotenic acid lesion of the left Vc. These findings suggest that Vc may be a critical element in the neural pathways underlying the reflex responses evoked

  4. Characterization of blood flow in the mouse dorsal spinal venous system before and after dorsal spinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Matthew J; Rubin, Jonathan D; Diago, Darcy M; Schaffer, Chris B

    2015-01-01

    The availability of transgenic strains has made the laboratory mouse a popular model for the study of healthy and diseased state spinal cord (SC). Essential to identifying physiologic and pathologic events is an understanding of the microvascular network and flow patterns of the SC. Using 2-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) microscopy we performed in vivo measurements of blood flow in the lower thoracic portion of the mouse dorsal spinal vein (dSV) and in the first upstream branches supplying it, denoted as dorsal ascending venules (dAVs). We found that the dSV had large radiculomedullary veins (RMVs) exiting the SC, and that flow in the dSV between pairs of RMVs was bidirectional. Volumetric flow increased in each direction away from the point of bifurcation. Flow in the upstream dAVs varied with diameter in a manner consistent with a constant distal pressure source. By performing ex vivo 2PEF microscopy of fluorescent-gel perfused tissue, we created a 3-D map of the dorsal spinal vasculature. From these data, we constructed a simple model that predicted changes in the flow of upstream branches after occlusion of the dSV in different locations. Using an atraumatic model of dSV occlusion, we confirmed the predictions of this model in vivo. PMID:25564237

  5. Management of Severe Bilateral Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Neonates with Prenatally Diagnosed Bilateral Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwon; Hong, Sungwoo; Park, Chang Hoo; Park, Hongzoo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The management of prenatally detected bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) remains controversial. We attempted to develop a treatment plan for patients with severe bilateral UPJO. Materials and Methods We evaluated the records of 13 patients with prenatally diagnosed grade 3 or more bilateral hydronephrosis that led to the postnatal diagnosis of severe bilateral UPJO. Ultrasonography and 99mtechnetium mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) renal scans were performed within 1 month. Four renal units had grade 3 and 22 had grade 4 hydronephrosis. All 13 patients were managed by unilateral pyeloplasty, and the patients' mean age was 3 months. At 1 month postoperatively, we decided whether delayed surgery in the opposite renal unit was necessary according to the findings of ultrasonography and 99mTc-MAG3 scans. Results Of 13 patients, 11 underwent initial pyeloplasty on renal units with more severe hydronephrosis or lower relative renal function (RRF) on 99mTc-MAG3 scans. The remaining 2 patients simultaneously underwent percutaneous nephrostomy on renal units with a lower RRF and initial pyeloplasty on renal units with a higher RRF. In 5 patients, contralateral hydronephrosis had spontaneously improved at 1 month postoperatively, and 8 patients underwent delayed contralateral pyeloplasty at 2 months postoperatively. Conclusions In children with severe bilateral UPJO, the non-operated renal units with grade 3 and some with grade 4 hydronephrosis improved spontaneously after unilateral pyeloplasty. Therefore, delayed pyeloplasty of the opposite side should be considered at 1 month following initial pyeloplasty. PMID:20856652

  6. Iatrogenic “buffalo chest” bilateral pneumothoraces following unilateral transbronchial lung biopsies in a bilateral lung transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Sawalha, Leith; Gibbons, William J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a 54 year old male patient who had a bilateral lung transplant sixteen years ago for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency-related emphysema. He was referred for flexible bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies to evaluate new mild exertional dyspnea and worsening of his FEV1. Eight transbronchial biopsies were done from the right middle lobe and the right lower lobe. Post procedure he developed bilateral pneumothoces that required emergent bilateral pleural ‘pigtail’ catheters. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral pneumothoraces that developed after a unilateral procedure in a bilateral lung transplant recipient relatively late after the transplant. PMID:26236604

  7. Role of dorsal hippocampal orexin-1 receptors in associating morphine reward with contextual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Esmail; Khodagholi, Fariba; Haghparast, Abbas

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of orexin receptors in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) in the development of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and modification of hippocampal c-Fos and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) levels. Orexin-A (0.5, 5, and 50 pmol) and the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867 (10, 20, and 40 nmol), were bilaterally infused into the dHPC immediately before conditioning with morphine (0.5 or 7.5 mg/kg) using the CPP task. Western blotting was then used to measure the protein levels of c-Fos, total CREB, and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in the hippocampus. Orexin did not enhance the rewarding efficacy of morphine (0.5 mg/kg), but caused a reduction in hippocampal c-Fos. Successful conditioning with morphine (7.5 mg/kg) was associated with increased levels of hippocampal c-Fos and CREB, but with decreased CREB phosphorylation. Intrahippocampal administration of SB334867 before conditioning sessions disrupted the rewarding effect of morphine (7.5 mg/kg) and blocked morphine-induced increases in hippocampal CREB protein levels. The results suggest that orexin signaling within the dHPC is necessary for the development of morphine CPP. Morphine reward is related to altered levels of hippocampal c-Fos and CREB. Inhibition of morphine-induced increases in CREB levels might be the underlying mechanism for the disruption of morphine CPP. PMID:23787292

  8. Tramadol state-dependent memory: involvement of dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Jafari-Sabet, Ali-Reza; Dizaji-Ghadim, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The effects on tramadol state-dependent memory of bilateral intradorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) injections of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, were examined in adult male NMRI mice. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. Post-training intra-CA1 administration of an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse), dose dependently impaired memory retention. Pretest injection of tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under the influence of post-training tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). A pretest intra-CA1 injection of physostigmine (1 μg/mouse) reversed the memory impairment induced by post-training administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). Moreover, pretest administration of physostigmine (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) with an ineffective dose of tramadol (0.25 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) also significantly restored retrieval. Pretest administration of physostigmine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. A pretest intra-CA1 injection of the atropine (1 and 2 μg/mouse) 5 min before the administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) dose dependently inhibited tramadol state-dependent memory. Pretest administration of atropine (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. It can be concluded that dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mechanisms play an important role in the modulation of tramadol state-dependent memory. PMID:27089282

  9. Functional connectivity of dorsal and ventral frontoparietal seed regions during auditory orienting

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Stephanie; Huang, Samantha; Furtak, Sharon C.; Belliveau, John W.; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to refocus auditory attention is vital for even the most routine day-to-day activities. Shifts in auditory attention can be initiated "voluntarily", or triggered "involuntarily" by unexpected novel sound events. Here, we employed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses of auditory functional MRI data, to compare functional connectivity patterns of distinct frontoparietal cortex regions during cued voluntary versus novelty-driven involuntary auditory attention shifting. Overall, our frontoparietal seed regions exhibited significant PPI increases with auditory cortex (AC) areas during both cued and novelty-driven orienting. However, significant positive PPI patterns associated with voluntary auditory attention (cue > novel task regressor), but mostly absent in analyses emphasizing involuntary orienting (novel > cue task regressor), were observed with seeds within the frontal eye fields (FEF), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and right supramarginal gyri (SMG). In contrast, significant positive PPIs associated selectively with involuntary orienting were observed between ACs and seeds within the bilateral anterior interior frontal gyri (IFG), and left posterior IFG, SMG, and posterior cingulate cortices (PCC). We also found indices of lateralization of different attention networks: PPI increases selective to voluntary attention occurred primarily with right-hemispheric regions, whereas those related to involuntary orienting were more frequent with left-hemisphere seeds. In conclusion, despite certain similarities in PPI patterns across conditions, the more dorsal aspects of right frontoparietal cortex demonstrated wider connectivity during cued/voluntary attention shifting, whereas certain left ventral frontoparietal seeds were more widely connected during novelty-triggered/involuntary orienting. Our findings provide partial support for distinct attention networks for voluntary and involuntary auditory attention. PMID:25128464

  10. Withdrawal and Restoration of Central Vagal Afferents Within the Dorsal Vagal Complex Following Subdiaphragmatic Vagotomy

    PubMed Central

    Peters, James H.; Gallaher, Zachary R.; Ryu, Vitaly; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Vagotomy, a severing of the peripheral axons of the vagus nerve, has been extensively utilized to determine the role of vagal afferents in viscerosensory signaling. Vagotomy is also an unavoidable component of some bariatric surgeries. Although it is known that peripheral axons of the vagus nerve degenerate and then regenerate to a limited extent following vagotomy, very little is known about the response of central vagal afferents in the dorsal vagal complex to this type of damage. We tested the hypothesis that vagotomy results in the transient withdrawal of central vagal afferent terminals from their primary central target, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Sprague–Dawley rats underwent bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and were sacrificed 10, 30, or 60 days later. Plastic changes in vagal afferent fibers and synapses were investigated at the morphological and functional levels by using a combination of an anterograde tracer, synapse-specific markers, and patch-clamp electrophysiology in horizontal brain sections. Morphological data revealed that numbers of vagal afferent fibers and synapses in the NTS were significantly reduced 10 days following vagotomy and were restored to control levels by 30 days and 60 days, respectively. Electrophysiology revealed transient decreases in spontaneous glutamate release, glutamate release probability, and the number of primary afferent inputs. Our results demonstrate that subdiaphragmatic vagotomy triggers transient withdrawal and remodeling of central vagal afferent terminals in the NTS. The observed vagotomy-induced plasticity within this key feeding center of the brain may be partially responsible for the response of bariatric patients following gastric bypass surgery. PMID:23749657

  11. Single stage minimally invasive bilateral video assisted thoracoscopic surgery for simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Sachithanandan, A; Nur Ezrin, I; Badmanaban, B

    2012-04-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP) is a very rare life-threatening condition that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment. Most cases are secondary to various underlying lung pathology but a primary SBSP may occur due to rupture of subpleural blebs or bullae. Surgery via an open or minimally invasive approach provides definitive treatment and can be undertaken as a staged or simultaneous procedure. We report our experience with two such rare cases utilizing a single stage minimally invasive bilateral video assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) approach. The pathogenesis of this rare condition and intra-operative technical considerations for a successful outcome are discussed. PMID:22822653

  12. Vulnerability of dorsal root neurons and fibers toward methylmercury toxicity: a morphological evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, R.K.; Chang, L.W.

    1981-10-01

    The selective and relative sensitivity of various components (dorsal root neurons, dorsal root fibers, and ventral root fibers) of the dorsal root ganglia toward methylmercury toxicity were investigated. Charles River rats were orally administered methymercury chloride at a daily dose of 2.0 mg/kg body wt for 8 weeks. Dorsal root ganglia (L/sub 1/-S/sub 1/) were examined with light and electron microscopy. Extensive Wallerian-like degeneration was observed in the dorsal root fibers while no significant changes were found in the dorsal root neurons and in the ventral root fibers at the light-microscopic level. At the electron-microscopic level, only minor and possibly reversible changes, such as increase in lysosomes, neurofilamentous proliferation, and disintegration of the Nissl substance, were observed in the neuronal cell bodies while severe and irreversible degenerative changes occurred in the dorsal root fibers. No remarkable pathological changes were observed in the ventral root fibers. Schwann cells became hypertrophied and transformed into actively phagocytosing macrophages. It is concluded that while the dorsal root ganglia are highly vulnerable to the toxicity of methylmercury, the relative sensitivity to the toxic impact is: dorsal root fiber > dorsal root neuron (nerve cell body) > ventral root fibers.

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a dorsal homologue from Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Qing; Jin, Xing-Kun; Li, Shuang; Guo, Xiao-Nv; Wu, Min-Hao; Li, Wei-Wei; Wang, Qun

    2013-12-01

    Dorsal as a crucial component of Toll signaling pathway, played important roles in induction and regulation of innate immune responses. In this study, we cloned a NF-κB-like transcription factor Dorsal from Eriocheir sinensis and designated it as EsDorsal. The full-length cDNA of EsDorsal was 2493 bp with a 2022-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 673-amino acid protein. This protein contained a 171-residue conserved Rel homology domain (RHD) and a 102-residue Ig-like, plexins and transcription factors domain (IPT). By phylogenetic analysis, EsDorsal was clustered into one group together with other invertebrate Dorsals or NF-κBs, and then clustered with vertebrate NF-κBs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis results showed that (a) EsDorsal had higher expression level in immune organs; (b) EsDorsal differentially induced after injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycan (PG) or zymosan (GLU). Importantly, EsDorsal was more responsive to LPS than GLU and PG. Collectively, EsDorsal was differentially inducibility in response to various PAMPs, suggesting its involvement in a specific innate immune regulation in E. sinensis. PMID:23981326

  14. Strong rightward lateralization of the dorsal attentional network in left-handers with right sighting-eye: an evolutionary advantage.

    PubMed

    Petit, Laurent; Zago, Laure; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2015-03-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for spatial attention and its relationships with manual preference strength and eye preference were studied in a sample of 293 healthy individuals balanced for manual preference. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to map this large sample while performing visually guided saccadic eye movements. This activated a bilateral distributed cortico-subcortical network in which dorsal and ventral attentional/saccadic pathways elicited rightward asymmetrical activation depending on manual preference strength and sighting eye. While the ventral pathway showed a strong rightward asymmetry irrespective of both manual preference strength and eye preference, the dorsal frontoparietal network showed a robust rightward asymmetry in strongly left-handers, even more pronounced in left-handed subjects with a right sighting-eye. Our findings brings support to the hypothesis that the origin of the rightward hemispheric dominance for spatial attention may have a manipulo-spatial origin neither perceptual nor motor per se but rather reflecting a mechanism by which a spatial context is mapped onto the perceptual and motor activities, including the exploration of the spatial environment with eyes and hands. Within this context, strongly left-handers with a right sighting-eye may benefit from the advantage of having the same right hemispheric control of their dominant hand and visuospatial attention processing. We suggest that this phenomenon explains why left-handed right sighting-eye athletes can outperform their competitors in sporting duels and that the prehistoric and historical constancy of the left-handers ratio over the general population may relate in part on the hemispheric specialization of spatial attention. PMID:25409934

  15. Abnormal dorsal premotor-motor inhibition in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Beck, Sandra; Bliem, Barbara; Hallett, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The authors hypothesized that a deficient premotor-motor inhibitory network contributes to the unwanted involuntary movements in dystonia. The authors studied nine controls and nine patients with writer's cramp (WC). Dorsal premotor-motor cortical inhibition (dPMI) was tested by applying conditioning transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the dorsal premotor cortex and then a test pulse to the ipsilateral motor cortex at an interval of 6 ms. The authors used an H-reflex in flexor carpi radialis paired with TMS over the premotor cortex to assess for spinal cord excitability change. Finally, the authors interrupted a choice reaction time task with TMS over dorsal premotor cortex to assess performance in a nondystonic task. The results showed that WC patients exhibited dPMI at rest (88.5%, the ratio of conditioned to unconditioned test pulse), in contrast to controls, who did not show dPMI (109.6%) (P = 0.0198). This difference between patients and controls persisted during contraction (100% vs. 112%) and pen-holding (95.6% vs. 111%). The H-reflex in the arm was not modulated by the premotor cortex stimulation. The WC patients made more errors, and the error rate improved with TMS over the premotor cortex. These results suggest that abnormal premotor-motor interactions may play a role in the pathophysiology of focal dystonia. The dPMI was not modulated by task in either group, but was constantly greater in the patients. The significance of the increased inhibition is likely to be compensatory. It appears to be a robust finding and, in combination with other features, could be further explored as a biomarker. PMID:24710852

  16. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Narendra; Kumar, Yogesh; Upreti, Vimal; Singh, Amandeep; Garg, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females) meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS. PMID:27186561

  17. Bilateral Wilms' tumors: changing concepts in management

    SciTech Connect

    Laberge, J.M.; Nguyen, L.T.; Homsy, Y.L.; Doody, D.P.

    1987-08-01

    Bilaterality is uncommon in Wilms' tumor, being present in 4% to 8% of the cases. We report the combined experience of two children's hospitals in one city over a 20-year period. We encountered nine cases of synchronous bilateral nephroblastoma (National Wilms' Tumor Study 3, stage V). Age at diagnosis ranged from 9 to 41 months (mean 23 months). There were five girls and four boys. Associated findings include nephroblastomatosis in three cases (33%), one of which also had a familial history; undescended testis in two cases; and minor anomalies in two other cases. Surgical treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy with contralateral partial nephrectomy or tumorectomy in six cases, nephrectomy with contralateral biopsy only in two cases, and the other patient had bilateral biopsies initially, followed at a later date by partial nephrectomy on one side. All patients received chemotherapy; actinomycin D (AMD) only was used in the oldest case, vincristine and AMD in five cases, to which was added cyclophosphamide in one case and adriamycin in two. Seven patients received radiation therapy. Seven out of the nine patients survived more than 2 years (77%); five are well, off chemotherapy, with no evidence of disease from 4 to 11 years after diagnosis. Two patients suffered from chronic renal failure and one died from complications after renal transplantation more than 19 years after diagnosis. The two patients who died from their disease presented with more advanced tumor. Therefore, the agressiveness of multimodal therapy can be tailored according to stage and histology, and effective chemotherapy allows maximal preservation of renal parenchyma in patients with stage I and II tumors.

  18. Bilateral discoid medial menisci: a rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Puspak; Bhagwat, Kishan; Panigrahi, Tapas; Gopinathan, Nirmalraj

    2014-01-01

    Discoid medial meniscus is a relatively rare pathology of the knee joint, with bilateral cases even rarer. Herein, we report the case of a 25-year-old man diagnosed with discoid medial meniscus in the right knee with a horizontal tear. Increased cupping of the medial condyle of the tibia, widening of the medial joint space and the presence of discoid meniscus in the right knee prompted investigation of the asymptomatic left knee with magnetic resonance imaging. The contralateral asymptomatic knee also showed evidence of discoid medial meniscus. The symptomatic knee was successfully treated by arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, with excellent functional outcome. PMID:25273941

  19. [Bilateral jugular thrombosis in Lemierre syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benhayoun, M; Llor, J; Van-Den-Abbeele, T; Elmaleh, M; Mariani, P; Beaufils, F; Dauger, S

    2003-12-01

    An adolescent presented with a rhinosinusitis complicated with bilateral jugular veins and left superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis and respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. Blood culture was positive for Haemophilus influenzae and sinus puncture for Streptococcus constellatus. Evolution was under control after 1 week of appropriate antibiotherapy, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. He had no neurologic, respiratory or ophthalmologic sequelae 6 months later. Despite lack of pharyngitis or isolation of anaerobic species on blood cultures, the picture was considered compatible with Lemierre syndrome. The risk for such a complication should be considered in cases of severe otorhinolaryngologic infection in young adults. PMID:14643536

  20. Bilateral Ossiculoplasty in 1 Case of Achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jongyoon; Yang, Chulwon; Lee, Sunkyu

    2013-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia and it combines various complications with normal longevity. Hearing disturbance due to otitis media or an ossicular anomaly is one of the most common complications. Conductive hearing loss is suggested as the most common form of hearing loss. Temporal bone and middle ear structures are distorted in achondroplasia because of rotational change of the skull base. Authors experienced a case of an achondroplastic patient with bilateral hearing disturbance. We faced making a potential mistake during the previous operation but a favorable postoperative result occurred. Our experience could be helpful to other clinicians who face achondroplastic patients. PMID:24653923

  1. Bilateral Orbital Metastasis of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Ahmed; Kerkeni, Walid; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Ayed, Haroun; Gaja, Ali; Cherif, Mohamed; Ben Slama, Riadh; Mnif, Najla; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Despite the high incidence of prostate carcinoma, metastases of the uvea are very rare and bilateral localization is even more. We report here the case of a 77-year-old man diagnosed with a metastatic prostate carcinoma. Two months later, he presented a decreased vision in his right eye and blurred vision in the left eye relevant to metastatic lesion on his right iris and left choroidal metastasis. The urologist should evoke possibility of ocular metastasis in patients with prostate cancer presenting visual disorders. PMID:27181244

  2. Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome: a case study.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus; Mullarkey, Sr Kathryn; Allchin, Joel

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a 14-year-old boy with bilateral congenital perisylvian syndrome as evidenced by polymicrogyria in the left and right frontotemporal regions, pseudobulbar paresis, seizures, and spastic diplegia. This is the first description of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in a child with this syndrome. The results reflect significant impairments in auditory processing and independent learning and retention, but relatively preserved cognitive performance on interactive tasks involving frequent feedback and redirection. The findings are interpreted in the context of the neuropathology of this syndrome, with an emphasis on pragmatic implications for rehabilitation. PMID:18618376

  3. Bilateral recurrent self-induced keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Steven B

    2008-11-01

    The observational case describes bilateral recurrent keratoconus in corneal transplants performed in a patient with self-induced keratoconus secondary to compulsive eye rubbing. Slitlamp findings demonstrated corneal stromal thinning and scarring in the patient's right eye and temporal corneal hydrops in his left eye. Videokeratography of the right eye confirmed the presence of corneal steepening and irregular astigmatism, consistent with the diagnosis of keratoconus involving each transplant. Together with the history of ongoing compulsive eye rubbing, these findings support the concept that chronic mechanical trauma to the cornea may contribute to the development of keratoconus. PMID:18997547

  4. Congenital bilateral eversion of the eyelids.

    PubMed

    Isawumi, Michaeline A; Adeoti, Caroline O; Umar, Ismaila O; Oluwatimilehin, Ilesanmi O; Raji, Ralph A

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a case of congenital bilateral eversion of the eyelids with secondary conjunctival prolapse in a 4-hour-old neonate. Conservative treatment with hypertonic normal saline, lubricants, antibiotics, and padding was instituted. No surgery was performed. Complete eye opening was achieved by the 10th day after birth. Medical management is advantageous in that it is inexpensive, noninvasive, and can be performed even in a center with poor surgical facilities, as is commonly encountered in developing countries. The sociopsychological aspect of the disease, possible pathophysiology, and treatment are discussed. PMID:19043951

  5. Progressive bilateral thinning of the parietal bones

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, C.G.; Andren, L.; Olivecrona, H.

    1982-03-01

    Observation of a case of progressive bilateral parietal thinning within a period of 14 years induced us to study skull films of 3 636 consecutive patients. Parietal thinning was found in 86 patients (2.37%). It was more common in women, with a sex ratio of 1:1.9. The mean age of the females was 72 years, and that of the males 63 years. Previous skull films of 25 of these patients were available and showed progression in 10. It is concluded that parietal thinning is a slowly progressive disease of middle-aged and old patients and is not an anatomical variant or congenital dysplasia of the dipole.

  6. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Veerarajkumar, N; Madeswaran, K

    2001-05-01

    A 7-year-old child presented with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) following a trivial head injury. CT was normal. MRI revealed a pontine lesion. Two months after the injury the patient was neurologically normal. INO following head injury is rare. Rarer still is INO following mild head injury. To date, only four cases of INO had been reported following mild head injury; the present case is the fifth and the first in which the lesion was documented using MRI. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:11417420

  7. Bilateral sequential Propionibacterium acnes exogenous endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Saffra, Norman; Moriarty, Emily; Milman, Tatyana

    2016-12-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent uncomplicated sequential cataract extractions performed more than a year apart. He presented 6 months after the second surgery with persistent intraocular inflammation in both eyes. Cultures from both eyes grew Propionibacterium acnes and he responded well to treatment. Suspicion for delayed-onset post-operative endophthalmitis must remain high in uveitis cases that fail to resolve with anti-inflammatory treatments. The authors believe this is the first reported case of bilateral sequential P. acnes exogenous endophthalmitis. PMID:27220771

  8. Bilateral carotid aneurysms unmasked by severe hypopituitarism.

    PubMed Central

    Michils, A.; Balériaux, D.; Mockel, J.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a patient who initially presented with severe hyponatraemia and grand mal seizures, without any focal neurological symptoms. The final diagnosis was that of giant bilateral carotid aneurysms extending into the sella turcica with anterior hypopituitarism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of symmetrical carotid aneurysms manifested exclusively by an acute endocrine emergency with none of the concomitant usual focal signs such as headache, failing vision, oculomotor palsy or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Images p286-a Figure 1 PMID:2062778

  9. Posture And Dorsal Shape At A Sitted Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepoutre, F. X.; Cloup, P.; Guerra, T. M.

    1986-07-01

    The ergonomic analysis of a control or a supervision workstation for a vehicle or a process, necessitates to take into account the biomecanical visuo-postural system. The measurements, which are necessary to do, must give informations about the spatial direction of the limbs, the dorsal shape, eventually the eyes direction, and the postural evolution during the working time. More, the smallness of the work station, the backrest and sometime a vibratory environment made use specific, strong and small devices wich do not disturb the operator. The measurement system which we propose is made of an optical device. This system is studied in relation with the french "Institute de Recherche pour les Transports" for an ergonomic analysis of a truck cabin. The optical device consists on placing on the body of the driver on particular places materializing specially members and trunck joint points, some drops which reflect the infra-red raies coming from a specific light. Several cameras whose relative positions depend on the experiment site, transmit video signals to the associated treatment systems which extract the coordinates (Xi, Yi) of each drop in the observation scope of any camera. By regrouping the informations obtained from every view, it is possible to obtain the spatial drop position and then to restore the individual's posture in three dimensions. Therefore, this device doesn't enable us, in consideration of the backrest, to analyse the dorsal posture, which is important with regard to dorsal pains frequency. For that reason, we complete the measurements by using a "curvometer". This device consists of a flexible stick fixed upon the individual back with elastic belts, whose distorsions (curvature in m-1) are measured, in the individual's sagittal plane, with 4 strain gauges pairs; located approximately at the level of vertebra D1, D6, D10 and L3. A fifth measurement, concerning the inclination (in degree) of the lower part of the stick, makes it is possible to

  10. Erythrocyte nuclei resemble dying neurons in embryonic dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Coggeshall, R E; Pover, C M; Kwiat, G C; Fitzgerald, M

    1993-07-01

    Cell death or apoptosis is regarded as an important feature of mammalian neural development, but the evidence for this generalization depends on the assumption that cell death can be clearly recognized. The usual profile of a dying neuron is a deeply stained pyknotic homogeneous sphere. In this paper we present evidence that such profiles in embryonic rat T6 and L4 dorsal root ganglia are not dying neurons but rather nuclei of immature red blood cells. This observation, combined with recent work showing that the methods previously used for counting normal or dying neurons are biased, indicates that the classic work establishing the importance of apoptosis needs to be repeated. PMID:8233029

  11. Dorsal Slit-Sleeve Technique for Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Lukong, Christopher Suiye

    2012-01-01

    Male circumcision is a commonly performed surgical procedure. There are several techniques of circumcision. The device methods are thought to have lower complication rates when compared to the open methods. The devices for circumcision may not be readily available or may be expensive. The open methods are therefore still commonly used in this setting. The dorsal slit-sleeve technique combines strategies from two open methods. The technique is described, together with its merit and demerits. This technique is feasible, safe, and the general outcome is good. PMID:23741584

  12. A congenital mucocele of the anterior dorsal tongue.

    PubMed

    Wong Chung, J E R E; Ensink, R J H; Thijs, H F H; van den Hoogen, F J A

    2014-07-01

    We report on a new-born with a congenital mucocele on the anterior dorsal side of the tongue. The presentation as well as the differential diagnosis of congenital oral swellings is discussed. Because of breastfeeding problems the mucinous swelling was incised and drained two days after birth. Immediately after drainage the swelling disappeared. Congenital oral swellings are rare. Most of them are mucoceles. Post-partum treatment is surgically, but spontaneous remission has been described. High incidence of recurrence should be taken into account when (micro-)marsupialization or incision as sole treatment is performed. PMID:24814234

  13. Intracellular mechanisms of cocaine-memory reconsolidation in the basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Audrey Marie

    The ability of cocaine-associated environmental contexts to promote relapse in abstinent humans and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in laboratory animals depends on the formation and maintenance of maladaptive context-response-cocaine associative memories, the latter of which can be disrupted by manipulations that interfere with memory reconsolidation. Memory reconsolidation refers to a protein synthesis-dependent phenomenon whereby memory traces are reincorporated back into long-term memory storage following their retrieval and subsequent destabilization. To elucidate the distinctive roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) in the reconsolidation of context-response-cocaine memories, Experiments 1-3 evaluated novel molecular mechanisms within each structure that control this phenomenon. Experiment 1 tested the hypothesis that activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the BLA and nucleus accumbens core (NACc - a substrate for Pavlovian cocaine-memory reconsolidation) would critically control instrumental cocaine-memory reconsolidation. To determine this, rats were re-exposed to a context that had previously been used for cocaine self-administration (i.e., cocaine memory-reactivation) and immediately thereafter received bilateral intra-BLA or intra-NACc microinfusions of the ERK inhibitor U0126 or vehicle (VEH) and were subsequently tested for drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior (non-reinforced lever responding) ~72 h later. Re-exposure to the cocaine-paired context at test fully reinstated cocaine-seeking behavior, relative to responding in an alternate, extinction context, and post-reactivation U0126 treatment in the BLA, but not the NACc, impaired cocaine-seeking behavior, relative to VEH. This effect was associated with a temporary increase in ERK2, but not ERK1, phosphorylation in the BLA and required explicit reactivation of the target memory trace (i.e., did not similarly manifest when U

  14. A case of bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas differentiated by segmental adrenal venous sampling for bilateral adrenal sparing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, R; Satani, N; Iwakura, Y; Ono, Y; Kudo, M; Nezu, M; Omata, K; Tezuka, Y; Seiji, K; Ota, H; Kawasaki, Y; Ishidoya, S; Nakamura, Y; Arai, Y; Takase, K; Sasano, H; Ito, S; Satoh, F

    2016-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is a surgically curable form of hypertension. Bilateral APA can also be surgically curable in theory but few successful cases can be found in the literature. It has been reported that even using successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) via bilateral adrenal central veins, it is extremely difficult to differentiate bilateral APA from bilateral idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) harbouring computed tomography (CT)-detectable bilateral adrenocortical nodules. We report a case of bilateral APA diagnosed by segmental AVS (S-AVS) and blood sampling via intra-adrenal first-degree tributary veins to localize the sites of intra-adrenal hormone production. A 36-year-old man with marked long-standing hypertension was referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of bilateral APA. He had typical clinical and laboratory profiles of marked hypertension, hypokalaemia, elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of 45.1 ng dl−1 and aldosterone renin activity ratio of 90.2 (ng dl−1 per ng ml−1 h−1), which was still high after 50 mg-captopril loading. CT revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumours of 10 and 12 mm in diameter on the right and left sides, respectively. S-AVS confirmed excess aldosterone secretion from a tumour segment vein and suppressed secretion from a non-tumour segment vein bilaterally, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral APA. The patient underwent simultaneous bilateral sparing adrenalectomy. Histopathological analysis of the resected adrenals together with decreased blood pressure and PAC of 5.2 ng dl−1 confirmed the removal of bilateral APA. S-AVS was reliable to differentiate bilateral APA from IHA by direct evaluation of intra-adrenal hormone production. PMID:26538381

  15. A case of bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas differentiated by segmental adrenal venous sampling for bilateral adrenal sparing surgery.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, R; Satani, N; Iwakura, Y; Ono, Y; Kudo, M; Nezu, M; Omata, K; Tezuka, Y; Seiji, K; Ota, H; Kawasaki, Y; Ishidoya, S; Nakamura, Y; Arai, Y; Takase, K; Sasano, H; Ito, S; Satoh, F

    2016-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is a surgically curable form of hypertension. Bilateral APA can also be surgically curable in theory but few successful cases can be found in the literature. It has been reported that even using successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) via bilateral adrenal central veins, it is extremely difficult to differentiate bilateral APA from bilateral idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) harbouring computed tomography (CT)-detectable bilateral adrenocortical nodules. We report a case of bilateral APA diagnosed by segmental AVS (S-AVS) and blood sampling via intra-adrenal first-degree tributary veins to localize the sites of intra-adrenal hormone production. A 36-year-old man with marked long-standing hypertension was referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of bilateral APA. He had typical clinical and laboratory profiles of marked hypertension, hypokalaemia, elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of 45.1 ng dl(-1) and aldosterone renin activity ratio of 90.2 (ng dl(-1) per ng ml(-1 )h(-1)), which was still high after 50 mg-captopril loading. CT revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumours of 10 and 12 mm in diameter on the right and left sides, respectively. S-AVS confirmed excess aldosterone secretion from a tumour segment vein and suppressed secretion from a non-tumour segment vein bilaterally, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral APA. The patient underwent simultaneous bilateral sparing adrenalectomy. Histopathological analysis of the resected adrenals together with decreased blood pressure and PAC of 5.2 ng dl(-1) confirmed the removal of bilateral APA. S-AVS was reliable to differentiate bilateral APA from IHA by direct evaluation of intra-adrenal hormone production. PMID:26538381

  16. Concurrent dorsal dimelia in 160 consecutive patients with congenital anomalies of the hands and feet.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of dorsal dimelia in a series of 160 consecutive patients with congenital anomalies of the hands and feet, and to investigate the distribution of dorsal dimelia and the concurrent anomalies. Five cases (3.1%) showed evidence of dorsal dimelia and the distribution of dorsal dimelia was similar to the distribution of concurrent anomalies in all five cases. Another 11 cases of concurrent dorsal dimelia with other congenital anomalies have been reported previously with a positive match in the distributions in all cases. This similarity in the distribution in all 16 reported cases (including the five cases in the current study) is statistically significant. It is concluded that dorsal dimelia in humans is not as rare as it is generally thought to be, and that it may be viewed as an error of dorso-ventral patterning, which occurs in the same distribution as other concurrent anomalies. PMID:24362255

  17. Bilateral talus fracture dislocation: is avascular necrosis inevitable?

    PubMed Central

    Balaji G, Gopisankar; Arockiaraj, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous fracture dislocation of the talus is a very rare injury. It occurs usually following high-velocity injuries. We report a 45-year-old man who presented with bilateral talar fracture dislocation following a heavy stone falling on him. On his right side, he had open talus dislocation with lateral process fracture and on his left side he had closed talar neck fracture dislocation. He underwent immediate debridement and external fixator application for his right side and open reduction and internal fixation for his left talus. At the end of 34 months’ follow-up, he was able to walk up to 2 km without pain. His ankle range of movements were restricted bilaterally. Radiographs revealed bilateral avascular necrosis with right side showing complete collapse. We present this case for its rare presentation of bilateral talar fracture dislocation with bilateral avascular necrosis with sequential radiographs. PMID:25155493

  18. Noninvasive testing of asymptomatic bilateral hilar adenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, P.L.; Singer, D.E.; Goldenheim, P.; Bernardo, J.; Mulley, A.G. )

    1990-03-01

    The diagnostic strategy for asymptomatic patients with persistent bilateral bilar adenopathy often involves invasive procedures. The authors used Bayesian analysis to: (1) estimate the relative prevalences of diseases causing bilateral bilar adenopathy; (2) assess changes in the prevalence of disease by race, the presence of other clinical symptoms, and geography; and (3) determine the value of relevant noninvasive tests, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) assay, gallium scan, and purified protein derivative (PPD), in order to assess when a strategy of watchful waiting is appropriate. The analysis indicated that the ACE assay, particularly when paired with the PPD, can identify many patients who might safely be managed without immediate invasive biopsy. Patients who are ACE+ and PPD- have an estimated probability of sarcoidosis of 0.95 or greater; patients who are ACE- and PPD+ have a probability of tuberculosis of 0.86 if black, 0.79 if white. In contrast, gallium scanning has no diagnostic role in this clinical situation. Bronchoscopic or mediastinoscopic biopsy has a limited role for patients who are ACE+ PPD- or ACE- PPD+ because of limited sensitivity. Patients who are both ACE- and PPD-, particularly if white, may have a high enough risk of lymphoma to consider invasive biopsy.

  19. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  20. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy: issues and concerns.

    PubMed

    Stefanek, M E

    1995-01-01

    At present, the care of women at increased risk of developing breast cancer poses a clinical dilemma and remains an area of controversy. A number of investigators have addressed the pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy versus close follow-up, utilizing annual mammography, semiannual or even more frequent physical examinations of the breast, and proficient monthly breast self-examinations. Recent efforts to isolate a gene (BRCA1) on chromosome 17q12-21 raise additional concerns about the management of women testing positive for BRCA1 mutations. These women are estimated to have an 85% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. Testing for BRCA1 mutation carriers may soon be available for population screening. This article describes preliminary studies investigating health care provider and patient perceptions of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. In addition, a number of research questions remain regarding the efficacy and utilization of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy as a treatment option for women at increased risk of developing breast cancer. These women include those testing positive for BRCA1 mutations. In addition, women with a strong family history opting against testing for BRCA1 mutations may express interest in surgery. PMID:8573451

  1. Atypical Bilateral Fuchs Uveitis: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Cristóbal; Hurtado, Erika; Faingold, Dana; Demetrio, Carmen; Schlaen, Ariel; Zas, Marcelo; Zarate, Jorge; Rosetti, Silvia; de Lima, Andrea Paes; Croxatto, Juan Oscar; Chiaradía, Pablo; Burnier, Miguel N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Fuchs uveitis associated with vitreous infiltration and posterior segment involvement requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes identification of this entity difficult. The aim of this case report was to present the characteristics of a patient with atypical Fuchs uveitis and the procedures needed to rule out the differential diagnosis with specific attention to the utility of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Case Report One case of chronic bilateral uveitis with severe vitreous opacities is presented. After extensive systemic workup, including vitrectomy, the case had no identifiable systemic etiology. IVCM of the cornea revealed the presence of dendritiform keratic precipitates. Conclusion The diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis is based on clinical findings as no confirmatory laboratory tests are available. A high index of suspicion is key to an early diagnosis, especially in the cases with vitreous opacities and posterior segment manifestations. Auxiliary tests such as IVCM may aid the clinician in the diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis. PMID:26483668

  2. Bilateral Comparison in Chemosensory-Mediated Foraging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Rahman, S.; Dasi, L. P.

    2000-11-01

    Motivation is drawn from the need to determine the sensory cues that animals such as blue crabs and lobsters use to track chemical odor plumes to locate food or mates. Major steps forward with this difficult problem can only be achieved through an appreciation of the spatial and temporal variation of concentration fields and the information content available to a forager in the plume. Here we discuss the usefulness of bilateral comparison to an animal tracking a turbulent plume. Instantaneous concentration fields of a chemical plume diffusing in a fully-developed turbulent open channel flow are measured using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The plume is released iso-kinetically 25 mm above the smooth bed (z+ = 90), thus transport is mainly due to advection and ambient turbulence. A spatial correlation function in the spanwise direction is a dramatic indicator of the relative position of the centerline and distance from the source. The relative direction of the plume centerline can be estimated from an instantaneous bilateral comparison provided the sensors are separated by a distance that is relatively large compared to the spanwise integral length scale based on the spatial correlation function.

  3. Hiatus Hernia Repair with Bilateral Oesophageal Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite advances in surgical repair of hiatus hernias, there remains a high radiological recurrence rate. We performed a novel technique incorporating bilateral oesophageal fixation and evaluated outcomes, principally symptom improvement and hernia recurrence. Methods. A retrospective study was performed on a prospective database of patients undergoing hiatus hernia repair with bilateral oesophageal fixation. Retrospective and prospective quality of life (QOL), PPI usage, and patient satisfaction data were obtained. Hernia recurrence was assessed by either barium swallow or gastroscopy. Results. 87 patients were identified in the database with a minimum of 3 months followup. There were significant improvements in QOL scores including GERD HRQL (29.13 to 4.38, P < 0.01), Visick (3 to 1), and RSI (17.45 to 5, P < 0.01). PPI usage decreased from a median of daily to none, and there was high patient satisfaction (94%). 57 patients were assessed for recurrence with either gastroscopy or barium swallow, and one patient had evidence of recurrence on barium swallow at 45 months postoperatively. There was an 8% complication rate and no mortality or oesophageal perforation. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that our technique is both safe and effective in symptom control, and our recurrence investigations demonstrate at least short term durability. PMID:26065030

  4. Bilateral tension pneumothorax following equipment improvisation.

    PubMed

    Zambricki, Christine; Schmidt, Carol; Vos, Karen

    2014-02-01

    This case report describes an unexpected event that took place as a result of using improvised equipment. The patient, a 16-year-old female undergoing complex oral surgery, suffered bilateral pneumothorax following the improper use of an airway support device. During the immediate postoperative period with the patient still intubated, oxygen tubing was attached to a right angle elbow connector with the port closed and 10 L/minute oxygen flow was administered to the patient in a manner that did not allow the patient to exhale. Within seconds, pneumothorax was apparent as the patient's vital signs deteriorated, visible swelling was noted in the shoulders and neck, and there was an absence of breath sounds on auscultation. This case study has application beyond the immediate discussion of bilateral pneumothorax, serving as a caution about the unintended consequences of equipment improvisation. In addition to highlighting the hazards of providing patient care with a non-standard device, this study also provides a powerful example of the human factors that can contribute to medical errors in the healthcare setting. PMID:24654348

  5. Unusual Bilateral Rim Fracture in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Rafols, Claudio; Monckeberg, Juan Edo; Numair, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of one case of bilateral acetabular rim fracture in association with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), which was treated with a hip arthroscopic procedure, performing a partial resection, a labral reinsertion, and a subsequential internal fixation with cannulated screws. Up to date, there are in the literature only two reports of rim fracture and “os acetabuli” in association with FAI. In the case we present, the pincer and cam resection were performed without complications; the technique used was published previously. With this technique the head of the screw lays hidden by the reattached labrum. We removed partially the fractured rim fragment and the internal fixation of the remaining portion was achieved with a screw. In the event of a complete resection of the fragment, it would have ended with a LCE angle of 18° and a high probability of hip instability. We believe that this bilateral case helps establish the efficacy and reproducibility of the technique described by Larson. PMID:25722907

  6. Metachronous Bilateral Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Nowrasteh, Ghodratollah; Aziz, Tanim; Assas, Mohammed Al; Nuaimi, Lateefa Al; Marzouqi, Saeeda; Quadri, Asif A.M.; Alrawi, Sadir

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 44 • Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Soft tissue sarcomas Symptoms: Discomfort • swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Image guided biopsy • metastatic work up • neoadjuvant radiotherapy • radical resection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) account for approximately 1% of adult malignancies, with 50 to 60% occurring in the extremities. Liposarcoma is the most common type of STS and represent about 20% of total adult sarcomas. There are rare syndromes associated with increased risk of developing STS. Further, chemical compounds such as chlorinated phenols and a few chemotherapeutic drugs have been linked to STS, along with ionizing radiation. Nevertheless, the etiology is uncertain for most of these lesions. Case Report: This report details 2 cases of metachronous bilateral STS of the lower extremities. The first of these presented as a local recurrence of a previously resected right thigh liposarcoma and a new liposarcoma in the left thigh. As mentioned above, among the different subtypes of STS, liposarcoma has the highest tendency for multifocality. The second patient had multifocal metachronous leiomyosarcoma with lung metastases occurring simultaneously with the second presentation. Leiomyosarcoma is another subtype reported to present with multi-focal disease. Conclusions: Despite the rarity of bilateral lesions, their occurrence should not be overlooked in the initial diagnosis and follow-up of the initially detected tumor. Early detection can affect patient survival because their presence predicts unfavorable outcomes. PMID:26744032

  7. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds of dorsal laminae in horses after local anaesthesia of the palmar digital nerves or dorsal branches of the digital nerve.

    PubMed

    Paz, C F R; Magalhães, J F; Mendes, H M F; Rocha Junior, SdS; Belknap, J K; Alves, G E S; Faleiros, R R

    2016-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that the palmar digital nerves (PDNs), but not the dorsal branches (DBs) of the digital nerves, innervate the sensitive dorsal laminae of the equine foot by evaluating the effects of perineural anaesthesia of the PDNs and DBs separately on pain sensation evoked via mechanical stimulation of the dorsal laminae and other regions of the equine foot. Six clinically normal mares were used in a crossover design. A portable dynamometer was used to evaluate mechanical nociceptive thresholds at different points on the dorsal laminae, bulbs of the heel, coronary band and sole before and after the horses underwent perineural injection of PDNs or DBs with a local anaesthetic solution (treated group) or an isotonic saline solution (control group). Cornified tissue was removed from the sole and the dorsal aspect of the hoof wall before evaluations of mechanical nociceptive thresholds. Anaesthetising PDNs distal to the DBs increased mechanical nociceptive thresholds compared to baseline values (P <0.001) at sites assessed in the dorsal laminae, sole, and the bulbs of the heels. Anaesthetising DBs increased mechanical nociceptive thresholds compared to baseline values (P <0.01) only at sites assessed at the most proximal aspect of the foot (i.e., coronary band sites). In conclusion, PDNs, not DBs, are primarily responsible for pain signal transmission evoked by pressure in the dorsal laminae of the foot of clinically normal horses. PMID:27387735

  8. Gateways of ventral and dorsal streams in mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanxin; Gao, Enquan; Burkhalter, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    It is widely held that the spatial processing functions underlying rodent navigation are similar to those encoding human episodic memory (Doeller et al, 2010). Spatial and nonspatial information are provided by all senses including vision. It has been suggested that visual inputs are fed to the navigational network in cortex and hippocampus through dorsal and ventral intracortical streams (Whitlock et al, 2008), but this has not been shown directly in rodents. We have used cyto- and chemoarchitectonic markers, topographic mapping of receptive fields and pathway tracing to determine in mouse visual cortex whether the lateromedial (LM) and the anterolateral fields (AL), which are the principal targets of primary visual cortex (V1) (Wang and Burkhalter, 2007) specialized for processing nonspatial and spatial visual information (Gao et al, 2006), are distinct areas with diverse connections. We have found that the LM/AL border coincides with a change in type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m2AChR) expression in layer 4 and with the representation of the lower visual field periphery. Our quantitative analyses further show that LM strongly projects to temporal cortex as well as the lateral entorhinal cortex, which has weak spatial selectivity (Hargreaves et al, 2005). In contrast, AL has stronger connections with posterior parietal cortex, motor cortex and the spatially selective medial entorhinal cortex (Haftig et al, 2005). These results support the notion that LM and AL are architecturally, topographically and connectionally distinct areas of extrastriate visual cortex and that they are gateways for ventral and dorsal streams. PMID:21289200

  9. Crumbs 2 prevents cortical abnormalities in mouse dorsal telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Dudok, Jacobus J; Murtaza, Mariyam; Henrique Alves, C; Rashbass, Pen; Wijnholds, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The formation of a functionally integrated nervous system is dependent on a highly organized sequence of events that includes timely division and differentiation of progenitors. Several apical polarity proteins have been shown to play crucial roles during neurogenesis, however, the role of Crumbs 2 (CRB2) in cortical development has not previously been reported. Here, we show that conditional ablation of Crb2 in the murine dorsal telencephalon leads to defects in the maintenance of the apical complex. Furthermore, within the mutant dorsal telencephalon there is premature expression of differentiation proteins. We examined the physiological function of Crb2 on wild type genetic background as well as on background lacking Crb1. Telencephalon lacking CRB2 resulted in reduced levels of PALS1 and CRB3 from the apical complex, an increased number of mitotic cells and expanded neuronal domain. These defects are transient and therefore only result in rather mild cortical abnormalities. We show that CRB2 is required for maintenance of the apical polarity complex during development of the cortex and regulation of cell division, and that loss of CRB2 results in cortical abnormalities. PMID:26802325

  10. A role for dorsal and ventral hippocampus in response learning.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, C; Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Lazo, P S; Arias, J L

    2012-07-01

    The hippocampus and the striatum have been traditionally considered as part of different and independent memory systems despite growing evidence supporting that both brain regions may even compete for behavioral control in particular learning tasks. In this regard, it has been reported that the hippocampus could be necessary for the use of idiothetic cues in several types of spatial learning tasks. Accordingly, the ventral striatum receives strong anatomical projections from the hippocampus, suggesting a participation of both regions in goal-directed behavior. Our work examined the role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus on a response learning task. Cytochrome c oxidase (C.O.) quantitative histochemistry was used as an index of brain oxidative metabolism. In addition, determination of C.O. subunit I levels in the hippocampus by western blot analysis was performed to assess the contribution of this subunit to overall C.O. activity. Increased brain oxidative metabolism was found in most of the studied hippocampal subregions when experimental group was compared with a swim control group. However, no differences were found in the amount of C.O. subunit I expressed in the hippocampus by western blot analysis. Our results support that both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are associated with the use of response strategies during response learning. PMID:22507525

  11. Distinct representations and theta dynamics in dorsal and ventral hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Sébastien; Sirota, Anton; Patel, Jagdish; Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    Although anatomical, lesion and imaging studies of the hippocampus indicate qualitatively different information processing along its septo-temporal axis, physiological mechanisms supporting such distinction are missing. We found fundamental differences between the dorsal (dCA3) and the ventral-most parts (vCA3) of the hippocampus in both environmental representation and temporal dynamics. Discrete place fields of dCA3 neurons evenly covered all parts of the testing environments. In contrast, vCA3 neurons i) rarely showed continuous two-dimensional place fields, ii) differentiated open and closed arms of a radial maze, and iii) discharged similar firing patterns with respect to the goals, both on multiple arms of a radial maze and during opposite journeys in a zig-zag maze. In addition, theta power and the fraction of theta-rhythmic neurons were substantially reduced in the ventral as compared to dorsal hippocampus. We hypothesize that the spatial representation in the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus is progressively decreased. This change is paralleled with a reduction of theta rhythm and an increased representation of non-spatial information. PMID:20130187

  12. Involvement of dorsal hippocampus glutamatergic and nitrergic neurotransmission in autonomic responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Neto, T B; Scopinho, A A; Biojone, C; Corrêa, F M A; Resstel, L B M

    2014-01-31

    The dorsal hippocampus (DH) is a structure of the limbic system that is involved in emotional, learning and memory processes. There is evidence indicating that the DH modulates cardiovascular correlates of behavioral responses to stressful stimuli. Acute restraint stress (RS) is an unavoidable stress situation that evokes marked and sustained autonomic changes, which are characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP), intense heart rate (HR) increase and a decrease in cutaneous temperature. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor/nitric oxide (NO) pathway of the DH in the modulation of autonomic (arterial BP, HR and tail skin temperature) responses evoked by RS in rats. Bilateral microinjection of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP-7 (10 nmol/500 nL) into the DH attenuated RS-evoked autonomic responses. Moreover, RS evoked an increase in the content of NO₂/NO₃ in the DH, which are products of the spontaneous oxidation of NO under physiological conditions that can provide an indirect measurement of NO production. Bilateral microinjection of N-propyl-L-arginine (0.1 nmol/500 nL; N-propyl, a neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) inhibitor) or carboxy-PTIO (2 nmol/500 nL; c-PTIO, an NO scavenger) into the DH also attenuated autonomic responses evoked by RS. Therefore, our findings suggest that a glutamatergic system present in the DH is involved in the autonomic modulation during RS, acting via NMDA receptors and nNOS activation. Furthermore, the present results suggest that NMDA receptor/nNO activation has a facilitatory influence on RS-evoked autonomic responses. PMID:24269610

  13. Bilateral luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vikas; Pradhan, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture and luxatio erecta, both are rare by themselves, with only few reports of each. We report an unusual case of posttraumatic bilateral symmetrical shoulder dislocation involving luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture in a young male. To our knowledge, this is the first case of symmetrical bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture involving luxatio erecta dislocation from Indian subcontinent. PMID:26403880

  14. Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces: a case of occupational asthma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Waseem Asrar; Curl-Roper, Thomas; Helm, Jenifer; Houghton, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces (SBSP) are uncommon. This report presents the case of a previously well 19-year-old man with a diagnosis of SBSP and symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma. Despite bilateral bullectomy and pleurodesis using a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical technique, the pneumothorax reoccurred unilaterally and open surgery was performed. This case illustrates a rare condition of bilateral pneumothoraces presenting as a first presentation of occupational asthma and the issues surrounding its management. PMID:24027249

  15. Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces: a case of occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Khan, Waseem Asrar; Curl-Roper, Thomas; Helm, Jenifer; Houghton, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces (SBSP) are uncommon. This report presents the case of a previously well 19-year-old man with a diagnosis of SBSP and symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma. Despite bilateral bullectomy and pleurodesis using a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical technique, the pneumothorax reoccurred unilaterally and open surgery was performed. This case illustrates a rare condition of bilateral pneumothoraces presenting as a first presentation of occupational asthma and the issues surrounding its management. PMID:24027249

  16. Successful Reconstruction of Asymptomatic Bilateral External Carotid Artery Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Loja, Melissa N; Pevec, William C

    2016-04-01

    True aneurysms of the external carotid artery (ECA) are extremely rare with an unknown incidence and natural history. We present the successful operative management of an asymptomatic 65-year-old man found to have bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis and bilateral ECA aneurysms. His bilateral carotid arteries were reconstructed with bifurcated interposition grafts in a staged fashion. The patient recovered without sequelae and continues to be asymptomatic 1 year after reconstruction. We present the operative management of this rare case. PMID:26802292

  17. Spermatozoa protein alterations in infertile men with bilateral varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Cui, Zhihong; Ayaz, Ahmet; Gupta, Sajal; Willard, Belinda; Gopalan, Banu; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Among infertile men, a diagnosis of unilateral varicocele is made in 90% of varicocele cases and bilateral in the remaining varicocele cases. However, there are reports of under-diagnosis of bilateral varicocele among infertile men and that its prevalence is greater than 10%. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) extracted from spermatozoa cells of patients with bilateral varicocele and fertile donors. Subjects consisted of 17 men diagnosed with bilateral varicocele and 10 proven fertile men as healthy controls. Using the LTQ-orbitrap elite hybrid mass spectrometry system, proteomic analysis was done on pooled samples from 3 patients with bilateral varicocele and 5 fertile men. From these samples, 73 DEP were identified of which 58 proteins were differentially expressed, with 7 proteins unique to the bilateral varicocele group and 8 proteins to the fertile control group. Majority of the DEPs were observed to be associated with metabolic processes, stress responses, oxidoreductase activity, enzyme regulation, and immune system processes. Seven DEP were involved in sperm function such as capacitation, motility, and sperm-zona binding. Proteins TEKT3 and TCP11 were validated by Western blot analysis and may serve as potential biomarkers for bilateral varicocele. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of DEP and identified proteins with distinct reproductive functions which are altered in infertile men with bilateral varicocele. Functional proteomic profiling provides insight into the mechanistic implications of bilateral varicocele-associated male infertility. PMID:25999357

  18. New Technique for Dorsal Fragment Reduction in Distal Radius Fractures by Using Volar Bone Fenestration

    PubMed Central

    TSUCHIYA, Fumika; NAITO, Kiyohito; MOGAMI, Atsuhiko; OBAYASHI, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: For intra-articular distal radius fractures (AO Classification, type B2) with a displaced dorsal fragment, there remains much discussion on the fixation method for the dorsal fragment. To reduce the displaced dorsal fragment, we developed a new technique consisting of fenestration of the volar bone cortex, reduction using an intramedullary procedure, and fixation using a volar plate. This avoids necessity of dorsal approach. Technical Note: We performed this surgical technique in 2 patients and achieved a good reduced position without much injury to the bone cortex at the site of volar plate placement. This surgical technique allows reduction of the dorsal fragment using an intramedullary procedure by only a volar approach, and, therefore, does not affect the dorsal soft tissue (extensor tendon). For intra-articular distal radius fractures, complete reduction of the articular surface is extremely difficult, and, in patients with a remaining gap on the articular surface, a variable angle locking screw system may be useful. In the 2 patients, the angle of the locking screw was adjusted to catch the displaced dorsal fragment, and adequate reduction and fixation could be achieved. Conclusion: This technique using fenestration of the volar bone cortex allows reduction and fixation of the displaced dorsal fragment in distal radius fractures and thus avoids the necessity of a dorsal approach. PMID:27298898

  19. Core Promoter Functions in the Regulation of Gene Expression of Drosophila Dorsal Target Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Zehavi, Yonathan; Kuznetsov, Olga; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Developmental processes are highly dependent on transcriptional regulation by RNA polymerase II. The RNA polymerase II core promoter is the ultimate target of a multitude of transcription factors that control transcription initiation. Core promoters consist of core promoter motifs, e.g. the initiator, TATA box, and the downstream core promoter element (DPE), which confer specific properties to the core promoter. Here, we explored the importance of core promoter functions in the dorsal-ventral developmental gene regulatory network. This network includes multiple genes that are activated by different nuclear concentrations of Dorsal, an NFκB homolog transcription factor, along the dorsal-ventral axis. We show that over two-thirds of Dorsal target genes contain DPE sequence motifs, which is significantly higher than the proportion of DPE-containing promoters in Drosophila genes. We demonstrate that multiple Dorsal target genes are evolutionarily conserved and functionally dependent on the DPE. Furthermore, we have analyzed the activation of key Dorsal target genes by Dorsal, as well as by another Rel family transcription factor, Relish, and the dependence of their activation on the DPE motif. Using hybrid enhancer-promoter constructs in Drosophila cells and embryo extracts, we have demonstrated that the core promoter composition is an important determinant of transcriptional activity of Dorsal target genes. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the importance of core promoter composition in the regulation of Dorsal target genes. PMID:24634215

  20. Spatial convergence and divergence between cutaneous afferent axons and dorsal horn cells are not constant.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Harton, P; Millecchia, R; Lawson, J; Kunjara-Na-Ayudhya, T; Stephens, S; Miller, M A; Hicks, L; Culberson, J

    2000-05-01

    We have proposed a quantitative model of the development of dorsal horn cell receptive fields (RFs) and somatotopic organization (Brown et al. [1997] Somatosens. Motor Res. 14:93-106). One component of that model is a hypothesis that convergence and divergence of connections between low-threshold primary afferent mechanoreceptive axons and dorsal horn cells are invariant over skin location and dorsal horn location. The more limited, and more easily tested, hypothesis that spatial convergence and divergence between cutaneous mechanoreceptors and dorsal horn cell are constant was examined. Spatial divergence is the number of dorsal horn cells whose RFs overlap the RF center of a primary afferent, and spatial convergence is the number of afferent RF centers that lie within the RF of a dorsal horn cell. Innervation density was determined as a function of location on the hindlimb by using peripheral nerve recording and axon counting. A descriptive model of dorsal horn cell receptive fields (Brown et al. [1998] J. Neurophysiol. 31:833-848) was used to simulate RFs of the entire dorsal horn cell population in order to estimate RF area and map scale as a function of location on the hindlimb. Previously reported correlations among innervation density, map scale, and RF size were confirmed. However, these correlations were not linear. The hypothesis that spatial convergence and divergence are constant was rejected. The previously proposed model of development of dorsal horn cell somatotopy and RF geometries must be revised to take variable spatial convergence and divergence into account. PMID:10754502

  1. Network Profiles of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate and Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia During Hippocampal-Based Associative Memory.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Eric A; Wadehra, Sunali; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by brain network dysfunction, particularly during behavioral tasks that depend on frontal and hippocampal mechanisms. Here, we investigated network profiles of the regions of the frontal cortex during memory encoding and retrieval, phases of processing essential to associative memory. Schizophrenia patients (n = 12) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 10) participated in an established object-location associative memory paradigm that drives frontal-hippocampal interactions. Network profiles were modeled of both the dorsal prefrontal (dPFC) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as seeds using psychophysiological interaction analyses, a robust framework for investigating seed-based connectivity in specific task contexts. The choice of seeds was motivated by previous evidence of involvement of these regions during associative memory. Differences between patients and controls were evaluated using second-level analyses of variance (ANOVA) with seed (dPFC vs. dACC), group (patients vs. controls), and memory process (encoding and retrieval) as factors. Patients showed a pattern of exaggerated modulation by each of the dACC and the dPFC during memory encoding and retrieval. Furthermore, group by memory process interactions were observed within regions of the hippocampus. In schizophrenia patients, relatively diminished modulation during encoding was associated with increased modulation during retrieval. These results suggest a pattern of complex dysfunctional network signatures of critical forebrain regions in schizophrenia. Evidence of dysfunctional frontal-medial temporal lobe network signatures in schizophrenia is consistent with the illness' characterization as a disconnection syndrome. PMID:27092063

  2. Network Profiles of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate and Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia During Hippocampal-Based Associative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Eric A.; Wadehra, Sunali; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by brain network dysfunction, particularly during behavioral tasks that depend on frontal and hippocampal mechanisms. Here, we investigated network profiles of the regions of the frontal cortex during memory encoding and retrieval, phases of processing essential to associative memory. Schizophrenia patients (n = 12) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 10) participated in an established object-location associative memory paradigm that drives frontal-hippocampal interactions. Network profiles were modeled of both the dorsal prefrontal (dPFC) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as seeds using psychophysiological interaction analyses, a robust framework for investigating seed-based connectivity in specific task contexts. The choice of seeds was motivated by previous evidence of involvement of these regions during associative memory. Differences between patients and controls were evaluated using second-level analyses of variance (ANOVA) with seed (dPFC vs. dACC), group (patients vs. controls), and memory process (encoding and retrieval) as factors. Patients showed a pattern of exaggerated modulation by each of the dACC and the dPFC during memory encoding and retrieval. Furthermore, group by memory process interactions were observed within regions of the hippocampus. In schizophrenia patients, relatively diminished modulation during encoding was associated with increased modulation during retrieval. These results suggest a pattern of complex dysfunctional network signatures of critical forebrain regions in schizophrenia. Evidence of dysfunctional frontal-medial temporal lobe network signatures in schizophrenia is consistent with the illness’ characterization as a disconnection syndrome. PMID:27092063

  3. Kinetic diversity of dopamine transmission in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, I Mitch; Nesbitt, Kathryn M; Walters, Seth H; Varner, Erika L; Shu, Zhan; Bartlow, Kathleen M; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea S; Michael, Adrian C

    2015-05-01

    Dopamine (DA), a highly significant neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, operates on multiple time scales to affect a diverse array of physiological functions. The significance of DA in human health is heightened by its role in a variety of pathologies. Voltammetric measurements of electrically evoked DA release have brought to light the existence of a patchwork of DA kinetic domains in the dorsal striatum (DS) of the rat. Thus, it becomes necessary to consider how these domains might be related to specific aspects of DA's functions. Responses evoked in the fast and slow domains are distinct in both amplitude and temporal profile. Herein, we report that responses evoked in fast domains can be further classified into four distinct types, types 1-4. The DS, therefore, exhibits a total of at least five distinct evoked responses (four fast types and one slow type). All five response types conform to kinetic models based entirely on first-order rate expressions, which indicates that the heterogeneity among the response types arises from kinetic diversity within the DS terminal field. We report also that functionally distinct subregions of the DS express DA kinetic diversity in a selective manner. Thus, this study documents five response types, provides a thorough kinetic explanation for each of them, and confirms their differential association with functionally distinct subregions of this key DA terminal field. The dorsal striatum is composed of five significantly different dopamine domains (types 1-4 and slow, average ± SEM responses to medial forebrain bundle (MFB) stimulation are shown in the figure). Responses from each of these five domains exhibit significantly different ascending and descending kinetic profiles and return to a long lasting elevated dopamine state, termed the dopamine hang-up. All features of these responses are modeled with high correlation using first-order modeling as well as our recently published restricted diffusion

  4. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  5. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  6. Gorlin syndrome and bilateral ovarian fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Pirschner, Fernanda; Bastos, Pollyana Marçal; Contarato, George Luiz; Bimbato, Anna Carolina Bon Lima; Filho, Antônio Chambô

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gorlin syndrome (GS), also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is a rare hereditary, autosomal dominant disease that affects various systems. Its prevalence is estimated at 1/57,000 to 1/256,000 of the population. It is characterized by basal cell carcinomas, multiple odontogenic keratocysts, skeletal abnormalities and ovarian fibroma, among other disorders. PRESENTATION OF CASE To report the case of a young patient with Gorlin syndrome and bilateral ovarian fibroma. DISCUSSION A 20-year old patient with Gorlin syndrome presented with facial asymmetry, broad nasal root, dental abnormalities, micrognathism, convergent strabismus, multiple pigmented lesions on the trunk and face, pectus excavatum, kyphoscoliosis and a palpable mass in the abdomen occupying the entire pelvic region. CONCLUSION Gorlin–Goltz syndrome is a hereditary pathology that includes numerous clinical manifestations. Diagnosis is clinical and genetic confirmation is unnecessary. PMID:22771908

  7. Shared control in bilateral telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicker, Robert; Ow, Sing M.

    1995-12-01

    The paper describes the implementation of shared control in a force reflecting telerobotic system which has been carried out during the EC TELEMAN project INGRID. The experimental facility which has been developed at Newcastle comprises a Puma 762 robot which can be manually teleoperated by a Puma 260 robot, functioning as a generalized bilateral (or force reflecting) controller. The slave robot has been configured to support several autonomous force controlled tasks, which have been developed specifically for repair and maintenance operations in nuclear and/or other hazardous environments. The control architecture is based on a network of parallel processors, and the man-machine interface provides `soft-switching' of any axis to facilitate mixed mode and shared control which can be configured in both teleoperator and task based modes. A graphic display is also included to provide a visual indication of the magnitude of forces/torques exerted at the tool/environment interface.

  8. Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities ("sandstorm-like") in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with "crazy paving" appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

  9. Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities (“sandstorm-like”) in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with “crazy paving” appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

  10. Bilateral vision loss associated with radiofrequency exposure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dianna; Cruz, Franz Marie; Subramanian, Prem S

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with painless binocular vision loss 1 week after direct application of radiofrequency energy to her orbits. She had no light perception bilaterally. Pupils were dilated and not reactive to light. Fundoscopic exam initially showed optic disc swelling in the right eye and a normal-appearing disc in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits showed gadolinium enhancement of both intraorbital optic nerves. She underwent a course of high-dose steroid treatment without recovery of vision. Optic discs were pale 11 weeks after injury. With exclusion of other possible causes, this represents a unique case of irreversible binocular optic nerve damage and blindness secondary to radiofrequency exposure. PMID:23271888

  11. Bilateral mandibular fracture related to osteoradionecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Shikha; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan

    2015-01-01

    Mandible is the most frequently affected bone during head and neck irradiation. Late changes in the mandible may manifest in the form of reduced bone density, dental caries, loss of spongiosa trabeculations, delayed healing following dental extraction, pathologic fractures, osteoradionecrosis, trismus, growth defects in children or second malignancies. Pathologic fractures of mandibular bone are rare and may be spontaneous or traumatic (following dental extraction). We report the case of a 55-year lady, who had undergone surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for carcinoma oral tongue T2N0M0 on a cobalt-60 unit and was disease-free. After a follow-up of 8 years post-irradiation, she presented with sudden onset oral pain and inability to open mouth. Pantomogram showed fracture at the junction of body and ramus of the mandible bilaterally. PMID:26097342

  12. Computed tomography findings in bilateral perinephric lymphangiomatosis.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Aijaz; Gojwari, Tariq A; Reyaz, Sheikh; Rasool, Shubana; Shafi, Hakim; Mufti, Shahida

    2010-01-01

    Perinephric lymphangioma is rare disorder that may be confused with various forms of renal cystic diseases and urinomas. In this disorder a developmental malformation results in failure of developing lymphatic tissue to establish normal communication with the rest of lymphatic system. Once there is restricted drainage of lymphatic fluid the lymphatic channels dilate to form cystic masses that may be unilocular or multilocular and may be seen unilaterally or bilaterally .This condition presents with various signs and symptoms or can be just an incidental finding which in presence of misleading clinical history may be confused with other diseases. CT scan with delayed cuts and USG guided aspiration with biochemical analysis of fluid will help us in arriving to final diagnosis. PMID:20842254

  13. Bilateral taurodontism in primary dentition with hypodontia.

    PubMed

    Surendar, Marappan Natarajan; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Khanna, Richa

    2013-01-01

    Taurodontism is a rare dental anomaly in which there is an enlarged pulp chamber at the expense of roots with apical displacement of the pulpal floor, giving it a rectangular shape. It is caused by the failure of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath to invaginate at the proper horizontal level. Taurodontism has been reported as an intraoral feature of several syndromes like Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Hurler syndrome, etc. Association of taurodontism with hypodontia in permanent dentition has also been reported. Taurodontism in primary dentition and its association with hypodontia is very rarely reported in the literature. The present case illustrates bilateral taurodontism of primary mandibular molars with hypodontia in maxilla. PMID:23345504

  14. Subacute bilateral visual loss in methylmalonic acidemia.

    PubMed

    Traber, Ghislaine; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Schwarz, Urs; Pangalu, Athina; Donath, Marc Y; Landau, Klara

    2011-12-01

    A 23-year-old woman known to have methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) since birth suffered bilateral visual loss within 5 days. Multiple sclerosis, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, vasculitis, infections (in particular treponema), and vitamin deficiency were ruled out. The optic nerve head changed from normal in appearance to atrophic. Treatment attempts with high-dose intravenous steroids and coenzyme Q10 combined with vitamin E were ineffective. The patient's underlying disease was metabolically well controlled by strict diet and carnitine supplementation. Toxic damage of both optic nerves due to MMA is the most likely mechanism. MRI showed moderate enhancement of both optic nerves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a morphological correlate on MRI. PMID:21873889

  15. [Unilateral to bilateral pleurisy: Pleural tuberculosis?].

    PubMed

    Ben Ameur, S; Smaoui, S; Kamoun, F; Chabchoub, I; Kamoun, T; Messaadi, F; Aloulou, H; Hachicha, M

    2016-04-01

    Pleural tuberculosis is the first or second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis as well as the main cause of pleural effusion in many countries. It is rare in young infants and is more common in children over 10 years of age. We report the case of a 19-month-old girl admitted for prolonged fever with unilateral pleural effusion. The mother reported a history of lymph node tuberculosis 6 years previously. Intravenous antibiotics with cefotaxime and vancomycin were started. Thoracocentesis yielded a serosanguinous exudate fluid with a lymphocyte predominance. The tuberculin skin test and PCR GeneXpert(©) on pleural fluid were negative. The initial outcome was favorable, but the chest X-rays 10 days after discharge showed bilateral pleural effusion. Pleural biopsy was proposed but the culture of pleural fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The child was put under standard treatment for tuberculosis. The outcome was favorable. PMID:26922570

  16. Bilateral Scapulohumeral Ankylosis after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    van Lotten, Manon L; Schreinemakers, J Rieneke; van Noort, Arthur; Rademakers, Maarten V

    2016-09-01

    This case demonstrates a rarely reported bilateral scapulohumeral bony ankylosis. A young woman developed extensive heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in both shoulder joints after being mechanically ventilated for several months at the intensive care unit in a comatose status. She presented with a severe movement restriction of both shoulder joints. Surgical resection of the bony bridges was performed in 2 separate sessions with a significant improvement of shoulder function afterwards. No postoperative complications, pain, or recurrence of HOs were noted at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockage, and prolonged sedation are known risk factors for the development of HOs in the shoulder joints. Relatively early surgical resection of the HOs can be performed safely in contrary to earlier belief. Afterwards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or radiation therapy can be possible treatment modalities to prevent recurrence of HOs. PMID:27583120

  17. Bilateral Scapulohumeral Ankylosis after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemakers, J. Rieneke; van Noort, Arthur; Rademakers, Maarten V.

    2016-01-01

    This case demonstrates a rarely reported bilateral scapulohumeral bony ankylosis. A young woman developed extensive heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in both shoulder joints after being mechanically ventilated for several months at the intensive care unit in a comatose status. She presented with a severe movement restriction of both shoulder joints. Surgical resection of the bony bridges was performed in 2 separate sessions with a significant improvement of shoulder function afterwards. No postoperative complications, pain, or recurrence of HOs were noted at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockage, and prolonged sedation are known risk factors for the development of HOs in the shoulder joints. Relatively early surgical resection of the HOs can be performed safely in contrary to earlier belief. Afterwards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or radiation therapy can be possible treatment modalities to prevent recurrence of HOs. PMID:27583120

  18. Bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage: an unusual cause

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vasant; Malabu, Usman; Cameron, Donald; Sangla, Kunwarjit

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our patient had drainage of a large amoebic liver abscess. This got complicated by a severe degree of hypotension, which required aggressive fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone support. Computerised tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage (BAH) resulting in primary adrenal gland failure, which was the cause for hypotension. Patient was on long-term warfarin for provoked deep vein thrombosis of lower limb, which was discontinued before the procedure. Thrombophilia profile indicated the presence of lupus anticoagulant factor with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Patient was discharged on lifelong warfarin. This case emphasises the need for strong clinical suspicion for diagnosing BAH, rare but life-threatening condition, and its association with amoebic liver abscess and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS). Learning points Recognition of BAH as a rare complication of sepsis.APLS can rarely cause BAH. PMID:25276353

  19. Bilateral balanced articulation: science or dogma?

    PubMed

    Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Carreiro, Adriana da Fonte Porto

    2014-06-01

    For more than a hundred years, it has been supposed that canine guidance should be avoided in conventional complete dentures, since it would result in denture instability. Thus, bilateral balanced articulation has been held by many authors as fundamental for treatment success. However, randomized clinical trials have shown that balanced articulation is not as important as previously thought. The issue about which occlusal concept is the most appropriate for individual needs is clinically and economically relevant for both the dentist and dental technician. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide an evidence-based update on complete denture occlusion. Clinical Relevance: The issue about which occlusal concept is the most appropriate for individual needs is clinically and economically relevant. PMID:25073224

  20. Isolated tuberculous lymphadenitis presenting as bilateral buboes

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Arun Prasath; Samuel, Soumya; Vadivel, Sivasubramanian; Kothandapany, Srivenkateswaran

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal and femoral buboes are defined as localized enlargement of lymph nodes in the groin that are painful, and may or may not be fluctuant. We report a case of 42-year-old female who presented with bilateral inguinal swelling of 6 months duration. After a complete evaluation, she was found to be a case of isolated inguinal tuberculous lymphadenitis. There was complete resolution with standard antituberculous therapy. Isolated inguinal tuberculous lymphadenitis though a rare entity in developed countries is not uncommon in developing nations. In this era of syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases, which carries its own pros and cons, this case report emphasizes the need to look beyond the venereal causes and calls for thorough evaluation and management. PMID:26392662

  1. Synchronous Bilateral Testicular Tumors with Different Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Anastasiou, Ioannis; Deligiannis, Dimitrios; Skarmoutsos, Ioannis; Karaolanis, Georgios; Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Nonni, Afrodite; Mitropoulos, Dionysios; Constantinides, Constantinos A.

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old male presented to our outpatient department with the chief complaint of a painless mass on his right testis with gradual size increase over the past two months. Physical examination and ultrasound revealed a firm and nontender mass both on the right and on the left testis. The only elevated biomarker was b-hcG (24,7 mIU/mL) and computer tomography (CT) did not reveal any pathology. Bilateral high orchiectomies were performed, without previous frozen storage of the sperm. Histology proved typical seminoma of the left testis and embryonal carcinoma of the right testis. He received two cycles of adjuvant combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. Six months after the operation no residual tumor or recurrence was observed. PMID:26060594

  2. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shruti; Agito, Katrina; Krug, Esther I

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH) is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support. Despite primary coronary intervention, he remained hypotensive. Random cortisol level was low. He received stress dose hydrocortisone with immediate hemodynamic stability. BAH was highly suspected and was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal computed tomography. Prompt recognition and timely initiated treatment remain crucial to impact the mortality associated with acute adrenal insufficiency. PMID:27609733

  3. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Samir H.; Porrino, Jack A.; Green, John R.; Chew, Felix S.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation. PMID:26649121

  4. Bilateral mechanical rotational vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dargon, Phong T; Liang, Conrad W; Kohal, Anmol; Dogan, Aclan; Barnwell, Stanley L; Landry, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, or bow hunter's stroke, is reversible, positional symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. The typical mechanism of action is obstruction of a dominant vertebral artery with contralateral head rotation in the setting of baseline ipsilateral vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Here we present a rare case of mechanical occlusion of bilateral patent vertebral arteries manifesting as near syncope with rightward head rotation. Diagnostic cerebral angiography showed dynamic right C5 vertebral occlusion and left C2 vertebral occlusion. The patient underwent right C4/5 transverse process decompression. Postoperative angiogram showed patent flow through the right vertebral artery in neutral position and with head turn with resultant resolution of symptoms. PMID:23465174

  5. EVALUATION OF HYPERALGESIA AND HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES OF DORSAL ROOT GANGLION INDUCED BY NUCLEUS PULPOSUS

    PubMed Central

    Grava, André Luiz de Souza; Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the hyperalgesia and histological abnormalities induced by contact between the dorsal root ganglion and the nucleus pulposus. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were used, divided into two experimental groups. In one of the groups, a fragment of autologous nucleus pulposus was removed from the sacrococcygeal region and deposited on the L5 dorsal root ganglia. In the other group (control), a fragment of adipose tissue was deposited on the L5 dorsal root ganglia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated on the third day and the first, third, fifth and seventh weeks after the operation. A L5 dorsal root ganglion was removed in the first, third, fifth and seventh weeks after the operation for histological study using HE staining and histochemical study using specific labeling for iNOS. Results: Higher intensity of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was observed in the group of animals in which the nucleus pulposus was placed in contact with the dorsal root ganglion. In this group, the histological study showed abnormalities of the dorsal root ganglion tissue, characterized by an inflammatory process and axonal degeneration. The histopathological abnormalities of the dorsal root ganglion tissue presented increasing intensity with increasing length of observation, and there was a correlation with maintenance of the hyperalgesia observed in the behavioral assessment. Immunohistochemistry using specific labeling for iNOS in the group of animals in which the nucleus pulposus was placed in contact with the dorsal root ganglion showed higher expression of this enzyme in the nuclei of the inflammatory cells (glial cells) surrounding the neurons. Conclusion: Contact between the nucleus pulposus and the dorsal root ganglion induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and caused histological abnormalities in the dorsal root ganglion components. These abnormalities were characterized by an inflammatory and degenerative process in the structures of the dorsal root

  6. The consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory in mice depends on the intensity of the aversive stimulus: The involvement of the amygdala, dorsal hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Canto-de-Souza, L; Mattioli, R

    2016-04-01

    Several studies using inhibitory avoidance models have demonstrated the importance of limbic structures, such as the amygdala, dorsal hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, in the consolidation of emotional memory. However, we aimed to investigate the role of the amygdala (AMG), dorsal hippocampus (DH) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of mice in the consolidation of step-down inhibitory avoidance and whether this avoidance would be conditioned relative to the intensity of the aversive stimulus. To test this, we bilaterally infused anisomycin (ANI-40μg/μl, a protein synthesis inhibitor) into one of these three brain areas in mice. These mice were then exposed to one of two different intensities (moderate: 0.5mA or intense: 1.5mA) in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. We found that consolidation of both of the aversive experiences was mPFC dependent, while the AMG and DH were only required for the consolidation of the intense experience. We suggest that in moderately aversive situations, which do not represent a severe physical risk to the individual, the consolidation of aversive experiences does not depend on protein synthesis in the AMG or the DH, but only the mPFC. However, for intense aversive stimuli all three of these limbic structures are essential for the consolidation of the experience. PMID:26851130

  7. Anterior callosal section is useful for the removal of large tumors invading the dorsal part of the anterior third ventricle: operative technique and results.

    PubMed

    Shiramizu, Hideki; Hori, Tomokatsu; Matsuo, Seigo; Niimura, Kaku; Yoshimoto, Haruko; Ishida, Atsushi; Asakuno, Keizoh; Yuzawa, Miki; Moriyama, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    Large tumors invading the dorsal part of the anterior third ventricle are difficult to manage. The anterior transcallosal approach is usually used to manage these tumors. In our clinic, anterior callosal section was combined with the anterior interhemispheric (AIH) translamina terminalis approach for these tumors with excellent results. The AIH approach is useful for removing tumors in and around the anterior part of the third ventricle. However, AIH alone is insufficient for large tumors invading the dorsal part of the anterior third ventricle. In such situations, simple anterior callosal section enables the neurosurgeon to extirpate the caudal part of the tumors deeply hidden from operative field, sparing the foramen of Monro, fornix, etc. We treated four large tumors (malignant teratoma, recurrent chordoid glioma, recurrent papillary tumor of pineal region occupying the third ventricle, and paraventricular meningioma) without major complications. The malignant teratoma case exhibited no recurrence with >10 years follow-up. The chordoid glioma and papillary tumor of pineal region were totally removed. The meningioma was subtotally removed except only a small tumor around the bilateral anterior cerebral artery. This simple technique is a new way to manage difficult large lesions in and around the third ventricle. PMID:23568695

  8. CREB antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region impairs long- but not short-term spatial memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Florian, Cédrick; Mons, Nicole; Roullet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB) has a pivotal role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent long-term memory. We recently demonstrated that the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region is involved in memory consolidation of spatial information tested on a Morris water maze in mice. To test whether activation of CREB in the CA3 region is required for memory consolidation of spatial information, bilaterally cannulated mice were infused 18 h before the beginning of the behavioral training with antisense or control sense CREB oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) or buffer. Mice were then subjected to massed training in a spatial version of the water maze and tested for retention 0 or 24 h after the last training session. We showed that CREB antisense ODN-infusion in the CA3 region impaired long-term memory when tested 24 h later but had no effect on spatial acquisition or short-term memory tested immediately after behavioral training. These findings provide evidence that the regionally restricted activation of CREB in the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region is critical for the long-term memory consolidation phase of spatial learning but not for short-term memory. PMID:16882863

  9. Posterior thoracic laminoplasty with dorsal, intradural identification of ventral defect and transdural discectomy for a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak: case report.

    PubMed

    Pricola Fehnel, Katie; Borges, Lawrence F

    2015-05-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) has been increasingly reported in the literature concomitant with the improved sensitivity of imaging modalities. Although typically associated with meningeal weakening, a handful of cases of SIH secondary to thoracic disc osteophytes have been reported. Five of 7 reported cases were treated with epidural blood patch (EBP) alone while 2 required surgical management. There is no standard operative approach; both anterior and posterolateral approaches can be cumbersome and associated with morbidity, particularly in young, healthy patients. The authors report a case of SIH in which a ventral dural tear secondary to a calcified thoracic disc was repaired via posterior thoracic laminoplasty with dorsal durotomy and intradural exposure of the ventral defect with transdural discectomy followed by primary closure. A 34-year-old man presented with low-pressure headaches following axial load injury from a ski accident 5 years earlier. The patient's symptoms were refractory to a trial of conservative treatment and EBP, and he developed bilateral upper-extremity paresthesias. MRI of the spine demonstrated an extrathecal collection spanning the thoracic spine, and dynamic CT myelography identified contrast extravasation adjacent to a calcified paramedian disc at T9-10. The patient underwent posterior laminoplasty with neuromonitoring. A ventral dural defect was visualized via a dorsal durotomy, the penetrating disc osteophyte was removed transdurally, and the ventral and dorsal dura maters were closed primarily. Both somatosensory and motor evoked potentials were unchanged during surgery. The patient has remained asymptomatic more than 10 months postoperatively and he has resumed work as a surgeon. Cases of SIH secondary to a calcified thoracic disc are rare with little precedent as to optimal surgical intervention. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of posterior laminectomy in nonmyelopathic patients in whom there is no

  10. The Effects of Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy on Balance and Symmetry of Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Rumberg, Franziska; Bakir, Mustafa Sinan; Taylor, William R.; Haberl, Hannes; Sarpong, Akosua; Sharankou, Ilya; Lebek, Susanne; Funk, Julia F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with dysfunction of the upper motor neuron and results in balance problems and asymmetry during locomotion. Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a surgical procedure that results in reduced afferent neuromotor signals from the lower extremities with the aim of improving gait. Its influence on balance and symmetry has not been assessed. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of SDR on balance and symmetry during walking. Methods 18 children (10 girls, 8 boys; age 6 years (y) 3 months (m), SD 1y 8m) with bilateral spastic CP and Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to II underwent gait analysis before and 6 to 12 months after SDR. Results were compared to 11 typically developing children (TDC; 6 girls, 5 boys; age 6y 6m, SD 1y 11m). To analyse balance, sway velocity, radial displacement and frequency were calculated. Symmetry ratios were calculated for balance measures and spatio-temporal parameters during walking. Results Most spatio-temporal parameters of gait, as well as all parameters of balance, improved significantly after SDR. Preoperative values of symmetry did not vary considerably between CP and TDC group and significant postoperative improvement did not occur. Interpretation The reduction of afferent signalling through SDR improves gait by reducing balance problems rather than enhancing movement symmetry. PMID:27043310

  11. The Autospreader Flap for Midvault Reconstruction following Dorsal Hump Resection.

    PubMed

    Moubayed, Sami P; Most, Sam P

    2016-02-01

    Dorsal hump reduction without adequate reconstitution of the midvault can often result in cosmetic or functional problems. One of the simplest techniques to avoid these problems is the use of the excess upper lateral cartilage to reconstruct the midvault (the spreader flap or autospreader). Herein we outline the history of the technique and present the specific indications and contraindications, as well as describe our method for achieving it successfully. Case studies are presented with the specific indications. Grafting alternatives to the spreader flap are also outlined. The spreader flap technique offers multiple advantages, including maximal use of local tissues, simplicity, and airway preservation. Disadvantages are the use of an external approach and the inability to use it alone in the presence of severe asymmetries. PMID:26862962

  12. Serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus encode reward signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhong, Weixin; Wang, Daqing; Feng, Qiru; Liu, Zhixiang; Zhou, Jingfeng; Jia, Chunying; Hu, Fei; Zeng, Jiawei; Guo, Qingchun; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is involved in organizing reward-related behaviours; however, it remains unclear how genetically defined neurons in the DRN of a freely behaving animal respond to various natural rewards. Here we addressed this question using fibre photometry and single-unit recording from serotonin (5-HT) neurons and GABA neurons in the DRN of behaving mice. Rewards including sucrose, food, sex and social interaction rapidly activate 5-HT neurons, but aversive stimuli including quinine and footshock do not. Both expected and unexpected rewards activate 5-HT neurons. After mice learn to wait for sucrose delivery, most 5-HT neurons fire tonically during waiting and then phasically on reward acquisition. Finally, GABA neurons are activated by aversive stimuli but inhibited when mice seek rewards. Thus, DRN 5-HT neurons positively encode a wide range of reward signals during anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward responses. Moreover, GABA neurons play a complementary role in reward processing. PMID:26818705

  13. The supracerebellar infratentorial approach to the dorsal midbrain.

    PubMed

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    The supracerebellar infratentorial approach provides access to the dorsal midbrain, pineal region, and tentorial incisura. This approach can be used with the patient in a sitting, prone, park-bench, or supine position. For a patient with a supple neck and favorable anatomy, we prefer the supine position. The ipsilateral shoulder is elevated, the head turned to the contralateral side, the chin is tucked, and the neck extended toward the floor to open the craniocervical angle for added working room. Care must be taken to place the craniotomy laterally to make use of the ascending angle of the tentorium for ease of access to deep-seated lesions. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/BZh6ljmE23k . PMID:26722694

  14. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Gillian A; Nieh, Edward H; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Halbert, Sarah A; Pradhan, Roma V; Yosafat, Ariella S; Glober, Gordon F; Izadmehr, Ehsan M; Thomas, Rain E; Lacy, Gabrielle D; Wildes, Craig P; Ungless, Mark A; Tye, Kay M

    2016-02-11

    The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PAPERCLIP. PMID:26871628

  15. Synaptic inhibition and disinhibition in the spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptive signals originating in the periphery must be transmitted to the brain to evoke pain. Rather than being conveyed unchanged, those signals undergo extensive processing in the spinal dorsal horn. Synaptic inhibition plays a crucial role in that processing. On the one hand, neuropathy and inflammation are associated with reduced spinal inhibition; on the other hand, the hypersensitivity associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain can be reproduced by blocking inhibition at the spinal level. To understand the consequences of disinhibition and how to therapeutically reverse it, one must understand how synaptic inhibition normally operates. To that end, this chapter will discuss the structure and function of GABAA and glycine receptors together with the role of associated molecules involved in transmitter handling and chloride regulation. Mechanisms by which inhibition modulates cellular excitability will be described. The chapter will end with discussion of how inhibition goes awry under pathological conditions and what the implications are for the treatment of resulting pain. PMID:25744679

  16. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  17. Serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus encode reward signals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhong, Weixin; Wang, Daqing; Feng, Qiru; Liu, Zhixiang; Zhou, Jingfeng; Jia, Chunying; Hu, Fei; Zeng, Jiawei; Guo, Qingchun; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is involved in organizing reward-related behaviours; however, it remains unclear how genetically defined neurons in the DRN of a freely behaving animal respond to various natural rewards. Here we addressed this question using fibre photometry and single-unit recording from serotonin (5-HT) neurons and GABA neurons in the DRN of behaving mice. Rewards including sucrose, food, sex and social interaction rapidly activate 5-HT neurons, but aversive stimuli including quinine and footshock do not. Both expected and unexpected rewards activate 5-HT neurons. After mice learn to wait for sucrose delivery, most 5-HT neurons fire tonically during waiting and then phasically on reward acquisition. Finally, GABA neurons are activated by aversive stimuli but inhibited when mice seek rewards. Thus, DRN 5-HT neurons positively encode a wide range of reward signals during anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward responses. Moreover, GABA neurons play a complementary role in reward processing. PMID:26818705

  18. Dorsal Raphe Neurons Signal Reward through 5-HT and Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhixiang; Zhou, Jingfeng; Li, Yi; Hu, Fei; Lu, Yao; Ma, Ming; Feng, Qiru; Zhang, Ju-en; Wang, Daqing; Zeng, Jiawei; Bao, Junhong; Kim, Ji-Young; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Mestikawy, Salah El; Luo, Minmin

    2015-01-01

    Summary The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain is a key center for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) expressing neurons. Serotonergic neurons in the DRN have been theorized to encode punishment by opposing the reward signaling of dopamine neurons. Here, we show that DRN neurons encode reward, but not punishment, through 5-HT and glutamate. Optogenetic stimulation of DRN Pet-1 neurons reinforces mice to explore the stimulation-coupled spatial region, shifts sucrose preference, drives optical self-stimulation, and directs sensory discrimination learning. DRN Pet-1 neurons increase their firing activity during reward tasks and this activation can be used to rapidly change neuronal activity patterns in the cortnassociated with 5-HT, they also release glutamate, and both neurotransmitters contribute to reward signaling. These experiments demonstrate the ability of DRN neurons to organize reward behaviors and might provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of learning facilitation and anhedonia treatment. PMID:24656254

  19. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach. PMID:20809379

  20. Unusual Clinical Presentations of Cervical or Lumbar Dorsal Ramus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Jae; Ko, Myeong Jin; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Young Baeg; Chung, Chan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with cervical (CDRS) or lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome (LDRS) are characterized by neck or low back pain with referred pain to upper or lower extremities. However, we experienced some CDRS or LDRS patients with unusual motor or bladder symptoms. We analyzed and reviewed literatures on the unusual symptoms identified in patients with CDRS or LDRS. Methods This study included patients with unusual symptoms and no disorders of spine and central nervous system, a total of 206 CDRS/LDRS patients over the past 3 years. We diagnosed by using double diagnostic blocks for medial branches of dorsal rami of cervical or lumbar spine with 1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine for each block with an interval of more than 1 week between the blocks. Greater than 80% reduction of the symptoms, including unusual symptoms, was considered as a positive response. The patients with a positive response were treated with radiofrequencyneurotomy. Results The number of patients diagnosed with CDRS and LDRS was 86 and 120, respectively. Nine patients (10.5%) in the CDRS group had unusual symptoms, including 4 patients with motor weakness of the arm, 3 patients with tremors, and rotatory torticollis in 2 patients. Ten patients (8.3%) in the LDRS group showed unusual symptoms, including 7 patients with motor weakness of leg, 2 patients with leg tremor, and urinary incontinence in 1 patient. All the unusual symptoms combined with CDRS or LDRS were resolved after treatment. Conclusion It seems that the clinical presentationssuch as motor weakness, tremor, urinary incontinence without any other etiologic origin need to be checked for unusual symptoms of CDRS or LDRS. PMID:25110484

  1. Dorsal column myelopathy following intrathecal chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Prathap Jacob; Reyes, Maria Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective/context To describe a distinctive clinical and radiographic pattern of myelopathy following intrathecal chemotherapy. Myelopathy is a rare complication of intrathecal chemotherapy used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We present a 42-year-old female with T-cell ALL who developed a myelopathy primarily involving the dorsal columns. Method Case report and literature review. Findings Within 24 hours of an injection of intrathecal methotrexate, cytarabine, and hydrocortisone, the patient developed ascending lower limb numbness and balance difficulties progressing to the inability to ambulate. Clinical examination showed profound loss of lower limb proprioception and light touch sensation below T5, mild proximal limb weakness, but preserved pinprick and temperature sensation with intact bowel and bladder function. Initial thoracic and lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1 week revealed no abnormalities. However, repeat imaging at 6 weeks showed abnormal signal in the posterior cord with sparing of the anterior and lateral columns, diffusely involving the lower cervical cord through the conus medullaris. Dermatomal somatosensory-evoked potential (DSEP) conduction abnormalities were consistent with thoracic myelopathy. An empiric trial of high-dose intravenous corticosteroids during inpatient rehabilitation more than 6 weeks later produced no significant clinical improvement. Conclusion/clinical relevance Preferential and persistent dorsal column myelopathy is a distinctive clinical and radiographic presentation of a rare complication of intrathecal chemotherapy. The MRI abnormalities were initially absent, but evolved to consist of multi-level spinal cord T2 and STIR hyperintensity with regional gadolinium enhancement. DSEPs more accurately reflected the clinical level of spinal cord dysfunction. PMID:24090227

  2. Modulation of Morphogenesis by Egfr during Dorsal Closure in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Olga; Cheng, David Chung-Pei; Reed, Bruce; Harden, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    During Drosophila embryogenesis the process of dorsal closure (DC) results in continuity of the embryonic epidermis, and DC is well recognized as a model system for the analysis of epithelial morphogenesis as well as wound healing. During DC the flanking lateral epidermal sheets stretch, align, and fuse along the dorsal midline, thereby sealing a hole in the epidermis occupied by an extra-embryonic tissue known as the amnioserosa (AS). Successful DC requires the regulation of cell shape change via actomyosin contractility in both the epidermis and the AS, and this involves bidirectional communication between these two tissues. We previously demonstrated that transcriptional regulation of myosin from the zipper (zip) locus in both the epidermis and the AS involves the expression of Ack family tyrosine kinases in the AS in conjunction with Dpp secreted from the epidermis. A major function of Ack in other species, however, involves the negative regulation of Egfr. We have, therefore, asked what role Egfr might play in the regulation of DC. Our studies demonstrate that Egfr is required to negatively regulate epidermal expression of dpp during DC. Interestingly, we also find that Egfr signaling in the AS is required to repress zip expression in both the AS and the epidermis, and this may be generally restrictive to the progression of morphogenesis in these tissues. Consistent with this theme of restricting morphogenesis, it has previously been shown that programmed cell death of the AS is essential for proper DC, and we show that Egfr signaling also functions to inhibit or delay AS programmed cell death. Finally, we present evidence that Ack regulates zip expression by promoting the endocytosis of Egfr in the AS. We propose that the general role of Egfr signaling during DC is that of a braking mechanism on the overall progression of DC. PMID:23579691

  3. Anatomic considerations for dorsal sacral plate-screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Xu, R; Ebraheim, N A; Mohamed, A; el-Gamal, H; Yeasting, R A

    1995-10-01

    Five cadaveric pelves and 40 dry bony specimens were used to assess the feasibility of the lumbosacral plate fixation extending to beyond the S1 region and quantitatively to evaluate the posterior sacroiliac region and the dimensions of S1 and S2 pedicle and lateral mass. Partial removal of the posterior ilium was undertaken to measure the surface area available for plate fixation on the dorsal aspect of the sacrum. The results showed that the average distances between the outer edges of S1 and S2 dorsal foramina and the medial edge of the posterior ilium increased from 11.3 mm before removal of a portion of the medial posterior ilium to 16.6 mm after removal at the S1 level, and from 8.4 mm before removal of partial medial posterior ilium to 13 mm after removal at the S2 level, respectively. The average depths of the S1 and S2 pedicles were 37.1 and 32.2 mm in the direction anteromedial to the sagittal plane, respectively. The average depths of the S1 and S2 lateral mass were 37.3 and 33.9 mm in the direction anterolateral to the sagittal plane, respectively. In cases of vertebral metastases or osteoporosis, plating extending to S2 may be needed if good bony purchase cannot be achieved by the S1 pedicle or lateral mass screw. This study suggested also that partial removal of the posterior ilium enhances the space on the posterior aspect of the sacrum without severe compromise of the sacroiliac joint. PMID:8563154

  4. Inhibitory Injury Signaling Represses Axon Regeneration After Dorsal Root Injury.

    PubMed

    Mar, Fernando M; Simões, Anabel R; Rodrigo, Inês S; Sousa, Mónica M

    2016-09-01

    Following injury to peripheral axons, besides increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), the positive injury signals extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) are locally activated and retrogradely transported to the cell body, where they induce a pro-regenerative program. Here, to further understand the importance of injury signaling for successful axon regeneration, we used dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons that have a central branch without regenerative capacity and a peripheral branch that regrows after lesion. Although injury to the DRG central branch (dorsal root injury (DRI)) activated ERK, JNK, and STAT-3 and increased cAMP levels, it did not elicit gain of intrinsic growth capacity nor the ability to overcome myelin inhibition, as occurred after peripheral branch injury (sciatic nerve injury (SNI)). Besides, gain of growth capacity after SNI was independent of ERK and cAMP. Antibody microarrays of dynein-immunoprecipitated axoplasm from rats with either DRI or SNI revealed a broad differential activation and transport of signals after each injury type and further supported that ERK, JNK, STAT-3, and cAMP signaling pathways are minor contributors to the differential intrinsic axon growth capacity of both injury models. Increased levels of inhibitory injury signals including GSK3β and ROCKII were identified after DRI, not only in axons but also in DRG cell bodies. In summary, our work shows that activation and transport of positive injury signals are not sufficient to promote increased axon growth capacity and that differential modulation of inhibitory molecules may contribute to limited regenerative response. PMID:26298667

  5. High plasticity in epithelial morphogenesis during insect dorsal closure

    PubMed Central

    Panfilio, Kristen A.; Oberhofer, Georg; Roth, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    Summary Insect embryos complete the outer form of the body via dorsal closure (DC) of the epidermal flanks, replacing the transient extraembryonic (EE) tissue. Cell shape changes and morphogenetic behavior are well characterized for DC in Drosophila, but these data represent a single species with a secondarily reduced EE component (the amnioserosa) that is not representative across the insects. Here, we examine DC in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, providing the first detailed, functional analysis of DC in an insect with complete EE tissues (distinct amnion and serosa). Surprisingly, we find that differences between Drosophila and Tribolium DC are not restricted to the EE tissue, but also encompass the dorsal epidermis, which differs in cellular architecture and method of final closure (zippering). We then experimentally manipulated EE tissue complement via RNAi for Tc-zen1, allowing us to eliminate the serosa and still examine viable DC in a system with a single EE tissue (the amnion). We find that the EE domain is particularly plastic in morphogenetic behavior and tissue structure. In contrast, embryonic features and overall kinetics are robust to Tc-zen1RNAi manipulation in Tribolium and conserved with a more distantly related insect, but remain substantially different from Drosophila. Although correct DC is essential, plasticity and regulative, compensatory capacity have permitted DC to evolve within the insects. Thus, DC does not represent a strong developmental constraint on the nature of EE development, a property that may have contributed to the reduction of the EE component in the fly lineage. PMID:24244847

  6. Hierarchical bilateral filtering based disparity estimation for view synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hong-Chang; Lee, Gwangsoon; Cheong, Won-Sik; Hur, Namho

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a high efficient and practical disparity estimation using hierarchical bilateral filtering for real-time view synthesis. The proposed method is based on hierarchical stereo matching with hardware-efficient bilateral filtering. Hardware-efficient bilateral filtering is different from the exact bilateral filter. The purpose of the method is to design an edge-preserving filter that can be efficiently parallelized on hardware. The proposed hierarchical bilateral filtering based disparity estimation is essentially a coarse-to-fine use of stereo matching with bilateral filtering. It works as follows: firstly, the hierarchical image pyramid are constructed; the multi-scale algorithm then starts by applying a local stereo matching to the downsampled images at the coarsest level of the hierarchy. After the local stereo matching, the estimated disparity map is refined with the bilateral filtering. And then the refined disparity map will be adaptively upsampled to the next finer level. The upsampled disparity map used as a prior of the corresponding local stereo matching at the next level, and filtered and so on. The method we propose is essentially a combination of hierarchical stereo matching and hardware-efficient bilateral filtering. As a result, visual comparison using real-world stereoscopic video clips shows that the method gives better results than one of state-of-art methods in terms of robustness and computation time.

  7. A prospective study of bilateral inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, J. W.; Johnson, C. D.; Jarrett, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of outcome after inguinal hernia repair in patients undergoing simultaneous repair of bilateral hernias (n = 31), sequential repair of bilateral hernias (n = 5), and unilateral hernia repair (n = 75) is reported. There were no differences in wound complications, post-operative respiratory complications, or other adverse effects in the three groups. Operating time was similar in the unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs (median 55 min), but was longer (100 min) for the combination of two sequential repairs. Hospital stay was shortest for patients undergoing unilateral repair (2 days) but was less with bilateral simultaneous repair (4 days) than after two sequential repairs (total of 6 days). There were 12 (11%) wound complications of which five (5%) were infections. There was no difference in complication rate between unilateral and bilateral hernia repair. Postoperative recovery was assessed prospectively and was recorded at 1 month. There was no difference between unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs in the number of days before the patient was able to climb stairs easily, drive a car or return to work. The duration of the requirement for analgesia was similar in each group. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous hernia repair can be carried out with no greater morbidity than a unilateral repair, and the return to normal activity is as rapid. Bilateral hernias should be repaired simultaneously rather than sequentially. PMID:2221764

  8. Bilateral congenital ureteral strictures in a young cat

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namsoon; Choi, Mihyun; Keh, Seoyeon; Oh, Yein; Seo, Jimin; Choi, Heeyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Yoon, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old cat was presented with bilateral hydronephrosis. Bilateral ureteral obstructions were identified by diagnostic imaging and confirmed by necropsy. Histopathologic findings revealed polypoid transitional epithelial hyperplasia with chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. This report documents congenital ureteral strictures as a cause of ureteral obstruction in a young cat. PMID:25183890

  9. UNITED STATES/GERMAN TECHNICAL BILATERAL AGREEMENT: PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) entered into a Bilateral Agreement in 1990 to study each country's efforts in developing and demonstrating remedial technologies. The bilateral agreement is being impl...

  10. Bilateral Cochlear Implantation in Children: Experiences and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Andrea; Spitzlei, Vera; Lippert, Karl L.; Keilmann, Annerose

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2006, the University Clinic for Ear Nose and Throat and Communication Disorders in Mainz, Germany, performed 41 bilateral cochlear implantations in children. This article addresses some of the factors to be considered in a decision to bilaterally implant a child, including the age of the child at the first implant, the length of…

  11. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    PubMed Central

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  12. Bilateral nasolabial cysts - case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Aruna R; Singh, Abhinav Pratap; Nandikoor, Shrivalli; Meganathan, Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Nasolabial cyst is a non-odontogenic, extraosseous, soft tissue cyst, commonly unilateral, located in the nasolabial fold. Bilateral nasolabial cysts are of rare occurrence. This case report describes the multimodality imaging appearance of bilateral nasolabial cysts with a review of literature.

  13. Sturge-Weber syndrome with bilateral intracranial calcification.

    PubMed Central

    Boltshauser, E; Wilson, J; Hoare, R D

    1976-01-01

    Four children affected by Sturge-Weber syndrome and demonstrating bilateral intracranial calcification are described, bringing up to 21 the number of similar reported cases. The frequency of bilateral hemisphere involvement in this syndrome is not known, but it might be as high as 15%. If present, neurosurgical intervention is, in our opinion, contraindicated. Images PMID:932761

  14. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture while playing basketball.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Jooma, N

    2002-04-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury in healthy people and only a few cases have been reported in athletes. This is the first report of a patient with simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture incurred while playing basketball. The injury was surgically repaired and the patient had a good functional outcome. PMID:11916903

  15. Bilateral familial Hirayama disease in a father and daughter

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjay; Jain, Shruti

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a case of bilateral familial Hirayama disease where a father and daughter are the affected members of the family with the similar distribution of their weakness and wasting. To the best of our knowledge, bilateral familial Hirayama disease has not been described in father and daughter. PMID:27293344

  16. Chronic Cough and Bilateral Pneumothoraces in a Nonsmoker.

    PubMed

    O'Beirne, Sarah L; Escalon, Joanna G; Arkin, Jordan E; Stiles, Brendon M; Kaner, Robert J; Legasto, Alan C; Narula, Navneet; King, Thomas C

    2016-02-01

    An 82-year-old Japanese nonsmoking man presented with persistent dry cough and small left apical pneumothorax. High resolution CT scan of the chest demonstrated bilateral upper lobe pleuroparenchymal thickening and architectural distortion. Serial imaging revealed mild progression and development of small bilateral pneumothoraces, and pneumomediastinum. A surgical lung biopsy was required to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:26867855

  17. Leg Weakness Caused by Bilateral Piriformis Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee Bong; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Gi Hyeong; Lee, Ho Jun; Kim, Chang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome (PS) is an uncommon neuromuscular disorder caused by the piriformis muscle (PM) compressing the sciatic nerve (SN). The main symptom of PS is sciatica, which worsens with certain triggering conditions. Because the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there are no definite diagnostic and therapeutic choices for PS. This case report presents a young woman who mainly complained of bilateral leg weakness. Electromyography revealed bilateral sciatic neuropathy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed structural lesions causing entrapment of the bilateral SNs. After a laborious diagnosis of bilateral PS, she underwent PM releasing surgery. Few PS cases present with bilateral symptoms and leg weakness. Therefore, in such cases, a high level of suspicion is necessary for accurate and prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26798622

  18. Bilateral choroidal melanoma--case analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Joanna; Strzałka, Anna; Markiewicz, Anna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena; Bogdali, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular neoplasm in adults. Its bilateral localization is extremely rare. The aim of the paper is analysis of the cases of bilateral uveal melanoma. Five bilateral uveal melanoma patients were diagnosed in the Department of Ophtalmology and Ocular Oncology beetwen 1980 and 2014. Both eyes of four patients were threated with brachytherapy. Final enulcleation of the one eye was performed in three patients. It was the primary treatment in one patient. The presence of uveal melanoma was confirmed by pathological examination in all cases after surgical removal of eyeball and in one after local resection of iris tumor. Metastatic lesions were diagnosed in lungs and liver in two patients. Three patients are still followed-up at our institution. The possibility of bilateral uveal melanoma should considered although it is extremely rare. bilateral uveal melanoma, brachytherapy, enucleation. PMID:26638545

  19. Bilateral Clavicle Fractures: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Kavin; Sharma, Vijay; Farooque, Kamran; Sharma, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral clavicle fractures are uncommonly reported in the literature with the incidence being less than 0.5% of all the clavicle fractures. Bilateral clavicle fractures are caused either by high-energy transfer of compression forces across both shoulder girdles or by a direct trauma to one clavicle followed by that to the other clavicle. These fractures could be missed due to their association with more severe chest injuries or a more symptomatically displaced fracture on one side or due to inadequate chest radiographs. We report three cases of traumatic bilateral clavicle fractures with three modes of injuries in different age groups. All the fractures were treated conservatively with good functional outcomes without any sequelae. Bilateral clavicle fractures should be actively sought by every trauma team with proper clinical examination and chest radiographs including both shoulder joints in high-energy trauma cases or with bilateral shoulder compression injuries. PMID:27504365

  20. Osteomyelitis of Bilateral Femoral Heads After Childbirth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kong, Sangwon; Kim, Junho; Kim, Taikon; Choi, Chan Beom; Kim, Yee-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Hip and pelvic pain during pregnancy or after delivery is a common problem in young females, and in most cases this problem has a self-limiting course. The patient described in this case suffered from severe hip pain after childbirth. MR imaging study was performed and it showed arthritis of bilateral hip joints and osteomyelitis of femoral heads with an abscess in the surrounding muscle. Infection, such as septic arthritis or osteomyelitis, is an extremely rare cause of peripartum joint pain. The patient's clinical symptoms and laboratory findings improved with antibiotic therapy. However, limitation of motion of the bilateral hip joints persisted although the patient continued rehabilitative therapy for 15 months, and the patient had to undergo bilateral total hip replacement. Hereby, we present a case of severe osteomyelitis and pyogenic arthritis of bilateral femoral heads and hip joints after delivery, which eventually required bilateral total hip replacement. PMID:26161359

  1. Bilateral ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistula: unexpected surgical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ros de San Pedro, Javier; Pérez, Claudio J Piqueras; Parra, Joaquín Zamarro; López-Guerrero, Antonio López; Sánchez, Juan F Martínez-Lage

    2010-12-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs) are infrequent lesions, the most common locations of which are the cavernous, sigmoid and transverse sinuses. The cribiform plate is one of the less frequent sites for DAVFs, where they entail a high hemorrhage risk. Feeding arteries for ethmoidal DAVFs can be uni- or bilateral. However, the draining fistulous system has classically been described as unilateral. The authors report the second case in literature of bilateral ethmoidal DAVF, which is defined as that with bilateral draining veins. The present case was diagnosed only after surgical exploration of both cribiform plates. No preoperative radiological test could detect the presence of a bilateral venous draining system from the ethmoidal DAVF. Possible reasons for that lack of presurgical diagnosis are discussed. Bilateral surgical exploration of the anterior cranial fossa is recommended when dealing with ethmoidal DAVFs, even when they seem to be unilateral on preoperative studies. PMID:20727670

  2. Ampullary carcinoma in a patient with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Jitendra H; Yadav, Amitabh; Nundy, Samiran

    2015-04-01

    The most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas is pancreatic divisum (Tadokoro et al. in Anat Res Int 2011:1-7, 2011). Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is extremely rare (Schnedl et al. in World J Gastroenterol 15(3):376-377, 2009). We are reporting a case of agenesis of dorsal pancreas presented with ampullary carcinoma. PMID:25972636

  3. Investigating the Functional Integrity of the Dorsal Visual Pathway in Autism and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Gibson, Lisa Y.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous reports of elevated global motion thresholds across a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders have prompted researchers to suggest that abnormalities in global motion perception are a result of a general deficiency in the dorsal visual pathway. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the integrity of the dorsal visual pathway at lower…

  4. Trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn (dis)continuity and avian evolution.

    PubMed

    Wild, J Martin; Krützfeldt, Nils O E; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2010-01-01

    The organization of the dorsal horn in the avian spinal cord differs in different species. For instance, in pigeons and doves, cranes, cuckoos, songbirds, ratites and tinamous, the dorsal horn is organized in laminar fashion, such that laminae II and III are sandwiched between lamina I dorsally and lamina IV ventrally, as they are in mammals and other nonavian amniotes. In most other avian species, including chickens, however, the organization of the dorsal horn is not strictly laminar, in that the structures homologous to laminae II and III lie side by side rather than in dorsoventral order. Because spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns are generally thought to be continuous, the question arises as to the organization of the trigeminal dorsal horn in these species. We examined this question in chickens, first by defining II and III of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns using calcium-binding protein immunohistochemistry, and second by determining the caudal extent of the projections of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve using injections of cholera toxin B chain. It was found (1) that the trigeminal dorsal horn and the spinal dorsal horn of the first 2 cervical segments are organized in laminar fashion, but further caudally, II and III in the spinal dorsal horn gradually come to be arranged side by side and (2) that the descending trigeminal tract terminates no further caudal than the 3rd spinal segment. Therefore, unlike spinal nerves, trigeminal nerve branches do not project to II and III, once these cease to be organized in laminar fashion. These findings imply some kind or organizational discontinuity of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns in the chicken and perhaps in other species with a side-by-side arrangement of II and III. It has also been suggested that the condition in which the spinal dorsal horn structures homologous to laminae II and II lie side by side may define a novel clade of birds. This suggestion was reexamined within the context of a

  5. Comparative gait initiation kinematics between simulated unilateral and bilateral ankle hypomobility: Does bilateral constraint improve speed performance?

    PubMed

    Delafontaine, A; Honeine, J-L; Do, M-C; Gagey, O; Chong, R K

    2015-08-31

    Improvement of motor performance in unilateral upper limb motor disability has been shown when utilizing inter-limb coupling strategies during physical rehabilitation. This suggests that 'default' bilateral central motor commands are facilitated. Here, we tested whether this bilateral motor control principle may be generalized to the lower limbs during gait initiation, which involves alternate bilateral actions. Disability was simulated by strapping to produce ankle hypomobility. Healthy adult subjects initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint (control), or with the stance, swing or bilateral ankles strapped. The duration of the anticipatory postural adjustments lengthened and the center of mass instantaneous progression velocity at foot-off decreased when the ankle was strapped. During the step execution phase, progression velocity at foot-contact was higher when both ankles were strapped compared to unilateral strapping of the stance ankle. These findings suggest that bilateral central motor commands are favored during walking tasks. Indeed, unilateral constraint of the stance ankle should compel the central nervous system to adapt specific commands to the constraint and normal sides whereas the 'default' bilateral motor commands would be utilized when both ankles are strapped leading to better kinematics performance. Bilateral in-phase upper limb coordination and bilateral alternating lower limb locomotor movements may share similar control mechanisms. PMID:26197055

  6. The dorsal prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices exert complementary network signatures during encoding and retrieval in associative memory.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Eric A; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive control includes processes that facilitate execution of effortful cognitive tasks, including associative memory. Regions implicated in cognitive control during associative memory include the dorsal prefrontal (dPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Here we investigated the relative degrees of network-related interactions originating in the dPFC and dACC during oscillating phases of associative memory: encoding and cued retrieval. Volunteers completed an established object-location associative memory paradigm during fMRI. Psychophysiological interactions modeled modulatory network interactions from the dPFC and dACC during memory encoding and retrieval. Results were evaluated in second level analyses of variance with seed region and memory process as factors. Each seed exerted differentiable modulatory effects during encoding and retrieval. The dACC exhibited greater modulation (than the dPFC) on the fusiform and parahippocampal gyrus during encoding, while the dPFC exhibited greater modulation (than the dACC) on the fusiform, hippocampus, dPFC and basal ganglia. During retrieval, the dPFC exhibited greater modulation (than the dACC) on the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, superior parietal lobule, and dPFC. The most notable finding was a seed by process interaction indicating that the dACC and the dPFC exerted complementary modulatory control on the hippocampus during each of the associative memory processes. These results provide evidence for differentiable, yet complementary, control-related modulation by the dACC and dPFC, while establishing the primacy of dPFC in exerting network control during both associative memory phases. Our approach and findings are relevant for understanding basic processes in human memory and psychiatric disorders that impact associative memory-related networks. PMID:25960314

  7. Bilateral cochlear implantation: current concepts, indications, and results.

    PubMed

    Basura, Gregory J; Eapen, Rose; Buchman, Craig A

    2009-12-01

    The optimal treatment for bilateral hearing loss continues to evolve as cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid technologies advance, as does our understanding of the central auditory system. Ongoing discussions continue on the validity and feasibility of bilateral CI in terms of performance, justification of need, medical/surgical safety concerns, and economics. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on the advantages and disadvantages of bilateral CI and to provide a discussion on timing (simultaneous vs. sequential), technology (bimodal vs. binaural) and feasibility. Binaural advantages are found in both adult and pediatric bilateral CI recipients, the greatest being the head shadow effect and improvements in localization and loudness summation. This theoretically offers an advantage over their unilateral implanted counterparts in terms of improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception under noisy conditions. Most investigators agree that bilateral stimulation during critical periods of development is paramount for optimizing auditory functioning in children. Currently, bilateral CI is widely accepted as a safe and effective means of bilateral auditory stimulation. PMID:19894280

  8. Speckle reducing bilateral filter for cattle follicle segmentation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ultrasound imaging technology has wide applications in cattle reproduction and has been used to monitor individual follicles and determine the patterns of follicular development. However, the speckles in ultrasound images affect the post-processing, such as follicle segmentation and finally affect the measurement of the follicles. In order to reduce the effect of speckles, a bilateral filter is developed in this paper. Results We develop a new bilateral filter for speckle reduction in ultrasound images for follicle segmentation and measurement. Different from the previous bilateral filters, the proposed bilateral filter uses normalized difference in the computation of the Gaussian intensity difference. We also present the results of follicle segmentation after speckle reduction. Experimental results on both synthetic images and real ultrasound images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter. Conclusions Compared with the previous bilateral filters, the proposed bilateral filter can reduce speckles in both high-intensity regions and low intensity regions in ultrasound images. The segmentation of the follicles in the speckle reduced images by the proposed method has higher performance than the segmentation in the original ultrasound image, and the images filtered by Gaussian filter, the conventional bilateral filter respectively. PMID:21047390

  9. Bilateral follicular cysts in a water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Nabi, S U; Pande, Megha; Das, G K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The present short communication puts on record a case of bilateral, multiple follicular cysts in a water buffalo along with a detailed description of its ovarian biometry and follicular fluid composition. The ovarian weight and biometrical parameters were much higher than in normal cycling buffaloes. A total of three follicular cysts were observed, two on the right ovary and one on the left ovary, measuring 4.9, 3.0 and 2.6 cm yielding 21, 9 and 5 ml of follicular fluid, respectively. The cystic fluid was deep yellow in colour with a viscous consistency. The follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and progesterone in all the cysts were within the range reported previously in normal buffalo follicular fluid; however, the alkaline phosphatase concentration in cyst 1 and total bilirubin concentration in cysts 1 and 2 were higher than the values in normal follicular fluid. In contrast, the levels of urea nitrogen in cysts 1 and 3, and oestradiol in cyst 3 were lower than the normal values. All the three follicles had an oestradiol to progesterone ratio less than 1. The results of our study suggest that follicular cysts in buffalo are oestrogenically inactive and have an altered concentration of certain biochemical and hormonal constituents. PMID:21086160

  10. Bilateral cervical ribs in a Dobermann Pinscher.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, M; De Simone, A; Gernone, F; Giannuzzi, P

    2015-01-01

    An 11-year-old intact female Doberman Pinscher was presented with the complaint of non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Clinical and neurological examination revealed a caudal cervical spinal cord disfunction (C6-T2 spinal cord segments). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic (CT) findings of the cervical spine were consistent with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM). During the diagnostic work-up for the cervical spine, bilateral bone anomalies involving the seventh cervical vertebra and the first ribs were found on radiographs and CT examination. The rib anomalies found in this dog appear similar to cervical ribs widely described in human medicine. In people, cervical ribs are associated with a high rate of stillbirth, early childhood cancer, and can cause the thoracic outlet syndrome, characterized by neurovascular compression at level of superior aperture of the chest. In dogs, only some sporadic anatomopathological descriptions of cervical ribs exist. In this report the radiographic and CT findings of these particular vertebral and rib anomalies along with their relationships with adjacent vasculature and musculature are shown intravitam in a dog. Specific radiographic and CT findings described in this report may help in reaching a presumptive diagnosis of this anomaly. Finally, their clinical and evolutionary significance are discussed. PMID:25650786

  11. Psychosocial Outcomes after Bilateral Hand Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mansher; Oser, Megan; Zinser, Jennifer; Sisk, Geoffroy; Carty, Matthew J; Sampson, Christian; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the first successful hand transplantation in 1998, there have been multiple reports about surgical technique, transplant survival, and immunosuppression. However, very limited published data exist on psychosocial outcomes following hand transplantation. Methods: We report psychosocial outcomes in a patient with bilateral hand transplants at the midforearm level with serial follow-ups over 3.5 years. Different metrics used to study psychosocial outcomes included the following: SF-12, CES-D, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Rosenberg SE, and EQ-5D. Result: Preoperatively, our patient did not have any evidence of depression (CES-D = 3), had a nonstressful relationship with his spouse (Dyadic Adjustment Scale = 100), and self-esteem was in the normal range (Rosenberg SE = 21). These metrics and his additional scales (SF-12 MCS, EQ-5D, and EQ-VAS) did not change appreciably and were within the normal range for the entire duration of 3.5-year follow-up at all different time points. Conclusion: With the increasing popularity of hand transplantation and the increasing awareness of the importance of psychosocial parameters in overall success, appropriate, comprehensive, and standardized measurements are important. These should be an integral part of patients’ screening and follow-up. PMID:26579339

  12. Rehabilitation for bilateral amputation of fingers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Stapanian, Adrienne M.P.; Staley, Keith E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe reconstructive surgeries, therapy, prostheses, and adaptations for a patient who experienced bilateral amputation of all five fingers of both hands through the proximal phalanges in January 1992. The patient made considerable progress in the use of his hands in the 10 mo after amputation, including nearly a 120% increase in the active range of flexion of metacarpophalangeal joints. In late 1992 and early 1993, the patient had "on-top plasty" surgeries, in which the index finger remnants were transferred onto the thumb stumps, performed on both hands. The increased web space and functional pinch resulting from these procedures made many tasks much easier. The patient and occupational therapists set challenging goals at all times. Moreover, the patient was actively involved in the design and fabrication of all prostheses and adaptations or he developed them himself. Although he was discharged from occupational therapy in 1997, the patient continues to actively find new solutions for prehension and grip strength 18 yr after amputation.

  13. Bilateral lower extremity swelling: black pearl.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Clinton C; Ham, Jared C; Juergens, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    Iatrogenic pneumothorax secondary to thoracentesis is relatively uncommon but does present to the emergency department (ED). Iatrogenic pneumothoraces developing tension physiology are rare. We report a case of an elderly female patient presenting to the ED with an isolated chief complaint of bilateral leg swelling, beginning the day after a thoracentesis, which was performed 3 days prior for pleural effusions secondary to lung cancer. Given that the patient was hemodynamically stable, not hypoxic, and had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and recent history of pleural effusions with diminished lung sounds throughout, this was a radiologic diagnosis. Immediately upon diagnosis, a 10F intrapleural catheter was inserted at the second intercostal space in the midclavicular line with successful resolution of the tension phenomenon. The patient tolerated the procedure well, and the catheter was removed on hospital day 2 without recurrence of the pneumothorax. She experienced resolution of her lower extremity swelling and was discharged from the hospital 2 days later. Isolated inferior vena cava syndrome secondary to a subacute tension pneumothorax was likely the cause of the patient's symptoms. This presentation is very rare and is undocumented in the literature. A high degree of suspicion for acute chest pathology should exist in every patient presenting to the ED with history of recent pleural violation. PMID:26003746

  14. Bilateral putaminal necrosis and bronopol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Trivisano, Marina; Carapelle, Elena; Martino, Tommaso; Specchio, Luigi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Among alcohols, methanol intoxication is the most frequently associated with cerebral toxicity, causing retinal damage and putaminal necrosis. This consequence is believed to be due to the transformation of methanol into formic acid. We describe the case of a patient who presented with acute impairment of consciousness and tetraparesis after she had been drinking several bottles of a topical antiseptic solution (Lysoform Medical) containing 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propandiol (bronopol) among excipients, in order to lose weight during previous months. Moreover, she had been on a strict slimming diet. Soon after admission, a severe respiratory and metabolic impairment became rapidly evident, requiring an intensive care unit admission. Cerebral MRI showed the presence of bilateral putaminal necrosis. She recovered in 10 days, surprisingly, without any evident clinical neurological signs. Methanol, also bronopol, when diluted in aqueous solution, at warm temperature and/or higher pH, may release formaldehyde, which is converted into formic acid, a basal ganglia toxic compound. PMID:25697297

  15. Successful treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with bilateral hippocampal atrophy and false temporal scalp ictal onset: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Kota; Iida, Koji; Katagiri, Masaya; Nishimoto, Takeshi; Hashizume, Akira; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2012-06-01

    Patients with bilateral hippocampal atrophy (BHA) in a subgroup suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy represent a therapeutic challenge. We achieved successful surgical treatment in a case with BHA and false lateralized ictal onset on video-scalp electroencephalogram (EEG). A 27-year-old male patient with seizures since the age of 15 years showed current seizures consisting of an epigastric aura, a feeling of difficulty in breathing and oroalimentary automatism, which were frequently followed by secondary generalization with right-arm tonic extension. MRI showed BHA with hyperintensity on FLAIR and a slightly smaller volume in the left hippocampus on volumetry. Ictal EEG started from the left anterior temporal and subtemporal regions, spreading to the right anterior to middle temporal region. Interictal EEG was not lateralized, and showed independent spikes in the bilateral anterior temporal and subtemporal regions. The patient underwent chronic intracranial EEG-monitoring, revealing that the seizure onset originated from the right hippocampus with a rapid spread to the hippocampus and lateral temporal cortex on the left side. We performed a right anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy. Histological diagnosis was classic hippocampal sclerosis. The patient has since been seizure-free for 4 years. In this case, false lateralization may have been caused by an atypical seizure-propagating route to the contralateral temporal region via the dorsal hippocampal commissure instead of the usual pathway to the ipsilateral temporal neocortex. The technique of bilateral intracranial EEG-monitoring is advantageous to lateralize the actual side, particularly in BHA patients even with clearly and falsely lateralized ictal onset on scalp-EEG. PMID:22916511

  16. Amygdala and Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Connectivity during an Emotional Working Memory Task in Borderline Personality Disorder Patients with Interpersonal Trauma History

    PubMed Central

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Oei, Nicole Y. L.; Paret, Christian; Niedtfeld, Inga; Spinhoven, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is critically involved in ignoring emotional distraction while maintaining goal-directed behavior. Antagonistic interactions between brain regions implicated in emotion processing, e.g., amygdala, and brain regions involved in cognitive control, e.g., dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, dmPFC), may play an important role in coping with emotional distraction. We previously reported prolonged reaction times associated with amygdala hyperreactivity during emotional distraction in interpersonally traumatized borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC): Participants performed a working memory task, while neutral versus negative distractors (interpersonal scenes from the International Affective Picture System) were presented. Here, we re-analyzed data from this study using psychophysiological interaction analysis. The bilateral amygdala and bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were defined as seed regions of interest. Whole-brain regression analyses with reaction times and self-reported increase of dissociation were performed. During emotional distraction, reduced amygdala connectivity with clusters in the left dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC was observed in the whole group. Compared to HC, BPD patients showed a stronger coupling of both seeds with a cluster in the right dmPFC and stronger positive amygdala connectivity with bilateral (para)hippocampus. Patients further demonstrated stronger positive dACC connectivity with left posterior cingulate, insula, and frontoparietal regions during emotional distraction. Reaction times positively predicted amygdala connectivity with right dmPFC and (para)hippocampus, while dissociation positively predicted amygdala connectivity with right ACC during emotional distraction in patients. Our findings suggest increased attention to task-irrelevant (emotional) social information during a working memory task in interpersonally traumatized patients

  17. Amygdala and Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Connectivity during an Emotional Working Memory Task in Borderline Personality Disorder Patients with Interpersonal Trauma History.

    PubMed

    Krause-Utz, Annegret; Elzinga, Bernet M; Oei, Nicole Y L; Paret, Christian; Niedtfeld, Inga; Spinhoven, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is critically involved in ignoring emotional distraction while maintaining goal-directed behavior. Antagonistic interactions between brain regions implicated in emotion processing, e.g., amygdala, and brain regions involved in cognitive control, e.g., dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, dmPFC), may play an important role in coping with emotional distraction. We previously reported prolonged reaction times associated with amygdala hyperreactivity during emotional distraction in interpersonally traumatized borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC): Participants performed a working memory task, while neutral versus negative distractors (interpersonal scenes from the International Affective Picture System) were presented. Here, we re-analyzed data from this study using psychophysiological interaction analysis. The bilateral amygdala and bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were defined as seed regions of interest. Whole-brain regression analyses with reaction times and self-reported increase of dissociation were performed. During emotional distraction, reduced amygdala connectivity with clusters in the left dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC was observed in the whole group. Compared to HC, BPD patients showed a stronger coupling of both seeds with a cluster in the right dmPFC and stronger positive amygdala connectivity with bilateral (para)hippocampus. Patients further demonstrated stronger positive dACC connectivity with left posterior cingulate, insula, and frontoparietal regions during emotional distraction. Reaction times positively predicted amygdala connectivity with right dmPFC and (para)hippocampus, while dissociation positively predicted amygdala connectivity with right ACC during emotional distraction in patients. Our findings suggest increased attention to task-irrelevant (emotional) social information during a working memory task in interpersonally traumatized patients

  18. Ulnar nerve motor conduction to the first dorsal interosseous muscle.

    PubMed

    Prahlow, Nathan D; Buschbacher, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The ulnar motor study to the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) is commonly performed, but does not test the terminal deep palmar branch of the ulnar nerve. Although damage to the ulnar nerve most often occurs at the elbow, the damage may occur elsewhere along the course of the nerve, including damage to the deep palmar branch. Ulnar conduction studies of the deep branch have been performed with recording from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. These studies have used differing methodologies and were mostly limited by small sample size. The aim of this study was to develop a normative database for ulnar nerve conduction to the FDI. A new method of recording from the FDI was developed for this study. It utilizes recording with the active electrode over the dorsal first web space, with the reference electrode placed at the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint. This technique reliably yields negative takeoff measurements. An additional comparison was made between ulnar motor latency with recording at the ADM and with recording at the FDI. For this study, 199 subjects with no risk factors for neuropathy were tested. The latency, amplitude, area, and duration were recorded. The upper limit of normal (ULN) was defined as the 97th percentile of observed values. The lower limit of normal (LLN) was defined as the 3rd percentile of observed values. For the FDI, mean latency was 3.8 +/- 0.5 ms, with a ULN of 4.7 ms for males, 4.4 ms for females, and 4.6 ms for all subjects. Mean amplitude was 15.8 +/- 4.9 mV, with a LLN of 5.1 for all subjects. Side-to-side differences in latency to the FDI, from dominant to nondominant hands, was -0.1 +/- 0.4 ms, with a ULN of 0.8 ms. For the amplitude, up to a 52% decrease from side to side was normal. For the same-limb comparison of the FDI and ADM, the mean latency difference was 0.6 +/- 0.4 ms, with a ULN increase of 1.3 ms for latency to the ADM versus the FDI. PMID:17206927

  19. Bilateral ureteric stones: an unusual cause of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Daniel; Rehnberg, Lucas; Kler, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department, with a short history of vague abdominal pain, abdominal distension and two episodes of frank haematuria. A plain chest film showed dilated loops of large bowel and blood results on admission showed an acute kidney injury (stage 3). A diagnosis of bowel obstruction was made initially but a CT scan of the abdomen showed bilateral obstructing calculi. After initial resuscitation, the patient had bilateral ultrasound-guided nephrostomies and haemofiltration. He later underwent bilateral antegrade ureteric stenting. A decision will later be made on whether or not he is fit enough to undergo ureteroscopy and laser stone fragmentation. PMID:27030462

  20. Unilateral Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula Causing Bilateral Ocular Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Demartini Jr., Zeferino; Liebert, Fernando; Gatto, Luana Antunes Maranha; Jung, Thiago Simiano; Rocha Jr., Carlos; Santos, Alex Marques Borges; Koppe, Gelson Luis

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral carotid cavernous fistula presents with ipsilateral ocular findings. Bilateral presentation is only seen in bilateral fistulas, usually associated with indirect (dural) carotid cavernous fistulas. Direct carotid cavernous fistulas are an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. They typically begin with a traumatic disruption in the artery wall into the cavernous sinus, presenting with a classic triad of unilateral pulsatile exophthalmos, cranial bruit and episcleral venous engorgement. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with traumatic right carotid cavernous sinus fistula and bilateral ocular presentation successfully treated by interventional neuroradiology. PMID:26955353

  1. Anton's Syndrome due to Bilateral Ischemic Occipital Lobe Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Zukić, Sanela; Sinanović, Osman; Hodžić, Renata; Mujagić, Svjetlana; Smajlović, Edina

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with Anton's syndrome (i.e., visual anosognosia with confabulations), who developed bilateral occipital lobe infarct. Bilateral occipital brain damage results in blindness, and patients start to confabulate to fill in the missing sensory input. In addition, the patient occasionally becomes agitated and talks to himself, which indicates that, besides Anton's syndrome, he might have had Charles Bonnet syndrome, characterized by both visual loss and hallucinations. Anton syndrome, is not so frequent condition and is most commonly caused by ischemic stroke. In this particular case, the patient had successive bilateral occipital ischemia as a result of massive stenoses of head and neck arteries. PMID:25530893

  2. Anton's Syndrome due to Bilateral Ischemic Occipital Lobe Strokes.

    PubMed

    Zukić, Sanela; Sinanović, Osman; Zonić, Lejla; Hodžić, Renata; Mujagić, Svjetlana; Smajlović, Edina

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with Anton's syndrome (i.e., visual anosognosia with confabulations), who developed bilateral occipital lobe infarct. Bilateral occipital brain damage results in blindness, and patients start to confabulate to fill in the missing sensory input. In addition, the patient occasionally becomes agitated and talks to himself, which indicates that, besides Anton's syndrome, he might have had Charles Bonnet syndrome, characterized by both visual loss and hallucinations. Anton syndrome, is not so frequent condition and is most commonly caused by ischemic stroke. In this particular case, the patient had successive bilateral occipital ischemia as a result of massive stenoses of head and neck arteries. PMID:25530893

  3. Reduced 123I Ioflupane Binding in Bilateral Diabetic Chorea

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kenichiro; Hida, Ayumi; Kameyama, Masashi; Morooka, Miyako; Takeuchi, Sousuke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report a 64-year-old man with diabetic chorea whom we investigated with dopamine transporter SPECT, 18F FDG PET, 99mTc ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT, and 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Dopamine transporter SPECT revealed reduced 123I ioflupane binding in the bilateral striatum. 18F FDG PET showed metabolic dysfunction in the bilateral striatum, as shown in earlier studies. 99mTc ECD SPECT revealed reduced brain perfusion in the bilateral caudate nucleus and putamen. 123I MIBG scintigraphy revealed no cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction. Our case suggests a possible nigrostriatal presynaptic dopaminergic involvement in diabetic chorea. PMID:26975011

  4. Orthodontic treatment of bilateral geminated maxillary permanent incisors.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philip, Camille; Aboudharam, Gérard

    2011-05-01

    Geminated teeth occur more frequently in the deciduous dentition than in the permanent dentition, with prevalence figures of 0.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Bilateral presentation is rare. A survey of the literature showed that the prevalence estimates for bilateral double teeth range from 0.01% to 0.04% in the deciduous dentition, and 0.05% in the permanent dentition. In this article, we report a rare case of bilateral fusion of the maxillary permanent incisors, discuss possible histogenetic mechanisms related to this anomaly, and explain the treatment management. PMID:21536214

  5. Spheniodal mucocele causing bilateral optic neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Ambika; Mahalaxmi, Balasubramanyam; Ananth, V; Gautam, Cugati

    2014-01-01

    Sphenoid sinus mucocele comprises only 2% of all paranasal sinus mucoceles. In literature, there is a case report on sphenoidal mucocele causing bilateral optic neuropathy, with unilateral partial recovery and cranial nerve palsy, but we did not come across any literature with bilateral optic neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia together caused by spheno-ethmoidal mucocele. We present such a rare case of spheno-ethmoidal mucocele causing bilateral optic neuropathy and unilateral sixth nerve palsy who had postsurgery, unilateral good vision recovery, and complete resolution of sixth nerve palsy. PMID:23571243

  6. A rare case of bilateral bronchial foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, ZhiGang; Gao, Qian; Song, PengLong

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 7-year-old male patient with bilateral bronchial cocklebur fruit aspiration, which he sustained while playing. The patient presented with a triad of cough, wheezing, and decreased breath sounds (decreased in the right lung and absent in the left). These symptoms led to a diagnosis of bilateral bronchial foreign body, which was confirmed by computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction of the bronchial tree. The patient was on the verge of death during operation but was ultimately rescued. Our therapeutic experience in treating this case of bilateral bronchial cocklebur fruit aspiration may provide a good reference for others. PMID:26101515

  7. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Topographic profiles have been obtained across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is noted within domains between linear discontinuities in directions parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. The results suggest that western Aphrodite Terra is similar to terrestrial oceanic divergent plate boundary environments, and that the cross-strike discontinuities are analogous to oceanic fracture zones rather than strike-slip faults.

  8. Parkinsonism and transient bilateral ptosis in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, P. C.; Richard, A. T. Ng; Wong, P. K.

    1974-01-01

    Many neurological abnormalities have been described in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but transient bilateral ptosis and parkinsonism are rarely encountered. This paper describes a young Malay girl with SLE who develops psychosis, bilateral ptosis and parkinsonism during an exacerbation of her illness. These neurological features disappeared after adequate treatment with cyclophosphamide. Though the pathogenesis of these neurological abnormalities is not clearly known, it is likely that transient bilateral ptosis is due to myoneural dysfunction not unlike that of myasthenia gravis. As for parkinsonism, it can probably be explained on the basis of ‘vasculitis’ of the basal ganglia leading to microinfarcts and encephalomalacia. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2

  9. Expressing Constitutively Active Rheb in Adult Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Enhances the Integration of Sensory Axons that Regenerate Across a Chondroitinase-Treated Dorsal Root Entry Zone Following Dorsal Root Crush.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E; Detloff, Megan R; Côté, Marie-Pascale; Tom, Veronica J

    2016-01-01

    While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush. Additionally, we posited that if we combined that approach with digestion of upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) at the DREZ with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), we would promote regeneration of sensory axons across the DREZ into the spinal cord. We first assessed if this strategy promotes neuritic growth in an in vitro model of the glial scar containing CSPG. ChABC allowed for some regeneration across the once potently inhibitory substrate. Combining ChABC treatment with expression of caRheb in DRG significantly improved this growth. We then determined if this combination strategy also enhanced regeneration through the DREZ after dorsal root crush in adult rats in vivo. After unilaterally crushing C4-T1 dorsal roots, we injected AAV5-caRheb or AAV5-GFP into the ipsilateral C5-C8 DRGs. ChABC or PBS was injected into the ipsilateral dorsal horn at C5-C8 to digest CSPG, for a total of four animal groups (caRheb + ChABC, caRheb + PBS, GFP + ChABC, GFP + PBS). Regeneration was rarely observed in PBS-treated animals, whereas short-distance regrowth across the DREZ was observed in ChABC-treated animals. No difference in axon number or length between the ChABC groups was observed, which may be related to intraganglionic inflammation induced by the

  10. Expressing Constitutively Active Rheb in Adult Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Enhances the Integration of Sensory Axons that Regenerate Across a Chondroitinase-Treated Dorsal Root Entry Zone Following Dorsal Root Crush

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C.; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E.; Detloff, Megan R.; Côté, Marie-Pascale; Tom, Veronica J.

    2016-01-01

    While the peripheral branch of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) can successfully regenerate after injury, lesioned central branch axons fail to regrow across the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ), the interface between the dorsal root and the spinal cord. This lack of regeneration is due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult sensory axons and the growth-inhibitory environment at the DREZ, which is similar to that found in the glial scar after a central nervous system (CNS) injury. We hypothesized that transduction of adult DRG neurons using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express a constitutively-active form of the GTPase Rheb (caRheb) will increase their intrinsic growth potential after a dorsal root crush. Additionally, we posited that if we combined that approach with digestion of upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) at the DREZ with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), we would promote regeneration of sensory axons across the DREZ into the spinal cord. We first assessed if this strategy promotes neuritic growth in an in vitro model of the glial scar containing CSPG. ChABC allowed for some regeneration across the once potently inhibitory substrate. Combining ChABC treatment with expression of caRheb in DRG significantly improved this growth. We then determined if this combination strategy also enhanced regeneration through the DREZ after dorsal root crush in adult rats in vivo. After unilaterally crushing C4-T1 dorsal roots, we injected AAV5-caRheb or AAV5-GFP into the ipsilateral C5-C8 DRGs. ChABC or PBS was injected into the ipsilateral dorsal horn at C5-C8 to digest CSPG, for a total of four animal groups (caRheb + ChABC, caRheb + PBS, GFP + ChABC, GFP + PBS). Regeneration was rarely observed in PBS-treated animals, whereas short-distance regrowth across the DREZ was observed in ChABC-treated animals. No difference in axon number or length between the ChABC groups was observed, which may be related to intraganglionic inflammation induced by the

  11. Jagged-Notch signaling ensures dorsal skeletal identity in the vertebrate face

    PubMed Central

    Zuniga, Elizabeth; Stellabotte, Frank; Crump, J. Gage

    2010-01-01

    The development of the vertebrate face relies on the regionalization of neural crest-derived skeletal precursors along the dorsoventral (DV) axis. Here we show that Jagged-Notch signaling ensures dorsal identity within the hyoid and mandibular components of the facial skeleton by repressing ventral fates. In a genetic screen in zebrafish, we identified a loss-of-function mutation in jagged 1b (jag1b) that results in dorsal expansion of ventral gene expression and partial transformation of the dorsal hyoid skeleton to a ventral morphology. Conversely, misexpression of human jagged 1 (JAG1) represses ventral gene expression and dorsalizes the ventral hyoid and mandibular skeletons. We further show that jag1b is expressed specifically in dorsal skeletal precursors, where it acts through the Notch2 receptor to activate hey1 expression. Whereas Jagged-Notch positive feedback propagates jag1b expression throughout the dorsal domain, Endothelin 1 (Edn1) inhibits jag1b and hey1 expression in the ventral domain. Strikingly, reduction of Jag1b or Notch2 function partially rescues the ventral defects of edn1 mutants, indicating that Edn1 promotes facial skeleton development in part by inhibiting Jagged-Notch signaling in ventral skeletal precursors. Together, these results indicate a novel function of Jagged-Notch signaling in ensuring dorsal identity within broad fields of facial skeletal precursors. PMID:20431122

  12. Outcome comparison of Lisfranc injuries treated through dorsal plate fixation versus screw fixation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sun-jun; Chang, Shi-min; Li, Xiao-hua; Yu, Guang-rong

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective study was to test whether the treatment of Lisfranc injuries with open reduction and dorsal plate fixation would have the same or better functional outcomes as treatment with standard trans-articular screw fixation. METHODS: Sixty patients with primarily isolated Lisfranc joint injury were treated by open reduction and dorsal plate fixation or standard screw fixation. The patients were followed on average for 31 months. Evaluation was performed with patients' chief complaint, clinical examination, radiography, and AOFAS Midfoot Scale. RESULTS: Thirty two patients were treated with open reduction and dorsal plate fixation, and twenty eight patients were treated with open reduction and screw fixation. After two years follow-up, the mean AOFAS Midfoot score was 83.1 points in the dorsal plate fixation group and 78.5 points in the screw fixation group (p<0.01). Of the dorsal plate fixation group, radiographic analysis revealed anatomic reduction in twenty-nine patients (90.6%, 29/32) and nonanatomic reduction in three patients. Of the screw fixation group, radiographic analysis revealed anatomic reduction in twenty-three patients and nonanatomic reduction in five patients (82.1%, 23/28). CONCLUSIONS: Open reduction and dorsal plate fixation for a dislocated Lisfranc injury do have better short and median term outcome and a lower reoperation rate than standard screw ORIF. In our experience, we recommend using dorsal plate in ORIF on dislocated Lisfranc injuries. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:25538478

  13. Novel biogeometric designs of first dorsal metacarpal artery flap in hand reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Fatih; Çoruh, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of the soft tissue defects of the first web space and proximal dorsal thumb is still one of the most challenging problems in reconstructive surgery. Depending on the defect size, various reconstructive methods have been described, including local, regional, distant and free flaps. The authors described new biogeometric designs of first dorsal metacarpal artery flap for the reconstruction of the soft tissue defects of the first web space and the proximal dorsal thumb. These modifications are bilobed and V-Y advancement first dorsal metacarpal artery flaps. Three patients had burn wound adduction contractures of the first web space and three had acute wounds resulting from electrical burns, the defects of which were located on the first web space and on the dorsum of the thumb. The defect sizes ranged from 2.5 × 2 cm to 3.5 × 4 cm, and were reconstructed with the bilobed and V-Y advancement first dorsal metacarpal artery flaps. None of these flap modifications had any problems related to the perfusion of the flap, such as arterial insufficiency or venous congestion. The mean follow-up period was 16 months and all the patients were satisfied with the functional result and the donor site scars appearance. The bilobed and V-Y advancement first dorsal metacarpal artery flaps described by the authors for the hand reconstruction are safe, easily performed, and are versatile without skin grafts at the donor site because of inherent excellent elasticity and mobility of the dorsal hand skin. PMID:25100542

  14. Female bias for enlarged male body and dorsal fins in Xiphophorus variatus.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, R David; Gagnon, John; He, Ran

    2011-06-01

    Female preference for male fin elaborations in Poeciliid fishes may be driven by a sensory bias for increased lateral projection area (LPA) that has existed since the lineages diverged from a common ancestor. Previous research supports this hypothesis demonstrating female Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia mexicana, and Poecilia reticulata prefer males of larger body and dorsal fin size, but exhibit no such preferences when controlling for total LPA. In the current study, we further tested this hypothesis by presenting female platys, Xiphophorus variatus, with pairs of dummy males differing in: (1) body size (holding dorsal fin size constant); (2) dorsal fin size (holding body size constant); and (3) dorsal fin: body size ratio (holding total LPA constant). Females spent more time near dummies of greater body and dorsal fin size; however, in the third experiment, neither fin size, body size, nor any particular dorsal fin+body size combination was preferred. These results provide additional support for the LPA and sensory bias hypotheses, demonstrating that female X. variatus not only prefer males with "swords", but sailfin-like dorsal fins as well when body size is held constant. Shared preference for increased LPA is consistent with common ancestry of the sensory/neural systems in females of all four species. PMID:21457765

  15. Assessment of penetration of dorsal screws after fixation of the distal radius using ultrasound: cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Williams, D; Singh, J; Heidari, N; Ahmad, M; Noorani, A; Di Mascio, L

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Volar locking plates are used to treat unstable and displaced fractures of the distal radius. Potential advantages of stable anatomical reduction (eg early mobilisation) can be limited by penetration of dorsal screws, leading to synovitis and potential rupture of extensor tendons. Despite intraoperative imaging, penetration of dorsal screws continues to be a problem in volar plating of the distal radius. Ultrasound is a well recognised, readily available, diagnostic tool used to assess soft-tissue impingement by orthopaedic hardware. In this cadaveric study, we wished to ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for identification of protrusion of dorsal screws after volar plating of the distal radius. Methods Four adult, unpaired phenol-embalmed cadaveric distal radii were used. A VariAx™ Distal Radius Volar Locking Plate system (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) was employed for instrumented fixation. A portable SIUI CTS 900 ultrasound machine (Providian Medical, Eastlake, OH, USA) was used to image the dorsal cortex to ascertain screw penetration. Results Specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound for detection of screw protrusion through the dorsal cortex was 100%. Conclusions Ultrasound was found to be a safe and accurate method for assessment of dorsal-screw penetration through the dorsal cortex of the radius after volar plating of the distal radius. It also aids diagnosis of associated tendon disorders (eg tenosynovitis) that might cause pain and limit wrist function. PMID:26829667

  16. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-05-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  17. A Cadaveric Investigation of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vuvi H; Liu, Hao Howe; Rosales, Armando; Reeves, Rustin

    2016-01-01

    Compression of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) is associated with pain in the upper extremity and back. Even though entrapment of the DSN within the middle scalene muscle is typically the primary cause of pain, it is still easily missed during diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to document the DSN's anatomy and measure the oblique course it takes with regard to the middle scalene muscle. From 20 embalmed adult cadavers, 23 DSNs were documented regarding the nerve's spinal root origin, anatomical route, and muscular innervations. A transverse plane through the laryngeal prominence was established to measure the distance of the DSN from this plane as it enters, crosses, and exits the middle scalene muscle. Approximately 70% of the DSNs originated from C5, with 74% piercing the middle scalene muscle. About 48% of the DSNs supplied the levator scapulae muscle only and 52% innervated both the levator scapulae and rhomboid muscles. The average distances from a transverse plane at the laryngeal prominence where the DSN entered, crossed, and exited the middle scalene muscle were 1.50 cm, 1.79 cm, and 2.08 cm, respectively. Our goal is to help improve clinicians' ability to locate the site of DSN entrapment so that appropriate management can be implemented. PMID:27597900

  18. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  19. On Parallel Streams through the Mouse Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Denman, Daniel J.; Contreras, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The mouse visual system is an emerging model for the study of cortical and thalamic circuit function. To maximize the usefulness of this model system, it is important to analyze the similarities and differences between the organization of all levels of the murid visual system with other, better studied systems (e.g., non-human primates and the domestic cat). While the understanding of mouse retina and cortex has expanded rapidly, less is known about mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Here, we study whether parallel processing streams exist in mouse dLGN. We use a battery of stimuli that have been previously shown to successfully distinguish parallel streams in other species: electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm, contrast-reversing stationary gratings at varying spatial phase, drifting sinusoidal gratings, dense noise for receptive field reconstruction, and frozen contrast-modulating noise. As in the optic nerves of domestic cats and non-human primates, we find evidence for multiple conduction velocity groups after optic chiasm stimulation. As in so-called “visual mammals”, we find a subpopulation of mouse dLGN cells showing non-linear spatial summation. However, differences in stimulus selectivity and sensitivity do not provide sufficient basis for identification of clearly distinct classes of relay cells. Nevertheless, consistent with presumptively homologous status of dLGNs of all mammals, there are substantial similarities between response properties of mouse dLGN neurons and those of cats and primates. PMID:27065811

  20. Nicotinic modulation of serotonergic activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Lopez, Salvador; Garduño, Julieta; Mihailescu, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic signaling mediated by nicotinic receptors has been associated to a large number of physiological and behavioral processes such as learning, memory, attention, food-intake and mood disorders. Although it is well established that many nicotinic actions are mediated through an increase in serotonin (5-HT) release, the physiological mechanisms by which nicotine produces these effects are still unclear. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contains the major amount of 5-HT neurons projecting to different parts of the brain. DRN also contains nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located at somatic and presynaptic elements. Nicotine produces both inhibitory and excitatory effects on different subpopulations of 5-HT DRN neurons. In this review, we describe the presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms by which nicotine increases the excitability of DRN neurons as well as the subtypes of nAChRs involved. We also describe the inhibitory effects of nicotine and the role of 5-HT1A receptors in this effect. These nicotinic actions modulate the activity of different neuronal subpopulations in the DRN, changing the 5-HT tone in the brain areas where these groups of neurons project. Some of the physiological implications of nicotine-induced 5-HT release are discussed. PMID:24021594

  1. Retronasal odor representations in the dorsal olfactory bulb of rats

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2012-01-01

    Animals perceive their olfactory environment not only from odors originating in the external world (orthonasal route) but also from odors released in the oral cavity while eating food (retronasal route). Retronasal olfaction is crucial for the perception of food flavor in humans. However, little is known about the retronasal stimulus coding in the brain. The most basic question is if and how route affects the odor representations at the level of the olfactory bulb (OB), where odor quality codes originate. We used optical calcium imaging of presynaptic dorsal OB responses to odorants in anesthetized rats to ask whether the rat OB could be activated retronasally, and how these responses compare to orthonasal responses under similar conditions. We further investigated the effects of specific odorant properties on orthoversus retronasal response patterns. We found that at a physiologically relevant flow rate retronasal odorants can effectively reach the olfactory receptor neurons, eliciting glomerular response patterns that grossly overlap with those of orthonasal responses, but differ from the orthonasal patterns in the response amplitude and temporal dynamics. Interestingly, such differences correlated well with specific odorant properties. Less volatile odorants yielded relatively smaller responses retronasally, but volatility did not affect relative temporal profiles. More polar odorants responded with relatively longer onset latency and time to peak retronasally, but polarity did not affect relative response magnitudes. These data provide insight into the early stages of retronasal stimulus coding and establish relationships between ortho- and retronasal odor representations in the rat OB. PMID:22674270

  2. Responses of fibroblasts to anchorage of dorsal extracellular matrix receptors.

    PubMed

    Beningo, Karen A; Dembo, Micah; Wang, Yu-li

    2004-12-28

    Fibroblasts in 2D cultures differ dramatically in behavior from those in the 3D environment of a multicellular organism. However, the basis of this disparity is unknown. A key difference is the spatial arrangement of anchored extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors to the ventral surface in 2D cultures and throughout the entire surface in 3D cultures. Therefore, we asked whether changing the topography of ECM receptor anchorage alone could invoke a morphological response. By using polyacrylamide-based substrates to present anchored fibronectin or collagen on dorsal cell surfaces, we found that well spread fibroblasts in 2D cultures quickly changed into a bipolar or stellate morphology similar to fibroblasts in vivo. Cells in this environment lacked lamellipodia and large actin bundles and formed small focal adhesions only near focused sites of protrusion. These responses depend on substrate rigidity, calcium ion, and, likely, the calcium-dependent protease calpain. We suggest that fibroblasts respond to both spatial distribution and mechanical input of anchored ECM receptors. Changes in cell shape may in turn affect diverse cellular activities, including gene expression, growth, and differentiation, as shown in numerous previous studies. PMID:15601776

  3. Alexander disease with mild dorsal brainstem atrophy and infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease. PMID:22818990

  4. Atypical developmental of dorsal and ventral attention networks in autism.

    PubMed

    Farrant, Kristafor; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit early and lifelong impairments in attention across multiple domains. While the disorder is known to affect attention processes, very little is currently known about the brain networks underlying attention in ASD, and even less is known about whether these atypicalities persist across the lifespan. We used functional connectivity analysis applied to resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to explore the dorsal (DAN) and ventral (VAN) attention networks in two separate age cohorts of children and adults with and without ASD. We find significant developmental differences in functional connectivity of brain regions that are critical for attention in children and adults with ASD. Specifically, children with ASD show hyper-connectivity of regions-of-interest (ROIs) in both attention networks compared with both typically developing (TD) children and adults with ASD. In contrast, adults with ASD show hypo-connectivity of these networks compared with neurotypical adults. These findings are consistent with the notion that consideration of developmental stage is critical in studies of functional connectivity in ASD. This study further illustrates diverging developmental patterns for top-down and bottom-up attention systems in autism. PMID:26613549

  5. Reference frames for reach planning in macaque dorsal premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Batista, Aaron P; Santhanam, Gopal; Yu, Byron M; Ryu, Stephen I; Afshar, Afsheen; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2007-08-01

    When a human or animal reaches out to grasp an object, the brain rapidly computes a pattern of muscular contractions that can acquire the target. This computation involves a reference frame transformation because the target's position is initially available only in a visual reference frame, yet the required control signal is a set of commands to the musculature. One of the core brain areas involved in visually guided reaching is the dorsal aspect of the premotor cortex (PMd). Using chronically implanted electrode arrays in two Rhesus monkeys, we studied the contributions of PMd to the reference frame transformation for reaching. PMd neurons are influenced by the locations of reach targets relative to both the arm and the eyes. Some neurons encode reach goals using limb-centered reference frames, whereas others employ eye-centered reference fames. Some cells encode reach goals in a reference frame best described by the combined position of the eyes and hand. In addition to neurons like these where a reference frame could be identified, PMd also contains cells that are influenced by both the eye- and limb-centered locations of reach goals but for which a distinct reference frame could not be determined. We propose two interpretations for these neurons. First, they may encode reach goals using a reference frame we did not investigate, such as intrinsic reference frames. Second, they may not be adequately characterized by any reference frame. PMID:17581846

  6. The Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates Dialectical Self-Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping; Bai, Yang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Pei; Guo, Hua; Yuan, Chun; Rotshtein, Pia; Sui, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants’ dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking. PMID:26903940

  7. The Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates Dialectical Self-Thinking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping; Bai, Yang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Pei; Guo, Hua; Yuan, Chun; Rotshtein, Pia; Sui, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants' dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking. PMID:26903940

  8. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Bottom-Up View.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Sarah R; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2016-07-01

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has attracted great interest from neuroscientists because it is associated with so many important cognitive functions. Despite, or perhaps because of, its rich functional repertoire, we lack a single comprehensive view of its function. Most research has approached this puzzle from the top down, using aggregate measures such as neuroimaging. We provide a view from the bottom up, with a focus on single-unit responses and anatomy. We summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the three major approaches to characterizing the dACC: as a monitor, as a controller, and as an economic structure. We argue that neurons in the dACC are specialized for representing contexts, or task-state variables relevant for behavior, and strategies, or aspects of future plans. We propose that dACC neurons link contexts with strategies by integrating diverse task-relevant information to create a rich representation of task space and exert high-level and abstract control over decision and action. PMID:27090954

  9. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed

    Pickard, Gary E; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-10-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  10. On Parallel Streams through the Mouse Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Denman, Daniel J; Contreras, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The mouse visual system is an emerging model for the study of cortical and thalamic circuit function. To maximize the usefulness of this model system, it is important to analyze the similarities and differences between the organization of all levels of the murid visual system with other, better studied systems (e.g., non-human primates and the domestic cat). While the understanding of mouse retina and cortex has expanded rapidly, less is known about mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Here, we study whether parallel processing streams exist in mouse dLGN. We use a battery of stimuli that have been previously shown to successfully distinguish parallel streams in other species: electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm, contrast-reversing stationary gratings at varying spatial phase, drifting sinusoidal gratings, dense noise for receptive field reconstruction, and frozen contrast-modulating noise. As in the optic nerves of domestic cats and non-human primates, we find evidence for multiple conduction velocity groups after optic chiasm stimulation. As in so-called "visual mammals", we find a subpopulation of mouse dLGN cells showing non-linear spatial summation. However, differences in stimulus selectivity and sensitivity do not provide sufficient basis for identification of clearly distinct classes of relay cells. Nevertheless, consistent with presumptively homologous status of dLGNs of all mammals, there are substantial similarities between response properties of mouse dLGN neurons and those of cats and primates. PMID:27065811

  11. A Cadaveric Investigation of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vuvi H.; Liu, Hao (Howe); Rosales, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Compression of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) is associated with pain in the upper extremity and back. Even though entrapment of the DSN within the middle scalene muscle is typically the primary cause of pain, it is still easily missed during diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to document the DSN's anatomy and measure the oblique course it takes with regard to the middle scalene muscle. From 20 embalmed adult cadavers, 23 DSNs were documented regarding the nerve's spinal root origin, anatomical route, and muscular innervations. A transverse plane through the laryngeal prominence was established to measure the distance of the DSN from this plane as it enters, crosses, and exits the middle scalene muscle. Approximately 70% of the DSNs originated from C5, with 74% piercing the middle scalene muscle. About 48% of the DSNs supplied the levator scapulae muscle only and 52% innervated both the levator scapulae and rhomboid muscles. The average distances from a transverse plane at the laryngeal prominence where the DSN entered, crossed, and exited the middle scalene muscle were 1.50 cm, 1.79 cm, and 2.08 cm, respectively. Our goal is to help improve clinicians' ability to locate the site of DSN entrapment so that appropriate management can be implemented. PMID:27597900

  12. Methylene blue-enhanced arthroscopic resection of dorsal wrist ganglions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Joo; Sawyer, Gregory A; Dasilva, Manuel F

    2011-12-01

    The ganglion is the most common soft tissue mass of the hand and wrist. Over the past 10 to 15 years, there has been a growing interest in arthroscopic treatment of dorsal wrist ganglions. Proposed advantages of arthroscopy include greater motion (particularly wrist flexion), improved cosmesis, and potential to identify/treat other intra-articular pathology. Despite the documented clinical success of arthroscopic ganglion excision, limitations include inconsistent identification of the ganglion stalk. Our described technique offers a means by which to improve visualization of the ganglion stalk intra-articularly to produce a more effective and efficient arthroscopic ganglion excision. During the procedure, a small volume of methylene blue solution is injected into the cyst. Its communication with the joint is apparent arthroscopically, thus identifying the location of the stalk. With the ability to precisely identify the ganglion stalk using an injection of methylene blue, the surgeon can direct the arthroscopic debridement toward the appropriate pathologic tissue. Unnecessary debridement of uninvolved tissue can be avoided with the technique. This also allows for optimal portal placement and, in particular, indicates whether a midcarpal portal should be employed. This should result in fewer recurrences, decreased operative time, and less iatrogenic injury. PMID:22105637

  13. Arthroscopic resection of the dorsal ganglia of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Bienz, T; Raphael, J S

    1999-08-01

    Arthroscopic ganglion resection provides a means by which dorsal wrist ganglia may be safely resected while avoiding the requisite scar accompanying open resection. Use of the arthroscope provides a much more complete examination of the wrist, allowing assessment of the cause of the ganglion as well as associated intra-articular problems. In a previous pilot study, 50% of patients demonstrated visible intra-articular abnormalities, including SL ligament laxity and perforations, TFCC tears, or chondral degeneration at the radial and triquetral-hamate joints. Use of the shaver within the joint allows the surgeon to directly address the ganglion's site of capsular origin, ensuring that the "one-way valve" mechanism is resected. The authors' initial experience was that the recurrence rate after arthroscopic resection was equal to or lower than after open resection. There is now some suggestion that resection of only the ganglion stalk, without removal of the sac, is feasible, but may yield slightly higher recurrence rates than formal open resection of the sac and stalk. This may be attributed to cases in which the capsular attachment to the SL ligament is debrided without identification and removal of a true stalk. The recurrence rate of a ganglion that has previously recurred also appears to be higher than that of primary resection. The authors look forward to publishing their completed results of an on-going follow-up study comparing open, arthroscopic, and recurrent ganglion resections. PMID:10451818

  14. Involvement of dorsal raphe nucleus and dorsal periaqueductal gray 5-HT receptors in the modulation of mouse defensive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pobbe, Roger L H; Zangrossi, Helio; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    Previous findings point to the involvement of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) serotonergic receptors in the mediation of defensive responses that are associated with specific subtypes of anxiety disorders. These studies have mostly been conducted with rats tested in the elevated T-maze, an experimental model of anxiety that was developed to allow the measurement, in the same animal, of two behaviors mentioned: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. Such behavioral responses have been respectively related to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD). In order to assess the generality of these findings, in the current study we investigated the effects of the injection of 5-HT-related drugs into the DRN and dPAG of another rodent species, mouse, on the mouse defense test battery (MDTB), a test of a range of defensive behaviors to an unconditioned threat, a predator. Male CD-1 mice were tested in the MDTB after intra-DRN administration of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 or after intra-dPAG injection of two serotonergic agonists, the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist DOI. Intra-DRN injection of WAY-100635 did not change behavioral responses of mice confronted with a rat in the MDTB. In the dPAG, both 8-OH-DPAT and DOI consistently impaired mouse escape behavior assessed in the MDTB. Intra-dPAG infusion of 8-OH-DPAT also decreased measures of mouse risk assessment in the rat exposure test. In conclusion, the current findings are in partial agreement with previous results obtained with rats tested in the elevated T-maze. Although there is a high level of similarity between the behavioral effects obtained in rats (elevated T-maze) and mice (MDTB and RET) with the infusion of 5-HT agonists into the dPAG, the same is not true regarding the effects of blockade of DRN 5-HT(1A) receptors in these rodent species. These data suggest that there may be differences between mice

  15. Relocation of mitochondria to the prospective dorsal marginal zone during Xenopus embryogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, H. J.; Phillips, C. R.; Boore, J. L.; Bertman, J.; Whalon, B.; Danilchik, M. V.

    1995-01-01

    Dorsal-ventral axis formation in Xenopus laevis begins with a cytoplasmic rotation during the first cell cycle and culminates in a series of cell interactions and movements during gastrulation and neurulation that lead to the formation of dorsal-anterior structures. Evidence reported here indicates that mitochondria are differentially redistributed along the prospective dorsal-ventral axis as a consequence of the cortical-cytoplasmic rotation during the first cell cycle. This finding reinvigorates a possibility that has been considered for many years: asymmetries in cytoplasmic components and metabolic activities contribute to the development of morphological asymmetries.

  16. Here, there and everywhere: higher visual function and the dorsal visual stream.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sarah Anne; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The dorsal visual stream, often referred to as the 'where' stream, represents the pathway taken by visual information from the primary visual cortex to the posterior parietal lobe and onwards. It partners the ventral or 'what' stream, the subject of a previous review and largely a temporal-based system. Here, we consider the dorsal stream disorders of perception (simultanagnosia, akinetopsia) along with their consequences on action (eg, optic ataxia and oculomotor apraxia, along with Balint's syndrome). The role of the dorsal stream in blindsight and hemispatial neglect is also considered. PMID:26786007

  17. Opiates and Pain Pathways: Demonstration of Enkephalin Synapses on Dorsal Horn Projection Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, M. A.

    1982-03-01

    The participation of the opiate peptide enkephalin in the neural circuitry of the dorsal horn was examined at the light and ultrastructural level through the use of the combined techniques of immunocytochemistry and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Enkephalin immunoreactive axonal endings made direct synaptic contact with the soma and proximal dendrites of dorsal horn thalamic projection neurons. This observation demonstrates that one major synaptic site of enkephalin modulation of the transfer of nociceptive information in the dorsal horn is on the projection neurons themselves.

  18. AMPA receptor trafficking in inflammation-induced dorsal horn central sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent postsynaptic receptor trafficking is critical for long-term synaptic plasticity in brain, but it is unclear whether this mechanism actually mediates spinal cord dorsal horn central sensitization (a specific form of synaptic plasticity) that is associated with persistent pain. Recent studies have shown that peripheral inflammation drives changes in AMPA receptor subunit trafficking in dorsal horn and that such changes contribute to the hypersensitivity that underlies persistent pain. Here, we review current evidence to illustrate how spinal cord AMPA receptors participate in dorsal horn central sensitization associated with persistent pain. Understanding these mechanisms may allow development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating persistent pain. PMID:22466122

  19. SEM study on the dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel, Petaurista leucogenys.

    PubMed

    Emura, S; Tamada, A; Hayakawa, D; Chen, H; Jamali, M; Taguchi, H; Shoumura, S

    1999-09-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform (FI), fungiform (FU), foliate (FO) and vallate papillae (VA) were observed. The FI were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. In the region of the VA, the FI appeared as giant cones. The FU were present as rounded bodies scattered over the dorsal surface of the tongue. They were relatively scarce and appear to be concentrated around the edges of the tongue. The FO were observed on the posterolateral regions of the tongue. The flying squirrel showed the triangular arrangement of the three VA, with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly. PMID:10560016

  20. [A Case of Synchronous Malignant Pheochromocytomas in Bilateral Adrenal Glands].

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimitsugu; Hirasawa, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Masataka; Shioi, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sakai, Naoki; Noguchi, Sumio; Tsuura, Yukio

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of synchronous malignant pheochromocytoma in bilateral adrenal glands. A 73- year-old man presented to our hospital with bilateral adrenal masses incidentally found during abdominal ultrasonography examination for an unrelated issue. The patient had a 30-year history of hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogeneous tumors in bilateral adrenal glands and an enlarged para-aortic lymph node. Hormonal examinations revealed a high value of urinary catecholamines. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed increased uptake in bilateral adrenal glands and the lymph node. Both adrenal tumors and the node were surgically removed. Pathological examination revealed histologically distinct tissue between the two adrenal tumors. The patient received five cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The patient has been in remission for 32 months following surgical treatment. PMID:27452493

  1. Genetics Home Reference: congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens

    MedlinePlus

    ... mucus clogs the vas deferens as they are forming, causing them to deteriorate before birth. In instances ... BILATERAL APLASIA OF Sources for This Page Cuppens H, Cassiman JJ. CFTR mutations and polymorphisms in male ...

  2. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV with Bilateral Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Wada, Hiroshi; Hajiro, Takashi; Nagao, Taishi; Ogawa, Emiko; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old teen was hospitalized with bilateral pneumothorax. After the bilateral lungs were expanded using catheter tubes, he fully recovered and he was discharged from our hospital. He had a history of colon perforation. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) was suspected due to the combination of colon perforation and pneumothorax, and EDS type IV was confirmed after a genetic study identified a c.1511g>a mutation in the COL3A1 gene. This is the first report of bilateral pneumothorax caused by EDS type IV. Clinicians should consider EDS type IV in the differential diagnosis for bilateral pneumothorax in conjunction with distinct previous histories and radiological findings. PMID:26666608

  3. Rare bilateral presentation of morning glory disc anomaly.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Chintan Jethalal; Gogri, Pratik Yeshwant; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl presented with a history of poor vision and oscillation of both eyes since infancy. Ocular examination revealed the best corrected visual acuity of 2/60 in right eye and 3/60 in left eye. Horizontal pendular nystagmus was present in both eyes. Fundus examination revealed morning glory disc anomaly (MGDA) bilaterally. Radiographic imaging of the brain revealed central nervous system anomalies. The guarded visual prognosis was explained and the patient referred for low vision rehabilitation and advised yearly follow-up. MGDA is very rarely bilateral. We aim to highlight the distinguishing features of bilateral MGDA from other excavated optic nerve head anomalies which could also present bilaterally but vary in their associations, management and prognosis. PMID:27571914

  4. Simultaneous bilateral ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Demircay, Emre; Ofluoglu, Demet; Ozel, Omer; Oztop, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are rare, and bilateral ganglion cysts are even rarer. These cysts may cause intermittent or chronic nonspecific knee discomfort. Although three cases of bilateral ganglion cysts have been reported in the literature, the knees were not simultaneously affected in those cases. Herein, we report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with simultaneous bilateral ganglion cysts of the ACL that were symptomatic. She was successfully treated with arthroscopic resection and debridement. We also present a brief review of the literature, highlighting the aetiology, diagnosis and management of ganglion cysts of the ACL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous bilateral intra-articular ganglion cysts of the ACL. PMID:25917477

  5. Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in metastatic testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Gudbrandsdottir, Gigja; Sverrisdottir, Asgerdur; Thrainsson, Adolf; Einarsson, Gudmundur V; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP) is a very rare condition, mainly detected in patients with underlying pulmonary disease. This study reports a case of SBSP following chemotherapy for metastatic testicular cancer. PMID:19140040

  6. Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax as a presenting symptom of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Boersma, R S; Buijs, J

    2007-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP) is a very rare condition that is mainly encountered in patients with underlying lung disease. We present a patient with a SBSP as a presenting symptom of a metastasized osteosarcoma. PMID:17574115

  7. Cooled radiofrequency ablation for bilateral greater occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tiffany; Chhatre, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the suboccipital region and radiated into her vertex. She was diagnosed with bilateral greater occipital neuralgia. She underwent cooled radiofrequency ablation of bilateral greater occipital nerves with minimal side effects and 75% pain reduction. Cooled radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerve in challenging cases is an alternative to pulsed and continuous RFA to alleviate pain with less side effects and potential for long-term efficacy. PMID:24716017

  8. Bilateral pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae treated with balloon embolization.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S.; Ruttley, M. J.; Fisher, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A patient with bilateral pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae is described who was treated successfully by embolization of the two fistulae with detachable balloons introduced percutaneously through the femoral vein. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3714608

  9. Simultaneous bilateral ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Demircay, Emre; Ofluoglu, Demet; Ozel, Omer; Oztop, Pinar

    2015-04-01

    Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are rare, and bilateral ganglion cysts are even rarer. These cysts may cause intermittent or chronic nonspecific knee discomfort. Although three cases of bilateral ganglion cysts have been reported in the literature, the knees were not simultaneously affected in those cases. Herein, we report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with simultaneous bilateral ganglion cysts of the ACL that were symptomatic. She was successfully treated with arthroscopic resection and debridement. We also present a brief review of the literature, highlighting the aetiology, diagnosis and management of ganglion cysts of the ACL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous bilateral intra-articular ganglion cysts of the ACL. PMID:25917477

  10. Synchronous bilateral male breast cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sun, Woo-Young; Lee, Ki-Hyeong; Lee, Ho-Chang; Ryu, Dong-Hee; Park, Jin-Woo; Yun, Hyo-Young; Song, Young-Jin

    2012-06-01

    Synchronous bilateral breast cancer is extremely rare in men and has not, up to date, been reported in Korea. A 54-year-old man presented with a palpable mass in the right breast. The right nipple was retracted and bilateral axillary accessory breasts and nipples were present. On physical examination, a 2 cm-sized mass was palpated directly under the right nipple, and, with squeezing, bloody discharge developed in a single duct of the left nipple. There was no palpable mass in the left breast, and axillary lymph nodes were not palpable. Physical examination of external genitalia revealed a unilateral undescended testis on the left side. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer was diagnosed using mammography, ultrasonography, and core-needle biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed invasive ductal carcinoma in the right breast and ductal carcinoma in situ in the left breast. Bilateral total mastectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and excision of accessory breasts in the axilla were performed. PMID:22807945

  11. Surgical Management of Bilateral Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vazirani, Jayesh; Mariappan, Indumathi; Ramamurthy, Shreyas; Fatima, Saba; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S

    2016-07-01

    Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is now established as a distinct entity with a spectrum of clinical manifestations. Bilateral LSCD presents a unique set of challenges to the clinician dealing with ocular surface disease, due to the underlying causes, clinical presentation, and adnexal status, as well as lack of a source of autologous limbal stem cells. Various surgical modalities have been described to achieve visual rehabilitation in patients with bilateral LSCD. These can primarily be divided into cell-based therapies and implantation of keratoprostheses. In this review, the surgical options for management of bilateral LSCD, including autologous and allogeneic cell-based therapies and different types of keratoprostheses are described and classified. The indications, prerequisites, technique, results and complications of each modality are discussed. Based on the status of the ocular surface, an algorithm for choosing appropriate surgical management for vision restoration in bilateral LSCD has been proposed. PMID:27151421

  12. Unilateral mandibular advancement with bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung-Won; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Park, Hyung-Sik; Jung, Young-Soo

    2015-05-01

    Intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) is an effective surgical procedure that is used for the correction of mandibular prognathism. However, application of IVRO for mandibular advancement has been limited because of the instability of the proximal segments caused by the gap between the distal and proximal segments. We report a case of unilateral mandibular advancement with bilateral IVRO for the correction of facial asymmetry. This case shows possible application of bilateral IVRO for unilateral mandibular advancement without any means of fixation. PMID:25974825

  13. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Srivatsan, K S; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation "keratocyst" was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately. PMID:25298727

  14. Bilateral Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder - A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Yashavantha C; Nalini, K B; Maini, Lalit; Nagaraj, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Bilateral shoulder dislocation are most commonly posterior type. These are most commonly due to seizure disorder and electrocution. Anterior shoulder dislocations occurring bilaterally without any predisposing factors are very rare. These types of injuries are due to trauma with a unique mechanism of injury. To best of our knowledge there are only few cases of similar kind are reported in literature. We hereby report a interesting case of posttraumatic, bilateral anterior dislocation of shoulder without associated fracture in a 45 old women without any predisposing pathoanatomy. Case report: A 45-year-old women presented to casualty with sudden onset of pain and restriction of movement in both shoulders fallowing trauma. Immediately post trauma she had severe pain and restriction of both shoulders. On examination arms were abducted and externally rotated. Bilateral shoulder movements were painful and restricted. There was loss of round contour of shoulder with increased vertical diameter of axilla anteriorly. Radiological examination revealed bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders without any associated fractures. Closed reduction done by Milch technique after intraraticular lignocaine injection. MRI of bilateral shoulder showed no pathological lesion. Both shoulders were immobilized with a shoulder immobilizer for three weeks. Conclusion: Most of the bilateral shoulder dislocations are posterior type seen in seizure disorders. Bilateral traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations are rare and are seen as a result of unique mechanism of injury. In our case patient had a fall on her elbows causing forced extension. If diagnosed and treated promptly completely normal function of the shoulders can be restored. PMID:27298892

  15. Reversible tobramycin-induced bilateral high-frequency vestibular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, R M; Bath, A P; Bance, M L

    2000-01-01

    We report an unusual case of tobramycin-induced bilateral high-frequency vestibular toxicity with subsequent clinical and objective evidence of functional recovery. In those patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of aminoglycoside-induced bilateral vestibular toxicity (ataxia and oscillopsia) and normal low-frequency (ENG-caloric) responses, high-frequency rotation chair testing should be performed to exclude a high-frequency vestibular deficit. PMID:10810261

  16. Superior gluteal artery perforator flap in bilateral breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Werdin, Frank; Peek, Alberto; Martin, Nicolas C S; Baumeister, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of bilateral breast reconstruction is increasing particularly due to genetic counseling and the option for bilateral prophylactic mastectomies. The decision to undergo a prophylactic mastectomy depends on the achievable outcomes of breast reconstruction. The free superior gluteal artery perforator flap (sGAP) flap is one option for autologous bilateral reconstruction which has rarely been reported.All bilateral sGAP flaps performed in the department of plastic surgery at the Behandlungszentrum Vogtareuth over a period of 4.5 years were retrospectively analyzed for indication, success rate, and complications.Thirty sGAP flaps were performed for bilateral breast reconstruction. The average age of the 15 women was 42 years and the average body mass index was 20.8. Indications for breast reconstruction were predominantly prophylactic mastectomies (60%). Indication for a sGAP flap was either a thin patient with insufficient abdominal tissue or a 2-staged bilateral reconstruction. 83% of the breast reconstructions were performed secondarily and 93% in 2 stages. The average operating time was 7 hours 12 minutes. Twenty-nine flaps (97%) were successful. Complications were fat necrosis (n = 3), hematoma (n = 3), and breast seroma (n = 1). Donor site complications were seroma (n = 8), infection (n = 1), and wound dehiscence (n = 1).Our results with bilateral breast reconstruction with the sGAP flap show cosmetically appealing results with high success and low complication rates on the breast. However, seromas on the donor site occurred in 27%. In addition, the sGAP flap is a technically demanding and time consuming operation. We recommend the sGAP flap when the abdomen has not enough tissue bulk to perform a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap or for a 2-staged bilateral reconstruction. This is often the case in women with a hereditary high risk of breast cancer who often present as young and slim patients. PMID:20010408

  17. Bilateral practice improves dominant leg performance in long jump.

    PubMed

    Focke, Anne; Spancken, Sina; Stockinger, Christian; Thürer, Benjamin; Stein, Thorsten

    2016-10-01

    Benefits of bilateral practice both for the non-dominant and for the dominant body side have been shown in several studies. Thereby, most of the studies included movement tasks of the upper extremity or investigated sports games in which the ability of acting bilaterally is an essential basis for success and, thus, a bilateral practice is reasonable anyway. Individual unilaterally performed sports including movement tasks of the lower extremity are rarely investigated. Therefore, the aim of our study was to test if contralateral transfer due to bilateral practice can be found in an unilaterally performed sport including the lower extremity. We trained and tested 61 adolescent athletes in long jump to compare the jumping performance of the dominant leg after a 12-week practice period between two groups: a bilateral practice group that practiced specific long jump exercises with both the dominant and non-dominant leg and an unilateral practice group that practiced specific long jump exercises only with the dominant leg. Results showed a superior effect of bilateral practice compared to unilateral practice regarding the jumping performance of the dominant leg. The performance increase at post-test and retention-test for the dominant limb was significantly higher for the bilateral practice group (pre-to-post: 5.2%, pre-to-retention: 7.4%) compared to the unilateral practice group (pre-to-post: 3.4%, pre-to-retention: 4.5%). Thus, bilateral practice should be established in the early practice programmes of track and field athletes to improve the performance of the dominant take-off leg. PMID:26864045

  18. Sensitization of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel by isoflurane or sevoflurane does not result in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in rat spinal dorsal horn neurons.

    PubMed

    White, J P M; Cibelli, M; Fidalgo, A R; Paule, C C; Anderson, P J; Jenes, A; Rice, A S C; Nagy, I

    2010-03-17

    Clinically relevant concentrations of isoflurane or sevoflurane sensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 to several of its activators, including capsaicin. It has, moreover, been suggested these volatile general anaesthetics may augment nociceptive signalling arising from surgical procedures and thereby contribute to post-operative pain. To investigate this suggestion, we have studied intraplantar capsaicin injection-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in spinal dorsal horn neurons (which is a recognized marker of spinal nociceptive processing) in rat during isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia after 60 min under anaesthesia. Control animals were anaesthetized with pentobarbital (which of itself does not activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in spinal dorsal horn neurons). Unilateral intraplantar capsaicin injection in control animals evoked extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in a group of neurons in lamina I and lamina II of the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn in a somatotopically appropriate area. In contrast, both anaesthetic gases (given for 60 min and without subsequent capsaicin injection) induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in a different group of mainly lamina I neurons bilaterally. The total number of spinal dorsal horn neurons labelled on the ipliateral side following capsaicin injection into the isoflurane-, or sevoflurane-, anaesthetized animals was significantly less than that produced by capsaicin alone. Further, capsaicin injection into isoflurane-, or sevoflurane-, anaesthetized animals reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation induced by the gases alone on both sides. These findings do not support the suggestion that isoflurane-, or sevoflurane-, induced sensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 by capsaicin, or other agonist, is translated into induction of spinal nociceptive processing and

  19. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem Yalcin; Argun, Tugba Cakmak; Yilmaz, Omer; Gunes, Alime; Unlu, Elif Nisa; Sezer, Sezgin; Ibisoglu, Seda; Argun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia. PMID:25606034

  20. Bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the lateral femoral condyle following bilateral total removal of lateral discoid meniscus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yusuke; Yoshida, Gen; Tomihara, Tomohiro; Matsuura, Takeshi; Satake, Shinji; Kaneda, Kunikazu; Shimada, Nagakazu

    2008-11-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the lateral femoral condyle sometimes occurs with a discoid lateral meniscus. Recently, it was reported that OCD of the lateral femoral condyle occurred after total removal of the lateral meniscus. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with bilateral OCD of the lateral femoral condyle following bilateral total removal for discoid lateral meniscus. Valgus deviation of the knee after total removal and increased sporting activity might have concentrated excessive stress on the lateral condyles in the standing position. As a result, bilateral OCD might have occurred. Drilling of the areas of OCD on the bilateral lateral femoral condyles was done and the patient wore inner wedge arch supports postoperatively. After 2 years, neither knee pain nor arthrosis has occurred so far, but long-term follow-up of this patient is considered to be necessary. PMID:17985146

  1. Dorsal transcription factor is involved in regulating expression of crustin genes during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. In this study, we identified a dorsal homolog (MrDorsal) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrDorsal comprised 2533 bp with an open reading frame of 1986 bp, which encoded a peptide of 661 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that MrDorsal contains a Rel homolog domain and an IPT/TIG (i.e., Ig-like, plexin, and transcription factors) domain. The signature sequence of dorsal protein FRYMCEG existed in the deduced amino acid sequence. Sequence analysis showed that MrDorsal shared high similarities with Dorsal from invertebrate species. MrDorsal was abundant in the hemocytes and gills of healthy prawns but minute levels were detected in other tissues. The expression of MrDorsal was significantly upregulated 48 h after the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-) challenge. Knockdown of MrDorsal using double-stranded RNA could suppress the transcription of crustin genes (MrCrustin2 and MrCrustin4) in gills of prawns after 48 h of the WSSV challenge. Results indicated that MrDorsal was involved to regulate the expression of crustin genes and it might play potential important roles during WSSV infection. PMID:27181712

  2. Confocal imaging reveals three-dimensional fine structure difference between ventral and dorsal nerve roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Sui, Tao; Cao, Xiaojian; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun; Sun, Peng

    2011-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injury repair is one of the most challenging problems in neurosurgery, partially due to lack of knowledge of three-dimensional (3-D) fine structure and organization of peripheral nerves. In this paper, we explored the structures of nerve fibers in ventral and dorsal nerves with a laser scanning confocal microscopy. Thick tissue staining results suggested that nerve fibers have a different 3-D structure in ventral and dorsal nerves, and reconstruction from serial sectioning images showed that in ventral nerves the nerve fibers travel in a winding form, while in dorsal nerves, the nerve fibers form in a parallel cable pattern. These structural differences could help surgeons to differentiate ventral and dorsal nerves in peripheral nerve injury repair, and also facilitate scientists to get a deeper understanding about nerve fiber organization.

  3. A Major Human White Matter Pathway Between Dorsal and Ventral Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Hiromasa; Rokem, Ariel; Winawer, Jonathan; Yeatman, Jason D; Wandell, Brian A; Pestilli, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Human visual cortex comprises many visual field maps organized into clusters. A standard organization separates visual maps into 2 distinct clusters within ventral and dorsal cortex. We combined fMRI, diffusion MRI, and fiber tractography to identify a major white matter pathway, the vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), connecting maps within the dorsal and ventral visual cortex. We use a model-based method to assess the statistical evidence supporting several aspects of the VOF wiring pattern. There is strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that dorsal and ventral visual maps communicate through the VOF. The cortical projection zones of the VOF suggest that human ventral (hV4/VO-1) and dorsal (V3A/B) maps exchange substantial information. The VOF appears to be crucial for transmitting signals between regions that encode object properties including form, identity, and color and regions that map spatial information. PMID:25828567

  4. Chronic sciatic nerve compression induces fibrosis in dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinwen; Chen, Jianghai; Chen, Yanhua; Cong, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhenbing

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, pathological alterations in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were investigated in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression. The rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression was established by placing a 1 cm Silastic tube around the right sciatic nerve. Histological examination was performed via Masson's trichrome staining. DRG injury was assessed using Fluoro Ruby (FR) or Fluoro Gold (FG). The expression levels of target genes were examined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. At 3 weeks post‑compression, collagen fiber accumulation was observed in the ipsilateral area and, at 8 weeks, excessive collagen formation with muscle atrophy was observed. The collagen volume fraction gradually and significantly increased following sciatic nerve compression. In the model rats, the numbers of FR‑labeled DRG neurons were significantly higher, relative to the sham‑operated group, however, the numbers of FG‑labeled neurons were similar. In the ipsilateral DRG neurons of the model group, the levels of transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were elevated and, surrounding the neurons, the levels of collagen type I were increased, compared with those in the contralateral DRG. In the ipsilateral DRG, chronic nerve compression was associated with significantly higher levels of phosphorylated (p)‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2, and significantly lower levels of p‑c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase and p‑p38, compared with those in the contralateral DRGs. Chronic sciatic nerve compression likely induced DRG pathology by upregulating the expression levels of TGF‑β1, CTGF and collagen type I, with involvement of the mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling pathway. PMID:26820076

  5. Serotoninergic dorsal raphe neurons possess functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Charles, Luis; Hernandez-Lopez, Salvador; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Bargas, José; Garduño, Julieta; Frías-Dominguez, Carmen; Drucker-Colin, René; Mihailescu, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Very few neurons in the telencephalon have been shown to express functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), among them, the noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons. However, there is no evidence for postsynaptic nAChRs on serotonergic neurons. In this study, we asked if functional nAChRs are present in serotonergic (5-HT) and nonserotonergic (non-5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In rat midbrain slices, field stimulation at the tegmental pedunculopontine (PPT) nucleus evoked postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) with different components in DRN neurons. After blocking the glutamatergic and GABAergic components, the remaining eEPSCs were blocked by mecamylamine and reduced by either the selective alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) or the selective alpha4beta2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-beta-eritroidine (DHbetaE). Simultaneous addition of MLA and DHbetaE blocked all eEPSCs. Integrity of the PPT-DRN pathway was assessed by both anterograde biocytin tracing and antidromic stimulation from the DRN. Inward currents evoked by the direct application of acetylcholine (ACh), in the presence of atropine and tetrodotoxin, consisted of two kinetically different currents: one was blocked by MLA and the other by DHbetaE; in both 5-HT and non-5-HT DR neurons. Analysis of spontaneous (sEPSCs) and evoked (eEPSCs) synaptic events led to the conclusion that nAChRs were located at the postsynaptic membrane. The possible implications of these newly described nAChRs in various physiological processes and behavioral events, such as the wake-sleep cycle, are discussed. PMID:18512214

  6. Chronic alcohol produces neuroadaptations to prime dorsal striatal learning.

    PubMed

    DePoy, Lauren; Daut, Rachel; Brigman, Jonathan L; MacPherson, Kathryn; Crowley, Nicole; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Pickens, Charles L; Cinar, Resat; Saksida, Lisa M; Kunos, George; Lovinger, David M; Bussey, Timothy J; Camp, Marguerite C; Holmes, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Drug addictions including alcoholism are characterized by degradation of executive control over behavior and increased compulsive drug seeking. These profound behavioral changes are hypothesized to involve a shift in the regulation of behavior from prefrontal cortex to dorsal striatum (DLS). Studies in rodents have shown that ethanol disrupts cognitive processes mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but the potential effects of chronic ethanol on DLS-mediated cognition and learning are much less well understood. Here, we first examined the effects of chronic EtOH on DLS neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity, and endocannabinoid-CB1R signaling. We next tested for ethanol-induced changes in striatal-related learning and DLS in vivo single-unit activity during learning. Mice exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exhibited expansion of dendritic material in DLS neurons. Following CIE, DLS endocannabinoid CB1 receptor signaling was down-regulated, and CB1 receptor-dependent long-term depression at DLS synapses was absent. CIE mice showed facilitation of DLS-dependent pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning, relative to air-exposed controls. CIE mice were also quicker to extinguish a stimulus-reward instrumental response and faster to reduce Pavlovian approach behavior under an omission schedule. In vivo single-unit recording during learning revealed that CIE mice had augmented DLS neuronal activity during correct responses. Collectively, these findings support a model in which chronic ethanol causes neuroadaptations in the DLS that prime for greater DLS control over learning. The shift to striatal dominance over behavior may be a critical step in the progression of alcoholism. PMID:23959891

  7. Understanding tinnitus: the dorsal cochlear nucleus, organization and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Baizer, Joan S.; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Paolone, Nicholas A.; Weinstock, Nadav; Salvi, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of a phantom sound, is a common consequence of damage to the auditory periphery. A major goal of tinnitus research is to find the loci of the neural changes that underlie the disorder. Crucial to this endeavor has been the development of an animal behavioral model of tinnitus, so that neural changes can be correlated with behavioral evidence of tinnitus. Three major lines of evidence implicate the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in tinnitus. First, elevated spontaneous activity in the DCN is correlated with peripheral damage and tinnitus. Second, there are somatosensory inputs to the DCN that can modulate spontaneous activity and might mediate the somatic-auditory interactions seen in tinnitus patients. Third, we have found a subpopulation of DCN neurons in the adult rat that express doublecortin, a plasticity-related protein. The expression of this protein may reflect a role of these neurons in the neural reorganization causing tinnitus. However, there is a problem in extending the findings in the rodent DCN to humans. Classic studies state that the structure of the primate DCN is quite different from that of rodents, with primates lacking granule cells, the recipients of somatosensory input. To address the possibility of major species differences in DCN organization, we compared Nissl-stained sections of the DCN in five different species. In contrast to earlier reports, our data suggest that the organization of the primate DCN is not dramatically different from that of the rodents, and validate the use of animal data in the study of tinnitus. PMID:22513100

  8. Chronic sciatic nerve compression induces fibrosis in dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    LI, QINWEN; CHEN, JIANGHAI; CHEN, YANHUA; CONG, XIAOBIN; CHEN, ZHENBING

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, pathological alterations in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were investigated in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression. The rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression was established by placing a 1 cm Silastic tube around the right sciatic nerve. Histological examination was performed via Masson's trichrome staining. DRG injury was assessed using Fluoro Ruby (FR) or Fluoro Gold (FG). The expression levels of target genes were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. At 3 weeks post-compression, collagen fiber accumulation was observed in the ipsilateral area and, at 8 weeks, excessive collagen formation with muscle atrophy was observed. The collagen volume fraction gradually and significantly increased following sciatic nerve compression. In the model rats, the numbers of FR-labeled DRG neurons were significantly higher, relative to the sham-operated group, however, the numbers of FG-labeled neurons were similar. In the ipsilateral DRG neurons of the model group, the levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were elevated and, surrounding the neurons, the levels of collagen type I were increased, compared with those in the contralateral DRG. In the ipsilateral DRG, chronic nerve compression was associated with significantly higher levels of phosphorylated (p)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and significantly lower levels of p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p-p38, compared with those in the contralateral DRGs. Chronic sciatic nerve compression likely induced DRG pathology by upregulating the expression levels of TGF-β1, CTGF and collagen type I, with involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. PMID:26820076

  9. Neurochemical Characterization of the Tree Shrew Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Matthew W.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Perez-Costas, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington’s, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum. PMID:21887131

  10. Intraneuronal angiotensinergic system in rat and human dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Jaspal; Schwab, Alexander; Nussberger, Juerg; Schaffner, Thomas; Saavedra, Juan M.; Imboden, Hans

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the local formation of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the neurons of sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we studied the expression of angiotensinogen (Ang-N)-, renin-, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)- and cathepsin D-mRNA, and the presence of protein renin, Ang II, Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the rat and human thoracic DRG. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) studies revealed that rat DRG expressed substantial amounts of Ang-N- and ACE mRNA, while renin mRNA as well as the protein renin were untraceable. Cathepsin D-mRNA and cathepsin D-protein were detected in the rat DRG indicating the possibility of existence of pathways alternative to renin for Ang I formation. Angiotensin peptides were successfully detected with high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay in human DRG extracts. In situ hybridization in rat DRG confirmed additionally expression of Ang-N mRNA in the cytoplasm of numerous neurons. Intracellular Ang II staining could be shown in number of neurons and their processes in both the rat and human DRG. Interestingly we observed neuronal processes with angiotensinergic synapses en passant, colocalized with synaptophysin, within the DRG. In the DRG, we also identified by qRT-PCR, expression of Ang II receptor AT1A and AT2-mRNA while AT1B-mRNA was not traceable. In some neurons Substance P and CGRP were found colocalized with Ang II. The intracellular localization and colocalization of Ang II with Substance P and CGRP in the DRG neurons may indicate a participation and function of Ang II in the regulation of nociception. In conclusion, these results suggest that Ang II may be produced locally in the neurons of rat and human DRG and act as a neurotransmitter. PMID:20346377

  11. Dorsal Raphe Neuroinflammation Promotes Dramatic Behavioral Stress Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Howerton, Alexis R.; Roland, Alison V.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, and elevated stress responsivity are prominent symptoms of mania, a behavioral state common to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Though inflammatory processes activated within the brain are involved in the pathophysiology of both disorders, the specific mechanisms by which neuroinflammation drives manic behavior are not well understood. Serotonin cell bodies originating within the dorsal raphe (DR) play a major role in the regulation of behavioral features characteristic of mania. Therefore, we hypothesized that the link between neuroinflammation and manic behavior may be mediated by actions on serotonergic neurocircuitry. To examine this, we induced local neuroinflammation in the DR by viral delivery of Cre recombinase into interleukin (IL)-1βXAT transgenic male and female mice, resulting in overexpressing of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. For assertion of brain-region specificity of these outcomes, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as a downstream target of DR serotonergic projections, was also infused. Inflammation within the DR, but not the PFC, resulted in a profound display of manic-like behavior, characterized by increased stress-induced locomotion and responsivity, and reduced risk-aversion/fearfulness. Microarray analysis of the DR revealed a dramatic increase in immune-related genes, and dysregulation of genes important in GABAergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic neurotransmission. Behavioral and physiological changes were driven by a loss of serotonergic neurons and reduced output as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, demonstrating inflammation-induced serotonergic hypofunction. Behavioral changes were rescued by acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment, supporting the hypothesis that serotonin dysregulation stemming from neuroinflammation in the DR underlies manic-like behaviors. PMID:24849347

  12. Predictors for the benefit of selective dorsal rhizotomy.

    PubMed

    Funk, Julia F; Panthen, Amelie; Bakir, M Sinan; Gruschke, Franziska; Sarpong, Akosua; Wagner, Christiane; Lebek, Susanne; Haberl, Ernst Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a spasticity reducing treatment option for children with spastic cerebral palsy. Selection criteria for this procedure are inconclusive to date. Clinical relevance of the achieved functional improvements and side effects like the negative impact on muscle strength are discussed controversially. In this prospective cohort study one and two year results of 54 children with a mean age of 6.9 (±2.9) years at the time of SDR are analyzed with regard to gross motor function and factors affecting the functional benefit. Only ambulatory children who were able to perform a gross motor function measure test (GMFM-88) were included in this study. Additionally, the modified Ashworth scale (MAS), a manual muscle strength test (MFT), and the body mass index (BMI) were evaluated as possible outcome predictors. MAS of hip adductors and hamstrings decreased significantly (p<0.001) and stayed reduced after two years, while GMFM improved significantly from 79% to 84% 12 months after SDR (p<0.001) and another 2% between 12 and 24 months (p=0.002). Muscle strength did improve significantly concerning knee extension (p=0.008) and ankle dorsiflexion (p=0.006). The improvement of function correlated moderately with age at surgery and preoperative GMFM and weakly with the standard deviation score of the BMI, the dorsiflexor and plantarflexor strength preoperatively as well as with the reduction of spasticity of the hamstrings and the preoperative spasticity of the adductors and hamstrings. Correctly indicated SDR reduces spasticity and increases motor skills sustainably in children with spastic cerebral palsy corresponding to clinically relevant changes of GMFM without compromising muscular strength. Outcome correlates to GMFM and age rather than to MAS and maximal strength testing. The data of this evaluation suggest that children who benefit the most from SDR are between 4 and 7 years old and have a preoperative GMFM between 65% and 85%. PMID:25460226

  13. EphA4-Mediated Ipsilateral Corticospinal Tract Misprojections Are Necessary for Bilateral Voluntary Movements But Not Bilateral Stereotypic Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Serradj, Najet; Paixão, Sónia; Sobocki, Tomasz; Feinberg, Mitchell; Klein, Rüdiger; Kullander, Klas

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we took advantage of the reported role of EphA4 in determining the contralateral spinal projection of the corticospinal tract (CST) to investigate the effects of ipsilateral misprojections on voluntary movements and stereotypic locomotion. Null EphA4 mutations produce robust ipsilateral CST misprojections, resulting in bilateral corticospinal tracts. We hypothesize that a unilateral voluntary limb movement, not a stereotypic locomotor movement, will become a bilateral movement in EphA4 knock-out mice with a bilateral CST. However, in EphA4 full knock-outs, spinal interneurons also develop bilateral misprojections. Aberrant bilateral spinal circuits could thus transform unilateral corticospinal control signals into bilateral movements. We therefore studied mice with conditional forebrain deletion of the EphA4 gene under control by Emx1, a gene expressed in the forebrain that affects the developing CST but spares brainstem motor pathways and spinal motor circuits. We examined two conditional knock-outs targeting forebrain EphA4 during performance of stereotypic locomotion and voluntary movement: adaptive locomotion over obstacles and exploratory reaching. We found that the conditional knock-outs used alternate stepping, not hopping, during overground locomotion, suggesting normal central pattern generator function and supporting our hypothesis of minimal CST involvement in the moment-to-moment control of stereotypic locomotion. In contrast, the conditional knock-outs showed bilateral voluntary movements under conditions when single limb movements are normally produced and, as a basis for this aberrant control, developed a bilateral motor map in motor cortex that is driven by the aberrant ipsilateral CST misprojections. Therefore, a specific change in CST connectivity is associated with and explains a change in voluntary movement. PMID:24719100

  14. The homeobox genes vox and vent are redundant repressors of dorsal fates in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Gates, M A; Melby, A E; Kimelman, D; Schier, A F; Talbot, W S

    2001-06-01

    Ventralizing transcriptional repressors in the Vox/Vent family have been proposed to be important regulators of dorsoventral patterning in the early embryo. While the zebrafish genes vox (vega1) and vent (vega2) both have ventralizing activity in overexpression assays, loss-of-function studies are needed to determine whether these genes have distinct or redundant functions in dorsoventral patterning and to provide critical tests of the proposed regulatory interactions among vox, vent and other genes that act to establish the dorsoventral axis. We show that vox and vent are redundant repressors of dorsal fates in zebrafish. Mutants that lack vox function have little or no dorsoventral patterning defect, and inactivation of either vox or vent by injection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides has little or no effect on the embryo. In contrast, embryos that lack both vox and vent function have a dorsalized phenotype. Expression of dorsal mesodermal genes, including chordin, goosecoid and bozozok, is strongly expanded in embryos that lack vox and vent function, indicating that the redundant action of vox and vent is required to restrict dorsal genes to their appropriate territories. Our genetic analysis indicates that the dorsalizing transcription factor Bozozok promotes dorsal fates indirectly, by antagonizing the expression of vox and vent. In turn, vox and vent repress chordin expression, restricting its function as an antagonist of ventral fates to the dorsal side of the embryo. Our results support a model in which BMP signaling induces the expression of ventral genes, while vox and vent act redundantly to prevent the expression of chordin, goosecoid and other dorsal genes in the lateral and ventral mesendoderm. PMID:11493559

  15. Sexual Dimorphism and Geographic Variation in Dorsal Fin Features of Australian Humpback Dolphins, Sousa sahulensis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexander M; Bejder, Lars; Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Hunt, Tim; Smith, Jennifer L; Allen, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Determining the sex of free-ranging cetaceans can be challenging. Sexual dimorphism among external features may allow inferences on sex, but such patterns may be difficult to detect and are often confounded by age and geographic variation. Dorsal fin images of 107 female and 54 male Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, from Western Australia (WA) and Queensland (QLD) were used to investigate sex, age and geographic differences in colouration, height/length quotient and number of notches. Adult males exhibited more dorsal fin notches (p<0.001) and a significantly greater loss of pigmentation on the upper half of their dorsal fins (p<0.001) than did adult females. These differences likely reflect that males experience a higher frequency and/or intensity of intraspecific aggression than females. In QLD, heavily spotted dorsal fins were more frequent among females than males (p<0.001). Logistic regression analyses revealed that dorsal fin spotting and loss of pigmentation on the upper half of the dorsal fin provided the best model parameters for predicting the sex of sampled adults, with 97% accuracy. This technique offers a rapid, non-invasive method for predicting sex in Australian humpback dolphins, which could potentially be applied to populations throughout their range. In contrast to adults, presumed immature animals showed little or no loss of pigmentation or spotting; however, the rate of development of these features remains unknown. There were pronounced differences between QLD and WA in the intensity of spotting on dorsal fins and the extent of pigmentation loss around the posterior insertion and trailing edge of the dorsal fin. While based on a limited sample size, these geographic differences may have conservation implications in terms of population subdivision and should be investigated further. PMID:26790895

  16. Bilateral femoral neck fractures secondary to chronic carbamazepine use treated by bilateral dynamic hip screw: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sariyilmaz, Kerim; Gulenc, Baris; Ozkunt, Okan; Dikici, Fatih; Yazicioglu, Onder

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bilateral femoral neck fractures without major trauma are rare and related to several conditions. Insufficiency fractures due to the use of anti-epileptic drug are one of the rare causes. This case study is about bilateral femoral neck insufficiency fractures resulting from chronic use of anti-epileptic drug. Presentation of case A 26-year-old woman was referred to our emergency department with a complaint of bilateral groin pain and a 12-year history of irregular carbamazepine use. The diagnosis was bilateral femoral neck insufficiency fractures due to irregular long-term carbamazepine use. One-stage bilateral dynamic hip screw osteosynthesis was performed. After 2 years of follow up, good result was obtained. Discussion There are several risk factors for insufficiency fracture, and antiepileptic drug related osteoporosis is one of the reason. These drugs have negative effect on bone methabolism and bone mineral density. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of bilateral femoral neck insufficiency fracture due to chronic carbamazepine use. Joint and bone pain with a history of long-term use of anti-epileptic drug should be investigated carefully, and insufficiency fractures should be kept in mind. PMID:25528039

  17. Dorsally- and ventrally-derived oligodendrocytes have similar electrical properties but myelinate preferred tracts

    PubMed Central

    Kessaris, Nicoletta; Anderson, Patrick N; Attwell, David; Richardson, William D

    2014-01-01

    In the developing spinal cord most oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs) arise from the ventral ventricular zone (VZ) under the influence of Sonic Hedgehog but a minority is generated from the dorsal VZ in a Hedgehog-independent manner. In the developing forebrain too, OLPs arise from both the ventral and the dorsal VZ. It is not known whether dorsally- and ventrally- derived oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells have different properties. We generated a dual reporter mouse line to color code ventrally- and dorsally-derived OLPs (vOLPs and dOLPs) and their differentiated oligodendrocyte progeny (vOLs and dOLs) for functional studies. We found that ~80% of OL lineage cells in the postnatal spinal cord and ~20% in the corpus callosum are ventrally-derived. In both spinal cord and corpus callosum, vOLPs and dOLPs had indistinguishable electrical properties, as did vOLs and dOLs. However, vOLPs and dOLPs had different migration and settling patterns. In the spinal cord, vOLPs appeared early and spread uniformly throughout the cord whereas dOLPs arrived later and remained mainly in the dorsal and dorsolateral funiculi. During adulthood, corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts became myelinated mainly by dOLs, even though vOLs dominated these tracts during early postnatal life. Thus, dOLPs are electrically similar to vOLPs but appear to out-compete them for dorsal axons. PMID:21543611

  18. Clinical experience of multiple flaps for the reconstruction of dorsal digital defects

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Hongsheng; Ding, Xiaoheng; Liu, Yujie; Zhang, Hongxun; Cao, Xuecheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this report, we present our experience with reconstruction of the skin defects on the dorsum of the digits using multiple flaps. Methods: Between November 2010 and March 2013, 45 patients with dorsal digital defects underwent reconstruction using homodigital dorsal digital fasciocutaneous flap (n = 17), heterodigital dorsal digital fasciocutaneous flap (n = 14), dorsal metacarpal artery fasciocutaneous flap (n = 8) and free venous flaps (n = 6). The average flap size was 1.5 × 1.5 cm to 2.0 × 2.5 cm. Donor sites were covered with full-thickness skin graft. Results: All flaps survived completely and the donor sites healed without complications. The mean follow-up period was 18 weeks. During the follow up period, 7 patients treated with reverse homodigital fasciocutaneous flaps developed swelling in the distal portion of flaps, 3 patients treated with reverse dorsal metacarpal artery fasciocutaneous flaps developed mild swelling in the distal portion of flaps but survive well, and 4 patients treated with free venous flaps experienced venous congestion. Of the 14 patients treated with heterodigital fasciocutaneous flaps, there were 11 cases with a retrograde pedicle and 3 cases with a direct pedicle. No full-thickness graft necrosis was noted. Conclusion: Multiple options are available for the repair of skin defects on the dorsum of the digits. Besides, the use of a heterodigital fasciocutaneous flap was a simple, safe, and less invasive regimen for repairing dorsal digital skin defects. PMID:26770401

  19. Sustained Attentional States Require Distinct Temporal Involvement of the Dorsal and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Terra, Huub; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; de Kloet, Sybren F.; Obermayer, Joshua; Heistek, Tim S.; de Haan, Roel; de Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Deisseroth, Karl; Pattij, Tommy; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2016-01-01

    Attending the sensory environment for cue detection is a cognitive operation that occurs on a time scale of seconds. The dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) contribute to separate aspects of attentional processing. Pyramidal neurons in different parts of the mPFC are active during cognitive behavior, yet whether this activity is causally underlying attentional processing is not known. We aimed to determine the precise temporal requirements for activation of the mPFC subregions during the seconds prior to cue detection. To test this, we used optogenetic silencing of dorsal or ventral mPFC pyramidal neurons at defined time windows during a sustained attentional state. We find that the requirement of ventral mPFC pyramidal neuron activity is strictly time-locked to stimulus detection. Inhibiting the ventral mPFC 2 s before or during cue presentation reduces response accuracy and hampers behavioral inhibition. The requirement for dorsal mPFC activity on the other hand is temporally more loosely related to a preparatory attentional state, and short lapses in pyramidal neuron activity in dorsal mPFC do not affect performance. This only occurs when the dorsal mPFC is inhibited during the entire preparatory period. Together, our results reveal that a dissociable temporal recruitment of ventral and dorsal mPFC is required during attentional processing.

  20. Neurons associated with the dorsal longtitudinal flight muscles of Drosophilla melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Coggshall, J C

    1978-02-15

    The anatomy of the neurons associated with the six fibers forming the dorsal longitudinal flight muscle (DLM) of Drosophila melanogaster has been investigated using a horseradis peroxidase lable. The two dorsal-most fibers are innervated by the same neuron whose cell body is in the dorsal, contralateral, mesothoracic region of the thoracic ganglion. The ventral-most four fibers are innervated by four neurons whose cell bodies are clustered in the ventral, ipsilateral, prothoracic region. The processes of all five of these cells ramify extensively in the dorsal part of the ipsilateral and contralateral mesothoracic neuromeres. A large interneuron has been discovered which is associated with the DLM and whose cell body is located contralaterally. Several neurons with small cell bodies on the ventral midline of the mesothoracic neuromere are also consistently labeled. A single fiber projects dorsally from a midline cell body, forms a Y-branch near the top of the ganglion and apparently sends an axon into each posterior dorsal mesothoracic nerve (PDMN) subsequently innervating the DLM. PMID:415072